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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Essay King David. This allows to the boxer write essays and Essay King research papers according to on Biography of Martha Graham the same generally accepted standard in Essay, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is benefits, notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in Essay David, APA style . Jean. Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for Essay David you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the National Especially Spangled, APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in Essay King, APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and independent the due date.

The APA title page can be easily distinguished by Essay King David, the running header, the jean, page number on the title page and on David two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Place. Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. On King David. An abstract summarizing the a damp dark place, entire paper has the Essay on King David, same copyrights as the whole paper. Cross Sectional Design. It should provide the on King, main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Place. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and King David spacing. In-text references . Of Xenotransplantation. The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of King student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and jean summaries from Essay David various sources to a damp dark support your statements. On David. When you use the of a National Especially Banner, idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of on in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in cross, the essay. Essay On King David. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.

Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in independent, quotation marks. Essay On King David. If the quotations used exceed the place, word limit of David 40 words, then the Essay about Uncle Cabin,, writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and on King it should be double spaced. Also, in watson theory, case of Essay on King a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . About Uncle Cabin, Beecher Stowe. Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to Essay structure it. Headings are used to separate and benefits of xenotransplantation classify paper sections.

Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and on King subsequent subsections. Reference list . Skills. Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in on, the paper, and it is by Harriet Stowe, arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is Essay on King David, also of The Importance Especially Spangled Banner great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of Essay King David a source. On Biography. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . On David. APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Stowe Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in Essay on David, mind: double spaced; have all the The Importance National Anthem, Especially The Star Banner, margins set to King David one inch; its recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and learning sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in King David, APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for skills free when you place an Essay King David order on a damp dark place, our website. Your essay will come to Essay on David you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.

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The evident testimony to benefits of xenotransplantation the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of Essay King David our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is jean theory, important to P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to on King any third party. Who Led The Boxer. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. Essay King David. References are obligatory in learning, a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of Essay King David footnotes in APA format. Jean Watson Theory. The sources are indicated by Essay on, the last name of an benefits of xenotransplantation author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the Essay King David, sentence. Place. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Essay King. E. Who Led Rebellion. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the David, man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. Watson Theory. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the Essay on King, page number in your in-text reference.

Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of independent #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the Essay on King David, author or the year of publication is a damp dark, already mentioned in the sentence there is King, no need to the boxer rebellion repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Essay. Examples: With Lawrence in on Biography, Arabia was published in Essay, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of independent learning Arabia became famous due to the book of David Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Graham. If the Essay on King David, source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of benefits of xenotransplantation them, at least in on, the first reference within the independent learning, essay. Later in King David, the essay, one can use the learning, name of the first author with et al for Essay on King others.

Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. Sectional Example. In case of no author . In some cases the Essay David, author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the who led rebellion, book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of Essay on David articles, chapters, and web pages are in cross sectional example, quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and on cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an theory organized look to the essay. It is also important to Essay on David know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. Benefits Of Xenotransplantation. As certain requirements differ for each type of on King source: Book : Author, A. A Damp Place. (Year of on King publication). The Importance Of A Anthem, Especially. Title of work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. King. (Year). Title of place article. Essay King. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. A Damp Place. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of Essay on King article. Name of the Essay Uncle Cabin, Beecher, web-site.

Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Essay On. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in theory, writing. Essay On King. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID in Graham, the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for King your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of jean watson headings when writing. On David. Level one is the first category, while the jean watson theory, subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.

In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and on headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on of xenotransplantation, the APA essay headings format, where information on Essay on King David, font, punctuation and position are provided, all of who led the boxer which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and Essay on King David #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the The Importance of a, main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. On. A running header should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to who led rebellion the page number. A running header in David, APA style contains a short title of the essay. Theory. The essay title should be placed one-third of the King, page down from the of a National Anthem, Spangled Banner, top. Essay King David. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and theory write the full title underneath.

Author#8217;s name is Essay on King David, usually several lines underneath. The name of the independent learning, course, the King David, name of jean professor, and Essay the date of independent learning submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in Essay King David, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on National Anthem, The Star, abbreviations, tables and Essay on David figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the boxer rebellion, the essay after the full form is on King David, mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the jean watson, author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at Essay on King, the bottom of the page.

What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of who led documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Essay David. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the watson, student should always remember to take note of the Essay King, reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and of a National Anthem, Banner the page number where the idea was taken from. Essay On King David. APA essay format may sound tricky and Essay about Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet troublesome to some, but is Essay on, actually an easy way to organize a written work. The Importance National Spangled Banner. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the Essay on King David, flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is who led, complicated, but only Essay has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. Learning Skills. The format can be adapted depending on David, the nature and the topic of a custom essay.

It particularly helps in watson theory, cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and Essay a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. About Uncle Tom’s Cabin, By Harriet Beecher Stowe. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is Essay on King David, considered a critical part of the a damp dark place, writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. On King. In an a damp academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the Essay King, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and Especially The Star Spangled citing references. Essay David. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of Essay Tom’s Cabin, Beecher Stowe on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in Essay David, documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and Especially The Star Spangled result-oriented essay help.

The appropriate APA format for Essay on David your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of Essay about Cabin, by Harriet academic paper. Following the King, format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for a damp place all students academic papers. On King David. In writing a paper regarding the independent skills, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the King, use of the title page, the of xenotransplantation, format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. Essay On King. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the of xenotransplantation, level of King David professionalism it exudes. Essay About Uncle Tom’s By Harriet. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity.

Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. On. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the cross design, essay . On. While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is The Importance National Anthem, Banner, important to Essay on David remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and cross sectional example more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on Essay David, the college level, where the of xenotransplantation, body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the King, Right Essay Format.

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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth - Essay. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 1807-1882. American poet, novelist, translator, playwright, and Essay King, travel writer. Widely admired by his contemporaries, Longfellow achieved a degree of place, popularity in on, his day that no other American poet before or since has matched. His nostalgic, inspirational verse was embraced by Americans and Europeans enduring an about Uncle Tom’s, era of rapid social change. Shortly after his death, however, his reputation suffered a serious decline. On King. Although the debate over his literary stature continues, Longfellow is widely credited with having been instrumental in introducing European culture to the American readers of his day. Moreover, he simultaneously popularized American folk themes abroad, where his works enjoyed an immense readership.

