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okapi essay By KEAY DAVIDSON. John Wiley Sons, Inc. All his life, Carl Sagan was troubled by grand dichotomies#151;between reason and irrationalism, between wonder and skepticism. The dichotomies clashed within him.

He yearned to believe in marvelous things#151;in flying saucers, in Martians, in glistening civilizations across the Milky Way. Yet reason usually brought him back to Earth. Usually; not always. School Drop. A visionary dreams of the punic wars a better world than this one. He refuses to think that modern society and its trappings#151;money, marriage, children, a nine-to-five career, and obeisance to a waving flag and an inscrutable God#151;are all there is. High Drop Outs. Sagan was blinded, but not by history of communism in russia, these. He was blinded by the sheer glory of the new cosmos that was unveiled by science during the first two decades of his life. This cosmos was an ever-expanding, unbounded wonderland of billions of galaxies. And across the light-years, Sagan dreamed, random molecular jigglings had perhaps spawned creeping, crawling, thinking creatures on alien landscapes bathed in the glow of alien suns. This vision blinded Sagan, sometimes, to the needs of the School Essays people around him.

These included friends who worshiped him, although he hurt them; wives who were entranced by his passions, although they were enraged by his absenteeism and often illogical logic; sons who were enthralled by his example, even as they struggled to escape his shadow; and of communism in russia, colleagues who envied and honored him, even while they scorned his wilder notions and mocked his pomposities. Hardly anyone who knew Carl Sagan intimately has an unmixed opinion of him. Outs. In the distillation final analysis, he was the dichotomy: the prophet and the hard-boiled skeptic, the boyish fantasist and the ultrarigorous analyst, the warm companion and the brusque colleague, the oracle whose smooth exterior concealed inner fissures, which, in the end, only one woman could heal. Sagan's inner war stemmed, in part, from his childhood relations with his parents. Rachel and Sam's marriage epitomized a great philosophical principle: Opposites attract. Sagan later traced his analytical urges to Rachel, a cunning, acid-tongued neurotic who had known extreme poverty and been abandoned by her family. Drop. Her intellectual ambitions had been thwarted by the grand irrationalisms of her time#151;by societal bigotries against the poor, against steam, Jews, against women (and wives in particular).

She worshiped her only son, Carl. He would fulfill her unfulfilled dreams. And Carl's sense of wonder came from Sam, a quiet, soft-hearted escapee from the czar. Sam gave apples to the poor and soothed labor-management tensions in New York's tumultuous garment industry. High. He was awed by the punic wars, the young Carl's brilliance, his boyish chatter about stars and dinosaurs#151;but not overawed. Sam would have adored his son had he been just another Jewish kid in wartime Brooklyn who played kickball in the streets while Nazi subs haunted the High School Drop coastline. Posterity's judgment of Rachel Molly Gruber Sagan (1907-1982) is wildly contradictory. Vivacious, a witch, brilliant, very perky, very bright, insane#151;very paranoid, you knew she was coming from a mile away, completely loving, a waif . who needed all the affection she could get#151;so say those who enjoyed or endured her. Her education was meager, her looks unlovely.

Neglected by her family, she grew up almost homeless in New York City during World War I and the 1920s. Yet she had flash and charisma, a feisty sense of the punic wars fashion, and a rapid, eloquent tongue. High School Drop Essays. She made (and dumped) friends fast, and boyfriends faster. She wrote well, too. Of Communism In Russia. Her first child, Carl, would inherit her literary skill. Her prose style might be described as Take no prisoners. Shortly before her death, unmellowed by age, she gleefully wrote to two married friends about Carl and School, his third wife Ann Druyan's new Ithaca mansion, describing it as. a weirdo of a house, most of dr strangelove bomb it underground (great protection from Outs Essays a nuclear blast) . the result of stages of production a lurid nightmare of the architect. High School. Because I was aghast and against it, they don't speak to me. [Carl] must and will have installed a sophisticated burglar alarm#151;there are threats against him by some crazy people who claim he appears in their dreams and keeps them from sleeping. One such was apprehended.

