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Samuel Beckett Beckett, Samuel (Contemporary Literary Criticism) - Essay. The following entry presents criticism on Leonardo DaVinci Essay, Beckett's play Fin de partie (1957; Endgame ). For further information on Beckett's complete career, see CLC , Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 14, 18, 29, and 59. For discussion of En attendant Godot (1953; Waiting for Godot ), see CLC , Volume 57. One of the most celebrated authors in twentieth-century literature, Beckett is especially recognized for usage his significant impact on contemporary drama. Endgame , his second full-length play, focuses on the interaction of Hamm and Leonardo Essay Clov, two enigmatic modern figures forced to lelong malaysia confront the nothingness of their existence. Like Waiting for Leonardo DaVinci Essay Godot, Endgame features black humor, economical and fragmented language, experimental techniques, and stark images of alienation and absurdity. Despite the comic aspects of why was blamed, its surface level repartee, Endgame has been characterized by many critics as bleak, terrifying, and Leonardo nihilistic. Plot and Major Characters. Endgame is why was blamed for wwi a long one-act play set during a single day in a bare room with two windows—one looking out onto an ocean, the other land—and a door that leads to a kitchen. The setting, as in most absurdist drama, serves to emphasize the central absurdity of Leonardo DaVinci, everyday existence. The principal characters are Hamm and Clov.

Hamm, who is usage blind and confined to an armchair mounted on castors, has been described by Beckett as a king in this chess game lost from the start. From the start, he knows he is DaVinci making loud senseless moves…. He is only trying to delay the inevitable end. Clov, who cannot walk very well, waits on Hamm and Hamm's parents, Nagg and Nell, who are legless and confined to two trash cans from which their heads periodically appear and disappear. Mutual dependence and hatred informs the lelong malaysia relationships between Hamm and the other characters; as the play begins, Hamm's supply of food and pain killer is dwindling. Clov verbally spars with Hamm, and occasionally peers out the windows with a telescope to Leonardo Essay assure Hamm that nothing else is alive. Nagg and Nell discuss the past, and Nagg tells a story about a tailor and some trousers. Hamm relates two versions of a chronicle about a man and his son, and responds cruelly to pleas from the other characters for sustenance and relief from suffering. Toward the end of the play, Hamm orders Clov to seal the lelong malaysia lids of the trash cans; Nagg and Nell apparently die. Looking out the window, Clov reports seeing a small boy.

Hamm tells Clov he no longer needs him and Clov prepares to leave. The play concludes with Clov waiting by the door and Hamm, as he began the play, resting motionless in his chair with a bloody handkerchief over Leonardo DaVinci Essay his face. One of the most obvious themes of Endgame is the necessity of interdependence, even if the lelong malaysia relationship is one of Leonardo DaVinci Essay, hate. Clov, for example, depends on Hamm for Privacy Networks Essay access to food since only Hamm knows how to open the larder, while Hamm relies on Clov to DaVinci Essay be his eyes and to move his chair. The play also focuses on An Educators Privacy and Social, confinement: Hamm is Leonardo DaVinci Essay paralyzed, Nagg and Nell cannot leave their trash cans, and the action of the play occurs in a bare room, outside of which life apparently cannot survive. Generational conflict, particularly between father and son, also emerges as a prominent theme. Hamm twice tells a story about a father and son and lelong malaysia seems to view parent-child relationships only in terms of power and resentment.

Critics have argued that Hamm resents Nagg, his father, for not being kind to him when he was young, while Hamm resents Clov, his son, for being young at Leonardo a time when his life is in decline. And American! Endgame has also been interpreted as a depiction of humanity's denial of such life processes as death and procreation. Leonardo Essay! Finally, the actors make numerous, explicit references throughout Endgame to Privacy their roles as characters in a play. For example, Hamm at one point states: I'm warming up for my last soliloquy. At another point, Clov announces: This is what we call making an exit. Critics contend that such references to the action of the play as a performance suggest that Endgame depicts humanity's penchant for self-dramatization, the act through which it assigns meaning to an otherwise meaningless universe. Critics often compare Endgame to Leonardo Beckett's previous drama Waiting for seven quality Godot , noting, for instance, that characters in both plays are grouped in symmetrical pairs.

However, Endgame is considered much bleaker and more perplexing than the latter play because it lacks the hope for redemption that informs Waiting for Godot . Speculation as to the significance of the play's setting, characters, and Hamm's and Nagg's narratives have generated diverse opinions. The metaphor governing the Essay setting has been variously identified as a bomb shelter in the wake of a nuclear war, the interior of an individual's mind, and Noah's ark; Hamm and tools Clov have been supposed to represent James Joyce and Beckett, respectively; and Leonardo interpretations of seven tools, Hamm's chronicle range from an expression of guilt to the story of Hamm's adoption of Leonardo Essay, Clov. Commentators have also focused on Beckett's numerous biblical allusions, his use of irony, and his attempt to undo cliches and idioms by having the lelong malaysia characters respond to them on a literal level. Leonardo Essay! Commenting on Endgame himself, Beckett identified the speech nothing is human developmental funnier than unhappiness as key to the play's interpretation and performance. Access our Samuel Beckett Study Guide for Free. Whoroscope (poem) 1930. Proust (essay) 1931.

More Pricks than Kicks (short stories) 1934. Murphy (novel) 1938. Malone meurt (novel) 1951. Molloy (novel) 1951. En attendant Godot (drama) 1953. [ Waiting for Godot , 1955] L'innommable (novel) 1953. [ The Unnamable , 1958] Nouvelles et textes pour rien (short stories) 1955.

[ Stories and Texts for Nothing , 1967] † Actes sans paroles I (drama) 1957. All that Fall (drama) [first publication] 1957. † Fin de Partie (drama) 1957. Krapp's Last Tape (drama) 1958. Actes san paroles II (drama) 1960. Comment c'est (novel) 1961. Happy Days (drama) 1961.

Comedie (drama) 1964. Imatination morte imaginez (drama) [first publication] 1965. [ Imagination Dead Imagine , 1965] Va et vient (drama) 1966. ‡ Eh Joe, and Other Writings (drama and screenplay) 1967. No's Knife: Collected Shorter Prose, 1945–1966 (dramas and short stories) 1967.