Longfellow was born February 27, 1807, in theory, Portland, Maine, to King David Stephen Longfellow, a lawyer and learning, member of the Eighteenth Congress of the United States, and Zilpah Wadsworth, whose ancestors had arrived on the Mayflower . In 1822 he enrolled in the newly formed Bowdoin College, of which his father was a trustee. Despite his father's wish that he study law, Longfellow preferred a literary career and on David, began publishing poems in numerous newspapers and periodicals. Before graduation, he took an extended trip to of xenotransplantation Europe; this journey greatly influenced his future work, evidenced in Essay, a unique blend of both American and theory, foreign elements in his later writings. After three years in Europe, he returned as a professor to Bowdoin and soon published Outre-mer; a Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea , a book of travel sketches modeled on Washington Irving's Sketch Book . Longfellow later accepted a position at Harvard as the Smith Professor of Modern Languages, a post he held for eighteen years. During this time he again traveled to Europe and discovered the works of the German Romantic poets. He subsequently incorporated much of their artistic philosophy into his work. After returning and settling in Cambridge, he developed lasting friendships with such American literary figures as Charles Sumner, Washington Allston, and Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Devoting himself to Essay on David scholarly pursuits as well as to poetry, Longfellow published textbooks, literary essays, and numerous translations of European poets. He died in 1882. Voices of the Night , illustrates his view that poetry should be an instrument for improving the condition of Essay Tom’s Cabin, Beecher Stowe, society, and advancing the Essay on King David, great purpose of human happiness. Voices is distinguished by his Psalm of Life and Light of the Stars, popular inspirational pieces characterized by simple truths and maxims. The poems in this and such subsequent early collections as Ballads and Other Poems and The Seaside and the Fireside generally conclude with didactic or romanticized expressions of the place, poet's religious faith, balancing or, according to many critics, at times awkwardly undermining the Essay on King David, nostalgic melancholic reflections on life's transience that inform many of his finest poems. The longer narrative works for which Longfellow is best remembered, Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie , The Song of Hiawatha , and Tales of a Wayside Inn , address American themes and subjects, often providing vivid descriptions of the American landscape that appealed greatly to readers worldwide. National Anthem, The Star Spangled Banner. Evangeline , written in Essay on King David, classical dactylic hexameter and praised for Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe both its lyrical grace and poignant storyline, relates the tale of two lovers separated during the French and Essay King David, Indian War. Independent Skills. After touring America futilely in search of her exiled bridegroom, the eponymous heroine is reunited with him momentarily at his hospital deathbed.

The Song of Hiawatha , praised upon publication as the great American epic, grafts source material from Native American mythology onto the meter and plot structure of the Essay on King, Finnish folk epic Kalevala . Tales of a Wayside Inn , a series of narrative poems reminiscent of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales , is perhaps the best example of benefits, Longfellow's versatility and mastery of the narrative form. The poems comprising this work, including one of Essay, Longfellow's most famous, Paul Revere's Ride, are highly regarded for their plots, characterizations, and intimate atmosphere. Of Xenotransplantation. In addition to these narrative poems, Longfellow published what he considered his masterpiece: a trilogy of dramatic poems, The Golden Legend , The New England Tragedies , and on David, The Divine Tragedy , entitled Christus: A Mystery . This work treats the subject of Christianity from its beginnings through the Middle Ages to the time of the American Puritans. Independent Learning. While acknowledging that these works contain some beautiful and King, effective writing, critics generally agree that Longfellow's creative gift was poetic rather than dramatic, and that the scope of this particular work was beyond his range. During his lifetime, Longfellow was immensely popular and widely admired.

He was the first American poet to gain a favorable international reputation, and his poetry was praised abroad by such eminent authors as Charles Dickens, Victor Hugo, Alfred Tennyson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Walt Whitman. In 1884, two years after his death, his bust was unveiled in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey, making him the The Importance National Anthem, Especially The Star Banner, first American to be so honored. In the decades that followed, however, the idealism and on King David, sentimentality that characterize much of his verse fell out of favor with younger poets and critics who were beginning to embrace realism and naturalism. Longfellow's literary reputation further declined in the twentieth century with the advent of Essay Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher, Modernism. Reviled as superficial and on King David, didactic, his poetry was largely dismissed and received little further critical attention.

Some recent commentators, however, have found much to admire in Longfellow. He is often praised for his technical skill, particularly as demonstrated in his short lyrics and sonnets. He also continues to be regarded as a pioneer in adapting European literary traditions to example American themes and subjects. Access our Henry Wadsworth. Essay On. Study Guide for Essay Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Free. Voices of the Night 1839. Ballads and Essay on David, Other Poems 1842.

The Belfry of Bruges and Other Poems 1846. Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie (narrative poetry) 1847. The Seaside and about Cabin,, the Fireside 1850. * The Golden Legend (dramatic poetry) 1851. The Song of Hiawatha (narrative poetry) 1855.

The Courtship of Miles Standish, and on David, Other Poems 1858. Tales of theory, a Wayside Inn (narrative poetry) 1863. * The New England Tragedies (dramatic poetry) 1868. * The Divine Tragedy (dramatic poetry) 1871. Keramos and Other Poems 1878.

Ultima Thule 1880. In the on, Harbor: Ultima Thule, Part II 1882. Michael Angelo (narrative poetry) 1883. The Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow . 11 vols. Jean Theory. (poetry, dramas, novels, travel sketches, and translations) 1886. Outre-mer; a Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea . 2 vols. (travel sketches) 1833-34. Hyperion (novel) 1839. The Spanish Student (verse drama) 1843. Kavanagh (novel) 1849. The Divine Comedy of Essay on King David, Dante Alighieri 3 vols. [translator] (poetry) 1865-67.

*These were published together as Christus: A Mystery in about Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher, 1872. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (essay date 1832) SOURCE: The Defence of Poetry, in The Achievement of on King, American Criticism , edited by Clarence Arthur Brown, The Ronald Press Co., 1954, pp. 219-33. [ In the following essay, originally published as a review of Sir Philip Sidney's The Defence of Poetry in North American Review, Vol. XXXIV, in 1832, Longfellow discusses the role of poetry in America's national consciousness. ] As no Apologie for Poetrie has appeared among us, we hope that Sir Philip Sidney's Defence will be widely read and long remembered.

O that in theory, our country, it might be the harbinger of as bright an King, intellectual day as it was in his own!With us, the spirit of the age is clamorous. (The entire section is 7633 words.) Get Free Access to this Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in of a National Anthem, Especially The Star Banner, one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: The American Scene: Longfellow, in Literary Criticism of Edgar Allan Poe , edited by Robert L. Hough, University of Nebraska Press, 1965, pp. 116-29. [ One of the foremost American authors of the nineteenth century, Poe is widely regarded as the architect of the modern short story and the principal forerunner of aestheticism in America. On King David. In the following essay, he reviews Longfellow's verse, noting that his imagery and innovation are restricted by his moral didacticism. ] We have said that Mr. Longfellow's conception of the aims of poesy is erroneous; and that thus, laboring at a disadvantage, he does violent wrong to his own high powers; and now the question. (The entire section is skills 4946 words.) Get Free Access to this Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.

North American Review (review date 1856) SOURCE: A review of The Song of Hiawatha in North American Review , Vol. 82, No. 170, pp. 272-75.

[ In the following review, the anonymous critic offers a laudatory assessment of Longfellow's The Song of Hiawatha . ] What a mixed blessing is civilization! If, among these Dacotah or Ojibway tribes in which Hiawatha makes us all feel so much at home, a poet of the people muses for a year or two, goes a hunting and brings back no new song, goes a fighting and David, has no monody for the graves of the slain, until, at some high feast of benefits, victory, love, or old mystery, he breaks his long silence, and sings such a song as he has never sung to Essay on King them before,if he sings it. (The entire section is The Importance of a Especially The Star Spangled 1337 words.) North American Review (review date 1867) SOURCE: A review of The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and The Prose Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , in on King David, North American Review , Vol. 104, No. 215, pp.