Rachel's bilious prose camouflaged her pride. How far she had come from her rotten beginnings! Through the stages Depression and Hitler and Alger Hiss, she had raised to adulthood a boy who, by the century's twilight, had become the High Drop Outs Essays world's best-known living scientist, a multimillionaire TV star and Pulitzer Prize-winning author, and recently wed to a brainy, luminous brunette (a lady so desirable that a prior suitor had written a novel about her). Why Should Smoking. He was so famous, in fact, that he haunted the minds of the High School mad . My son, the the punic wars specter! Bragged Rachel, the onetime waif, at High Outs Essays, the end of in russia her letter: We are not the School Drop Outs run of the mill, are we, or the rank and file or the ordinary plebeian. Aren't you glad you know us? Rachel's origins were vague; she preferred it that way. She and her family tended to be secretive about embarrassing family matters, Carl Sagan wrote in a November 28, 1994, letter to lifelong friend Lucille Nahemow, a professor of psychology at the University of Connecticut at Storrs, who specializes in family issues and who studied Rachel's life. Carl's sole sibling was his sister, Carol, nicknamed Cari.

A social worker, she is married to a Union Carbide executive. In the living room of Routine Drug Testing their handsome home in Houston, she showed this writer a faded black-and-white photo of a middle-aged couple standing on a boardwalk at the beach. The man in the photo is Leib Gruber, Rachel's father. Tall and unsmiling, he wears a dark suit and a big black hat. He looks like a movie mobster.

The rumor, Cari said as she served coffee and School Outs, Passover muffins, is that he was a murderer. Leib Gruber was born in the late nineteenth century in history of communism the village of Sassow, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire#151;an empire creaking in all its multi-national joints, as Arthur Koestler put it, waiting to fall to pieces. Across the continent, the High Drop Outs Essays vipers of anti-Semitism stirred: the Dreyfus case in France, village slaughters in rural Russia. Conspiracy theorists touted the fraudulent Protocols of Zion as proof of the punic wars a global Jewish conspiracy. In reality, few Jews outside an intellectual and artistic elite#151;Freud, for example#151;found influential careers within Emperor Francis Joseph's doomed empire. Leib's father sold fish. Young Leib was big-boned and strong, and raised cash in a medieval manner#151;carrying travelers on his back across the shallow stretches of a river. In the words of High School Outs Essays his grandson Carl Sagan, he was a beast of burden. According to one version of a family legend, in 1904 Leib killed an anti-Semite. He fled to the New World, leaving behind his young wife, Chaiya. (His loyal brother supposedly stayed in Austria to take the dr strangelove bomb rap for High Outs Essays the crime.) Leib got a job in of production the United States. He made enough money to transport Chaiya to New York on a Hamburg-based ship, the High School Outs Essays Batavia . She arrived with one dollar in her bag.

The couple anglicized their names, from Leib to history of communism in russia, Louis and from Chaiya to Clara. School Drop. Then they settled down and bred two children. The first was Rachel, whose official birthdate was November 23, 1907. (The true birthdate is uncertain because Rachel was secretive about her age.) Chaiya died during a second childbirth. For whatever reason, Leib/Louis decided that he couldn't manage little Rachel. He sent her to Austria, where she lived with relatives. In the meantime, he remarried. Unfortunately, the Austrian relatives didn't want#151;or couldn't stand#151;the energetic little girl. Routine Drug For High School. After a few years, they shipped Rachel back to New York, to her father and her stepmother, Rose (the woman in the photo). Rose received her stepchild with less than open arms. School. By the time she was eight, Professor Nahemow observes, Rachel was rejected on two continents. Rachel's family was dysfunctional before dysfunctional was a cliche.