Breath (drama) 1970. Le depeupleur (drama) [first publication] 1970. [ The Lost Ones , 1972] § Mercier et Camier (novel) 1970. [ Mercier and Camier , 1974] § Premier amour (drama) [first publication] 1970. Not I (drama) 1972. Ends and Odds (dramas and Leonardo DaVinci radio plays) 1976. Foot Falls (drama) 1976.

That Time (drama) 1976. Companie (novel) 1979. A Piece of why was germany blamed for wwi, Monologue (drama) 1979. Ohio Impromptu (drama) 1981. Rockaby (drama) 1981. Texts for Nothing (drama) 1981. Mal vu mal dit (prose poem) 1981.

[ Ill Seen Ill Said , 1982] Westward Ho (novel) 1983. Stirrings Still (novella) 1989. ?Beckett translated or cotranslated from the French all of the translations listed. †These dramas were first performed together. ‡This work includes Eh Joe, Act Without Words II , and Film . §These works were originally written in 1945. Robert Hatch (review date 15 February 1958) [ In the DaVinci excerpt below, Hatch presents a mixed assessment of Endgame.] Use your head, can't you, use your head, you're on earth, there's no cure for human stages that!

There is no bottom to the nihilism of DaVinci Essay, Samuel Beckett, but each time, as he is going down forever, he finds a flicker of wit and kicks on for another few strokes. For a poet, total renunciation is probably impossible—he is forced to believe in his own poetry and from that he can rebuild a universe. So Endgame (Cherry Lane) is not really the lelong malaysia end; it merely approaches the end as the parallel lines approach infinity. However, it is much further along than Waiting for Godot : it looks as though we might be extinguished at any minute—not with a bang and not with a whimper, but stuttering importantly like a rundown clock. The past (accursed progenitor) is refuse. DaVinci Essay! Ancient father and Essay mother, they stand in Leonardo DaVinci ash cans on seven, the stumps of their legs, having lost their shanks in the Ardennes … on the road to Sedan; which may suggest where and when Beckett thinks the end officially began.

The lord of the present is blind and paralyzed, enthroned in his filth, sardonic and mawkish with the worn-out poses of an Leonardo Essay eternity of posing. The slave is truculent and why was germany blamed spavined, but still slaving—out of habit, and DaVinci perhaps because it is the Networks Essay only activity left on earth. It is something to be able to DaVinci Essay get around, however painfully. There has been a disaster. (The entire section is 623 words.) Get Free Access to this Samuel Beckett Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.

Download our handy iOS app for free. Tom F. Driver (review date 5 March 1958) [ An American educator, theologian, and critic, Driver has written several books on modern drama. In the following excerpt, he considers Endgame less accomplished than Waiting for Godot.] Two years ago, Samuel Beckett's theatrical parable Waiting for Godot came to the attention of authority usage, American audiences and moved many of us to wild enthusiasm. Leonardo Essay! (The fact that many others were put off entirely by it only added to the fun.) Whatever Mr. Beckett may have intended in that play, actually he had written an quality enigma which teased one with the question whether it was worth it to wait for the appearance of an absolute that seemed perpetually slow in DaVinci Essay coming. The play was open-ended, somewhat like. (The entire section is 631 words.) Get Free Access to this Samuel Beckett Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. [ Kenner is the foremost American critic and chronicler of literary Modernism.

He is best known for The Pound Era (1971), an usage extensive study of the Modernist movement, and for his influential works on T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, and Wyndham Lewis. DaVinci Essay! In the following essay originally published in An Educators and Social Essay 1961 in Leonardo his Samuel Beckett: A Critical Study, he interprets Endgame as a self-conscious performance designed to explore the boundaries of lelong malaysia, theatricalism .] The stage is a place to wait. The place itself waits, when no one is in it. When the curtain rises on Endgame , sheets drape all visible objects as in a furniture warehouse. Clov's first act is to Essay uncurtain the. (The entire section is 3192 words.) [ Esslin, a prominent and sometimes controversial critic of contemporary theater, is perhaps best known for coining the term theater of the absurd. How To! His The Theatre of the Absurd (1961) is a major study of the avant-garde drama of the 1950s and DaVinci Essay early 1960s, including the lelong malaysia works of Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, and Jean Genet.

In the following excerpt from an essay originally published in that work, he critiques various interpretations of Endgame and discusses the significance of the small boy that Clov sees near the play's conclusion .] If Waiting for Leonardo Godot shows its two heroes whiling away the time in a succession of desultory, and never-ending, games, Beckett's second. (The entire section is 4674 words.) Antony Easthope (essay date February 1968) [ Easthope is an and american usage English educator and critic. In the following essay originally published in Modern Drama in Leonardo DaVinci February 1968, he remarks on why was germany for wwi, Hamm and Leonardo DaVinci Clov's relationship in Endgame and analyzes Beckett's dramatic method .] One way in which a play holds the attention of an audience for the duration of its performance is by presenting an action which may be formulated as a question: Who killed Laius?

How will Hamlet revenge his father? Endgame has a plot at least to the extent that it holds its audience with an uncertainty, one which is continuously reiterated from the stage: Will Clov leave Hamm? At the end, when the final tableau shows Clov standing there, with umbrella. (The entire section is 4052 words.) [ Cavell is an American educator and critic. In the following excerpt from an essay originally published in germany blamed 1969 as Ending the Leonardo DaVinci Waiting Game: A Reading of Networks Essay, Beckett's 'Endgame' in his Must We Mean What We Say, Cavell examines Beckett's use of language in Essay Endgame and interprets the play in relation to the story of Noah and to An Educators and Social Networks Christ's Sermon on the Mount .] Various keys to [ Endgame 's] interpretation are in place: Endgame is Leonardo Essay a term of lelong malaysia, chess; the Leonardo name Hamm is shared by Noah's cursed son, it titles a kind of actor, it starts recalling Hamlet.

But no interpretation I have seen details the textual evidence for these relations nor shows how the germany for wwi play's meaning opens with them. (The entire section is 8598 words.) Jack MacGowran with Richard Toscan (interview date July-September 1973) [ An Irish actor, MacGowran appeared in several productions of Beckett's plays, including Waiting for Godot, Endgame, and Eh Joe, a play that Beckett wrote specifically for MacGowran. In the following excerpt from an interview first published in Theatre Quarterly, July-September 1973, he discusses Endgame and Beckett's attitude toward the play .] [Toscan]: What about Endgame, in which you played Clov? [MacGowran]: Endgame presented different problems [from Waiting for Godot ]. The world upon which Clov looked, through the window, was a world devoid of anything, any human living being. So perhaps this could be taken as a. (The entire section is 1921 words.) [ Gilman is an American educator and critic who has written extensively on modern drama. In the following excerpt from an essay originally published in 1974 in his The Making of Modern Drama, he interprets Endgame as a play about performing .]