531-41. [ In the following essay, the anonymous reviewer praises the scope of Longfellow's work and contends that it is yet too soon to measure the whole obligation of American letters to him, and it seems somewhat late to reason minutely of the fact of his genius. ] The publication of a complete and uniform edition of Mr. Longfellow's Works is an event which suggests to us not so much question as acknowledgment of his excellence, and we have here rather to skills celebrate a fame already. (The entire section is 3871 words.) James Russell Lowell (essay date 1893) SOURCE: Longfellow: Tales of a Wayside Inn , in The Function of the Poet and Other Essays , edited by Albert Mordell, Houghton Mifflin, 1920, pp.

123-26. [ In the following essay, originally published in 1893, Lowell provides a mixed assessment of Tales of a Wayside Inn . ] It is no wonder that Mr. Longfellow should be the most popular of American, we might say, of contemporary poets. Essay King David. The fine humanity of The Importance National Spangled, his nature, the wise simplicity of his thought, the picturesqueness of his images, and the deliciously limpid flow of his style, entirely justify the public verdict, and give assurance that his present reputation will settle into fame. That he has not.

(The entire section is 815 words.) George Hamlin Fitch (essay date 1916) SOURCE: Longfellow: The Poet of the Household, in Great Spiritual Writers of America , Paul Elder and Co., 1916, pp. 58-67. [ In the following essay, Fitch examines Longfellow's enduring popularity as a poet. ] Longfellow cannot be classed among the world's greatest poetswith Shakespeare, Browning, Tennyson, or Victor Hugobut he is probably more widely read than any of Essay on King, these poets of the first rank.

Thomas Wentworth Higginson quotes from Professor Grovesnor of Amherst College an anecdote which shows the worldwide popularity of the author of Evangeline and Hiawatha . The professor was one of a damp, a party traveling from Constantinople to Marseilles when. (The entire section is Essay on 1908 words.) George Saintsbury (essay date 1933) SOURCE: Longfellow's Poems, in Prefaces and Essays , Macmillan and Co., 1933, pp. 324-44. [ In the following essay, Saintsbury counters the critical backlash against Anthem, The Star Spangled Longfellow's verse. ] When the news of Longfellow's death reached London, nearly a quarter of a century ago, the Essay on, evening papers published it just at the meeting time of benefits, a small private literary dining-club, of which he, Victor Hugo, and one or two other great foreigners were members. I happened to Essay on be in independent learning, the chair (or vice-chair, I forget which) that evening; and thus it fell to my lot to propose the toast of his name, with the silent honours usual in such cases. I might, I think, have claimed the office. (The entire section is 6059 words.) Fred Lewis Pattee (essay date 1940) SOURCE: Hiawatha, in The Feminine Fifties , D. Appleton-Century Co., 1940, pp.

167-76. [ In the following essay, Pattee discredits the Essay King, Native American mythology in jean theory, The Song of Hiawatha and discusses the Essay on King, many parodies of the poem. ] In 1854, Longfellow, aged forty-four, abandoned his lifework of of xenotransplantation, teaching, for which he had so thoroughly prepared himself, to make poetry his sole profession. He would build now that tower of song with lofty parapet of which so long he had dreamed. It was no middle flight he would take. He would write an American epic with gods and demi-gods on earth among men.

And that meant Indians. (The entire section is 2226 words.) SOURCE: Hawthorne's Review of Evangeline , in The New England Quarterly , Vol. XXIII, No. 2, June, 1950, pp. 232-35. [ In the following essay, Hoeltje presents Nathaniel Hawthorne's review of Longfellow's Evangeline . ] When the Whigs of Salem were in the midst of their conspiracy to oust Nathaniel Hawthorne from the surveyorship of the Port of Essay on, Salem, one of their charges was that he had taken an active part in Democratic politics by writing political articles for the Salem Advertiser , a local Democratic organ.

In his defense, a letter written to his friend, George S. Hillard, 1 and published at Hillard's instance in the Whig Boston. (The entire section is 1369 words.) Rudolph von Abele (essay date 1952) SOURCE: A Note on Longfellow's Poetic, in American Literature , Vol. 24, No. Jean. 1, March, 1952, pp. 77-83. [ In the following essay, Abele analyzes the major analogy of Longfellow's Seaweed. ] Longfellow's Seaweed, a poem published in 1845, 1 is interesting mainly because its theme is a theory of poetry from which the working out of the poem deviates rather noticeably, so that the poem really produces irony unintended by Essay, its author. The fundamental technique is the extensive treatment of benefits of xenotransplantation, a metaphoric analogy by means of Essay on King David, a meticulous series of substantive and syntactic parallels. This rather common approach may be used for various reasons: because.

(The entire section is 2432 words.) SOURCE: The Poetry of Longfellow, in The Hudson Review , Vol. SVI, No. A Damp Dark Place. 2, Summer, 1963, pp. 297-304. [ In the on King, following negative review of Newton Arvin's critical biography of Longfellow, Bewley asserts that there is independent learning skills no important nineteenth century American poet who has written so little of what is unmistakable poetry as opposed to the mere competence of verse. ] It is unfortunate that the late Newton Arvin should have chosen Longfellow as the subject of on, his last book. Mr.

Arvin's three critical studies of Hawthorne, Whitman, and Melville were valuable additions to literary biography. The Hawthorne in particular, which appeared in 1929, was as judicious. (The entire section is 3343 words.) SOURCE: On Longfellow, in Poetry and Fiction: Essays , Rutgers University Press, 1963, pp. Independent Skills. 143-58. [ In the following essay, Nemerov discusses Longfellow's reputation as an unfashionable poet and urges a reassessment of his verse. ] Great reputation is perhaps the most curious as well as the most volatile product of civilized society; lives of great men very often remind us, Longfellow's celebrated Psalm to the contrary, what a vast deal of on King, illusion their energy sustains around them while they live, and how perishable a commodity it proves to cross sectional design example be after they die. William Blake put the matter with characteristic clarity: (The entire section is 6134 words.) SOURCE: Household Lyrics, Ballads, Odes, Elegies, Sonnets, in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , Twayne Publishers, 1964, pp. King. 129-47. [ In the following essay, Williams examines the scope of Longfellow's work, focusing on his lesser-known ballads, sonnets, odes, and elegies. Design Example. ] (The entire section is Essay King 7796 words.)

SOURCE: Verse Narrative, Indian Saga, Idyl, Framework Tales, Drama, Translations, in theory, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , Twayne Publishers, 1964, pp. 148-86. [ In the following essay, Williams provides a thematic and stylistic analysis of Longfellow's major poetic works. ] The Day Is Done (The entire section is 16253 words.) SOURCE: Gentle Shades of Longfellow, in The Cycle of Modern Poetry , Russell Russell, 1965, pp. 64-82. [ In the following essay, Elliot compares the work of Longfellow to that of Walt Whitman, maintaining that the King, two poets are complementary and instrumental to the development of an American poetic. Essay About Uncle Cabin, Beecher. ] The poet Vachel Lindsay, tramping and talking among the Rockies several years ago, said he considered Longfellow a greater poet than Walt Whitman. The remark was noted in a book by Stephen.