Leib gave his children nasty nicknames. He called Rachel hair lice (she had returned from Austria with lice in the punic wars her hair). Rachel's stepbrother Abraham was institutionalized for mysterious reasons; his very existence was a family secret. (Carl Sagan first heard about his stepuncle at Essays, Rachel's funeral in 1982.) Leib had a good side. On one occasion, Rachel's schoolteacher reprimanded her for misbehavior. The Punic Wars. Leib protected Rachel from Rose's wrath by lying to his wife, claiming that the reprimand was actually a compliment. Outs. Still, Rachel avoided home as much as possible. She hated Rose. Rachel never accepted Rose as her mother. She knew she wasn't her birth mother, Cari Sagan says. She was a rather rebellious child and young adult . `emancipated woman,' we'd call her now.

Professor Nahemow obtained many details about Rachel's childhood from Nahemow's mother, Flora Bernstein, one of Rachel's closest childhood friends. Why Should Smoking Be Banned. Once Rose stormed into School Drop Flora's childhood home, accusing Rachel of being a whore. Flora's mother unceremoniously threw her out. Flora, a resident of Liberty Avenue in Brooklyn, met seven-year-old Rachel when she was skipping rope with friends. Rachel invited the Drug For High School Athletes shy, pretty new girl to play. Rachel, Flora learned, was inventive and fun to be with.

In turn, Flora offered Rachel access to Drop, her home. The Bernstein residence was much nicer than the Grubers' grubby digs. The Bernsteins threw many parties with interesting people (none of whom were wanted for murder in Austria). Ambitious, Rachel seized her opportunity: she became outgoing and very affectionate toward Flora's mother. In turn, Mrs. Bernstein adored Rachel#151;enough to make Flora jealous.

Rachel, Flora now believes, was a waif, an unfortunate child who needed all the affection she could get. Rachel had a reputation for taking chances. Bomb. She would come to [Mrs. Bernstein's] Hebrew school and pick up boys, Flora recalls. School Essays. She was always . very conscious of the opposite sex.

She dressed well and had a good sense of fashion. Drug Testing For High Essay. Rachel was the High School Essays first one in the crowd who bought a bathing suit. There was a law about the length of suits and Rachel's was too short. Of Production. She was thrown off the boardwalk in Coney Island. Rachel was smart. She completed an equivalency test to receive a high school diploma. Brilliant, a very perky little woman, smart, well read, very interesting to talk to, recalls one of her relatives, Beatrice Rubenstein. Rachel explored New York's high culture with the guidance of School Drop Outs a savvy relative, Sarah Cohen. They lacked money but managed to get into the punic wars concerts, plays, and School Essays, ballets via hook, crook, and subway. Sarah learned to get through turnstiles without paying, and took Rachel along. History Of Communism. Sometimes they entered [the show] at intermission and stood in School Outs the back.

As the war-mad 1910s became the money-mad 1920s, Rachel and stages, her female pals formed a club. They called themselves the `It' Girls after screen heartthrob Clara Bow. School Outs Essays. By that time Rachel was a brassy, bold, five-foot-two cyclone. She was hardly a beauty. But no one, male or female, could resist her allure as she blew into a room and the punic wars, leveled it with her street-smart mouth and radiant eyes. Rachel was unpredictable, recalls Flora Bernstein.

She sometimes stole other girls' boyfriends just to show that she could do it. But at High School Drop, other times she was very protective of Routine Essay her friends. I once went in High School Drop Essays a car with a boy. Rachel wrote down the license number and why should smoking be banned, said, `You take good care of my friend. If anything happens to School, her, I have your number.' At a party, `It' Girl Mary Brodsky introduced Rachel to a quiet young man. The Punic Wars. He was skinny, red-haired, and High School Drop Outs, covered with freckles. Smoking. When they went swimming, she gasped at the extent of his red-splotched flesh. Are you freckled everywhere ? she demanded.

Everywhere! he boasted. Samuel Sagan made Rachel's hormones race, and she his. She saw dad's red hair and immediately fell in High School Drop Outs love, Cari Sagan says. And he was swept off his feet by her, which is why should be banned, understandable because she was very, very charismatic and School Drop Outs, vivacious. They were married within weeks. In Carl Sagan's lakeside home in upstate New York, his widow, Ann Druyan, keeps a black-and-white photo of the history in russia young Sam and Rachel.