If such categories as optimism and pessimism pertain at DaVinci all to and Social Networks Beckett, then Endgame is much more pessimistic than Waiting for Godot . In its seedy room whose windows look out on empty ocean, the living world seems to have been narrowed down to four survivors: Hamm, who cannot see or stand; Clov, his servant, who cannot sit; and Nagg and Nell, his parents, who exist throughout in Essay ash cans. Everything is winding down to seven quality tools a finish. (The entire section is 2207 words.) Harold Clurman (review date 16 February 1980) [ Highly regarded as a director, author, and longtime drama critic for The Nation, Clurman was an important contributor to the development of modern American theater. In the excerpt below, he comments on the tone and humor of Endgame.] Samuel Beckett's Endgame is DaVinci a Mystery of final things: as death, the end of an age. Being altogether modern, it is also a comedy. We do not weep in the theater nowadays over futility, protracted dreariness or doom: we laugh. Endgame is a technical term signifying the last stage in playing a hand, the position of the important card having been generally known, and the play being determined accordingly; or the point in human the game. (The entire section is 899 words.) [ Cohn is an American educator and critic whose writings on Beckett include Samuel Beckett: The Comic Gamut (1962) , Back to Beckett (1973), and Samuel Beckett (1987). In the following excerpt from her Just Play: Beckett's Theater, she compares the Leonardo DaVinci various drafts of Endgame.]

A play aborted and a play jettisoned contrast with Beckett's favorite play, Endgame , which was worked, reworked, and An Educators and Social Networks translated from the French. As an approximation, Deirdre Bair is probably right [in her Samuel Beckett , 1978] to surmise that Beckett turned to drama when he reached a creative impasse, but drama too can be an impasse, and Beckett labored two years over Fin de. (The entire section is 4664 words.) [ An American educator and critic, Morrison has written extensively on modern drama. In the following excerpt, she examines Beckett's use of narrative in Leonardo DaVinci Essay Endgame, focusing on Hamm's chronicle and its biblical allusions .] After the lelong malaysia little canters of Leonardo DaVinci, Waiting for authority Godot , Beckett composed a substantial chronicle for Endgame , providing one of the best examples of extended narrative as an Leonardo Essay essential part of drama: the presence of An Educators Essay, story is unmistakable here, both to the audience and to characters within the play. Hamm refers by name to his chronicle and is self-conscious in his narration of it, aware of himself assuming the role of Essay, historian, aware of himself adopting a special. (The entire section is 5639 words.) Scott Cutler Shershow (essay date 1986) [ Shershow is an seven American editor and critic. In the following excerpt, he remarks on comic aspects of Endgame.]

Jean-Jacques Mayoux on DaVinci, reality in Endgame: Endgame (1957), more definitely even than Godot , is 'in a head', and the brain-grey bare room with its two high windows is evidently a gloomy inner aspect of the authority microcosm. 'Reality' is here twice removed: it is not Beckett's but Hamm's vision, sick, subjective, severely coherent as such, yet again slyly bursting those bounds; and doublelevelled since Hamm pointedly is an actor playing Hamm: (The entire section is 883 words.) [ In the excerpt below, Dutton focuses on the relationship between Hamm's and Leonardo Nagg's stories and the overall setting and tools meaning of Endgame.] Endgame , [like Waiting for Godot ] has its echo of The Tempest . But where Lucky remembered divine Miranda, Hamm derisively recalls the world-weary Prospero: 'Our revels now are ended. ( He gropes for the dog .)' The difference is of a piece with the difference between Waiting for Godot and Endgame . The latter is at once a bleaker and DaVinci Essay a more perplexing play. And American Usage! Vladimir and Estragon have their basic health, for all their disappointments and DaVinci Essay discomforts, whereas Hamm is confined to a wheelchair, blood intermittently. (The entire section is 3272 words.) Paul Lawley (essay date December 1988) [ In the essay below, Lawley analyzes the significance of the theme of adoption in Endgame.] The terminal world of Beckett's Endgame , with its corpsed aspect outside the stage-refuge and its barbed play inside, sustains life solely, it seems, by lelong malaysia, reason of its ruler's procrastination. Leonardo DaVinci! Enough, it's time it ended, in human developmental the refuge too, proclaims Hamm at the outset. DaVinci Essay! And yet I hesitate, I hesitate to … to end. His hesitation is a problem not least because of that hatred of nature as process (birth and a good character copulation and death) which runs through the whole play [Ronald Gaskell, Drama and Reality , 1972]. For if Hamm's hesitation necessitatesa prolongation of life in Essay the refuge, the.

(The entire section is 2583 words.) [ In the excerpt below, Levy analyzes Beckett's use of space in Endgame.] In a play you have definite space and people in and american usage this space. That's relaxing [Ruby Cohn, Back to Beckett , 1973]. But the actual locations Beckett chooses for his characters and for the actors who play them, is anything but relaxing. In the first plays there is at Leonardo Essay least something an actor can relate to spatially—a country road and a tree; an empty room with two windows, two ashbins and a wheelchair; a mound in the middle of a trompe l'oeil desert. In later plays the how to write reference actors find urns, a narrow-lit strip to pace on, a hole in the backdrop to stick a head as a mouth through. Essay! In some plays pieces of. (The entire section is and american usage 1412 words.) Andonian, Cathleen Culotta.

Samuel Beckett: A Reference Guide . Boston: G. K. Hall Co., 1989, 754 p. Annotated bibliography of criticism on Beckett through 1984. Bair, Deirdre. Samuel Beckett: A Biography . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978, 736 p. Includes a chapter that chronicles Beckett's life during the writing and early productions of Endgame . Bernstein, Jay. Philosophy's Refuge: Adorno in Leonardo Beckett. In Philosopher's Poets . (The entire section is 591 words.) Samuel Beckett Homework Help Questions. The sense of this short piece is how to write character that Man’s relationship to his earthly existence, represented by the physical objects just out Essay, of the why was germany for wwi protagonist’s reach, leaves him with no choices, just the.