(The entire section is 7405 words.) SOURCE: Longfellow's Motives for the Structure of Hiawatha, in Essay, American Literature , Vol. 42, No. The Importance Especially The Star. 4, January, 1971, pp. 548-53. [ In the following essay, Tichi contends The Song of Hiawatha was inspired by Longfellow's desire to provide cultural continuity between the on, old world and the new. ] The critical disesteem of Longfellow's verse hallmarks was perhaps a certainty upon the decline of the independent learning skills, poet's inflated reputation shortly after his death in 1882. David. Despite Edward Wagenknecht's sympathic mid-twentieth-century reappraisal of Longfellow through biography, and learning, Newton Arvin's more recent effort to Essay on King David establish him without apology as a minor figure in. (The entire section is 2164 words.) Robert A. Ferguson (essay date 1978) SOURCE: Longfellow's Political Fears: Civic Authority and the Role of the Artist in Hiawatha and Miles Standish , in American Literature , Vol.

L, No. 2, May, 1978, pp. 187-215. [ In the following essay, Ferguson determines the influence of political events, particularly the Civil War, on Longfellow's The Song of Hiawatha and The Courtship of Essay Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Stowe, Miles Standish . ] In 1849 Henry Longfellow wrote that the three-fold function of the poet was to charm, to Essay King strengthen, and to teach and he added that these elements inevitably worked together to form the most perfect harmony. 1 These assumptions did not. (The entire section is 11065 words.) SOURCE: Longfellow's Tegner's Drapa: A Reappraisal, in The American Transcendental Quarterly , No. 40, Fall, 1978, pp. 379-87. [ In the following essay, Griffin explores Longfellow's artistic and philosophical intentions as evinced in Tegner's Drapa. ] For the uninitiated, Longfellow's Tegner's Drapa (1847) must surely be one of the most confusing if not unrewarding poems ever written by the best known of the skills, New England Fireside Poets. Without appropriate footnotes the bewildered reader is immediately at a loss to know who or what Tegner isand the same for Drapathe title means a death song or lament for Tegner. Indeed. (The entire section is 3786 words.)

Daniel F. Littlefield Jr. On. (essay date 1978) SOURCE: Longfellow's A Psalm of Life: A Relation of skills, Method to Popularity, in The Markham Review , Vol. Essay On David. VII, Spring, 1978, pp. Tom’s Cabin, By Harriet. 49-51. [ In the on King, following essay, Littlefield justifies the popularity of The Importance of a Especially Spangled Banner, Longfellow's A Psalm of Life in light of critical derision and Essay King David, compares the poem to of xenotransplantation Benjamin Franklin's The Way to Wealth. ] Since the publication of Longfellow's A Psalm of Life in on King, 1838, critics have attacked the poem for Essay Uncle Tom’s Beecher its didacticism or have felt the need to Essay King David apologize for its triteness. Samuel Longfellow, the Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet, poet's brother, said that the poem had perhaps grown too familiar for us to read it as it was first read and that if the ideas. (The entire section is 2269 words.) SOURCE: The Fireside Poets: Hearthside Values and Essay on David, the Language of Care, in Nineteenth-Century American Poetry , edited by benefits, A. Robert Lee, Vision Press, 1985, pp. 146-65. [ In the following essay, Justus places Longfellow in context with other Fireside Poets such as William Cullen Bryant, James Russell Lowell, John Greenleaf Whittier, and Essay David, Oliver Wendell Holmes. ] When Robert Frost appeared at the inauguration of John F. Kennedy, the spectacle of poet and president together on the same platform was an anomaly widely remarked.

The poet as public institution was such a rarity in the United States that the independent skills, occasion stimulated a few expressions of hope that, among all the. (The entire section is 7152 words.) SOURCE: A Psalm of Life Reconsidered: The Dialogue of Essay David, Western Literature and Monologue of Young America, in Essay about by Harriet Beecher Stowe, ATQ , Vol. 1, No. 1, March, 1987, pp. 3-19. [ In the Essay, following essay, Hovey assesses the importance and influence of Longfellow's A Psalm of Life. ] Following publication in the Knickbocker Magazine of a damp dark, October 1838, A Psalm of Life brought rapid national acclaim to its author, the new Smith Professor of Modern Languages at Harvard. Spread abroad through translations into French (1848), German (1856), Dutch (1861), Chinese (1865), Italian (1866), Portuguese (ca. 1870), Danish (1874), Marathi (1878), Sanskrit (by 1879), Russian (by 1882), and. (The entire section is Essay on King David 7524 words.)

Rust, Richard Dilworth. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. In Fifteen American Authors Before 1900: Bibliographic Essays on Research and Criticism , edited by Robert A. Rees and of a National Anthem, Especially, Earl N. King. Harbert, pp. 263-84. Independent Learning. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1971. Primary and secondary bibliography. Arvin, Newton. Longfellow: His Life and Work . Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1962, 338 p.

Biography containing detailed analyses of on, Longfellow's poems. Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1902, 336 p. (The entire section is 835 words.) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Homework Help Questions. In his poem, A Psalm of Life, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow argues that individuals should live active, full lives rather than passively allowing life to slip away. In the first two lines of the. In the first stanza of A Psalm of Life, the speaker tells the Psalmist not to say that life is an empty dream because a soul that slumbers is dead. Independent. A person has a soul. That person/soul cannot be. Longfellow's poem is about the coming of on David, rain in benefits, a draught or in a dry season.

He heralds how the rain looks coming down in fiery streets and lanes. He tells of how it sounds as it clatters. Longfellow's poem Rain in Summer details the impact which the rain has on different persons and objects described within the poem. On. Longfellow begins by benefits, detailing how the rain quenches the thirst. Longfellow wrote the poem to King memorialize his wife who died in a freak accident (her dress caught fire from a candle, and a damp, she burned to death).

The poem follows the structure of an Italian sonnet by.

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Adrienne Rich's poem: Living In Sin Analysis. Essay by mdrange , University, Bachelor's , November 2003. Adrienne Rich's poem Living In Sin is a free verse poem about on King a woman's fairy tale dream of marriage versus the reality of the sin of design example not loving each other. The subject of the poem is a woman starting a life of on King David hope and happiness in a perfect relationship only to learn the true reality of the relationship. The speaker of the poem observes the independent learning, woman's life as sad and boring using the past tense versus the present, and short run on lines that set the hopeless mood of the poem. Imagery and colorful language is also used to describe the unhappy relationship throughout the poem.

Living In Sin shows a woman's life without rhyme in four meaningful images and as the tone changes she sees the relationship/marriage she expected and the relationship as it actually is. To begin with the speaker uses run-on lines, past tense and on King tone to illustrate the first image. She had thought the studio would keep itself. shows that in the beginning of the relationship she pictured a fairy tale marriage like Cinderella. There would be no chores, no dusting, everything would be a perfect marriage. The use of past tense means she is thinking of what is not.

The lines are also short and choppy making everything sound hopeless. The next line, Half heresy. the speaker comes back to the present tense of the leaky faucet, noise and dirty windows. The mood then shifts again and she paints a pretty picture of her home with fruit and happiness on the table, a piano with an expensive shawl, and a cat as a nice pet. Benefits. The short, choppy run on lines makes the Essay on King, woman's life appear hopeless and tired of doing this day after day. The next image the speaker speaks about is the dinner from the night before. By using the past tense again, Not that at Essay about Tom’s Beecher, five. shows the image of a romantic dinner that never was. The poem looses this imagery with the sound of the Essay on, milkman waking her up as the cold morning dawns only to ruin her fantasy dream of the frustration of cleaning up from the night before.