They are kissing enthusiastically, Hollywood-style, on High Outs Essays, a boardwalk. They wed in the early 1930s, the smoking bleakest days of the Great Depression. High Drop Outs. At that time, Sam was a poorly paid usher at a movie theater. Be Banned. In Germany, Nazis were marching. High Drop Outs. American Jews feared an of production, upsurge of local fascism. The apprehensiveness of Drop American Jews, Fortune magazine observed, has become one of the important influences in the social life of our time. No matter; Rachel and Sam were in love. They married, had two kids, survived it all. They lived long enough to retire to Florida, to play Scrabble and shoot pool, to watch their son grow famous on the punic wars, television.

Sagan's secretary Shirley Arden recalls how playful the couple remained to High School Drop Essays, the end: Sam took the in russia golfer's stance a la Johnny Carson, gave Rachel a lecherous look, and said, `Just you and me, babe.' Rachel was a sensuous woman. Sam adored her and put up with her foibles. Rachel, Cari Sagan Greene recalls, would fuss over Sam's hair and make sure that the little dip in my father's hair was just so. She wanted the man that she married to look the way she thought `good' looked. He was sort of indulgent; he knew it was inevitable; it didn't bother him a bit. In 1979, at age seventy-four, Sam lay in School Outs Essays a hospital dying of lung cancer. Rachel slipped into the bed with him, to smoking be banned, hug and comfort him.

When Sam Sagan was five years old, he left the Ukraine and joined the hungry, hopeful millions then streaming to America. As an adult, he would recall little about High Outs his Ukrainian hometown, save one detail: it was near a prison. An appropriate memory. Dr Strangelove. The entire Pale of High School Drop Outs Essays Settlement, a vast expanse of farmland between the Baltic and the Black Seas, was effectively a prison where the Jews of the Russian Empire were forced to live, subjected to history, many governmental restrictions. Incorporating fragments of dismembered medieval states, the Pale seethed with ever-growing numbers of Drop Essays impoverished peoples, including former serfs. The Punic Wars. Their lives were humdrum at best, nightmarish at worst#151;more like Bernard Malamud's The Fixer than Fiddler on School Drop Outs Essays, the Roof . Sam was born on March 2, 1905. It was a triumphant year in the history of science, and an ominous one in Russian history. Outside Russia, the year 1905 was the turning point in several areas of science, heralding radical changes, says historian of steam distillation science Stephen G. Brush. That year brought pivotal accomplishments by many researchers, Sigmund Freud and School Outs Essays, Albert Einstein among them. Freud and Einstein#151;two Jews, who overcame anti-Semitism and rose to fame by the punic wars, challenging our view of School Drop reality.

In 1905, Freud published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality , one of his classic explorations of the unconscious. As he explained, the mind is the punic wars, not merely a reasoning machine, as Victorian optimists had believed. Rather, the mind is haunted by ghosts, by High Drop Outs Essays, irrational forces of desire and repression. Freud believed that these ghosts surface in symbolic forms. One form is the self-destructive group behavior called war.

Also in 1905, Einstein published three historic papers. The most radical was his theory of special relativity, which transformed concepts of time, space, mass, and energy. Special relativity paved the way toward his later, even stranger work on general relativity. In general relativity theory, gravity is not a Newtonian force or action-at-distance; rather, it is the consequence of the curvature of space. General relativity implied a whole new cosmology, a cosmos that (as it turned out) expands over steam distillation time. As astrophysicists later showed, the cosmos expands because it was born billions of years ago from the High Outs Essays big bang, a kind of explosion whose ejecta cooled into innumerable galaxies.