An interesting observation and question. The pairings of characters in all of Beckett’s writing, especially Didi and Gogo, usually brings critics back to Descartes’ duality of mind and. The clearest interpretation of this most famous duality is the two parts of human existence: mind and body. Vladimir (Didi) represents mind -- the actions of thinking, consciousness, reason. I am not sure that the full meaning of Beckett's quote can be understood without understanding his context as a thinker and Essay writer. Initially, it has to be stated that Beckett is a real complex. Vladimir's philosophical statement reveals much about the nature of the human condition.

In the many different elements that define the drama, I think that one of the most significant is Privacy its.

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1984 essay language Written February 27, 2000; Modified May 9, 2000. Leonardo. If you quote or paraphrase from my essay, please give me due credit. Language as the #147;Ultimate Weapon#148; in Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell, like many other literary scholars, is interested in the modern use of the English language and, in quality particular, the abuse and misuse of English. He realises that language has the power in politics to mask the truth and mislead the public, and he wishes to increase public awareness of this power.

He accomplishes this by placing a great focus on Newspeak and the media in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four . Demonstrating the repeated abuse of language by the government and by the media in his novel, Orwell shows how language can be used politically to deceive and manipulate people, leading to a society in which the people unquestioningly obey their government and mindlessly accept all propaganda as reality. Language becomes a mind-control tool, with the ultimate goal being the destruction of will and imagination. As John Wain says in his essay, #147;[Orwell#146;s] vision of 1984 does not include extinction weapons . . . He is not interested in extinction weapons because, fundamentally, they do not frighten him as much as spiritual ones#148; (343). Paul Chilton suggests that the language theme in Orwell#146;s novel has its roots in the story of the DaVinci Essay Tower of Babel (2). When God destroys the Towel of Babel, the lelong malaysia civilizations which have contributed to the construction of the Tower suffer ever-after from the Curse of Confusion.

The Curse both makes languages #147;mutually unintelligible#148;, and alters their nature so that #147;they no longer lucidly [express] the nature of Essay things, but rather [obscure] and [distort] them#148; (Chilton, 2). Seven. Orwell#146;s Newspeak , the ultra-political new language introduced in Nineteen Eighty-Four , does precisely that: it facilitates deception and DaVinci, manipulation, and its purpose is to restrict understanding of the real world. Chilton also suggests that a corollary to this is that #147;each post-Babel language [becomes] a closed system containing its own untranslatable view of the world#148; (2). Certainly, the ultimate aim of Newspeak is to write a good reference enclose people in an orthodox pseudo-reality and isolate them from the real world. Whereas people generally strive to expand their lexicon, the government in Nineteen Eighty-Four actually aims to cut back the Newspeak vocabulary. One of the Newspeak engineers says, #147;[we#146;re] cutting the Leonardo DaVinci language down to the bone . . Quality. . Newspeak is the only language in the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year#148; (55).

By manipulating the Leonardo DaVinci Essay language, the government wishes to alter the public#146;s way of thinking. This can be done, psychologists theorise, because the words that are available for the purpose of why was germany for wwi communicating thought tend to influence the way people think. The linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf was a firm believer in this link between thought and language, and Leonardo, he theorised that #147;different languages impose different conceptions of reality#148; (Myers 352). So when words that describe a particular thought are completely absent from a language, that thought becomes more difficult to think of and communicate. For the Inner Party, the goal is to impose an orthodox reality and make heretical thought (#145;thoughtcrime#146;) impossible. #147;In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible,#148; explains the Newspeak engineer, #147;because there will be no words in which to seven quality tools express it#148; (55). By design, Newspeak narrows the Leonardo Essay range of thought and shortens people#146;s memories. It is lelong malaysia therefore ideal for DaVinci, a totalitarian system, in which the government has to rely on a passive public which lacks independent thought and which has a great tolerance for mistakes, both past and present. #147;To expand language is to expand the ability to developmental think,#148; says Myers (353).

Conversely, to Leonardo DaVinci Essay restrict language, as with Newspeak, is to restrict the range of thought. Chilton identifies the specific features of Newspeak that help restrict thought: #147;reduced complexity, few abstractions, and no self­reference#148; (37). Such narrowed public thought is what the Inner Party prefers, because a public that lacks the ability to think vividly poses less of a threat than one that can readily criticise the government and defend itself from harm. However, an interesting consequence of this narrowed thought is that the public#146;s memory is also effectively shortened. #147;The Inner Party [deprives] people of their own words and in so doing, deprives them of memory#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). After O#146;Brien forces Winston to seven quality tools embrace Ingsoc, for instance, Winston#146;s imagination decays and he #147;[can] no longer fix his mind on any one subject for more than a few moments at a time#148; (301). Leonardo Essay. Winston, like the majority of the public, suffers when he is robbed of his words and thoughts. Consequently, #147;memory, with its attendant richness and authority usage, variety, atrophies#148; since #147;memories die when they go unrehearsed in words#148; (Lewis and Moss 51).

Given that Newspeak is such a politically-motivated language, why does the public in Nineteen Eighty-Four accept it? After all, the Party is undertaking a project of monumental proportions: they are trying to completely replace a common language (English, or #147;Oldspeak#148;), and one would expect great opposition to Leonardo DaVinci Essay such a plan. The Party is able to achieve this by again employing psychological tactics. Instead of forcing the public to use Newspeak by law, the Party ensures that the public is immersed in quality the new language. Nobody is forced to read or write in Newspeak, but #147;its ubiquitous broadcast creates a pressure to employ it simply in order to Leonardo Essay communicate economically#148; (Chilton 37). Orwell#146;s novel paints a nightmarish picture of a totalitarian system gone to the absolute extreme, but it is a novel that is fundamentally about psychological control of the public. Of course, the Party does employ torture as part of and american usage its control regimen, but the psychological control tactics are the DaVinci Essay dominant ones in the novel. While physical punishment is difficult to administer, psychological tactics (manipulation of quality people through language) can be continuously applied to the general public without raising great public opposition or fear #151; and that is where its strength lies.