The use of language to describe last night's cheese is a metaphor to show how sour their relationship really is. The speaker also uses three sepulchral bottles, sepulchral meaning burial or tomb, as a metaphor or image of the bottles lined up as dead soldiers from the night before of drinking and partying. The woman feels as if she too has died inside and The Importance Anthem, The Star Spangled Banner is living in Essay on a tomb. The bug, a pair of beetle-eyes would fix her own--, is another example of an image of what the woman doesn't expect from life as she writhe under the Essay about Uncle Tom’s Stowe, milkman's tramp. personifies her bending in pain. Finally the on King David, man in her life is benefits of xenotransplantation introduced.

Again run on, choppy lines are used to describe him in only four lines shows he is not in her life very often and she is frustrated and angry at him. He is described as yawning which shows that he is ignoring her and Essay King David just goes on with his on self absorbed life. He then plays the piano which is out of tune like their relationship is in need of help. Cabin, Stowe. Next he shrugs at the mirror and leaves for a cigarette suggests he doesn't care about her. Then the reality, using past to on King David, present, as the woman realizes by the minor demons, her inner thoughts of the fantasy versus the reality of the house work he left behind for her to do. The woman goes back to making the house look perfect on the outside to keep up the idea of a fairy tale life that she once thought she might have. The image of the coffee-pot boil over on the stove shows that even though she is going on like nothing is wrong, inside she is boiling.

Comparative imagery is cross sectional design used to show life then and now in Essay the the pears are now last night's cheese, the cat is now a beetle-eye bug, a piano with a Persian shawl is now an dark place, out of tune keyboard, and no dust upon the furniture of Essay David love is now a dusty table-top. The illusion of a fantasy and now the reality of her life. The final image ends with By evening she was back in love again, shows the cross, fantasy versus the reality of waking to King, feel the daylight coming when she can start all over again. Like a relentless milkman up the stairs, she has to wake up and do the same thing day after day like the benefits of xenotransplantation, milkman waking up and starting all over again to deliver the milk. The woman goes back to her job that life will get better and someday will have a fairy tale ending, but until then she has to live in her tomb of a relationship, hence, living in sin of not being happy with what she has.

Adrienne Rich's poem does an interesting job of describing the miserable life of a woman looking for love. She uses colorful language and imagery to show the on David, dark, unhappy life of this woman. There is a lot of emotion and feelings throughout the poem. The words like, grime, writhe, coldly, sepulchral, beetle-eyes, jeered, and demons all give a feeling of the learning, sadness that this woman feels every day. Essay On David. The poem is easy to read and feel the loneliness this woman has in four, choppy run on images. Essay Tom’s Cabin,. In conclusion, Living in Essay on King Sin paints a picture of a woman finally realizing that her marriage is not a fairy tale ending. A Damp Dark. Through imagery, run on Essay on King David lines, and tone the sin is in the guilt from not living in the present and not being in love with her husband, who's not in love. This was an interesting poem on the sin of not loving each other and accepting each other for who they are. Adrienne Rich's poem: Living In Sin Analysis.. (2003, November 04). In Retrieved 07:33, October 03, 2017, from

WriteWork contributors. Adrienne Rich's poem: Living In Sin Analysis., 04 November, 2003. Web. 03 Oct. 2017. WriteWork contributors, Adrienne Rich's poem: Living In Sin Analysis.,, (accessed October 03, 2017) Analysis of Because I Could Not Stop for Death . Place. images to paint an everlasting picture in King the reader's mind. Each image that she uses builds upon Essay about Uncle Tom’s by Harriet Stowe, the other images.

The first image . Essay On King. figurative language that is used is repetition. Benefits. The first instance of . the basic elements of poetry has produced a poem . King David. , to be sure, is not the learning skills, true bridegroom but a . 8 pages 471 May/1997 4.4. Essay about relating quote to the poem The Hangman . an Essay, average person. Also, many times there are bullies within a school who threaten other students with physical actions or language. Cross Design Example. Many times, these bullies go unreported because the good who are violated by the evil are scared of being known . 3 pages 38 Dec/1996 4.0. Robert Frost's Use of Nature In Poetry. . and flows smoothly! Good Job!

Robert Frost's Use of Essay King Nature In His Poetry In most poetry and literature people can pick out certain characteristics that tend to . ' (Barry 13) of returning when the poems reads 'Oh, I kept the first for Especially The Star Banner, another day!' (line 13). Essay. He also knew that the possibilities of . 2 pages 302 Feb/1997 4.4. The Death of the Ball Turrett Gunner by Randall Jarrell. 'The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner' From my mother's sleep I fell into the State, And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze. Six miles from Earth, loosed rom its dream of life. I woke to the black flak and dark the nightmare fighters.

When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose. On. ' . 1 pages 92 Jan/1996 4.1. . form. Jean. All I have to offer you is me and my love, Though both are simple I promise they are true. Even as I write this, I think of how to describe to on, you. Something I hardly understand, But I must . 1 pages 118 1 Apr/1997 5.0. . children see a great baseball player but also a fastidious man. But Babe . 2 pages 7 Feb/2008 0.0. . feelings.

Form the Limited omniscient point of view . 4 pages 11 Feb/2008 5.0. . of us must take risks, but the risks we take are apart of our everyday life . A Damp Place. 2 pages 5 Feb/2008 0.0. . On King David. American Literature March 31, 2002 Alone in a Crowded Room The animals of the Earth have their caves . 4 pages 4 Feb/2008 0.0. . Pushing Through a Hard Rain: Classification of Bob Dylan as a Poet through his song A Hard . . experience for a damp place, the innocent young child. Along with the image of a young girl whose heart .

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conclusion chapter Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade. Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for Essay on, education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.

Organisation of this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. Benefits Of Xenotransplantation? 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the King David Act. Commentary on the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.

1977-82 Matters for Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.

1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in England: a brief history. copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in about Tom’s Cabin, Beecher, England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece.

If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history In accordance with the on King David conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of Uncle, more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is Essay King David, shown as a link, the full text is Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, available online. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of David, HMSO and jean theory the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for the school curriculum was previously ascribed to HMI. On David? In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. This has been corrected in the chapter below and in the Timeline; and the full text of the about Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet document is now available online.

My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of education. Neo-liberalism became the Essay on dominant force in British politics with the election in 1979 of the Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Her government's policies 'accelerated the closing down of unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Soaring inflation and benefits of xenotransplantation a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for her, Argentina invaded the Essay on David Falkland Islands and benefits of xenotransplantation she was able to play the part of heroic war leader in the Falklands War between March and June 1982. The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.

With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from 44 to on King, 144), she felt emboldened to take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at the general election in 1987. Her majority of Essay Beecher Stowe, 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the introduction of Essay King David, a form of poll tax. It proved to be her undoing and she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only industry and commerce but also public services.

Conservative legislation sought to drive neo-liberal principles into the heart of public policy. An emphasis on cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and the promotion of new forms of public management. The outcome of these processes was a form of governance in which market principles were advanced at the same time as central authority was strengthened. Independent Skills? (Jones 2003:107) Thus the twin aims of Margaret Thatcher's education policies in the 1980s were to convert the nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of on David, this policy can be traced back to the establishment in 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to persuade the Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Conservative Party to abandon the post-war welfare consensus and embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in Evolution by choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to the Black Paper of 1977. (For more on the Black Papers see the previous chapter). He set out to 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on 'absolute freedom of choice by application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of King, 'ability and of a National Anthem, Especially The Star Spangled aptitude'. If it was undersubscribed it would face the possibility of Essay, closure.

The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. Essay Cabin, Beecher Stowe? There would be an Essay King 'effective and independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by commitment to the market and to privatisation' (Benn and Essay about Tom’s by Harriet Stowe Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to be radical and on King modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to Essay about Uncle Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, ditch the elitist policies of the past. The most obvious of these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the Essay right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. The Tories had underestimated the popularity of comprehensive schools, and attempts to reintroduce or extend selection in Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Solihull all failed as a result of strong local opposition.

But the a damp dark Tories weren't going to on King, give up. Jean Theory? 'Such defeats served to encourage Conservative Ministers to Essay on, opt for rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at establishing a wider variety of secondary schools and providing for greater parental choice' (Chitty and Dunford 1999:25). They began work on a series of radical changes characterised by the absence of of xenotransplantation, any popular demand for them from King David any section of the benefits of xenotransplantation education community nationally or locally, nor even from the on King populist media. One by one all had to Uncle Cabin, Beecher, be imposed by Essay King David, means of a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from all other political parties and from much of the educational establishment. (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the ground. When she took office in May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. He was 'moderate and essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in Chitty and watson theory Dunford 1999:1).

This suited Thatcher because at first reform of education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the rate of inflation (causing very high levels of unemployment in King David, the process) and with curbing the power and influence of the cross sectional design trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in September 1981 by the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and on King education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the government's agenda. Ironically, as secretary of state for education Joseph found himself commanding an apparatus that was now increasingly involved in specifying the a damp everyday practice of schools. On David? . Joseph, like the ministers who succeeded him, organised in the name of 'effective education' a vast new complex of regulations and regulators that would measure and design direct the processes and outcomes of schooling. On King David? (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the Essay Uncle Tom’s by Harriet Beecher Stowe education department, Thatcher set about on preparing to take control. This meant confronting the 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and national and local inspectors and advisors. There would be action on three fronts: the The Importance of a Anthem, Especially The Star Spangled Banner curriculum - traditionally seen as the 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to enter; the teachers - controlling their training and development and restricting their role in Essay, curriculum development; and the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of a damp place, which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the 'Great Debate' on the nature and Essay David purposes of education. Under the watson Thatcher administration, the debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the publication in 1979 of on King David, LEA Arrangements for sectional design example, the School Curriculum which required local authorities to publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by Essay, The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in which the secretaries of state (for Education and Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the approach to the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in the years ahead'.

Every local education authority was expected to jean theory, frame policies for the school curriculum consistent with the government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the Essay on David DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in the light of the advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in its area, and of xenotransplantation its arrangements for making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the extent to which current provision in the schools is consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of schools, teachers and others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to provide: (a) a report on the progress which has been made in Essay on, drawing up a policy for the curriculum in dark, its primary and secondary schools . (b) a description of the roles played in the processes of drawing up the policy by heads and other teachers, governors, parents and other interested parties in the local community; (c) a brief statement of the ways in which the policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the steps being taken and planned by David, the authority to seek to ensure that the curriculum is planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the steps being taken and planned by place, the authority to ensure that the curriculum is appropriately related to Essay, what happens outside school, and includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of how far the resources available to the authority . are enabling it to give effect to its policy for the curriculum. Watson Theory? (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the DES issued A framework for the school curriculum in 1980; and HMI produced a number of publications, including: A View of the Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from 5 to 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). The HMI documents were progressive in outlook. The Curriculum from 5 to 16 , for example, argued that the school curriculum should be thought of in on David, terms of 'areas of learning and experience' and that it included not only the formal programme of lessons, but also the cross 'informal' programme of so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the quality of relationships, the concern for equality of opportunity, the values exemplified in the way the school sets about its task and the way in which it is organised and Essay on King David managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to government ministers.

In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . Independent Skills? This consultation document set out plans for the introduction of a national curriculum and associated assessment procedures. Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in haste: the on King David cover was printed but the contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the previous year). Central government also sought greater control over teachers. In 1984 the Council for cross sectional, the Accreditation of on David, Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to reduce the influence of teachers in dark place, curriculum development, the Schools Council, in which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in 1984. Its work was shared between the King David School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by cross sectional, the secretary of Essay, state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to 'concern itself with policy'. And in of xenotransplantation, 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and Essay King David performance-related pay. The result was a year of industrial action by teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the skills local authorities - many of them run by Labour - were an irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on in the Essay on King David schools.

Her government therefore set about weakening the role of the LEAs by dismantling the triangular framework of responsibility - central government, local authorities and the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in Essay Uncle Tom’s by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the running of schools. The LEAs were already in a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the on King number of LEAs was reduced from 146 to 104. Many of the about Uncle Tom’s Beecher reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to Essay on King David, some widely publicised resignations of Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over Especially The Star Spangled Banner, the service. Furthermore, after the 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for local politics to Essay on, consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). Now, in the 1980s, public spending was being cut and of xenotransplantation the differences between the spending of different LEAs widened. Essay King? As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to ebb back to central government. Thatcher enlisted the right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. Papers like The Sun and cross sectional example the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the absurdities perpetrated - often in the name of equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Ealing, for on King David, example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. It wasn't true, of course (I know - I was there!), but the Essay about Cabin, Beecher endless repetition of Essay on David, such stories damaged the image of Essay Cabin, Beecher, local authorities in the eyes of the Essay on King David public - which is precisely what it was intended to cross design, do.

The government took another swipe at the local authorities in 1982, when it launched the Technical and Essay King David Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at 14-18 year olds. The Importance The Star Spangled? LEAs were not allowed to participate. Instead, it was administered by the Department of Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). It was not exactly a success. 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in this area and on King so was expenditure: 89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of National The Star Banner, which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only a year or two in existence' (Benn and Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in 1986 to promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the government announced that schools would in Essay King David, future be allowed to offer vocational courses like those from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of benefits of xenotransplantation, vocational qualifications' (Benn and King Chitty 1996:17) in an attempt to benefits, create a single new system of vocational qualifications: GNVQ for educational qualifications and NVQ for qualifications gained through work. For a brief moment it looked as if at last a British government was going to catapult the country into a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and an integration of vocational and academic education. Essay On King David? (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to be.

The Major administration (see the next chapter) chose not to jean, pursue the integration of academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). On? It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and learning skills gave back to LEAs the on David right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the process of giving more power to a damp, parents. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to Essay King David, choose schools (6) and the right to appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the creation of new schools and the closing of Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Stowe, existing ones (12), and the number of school places (15); the Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to pay for 30,000 children to go to private schools (17); the obligation on local authorities to provide free milk and meals was removed, except in the case of Essay King, children from families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).

Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the publication of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to The Importance of a National Anthem, Especially The Star, identify the needs of children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for ascertaining those needs (5-6); and produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at King School . 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the secretary of state to require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to students 'not having the requisite connection with the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of dark, Man' and to exclude such students from Essay on King David being eligible for certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to be given to LEAs for theory, government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in taking control of Essay David, education policy away from the LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in 1987 when Specific Grants for Essay about Tom’s Beecher, INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the limit set in section 2(1) of the Education (Grants and Essay David Awards) Act 1984 on benefits, expenditure approved for education support grant purposes, and excluded remuneration for lunchtime supervision from the Remuneration of David, Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in the job. Benefits Of Xenotransplantation? The first (and much the shorter - 5 pages) was the Essay 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and the pooling of expenditure by local authorities. 1986 Education (No.

2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only much longer than the watson first, it was also profoundly more important. It implemented the proposals set out in the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the importance of the Essay LEAs and put the place focus on the Department and the schools. Governors were to Essay on King David, be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and staffing. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for specific responsibilities including the 'determination and organisation of the secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the power to exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the Act introduced the concept of educational law, so that lawyers became involved in education for the first time. National Anthem, Especially The Star? It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of governing bodies was changed - the number of parent governors was to be equal to the number of LEA governors and there were to be staff governors and others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of Essay on David, parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.

If taught (it didn't have to be), sex education had to encourage pupils 'to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the school's curriculum (20); discipline was the place responsibility of the head, though the principles underlying it were to be supplied by governors (22); there were new rules on pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to produce an annual report (30) and Essay King hold an jean watson annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of Essay, staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of dark, speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to be no political indoctrination in schools - this was an on King attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in a number of of xenotransplantation, schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to Essay King David, beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by the state (47); provision was made for the appraisal of teachers (49); governors were required to supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to provide training for governors (57); and the secretary of state was no longer required to produce annual report (60). Download the Education (No. Skills? 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).

The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from Essay on David 'promoting teaching in independent, any maintained school of the acceptability of Essay on King, homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by New Labour in cross sectional design, November 2003). Essay David? Download the cross design example Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the most important education act since 1944. It is sometimes referred to as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).

The Act was presented as giving power to the schools. In fact, it took power away from the LEAs and the schools and gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and Essay turned it into a market - something the Tories had been working towards for a decade. Chitty and Dunford (1999:25) argue that the 'meretricious agenda' of the 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to the remarkable resilience of the comprehensive ideal'. Having failed to Essay Uncle Beecher Stowe, get selection reinstated in 1979, the Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and the introduction of local markets . as attempts to introduce selection by the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the Essay on King National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and watson theory collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and assessment councils; admission of pupils to county and voluntary schools; local management of schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and the abolition of on David, ILEA.

Download the Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in all maintained schools, consisting of religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the knowledge, skills and understanding which children would be expected to have by the end of each key stage; the skills 'programmes of study' to be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for assessing pupils at the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and Essay King science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and benefits of xenotransplantation physical education); plus a modern foreign language at Essay key stages 3 and 4 (3(1-2)). Schools in Welsh-speaking areas of Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out new rules on religious education: every day was to begin with an 'act of sectional example, collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to be 'wholly or mainly of Essay, a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Anthem, Spangled? Every LEA was required to set up a standing advisory council on religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of representatives of religious groups, the Church of England, teachers and the local authority (11(4)).

Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education should 'reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to be established: the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to have its own Curriculum Council for Wales). The members of the councils would be appointed by the secretary of Essay, state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the curriculum and watson advise the secretary of state, carry out programmes of research and development, publish and disseminate information relating to the curriculum and perform 'such ancillary activities as the Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of on David, examinations and assessment; it was also to make arrangements with appropriate bodies for Uncle Cabin, by Harriet Stowe, the moderation of assessments made in pursuance of assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of Pupils to County and Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the admission of pupils to maintained schools, in particular the conditions which were to be met if the authority responsible for admissions to a school wished to reduce the 'standard number' of places in a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and Staff.

Before 1988, schools had only had control over 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to books and materials. The staff were employed and the buildings maintained by the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of schools' (LMS), the schools were to be given far greater control, managing almost the Essay on whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the school in respect of that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for that year to be spent for the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on the basis of an 'allocation formula' based on cross example, the number and ages of the King pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff would be transferred from the local authority to schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for the establishment of grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and funded directly by central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the place articles of government (58); the conduct of parents' ballots to decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and staff to the governing bodies (74-5) and on David the grants (maintenance, special purpose and capital) payable to the schools (79). It made clear that funds directed to grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.

The Act provided for the establishment of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and City Colleges for the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and Further Education. Part II of the Act made changes to the provision and cross sectional design funding of higher and further education and provided for King, the establishment of two new funding bodies: the Universities Funding Council (UFC) and cross sectional the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of King, state. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for the funding of The Importance Especially The Star Banner, schools. Part III Education in Inner London. Part III of the Essay David Act provided for the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and liabilities to the inner London boroughs.

Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the Act covered a number of The Importance National Spangled Banner, other matters: the establishment and functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the Act was written by a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in its design or construction. It was almost entirely content-based. Dennis Lawton, of the University of London Institute of Education, described it as the reincarnation of the 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and Essay on therefore unmanageable, especially at watson the primary level, and its introduction resulted in a significant drop in reading standards. It divided the David curriculum up into discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and 'project' work difficult if not impossible. But perhaps the most damaging outcome of benefits of xenotransplantation, it was that it prevented teachers and Essay on David schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to curriculum 'deliverers'.

It was also constantly revised. Right-wing think-tanks and pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the jean theory first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and Anglicisation of the national testing system, so as to emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). Essay On David? The New Right gained control of the curriculum and Essay Uncle Tom’s Cabin, by Harriet Stowe assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to on, redesign the national curriculum, reducing the amount of detail and removing 'the stronger signs of the benefits traditionalist and ethnocentric enthusiasms of the New Right'. The 1995 revision of the national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the on King David New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the curriculum, and its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of Tom’s Beecher Stowe, English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. They were based on Essay King, the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT) led by Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the Black Report).

The report was sound on The Importance Anthem, The Star Spangled, the purposes of assessment. It began by listing four criteria for a national assessment scheme: the assessment results should give direct information about pupils' achievement in relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the Essay King David results should provide a basis for decisions about benefits pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the scales or grades should be capable of comparison across classes and schools, if teachers, pupils and parents are to share a common language and common standards: so the assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in which criteria and scales are set up and used should relate to expected routes of on King David, educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at different ages: the place assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to be addressed: the undesirable effects of Essay King David, testing on children (stress etc); the possible damage to relationships between parents and schools; the fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in league tables, 'leading to The Importance National Anthem, The Star Spangled, ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). Unfortunately, the Essay on David Report went on place, to propose a system of testing at Essay on King ages 7, 11, 14 and benefits 16 (at the end of the on David Key Stages) in jean watson, which each pupil was to on, be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of 'Attainment Targets' in the ten National Curriculum subjects. This was hugely complicated and never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the proposals and favoured simpler external tests of children at 7, 11 and 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in a damp dark, the educational validity of the assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the education market place she was so determined to create. So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to where to send their children. Three inevitable - and on King David undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to take on independent learning skills, pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to Essay on David, depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to concentrate their efforts on children who were on the borderline between one level and the next rather than on those who needed attention most; and of xenotransplantation the curriculum became skewed by the need to practise for the tests.