It is for this reason that #147;Newspeak rather than torture is planned as the way to erase thoughtcrime#148; (Stansky 88). Leonardo DaVinci. However, while Newspeak is a very significant method of mind control through language, it is just a part of a greater Inner Party scheme. It is, in fact, the Party-controlled media in the novel that expertly uses Newspeak as well as other linguistic trickery to spread its propaganda and brainwash the public. The media is powerful as a tool for manipulation both because the public is widely exposed to it, and also because the public trusts it. The telescreens continuously shout bursts of news and propaganda throughout the day, and the people listen intently and cheer at #145;good news#146; (victories) and human developmental, are driven to rage by #145;bad news#146;. The characters in Orwell#146;s novel are slaves of the media; they revere it as an oracle. When the Leonardo Essay telescreens initiate the Two Minutes Hate, for instance, the people are roused to a frenzy: #147;People were leaping up and down in their places and germany blamed for wwi, shouting at the tops of their voices . . . [a girl] had begun crying out #145;Swine! Swine! Swine!#146;#148; (16). Certainly, in Nineteen Eighty-Four , #147;[media information] does control some of the ways in which [people] think about and assess the world#148; (Lewis and Moss 47).

The Party is interested in masking the truth, and so the media manipulates language to Leonardo Essay present a distorted reality. As Orwell says in his essay Politics and the English Language , #147;Political language . . . is designed to blamed for wwi make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of Leonardo DaVinci solidity to pure wind#148; (150). In the novel, these lies are quite obvious. For example, the media (controlled by the Party, of course) continually refers to the Ministries of Truth, Peace, Love, and Plenty. In reality, however, the Ministry of Truth is concerned with the falsification of records, and the Ministry of Peace deals with warfare. The Ministry of Love is #147;the really frightening one#148; (6) as it is Privacy Essay essentially a place for Leonardo, the questioning and torturing of suspected criminals. The Ministry of how to write character Plenty makes up economic figures to convince the public that the economy is in good shape, even though there are great shortages of all commodities due to the war. Although the irony in the titles is blatantly obvious, Orwell is making a point about how the media can use language to DaVinci mask the lelong malaysia truth. The totalitarian state of Oceania is in DaVinci a constant state of war, and character, part of the Party#146;s ongoing struggle is to keep the public satisfied with this warfare. Essay. If the public were dissatisfied, they would resent the shortage of food and other commodities and possibly rebel against the Party. The Party therefore has to distract the public#146;s attention away from the negative side of warfare, and they use the media to do this.

By using only language that carries neutral or positive connotations to talk about anything related to war, the media successfully soothes an otherwise resentful public. Stages. For instance, the DaVinci Essay media never reports on write a good reference the #147;twenty or thirty [rocket bombs] a week falling on London#148; (28), but rather inundates peoples#146; lives with good news about victories. Winston#146;s telescreen announces, #147;Our forces in South India have won a glorious victory. I am authorised to say that the Leonardo Essay action we are now reporting may well bring the war within measurable distance of its end#148; (28). Similar reports follow throughout the entire novel, constantly celebrating the capture of enemies and the conquering of new territories, but never admitting any kind of defeat. In many ways, the media is relying on the principle that a piece of information that is repeated often enough becomes accepted as truth. Winston, a particularly strong-minded individual, is continually amazed to see his friends and colleagues swallow the lies that the media dishes out.

For this form of brainwashing (#145;Duckspeak#146;) to be effective, #147;you just say things frequently and people eventually understand and for wwi, say it themselves#148; (Chilton 27). This brainwashing is done through the Leonardo words of the human developmental stages telescreens, newspapers and magazines. The media is skilled at engineering #145;truth#146; through language, and one of the most disturbing consequence of this developed in the novel is that the Party has ultimate control over history. After all, language is the link to history. Winston#146;s job in the Ministry of Truth is to modify news items and Leonardo Essay, other documents that in stages one way or another make the Leonardo Essay Party look bad. After he replaces an reference original document with the modified one, all the originals are destroyed. Orwell describes the process: This processes of continuous alteration was applied not only to newspapers, but to books, periodicals, pamphlets, posters, leaflets . Leonardo DaVinci. . . Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to tools date. In this way every prediction made by the Party could be shown by documentary evidence to have been correct; nor was any item of news, or any expression of opinion, which conflicted with the needs of the Leonardo DaVinci moment, ever allowed to remain on record. (42) Lewis and Moss believe that #147;the tactic is to how to a good reference obliterate history so that centres of opposition cannot grow#148; (51).

Orwell shows us evidence that this tactic is Leonardo DaVinci Essay working: even the write main character, who knows exactly what is going on with the falsification of Leonardo Essay documents, has trouble recalling who Oceania is really at war with at lelong malaysia, the present. It is either Eurasia or Eastasia, but Winston is not sure because the Party keeps changing history. This nagging doubt eats away at Winston until he no longer knows what reality is; by the end of the novel, he is willing to accept the Party#146;s reality. Orwell#146;s novel asks the philosophical question: if all available evidence shows something to be true, is it not true? Winston struggles with this idea of #147;Reality control#148; (37) as he works at the Ministry of Truth. #147;The frightening thing,#148; Winston thinks to himself, #147;[is] that it might all be true. If the Party [can] thrust its hand into the past and say of this or that event, it never happened #150; that, surely, [is] more terrifying than mere torture and death#148; (36). One of Leonardo DaVinci Winston#146;s assignments is to invent a biography of a fictional soldier named Ogilvy, so that he can be honoured by Big Brother in a public address. After writing the description of Ogilvy#146;s life, Winston marvels at how #147;once the act of forgery [is] forgotten, [Ogilvy will] exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar#148; (50). As well as altering the past by human developmental manipulating written language, the Party has an ingenious plan to DaVinci Essay break the link with the real past by introducing a language barrier.

When #147;all real knowledge of Oldspeak [disappears] . . . the whole literature of the Privacy and Social Essay past will have been destroyed#148; (56). After a few generations, when people are no longer capable of decoding information from the past, there will no longer even be a need to censor the history that has the potential for breeding unorthodox ideas #151; it will be completely out of the public#146;s reach. Thus, the manipulation of Leonardo language and text not only effects the seven quality tools present, but also the past and future in more than one way. A Party slogan in the novel reads, #147;Who controls the past, controls the future: who controls the present controls the Leonardo DaVinci Essay past#148; (37). Orwell#146;s novel is extreme, but it is not necessarily a prediction of the future. Rahv believes that the Privacy and Social book#146;s #147;importance is mainly in its powerful engagement with the present#148; (183).

Indeed, politicians have used written language to manipulate history both in the past and present. There was much distortion of history during the Stalinist era, #147;when such standard works of misinformation as the Soviet Encyclopaedia changed constantly with the party line, so that in successive editions Trotsky was first the DaVinci hero of the Civil War, then an agent of the Mensheviks, and the western powers#148; (Woodcock 177). Patrick Wright suggests that the issue is still very much alive in the late twentieth century, citing as an example #147;[the British Secretary for human developmental stages, Education, who] refused a number of proposed syllabus systems for Leonardo DaVinci Essay, the teaching of history in schools, finding them insufficiently assiduous in their promotion of the mythical, rather than simply historical, values of national unity and human, pride#148; (111). Equally alive today is the fear that politicians and the media abuse language to hide truth. Orwell gives examples of how politicians can twist words to Leonardo deceive people in his essay Politics and the English Language : #147;Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside . . . this is called pacification . Lelong Malaysia. Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is Leonardo DaVinci called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers #148; (148). Woodcock refers to the modern jargon-filled English used by #147;newspaper editors, bureaucrats, radio announcers, and parliamentary speakers#148; who have, just as Orwell feared, a heavy #147;reliance on ready-made phrases#148; (92). Even more disturbing, in the twenty-first century we have now a rapidly growing, major industry based solely upon the manipulation of language and thought: advertising. Orwell#146;s novel carries a well-founded warning about the powers of language. It shows how language can shape people#146;s sense of reality, how it can be used to authority usage conceal truths, and Essay, even how it can be used to manipulate history. #147;Language is one of the key instruments of political dominations, the necessary and insidious means of the write character #145;totalitarian#146; control of reality#148; (Rai, 122).

While language in Leonardo DaVinci Essay the traditional sense can expand horizons and improve our understanding of the world, Orwell#146;s novel demonstrates that language, when used in Privacy and Social Essay a maliciously political way, can just as easily become #147;a plot against human consciousness#148; (Rahv, 182). Chilton, Paul. Orwellian Language and the Media . London: Pluto Press, 1988. Lewis, Florence and Leonardo, Peter Moss. The Tyranny of Language in lelong malaysia Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984 . Aubrey, Crispin and DaVinci, Paul Chilton, eds. London: Comedia Publishing Group, 1983. 45-57. Myers, David G. Psychology . 4 th ed. Holland: Worth Publishers, 1986.

Orwell, George. And American Usage. Nineteen Eighty-Four . London: Penguin Books, 1990. - - - . Politics and the English Language in Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . Ed. Irving Howe. New York: Harcourt, Brace World, Inc., 1963. 143-50. Rahv, Philip.

The Unfuture of Utopia in Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . 181-5. Rai, Alok. Orwell and the politics of despair: A critical study of the writings of George Orwell . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Stansky, Peter, ed. DaVinci. On Nineteen Eighty-Four . New York: W. How To Write A Good Character Reference. H. Leonardo DaVinci. Freeman and Company, 1983. Wain, John. Essays on Literature and quality, Ideas - George Orwell (1) in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol.

6 . Leonardo DaVinci Essay. 343-4. Woodcock, George. Orwell#146;s Message: 1984 and the Present . Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd, 1984. Wright, Patrick.

The Conscription of History in Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984 . 105-14.

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filial piety essay FILIAL PIETY AND CHINESE CULTURE. As indicated by the title, this essay aims toward an exploration of the relation between filial piety and Chinese culture. The term relation may refer to a variety of concepts, including mathematical relation, physical relation, spiritual relation, natural relation, social relation, cultural relation, and Essay, even metaphysical relation. Among all the mentioned examples, metaphysical relation seems the lelong malaysia, most attractive one, but it is primarily a speculative concept. The other concepts are just specified or even oversimplified.

None of Leonardo DaVinci, these concepts can fit into the relation between filial piety and how to write reference, Chinese culture. From the viewpoint of this author, a proper concept for this topic is substantial relation. The adjective substantial refers to important contents, quantitative inclusion, and even forceful functional performance. With these important qualities, substantial relation can perform an important vital function to relate filial piety and Chinese culture in a proper way. Now, a very important question is: What is filial piety?

Immediate answers may come from those who have been familiar with this concept. One answer could be: It is the root or foundation of Chinese culture. Another could be: It is Leonardo DaVinci a unique creation of. Chinese culture. Developmental Stages. These two answers are not mistaken, but they are unclear and not quite to Essay, the point. And American. So, the Leonardo DaVinci, author of this essay will aim toward an human developmental, interpretation of filial piety through the exploration of Chinese culture. DaVinci. First of all, some relevant characteristics of Chinese culture will be exposed. Then, the meaning of filial piety will be interpreted. Finally, the relation between filial piety and Chinese culture will be explored. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE CULTURE. The most valuable and relevant characteristic of quality tools, Chinese culture is Leonardo DaVinci Essay its artistic quality.

This has been a significant quality acknowledged by many international scholars. It was about half a century ago, an American scholar, George Rowley, wrote in the preface of his Principles of write a good character, Chinese Painting characterizing Chinese culture saying: The Chinese way looking at Leonardo Essay, life was not primarily through religion, or philosophy, or science, but through art. 1 This scholar’s statement is correct and to the point, but he has not provided an explanation of the meaning of artistic. In fact, no scholar there-after has done any proper explanation. Now, the author of this essay will attempt an exploration of the meaning of being artistic. The most effective method is comparing the artistic with the scientific. The basic interest of the scientific consists in observing and understanding of a natural matter, particularly the matter’s reality.

But the quality, basic interest of the artistic concentrates in appreciation or creative performance, with the interest of attaining beauty rather than factual truth. As to the approaching method, the scientific one concentrates on analysis or experimentation, using symbols in a direct or logical way, but the artistic one concentrates on intuition or imagination, with the Essay, use of symbols in a suggestive or metaphorical way. In addition, the subject-matter of the scientific has to be factual and seven tools, rational, but the subject-matter of the artistic does not need to be factual or rational at all. As to the performance process, the scientific has to be logical and following a definition as well as an experimental order, but the performance of art can ignore this kind of Leonardo DaVinci Essay, logical matter. Instead, the artist’s performance consists in creation or imitation of a model as well as a natural object. As to how to write character, their functional performance, the scientific performs the function to establish knowledge and technology, and the artistic, instead, just nourishes human feeling and establishes some styles of personal action. In the main, modern Western culture is scientific, but Chinese culture is still artistic, even in Leonardo DaVinci common life. Blamed. A very unusual characteristic of Chinese culture is the dominant function of the artistic, which has controlled other aspects of the culture. What is relevant to this essay is the influence of the artistic upon the moral aspect of DaVinci, life. In a certain sense, Chinese morality has been shaped and established by the function of the artistic. At the usage, same time, this artistic function has provided an opportunity for the birth and Leonardo Essay, growth of filial piety.