On religious education and collective worship, it is interesting to compare the Act's stipulations that the on majority of a school's 'acts of collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and that Christianity should be the predominant religion in religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is never mentioned - because it was taken for cross sectional design example, granted. For more on religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the Essay on King role of the head teacher and governors. The head was no longer an educationalist but an institutional manager. S/he now had to learn about recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in relation to the control of a school's budget and to benefits, the appointment and dismissal of staff. No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.

Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on David, the role. Because school budgets were to be based largely on pupil numbers, schools had to attract as many pupils as possible in order to survive. Of A National Especially The Star Spangled Banner? This led to some bizarre cases of schools offering gifts to Essay King David, parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Learning Skills? Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to King David, around 85 per cent of the total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an important element in the creation of an 'education market'; it took financial control away from the of a Especially The Star Spangled Banner local authorities; and it enabled the government to on King, 'pass the buck' to the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the independent second year of LMS onwards. Indeed, school budgets were cut in six of the eight years following 1988.

The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on the LEAs. It was also iniquitous because, to bribe schools into on King David, opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at the expense of the remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of their pupils on the basis of ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to a damp place, become grant-maintained in the first year or two, but when the extra cash dried up, so did the applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the schools that did opt out were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on on King David, education tended to be lower. Benefits? A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to go grant-maintained were concentrated in just 12 of the 117 education authorities in England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the state and independent sectors. He told the TES : What we have at present is seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to rise to ten per cent; and on the other side, a huge continent: 93 per cent in the state-maintained sector. . What I think is striking in Essay King David, the British education system is that there is nothing in between . Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of theory, half-way house. I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.

I think many parents would as well. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to destroy the power of the LEAs (and to reintroduce selection) by involving private enterprise in Essay King David, education. A hundred of the colleges were to be set up across the benefits country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per pupil far higher than in Essay David, the neighbouring local authority schools. In the event, only a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to pick up the bill. The last CTC to be authorised, in April 1991, was Kingswood in Bristol. The chair of Cable and Wireless and former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the required 2m; the government handed over the remaining 8m. Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that 8m for capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the 4.5m he had for capital spending on the county's other 150,000 children. With the of xenotransplantation extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and King David there would still have been enough left over to give all primary schools an extra nursery class for a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by Labour politicians who were not afraid to comment on central government policies. Tory MPs called for benefits, its abolition in 1980 but were overruled by Essay King, education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and she would have liked to get rid of ILEA at the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.

But ILEA's days were numbered. Jean Watson Theory? An amendment calling for its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into the 1988 Act. On David? It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and its responsibilities delegated to the London boroughs. The destruction of ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and state vandalism: it had had a proud record of jean watson theory, supporting schools in deprived areas and promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and committed to the wellbeing of London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in 1977, had sought to Essay on King, combat racism, sexism and Essay about Stowe class prejudice in schools and society.

And in Essay on King David, 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to identify problems, the scale of which is, in some cases, unique in this country.' (A form of overall local government for London was reintroduced by New Labour in May 2000, when the first elections to the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Ken Livingstone became the first elected Mayor of London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for HE students and so began the diminution of student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Discussion.

As part of the 'Great Debate' called for in 1976 by Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for sectional design, Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. On? 1164) that surveys of the quality of primary schools should be conducted at least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the whole school age range. They were: 1978 Primary education in England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from watson theory Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the Thatcher government and published its interim report, West Indian Children in our Schools , in 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in our education system. Urgent action is needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).

It noted that in both primary and secondary schools the curriculum, books and teaching materials were often inappropriate to Essay on King, meet the needs and backgrounds of West Indian pupils and Essay about Uncle Cabin, that this was 'a cause of their lack of motivation and commitment to the work and their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for the underachievement of West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on the part of teachers and King David the education system as a whole, and on the part of West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). They therefore recommended a range of sectional design, specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to bring about fundamental changes in attitude and practice in the longer term. Taken together, these constitute a programme for action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to fulfil their true potential in our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on the teaching of Essay David, maths, in the light of concerns expressed by the Education, Arts and Home Office Sub-Committee of the Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in July 1977. Sectional Design? These concerns related to the apparent lack of basic computation skills in on King David, many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on adults, the lack of qualified maths teachers, and the confusing multiplicity of skills, maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Its terms of reference were: To consider the teaching of on King, mathematics in primary and place secondary schools in England and Wales, with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and adult life generally, and to make recommendations. The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in November 1981 and it was published in January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.

The Committee of David, Enquiry into the Education of Children from The Importance Especially The Star Spangled Banner Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and recommendations were: there is on, no single cause of underachievement and theory therefore no single solution; education has a major role in changing the Essay King attitudes of the white majority population; there is a need for greater sensitivity in the education of 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to a damp, raise teachers' awareness; in initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of David, both teachers and pupils; the first priority should be the learning of English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of instruction; and schools should not take on responsibility for the teaching and maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to reconcile the concerns and aspirations of both the dark majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the fragmentation of our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the stability and cohesion of society as a whole. (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is Essay on David, not how to educate children of ethnic minorities, but how to Essay about Uncle Tom’s by Harriet Stowe, educate all children. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by a Committee of Inquiry chaired by Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for 16-18 year olds. It argued that the current A Level system was too narrow and that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the recommendations.

1989 Cox Report. Chaired by Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of King David, English Literature at Manchester University, the National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to make recommendations on attainment targets and cross example programmes of study for the English component of the David new National Curriculum. The result was the jean watson theory Cox Report English for ages 5 to 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to lead an enquiry into discipline in schools in England and Wales. Essay David? The Elton Committee's report Discipline in Schools was published in place, the spring of 1989. On King? Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the learning skills shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and the School Examinations and Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on early years education. Produced by a committee chaired by Essay on King David, Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the education of 3 and 4 year olds.

It was published in November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over cross sectional, as education secretary. Tory attitudes to on, education - and to jean, education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the bill which was shortly to become the 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the Tory Party Conference in October 1986: It is crucial for parents to Essay on King, understand where power in the education system lies. Our Education Bill radically changes the cross design composition of school governing bodies. It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. Essay King David? We will end the dominance of the local authority and its political appointees. There will be more parent governors elected by all the parents. Control over sex education will be removed from the cross sectional example teachers and local authorities and given to the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.

But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and the last straw for many was her determination to Essay, introduce a form of about Uncle Cabin, Beecher Stowe, poll tax. This led, in March 1990, to the worst riots London had seen for a century. She lost the King confidence of her colleagues and in November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and prime minister by John Major. Benn C and Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.

DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in Britain: 1944 to the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in our Schools Interim report of the Committee of Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and cross design example Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.

Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by choice' in CB Cox and R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Row. Swann (1985) Education for All Report of the Committee of Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.