The morality of usage, Chinese culture has the Leonardo DaVinci Essay, following four qualities: (1) Artistic quality. (2) Humanistic quality. (3) Self-control quality. (4) Harmonization quality. The first quality has been explained in this essay to usage, some extent. The second one is related to Leonardo DaVinci Essay, the first, but is also related to the major theme of this essay. Write Character Reference. Chinese humanism in morality, exhibits itself as a major contrast to Essay, the morality of the traditional Western world. In traditional West, the ultimate moral authority is a good reference God or Spirit. All the moral rules are based on this Spirit. But in DaVinci Essay Chinese culture, the ultimate moral authority is human developmental still the human world. In a certain sense, Chinese morality has transcended the world of spirits or the world of religion. This means, in Leonardo Essay Chinese culture, the An Educators Privacy Networks, practice of moral life is not following the spiritual authority or God, but to follow humanistic reflection and sensitivity. Filial Piety is a humanistic expression of an individual’s natural feeling toward his parents, without any relation to God or a spiritual authority.

As to the third quality, self-control is the control of oneself without following God or Spirit. This quality is not possessed in the same way by individuals of the Leonardo DaVinci, traditional Western world since they need to obey God or Spiritual Authority. As to harmonization, it is also a Chinese artistic moral action. This moral action represents an interest of acceptance of varieties of ideas and ways of performance. It is in fact a very important condition for the growth of social life. To sum up, characteristics of Chinese culture are too many to mention.

What we can do in this essay is just selecting what is stages relevant to filial piety. The relevant aspects include what is artistic, what is naturally humanistic, and what is special interest for promoting humanistic morality. Filial Piety is just a natural product of these cultural qualities, and DaVinci, itself, is also a cultural quality of Chinese culture. WHAT IS FILIAL PIETY. Now, it should be the time for us to ask a major question:

What is Filial Piety? This question appears so general that it could be interpreted in many different ways. Because of many different meanings of the question, there could be many different answers. Now, we have to set a limit on and Social this question. This limit consists in the relevance of filial piety to Chinese culture. So, we can ask specific questions instead of DaVinci Essay, a general one. Lelong Malaysia. A specific question which is relevant could be: What is the position of Leonardo Essay, filial piety in Chinese culture? This question could be considered relevant to the major theme of this essay. An immediate answer could be: Filial piety is authority a kind of Leonardo DaVinci Essay, natural feeling. But this answer is not yet to the point, since there are many types of blamed for wwi, natural feeling in human life. So, we have to ask another question specifically: What is the unique quality of Leonardo DaVinci, filial piety in Chinese culture?

A proper answer could be: Filial piety in Chinese culture is an lelong malaysia, individual’s natural feeling toward his parents. It is composed of natural sensitivity, caring love, sincere concern, and even natural respect. Leonardo. In fact, all these are natural consciousness toward an immediately related person--a parent. These feelings, in tools Chinese culture, are not products of a Spirit. Leonardo DaVinci. So, we can also say, that these feelings are humanistic, because they are the product of Essay, purely human beings. Now, let us move from the natural to the cultural. Culturally filial piety is the leading principle or fundamental basis of Chinese morality. Before dealing with filial piety, let us ask a simple question: What is morality?

The question itself appears very simple, but the answers can be complicated. In the current Western world, some maintain that the Leonardo DaVinci Essay, source of morality is reason. Some maintain that it is sympathy, and some insist on the ultimate value of universal love. There are still many other answers. But in Chinese culture, morality consists in value judgments based on human relations. Authority Usage. Filial piety just refers to the most immediate and necessary human relation. An individual, as usual, could have many types of human relations.

Examples may include relations with friends, cousins, brothers, sisters, uncles and aunts. But none of these relations are more immediate or necessary than the relation of a child to his parents. So, filial piety is the most fundamental relational basis from which other types of moral feelings are developed. Confucius clearly confirmed this point saying: Filial piety is the foundation of morality. This confirmation is meaningful if the action of filial piety is well-understood in its relation with human life. The relation between filial piety and human life is also a substantial topic. Now, for the sake of relevance and for DaVinci, the sake of simplifying selection, we are going to explore how filial piety performs its action in life. The most relevant aspect is its position in family life. Family has been an extremely important substance of Chinese society.

Family is authority and american naturally prior to society or country. Integration of family is a necessary starting point for DaVinci, attaining a well-controlled country or a peaceful world. As to the relations within a family, the Chinese people emphasize the relation between parents and children, particularly emphasizing children’s love and respect for their parents. So, Chinese family life is, in reality, the life of filial piety. Authority. Even up to now, Chinese families are still controlled by the reflective power of the concept of filial piety. In addition to its control of family life, filial piety has also powerfully controlled the social life and many other aspects of Chinese culture. So, filial piety is not only a foundation of morality, but also a fundamental basis of Chinese culture. FILIAL PIETY AND CHINESE CULTURE.

This section is, in fact, a continuation of last section. The main theme of last section is the position of filial piety in Chinese culture. DaVinci Essay. A simple question comes up to ask: What is the position? The answer given in last section is that Filial Piety is the lelong malaysia, leading principle or fundamental basis of DaVinci, Chinese morality. How To Write A Good Character Reference. This answer has already touched upon a very important relation between filial piety and Chinese culture. This section will just continue to Essay, provide further observation and An Educators Privacy, exploration. First of Leonardo, all, a very important relation between the two is their mutual creation. Human. Instead of being created by God or a Super-Spirit, filial piety has been a product created by Chinese culture. In traditional West, moral principles, in general, are created by God or Spiritual Authority.

But in China, all the principles are products of human culture, or cultural creation. The human creative process started with the beginning of Chinese culture, together with the birth and growth of human feeling toward one’s parents. The feeling is, in reality, the feeling of filial piety. At the same time, this type of feeling performs educational function to create family life, social life, and cultural life. This creative operation appears a response to the initial creative process. In a certain sense, filial piety and Leonardo DaVinci Essay, Chinese culture are just co-subjects or co-objects, being a creator or a creature of each other. In this mutual-creative process, both filial piety and Chinese culture are interacting together, and even integrated together. Now, we move to why was germany, a second important topic. Leonardo DaVinci Essay. This topic is very unique in the world.

In traditional West, religion is valuable and necessary. But in Chinese culture, there exists no formal religion at blamed for wwi, all. According to Leonardo DaVinci Essay, the common sense of Chinese people, China has three major religions. These religions are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. Blamed. Nevertheless, Confucius is DaVinci Essay natural and humanistic. He is not a God, but only a human being.

Then, how can Confucianism be called a religion? As to Taoism, it is not a formal religion at all. As to Buddhism, the Buddha is not a God, but a human being having been enlightened. Developmental. So, Buddhism is totally different from other religions of the DaVinci, world. According to Buddhism, any person can become a Buddha through the process of enlightenment.

Now, a question is: Is Chinese culture without a religion? The answer to this question is both yes and germany blamed for wwi, no. . The affirmative answer just confirms what has been considered a fact. The negative answer just recognizes a different one. In our essay, this different one is the recognition of filial piety as a substitute for religion in Chinese culture. Now, we are facing a new question: Why can filial piety take the place of a religion? Or, why can filial piety become a religion? To get a proper answer, we have to explore the nature and essential qualities of a religion, together with cultural environment. From the viewpoint of the author, the essence of a religion should possess: (1) an exploration of Leonardo DaVinci Essay, transcendent reality, (2) a spiritual expection for ever-lasting life, and (3) an accomplishment of and american, a proper relation with immediate persons or spirits. The reason that filial piety can take the Leonardo, place of religion or can become established as a religion is simply that it has been naturally grown up with these three conditions. The first condition is one of intuition and well-trained speculation.

The second one and the third one are psychological in humanistic and natural ways. Nonetheless, the third condition is, an quality tools, exploration of the opportunity to attain a relation with immediate persons. This is a unique psychological operation. For Chinese culture, persons and spirits both belong to the human world. So, the expectation of this condition can be accomplished. Leonardo DaVinci Essay. As to the second condition, expectation for everlasting life, it will be explained in the following paragraph. In the world of Chinese ethics, the essential meaning of quality, filial piety is not only loving and respecting one’s living parents. It also implies the Leonardo DaVinci, meaning of respecting and loving those parents and ancestors who have already died. Filial piety also performs a function to liberate human beings from the fear of how to a good character, death. In fact, in Leonardo DaVinci the whole world, death is a serious cause for the growing of religion. If human beings could continue to live without death, there would not have been any religion at all.

Since death is an inevitable fact, without a religion or something equivalent, human beings could not live peacefully or comfortably. As indicated, filial piety performs an An Educators and Social, important function to liberate human beings from the fear of death. Nevertheless, the performance of the function is neither definite nor absolute. In Chinese culture, the initial way for conquering death is giving birth to a male-child, and hoping the male-child to continue to Leonardo DaVinci, produce male descendants. According to seven quality, Chinese traditional valuation, only the life of the male can attain continuity of family life. This is an important idea of a male-centered society. So, in Chinese society, family life usually aims toward bearing a son as a major concern. With a son and further male descendant, an individual is expecting his everlasting life even though he also anticipates that he himself will die. This type of family life in continuation is the Essay, life of filial piety.

With the consciousness of filial piety, the how to reference, family will work toward a production of Sons and grandsons, with the Leonardo, hope of everlasting life. Lelong Malaysia. Now, we can confirm that, filial piety is performing religious function in Chinese culture, but the performance is just artistic, natural, and humanistic. In reality, the major purpose of this essay consists in an exposition of a unique quality of Chinese culture. This unique quality is filial piety which is not possessed or even shared by any other culture in Leonardo Essay the same way. Lelong Malaysia. At the same time, this unique quality is natural, humanistic, and artistic. Its birth place, growing field, and maturity home are just the same place, the human world. It is, certainly, the product of Chinese culture. But it also performs the creation of cultural qualities. Essay. So, we can conclude, that the substantial relation between filial piety and Chinese culture is mutual-creation and intercreation. The author of this essay has been a performer of filial piety.

He is also a sincere member and scholar of Chinese culture. When he completed his B.A., he was offered a teaching position in a high school. What has interested him the most was the teaching of tools, Chinese classics, with a required text of Hsiao Ching . In fact, this classical text has been established as a sageous text 7 from the beginning of the Chinese culture.#9;This indicates a great importance of filial piety, the basis of Leonardo DaVinci Essay, Chinese morality. Unfortunately, in lelong malaysia the contemporary world, filial piety and Chinese culture are no longer intimately related. It is probably the result of the DaVinci, influence of modernization. In the process of blamed for wwi, modernization, only physical science and commercial performance have been effectively covered. Filial piety has been silently ignored, and, natural human feeling has been neglected. If we want to Leonardo Essay, maintain the value of our traditional morality, filial piety should receive a proper recovery through education. With an effective proper education, filial piety and Chinese culture can continue to perform their mutually creative life for the future world.#9;(The End) 1. George Rowley, Principles of Chinese Painting (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947), p. 3. 2. In comparative approach, this essay just compare Chinese culture with traditional Western culture rather than the Western current culture.

In the contemporary world, Western culture is much more natural and humanistic than what it was several centuries ago. 3. This quotation is selected from Confucius’ communication with Tseng Tzu. It has been recorded in the first chapter of Hsiao Ching . 4. The English term Taoism covers, in reality, two types of human developmental, Taoism in Chinese culture. The Chinese language terms are Tao Chia and Tao Chiao. The Term chia originally means a family, but it has been extended to mean a school of thinking. The term chiao originally as well as currently means teaching and religion. So, Tao Chia refers to the philosophy of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu.

Tao Chiao refers to a social group of semi-religious people who were casually organized without serious religious life-style. In a certain sense, neither Tao Chia nor Tao Chiao can be considered a religion. 5. This author has published articles on Chinese culture. In recent years, he has been working on his forthcoming book (in Chinese) Reflection upon Chinese Culture which will be published soon. 6. This teaching position was offered to Leonardo, this author in 1959 by Tak Ming High School in Hong Kong. Tak Ming’s Chinese original is the personal name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. This high school was very well-known for human developmental stages, its cultural performance in Leonardo Essay teaching. 7. Hsiao Ching is one of the thirteen classics in how to character Chinese culture. The term Hsiao means filial piety, and the term Ching means a classic. When a book is called ching, it is a book of Leonardo, noble position.

In the Chinese tradition, the thirteen classics are considered very noble in the culture.