And each galaxy is an ocean of stars, whose light may illumine countless planets, many of distillation them perhaps inhabited. The Freudian and Einsteinian revolutions posed big questions, questions that tormented Carl Sagan much of his adult life. High School Outs Essays. Reason and irrationalism#151;polar opposites, yet uncomfortably united. Earth and the cosmos#151;different realms, yet part of each other. Sagan explored such dichotomies in many of his books, in cosmological ruminations such as Cosmos and distillation, Contact , and in his essay-poems on consciousness and evolution, The Dragons of High School Outs Eden and Shadows of stages of production Forgotten Ancestors . Drop. Humanity, he believed, must reconcile its rational and irrational sides. Succeed, and empyrean vistas open before us; the cosmos is ours to Routine Drug Testing For High Athletes Essay, explore, with all its strange and wonderful sights and (perhaps) peoples. High. Fail, and we won't make it out of the solar system alive. All our bright promise will be lost; all our long progress will end in Routine Drug Testing For High School a bright, noisy flash.

Freud's outlook grew dark as Europe tore itself to bits in High School one war, then rearmed for a worse one; and darker as the cancer attacked his mouth. By contrast, Sagan was an optimist#151;always was, even as the blood disease ravaged his body, even as he waited to be arrested at an atomic site, even as he gazed into the poker faces of nuclear weaponeers and stages, realized that they really believe in their research, believe that instruments of annihilation will forever keep the peace. Sagan experienced all this yet still believed in the future, in School humanity, in the eventual triumph of reason. Smoking. At heart, he was a child. He descended from School Essays a hopeful people. Pessimists stayed in the Ukraine, scratching their meager existences from the dark soil. Optimists said to hell with it and headed west, usually to America. Smoking Be Banned. The 1900s were a good time to leave: the High School Russian Empire quaked with revolts and pogroms, foreshocks of the the punic wars greater revolution to come, in 1917. The czarist regime struck back with typically cloddish brutality. Six weeks before Sam Sagan's birth in 1905, troops killed more than a hundred peaceful protesters in St. Petersburg.

In June, sailors mutinied aboard the High School Drop Essays battleship Potemkin in Odessa. The revolts triggered an anti-Semitic backlash. Stages. Thousands of Jews, including many women, were arrested on political grounds. According to Moses Rischin, In 1904, of an estimated 30,000 organized Jewish workers, 4,476 were imprisoned or exiled to Siberia. Young Leon Trotsky observed one of the 1905 pogroms.

He noted how the gang rushes through the town, drunk on vodka and the smell of blood. According to family legend, after Sam's mother died in childbirth, his Ukrainian relatives sent him to New York to join his father, who had already journeyed there. School Drop Essays. Five-year-old Sam and his uncle, George, first glimpsed the New York skyline in 1910, from a ship approaching Ellis Island. History Of Communism. Many immigrants' hearts raced as they read this passage in a guidebook: Hold fast, this is School Drop, most necessary in America. Forget your past, your customs, and your ideals. Select a goal and pursue it with all your might. You will experience a bad time but sooner or later you will achieve your goal. The Punic Wars. Do not take a moment's rest.

Do not take a moment's rest. This might have been George Sagan's credo, or his grandnephew Carl's. George was old enough to join the booming New York garment industry. In 1916 he founded his own firm, the New York Girl Coat Company. Eventually he became a wealthy man, a country-club type and a member of the School Drop Outs Essays board of stages educational and Drop Outs Essays, public-spirited institutions. When the firm celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in 1966, the New York Times ran a story on the front page of its business section. The story included a photo of a grinning George Sagan admiring a little girl modeling his wares. As a joke, Carl Sagan mentioned the firm in his 1985 novel Contact . Sam had more intellectual ambitions.

Like many immigrant Jews, he believed in the transformative power of of production education. He eventually enrolled at Columbia University, hoping to become a pharmacist. Then his father died. End of dream. To support his family, Sam went to work for Uncle George as a garment cutter. [H]is job, Carl Sagan later wrote, was to use a very scary power saw to cut out patterns#151;backs, say, or sleeves for ladies' coats and suits#151;from an enormous stack of High School Outs cloth. Then the patterns were conveyed to the punic wars, endless rows of High School Drop women sitting at sewing machines. Textile fibers wafted through the air; some, perhaps, found their way into distillation Sam's lungs and School Drop Outs, hastened his ultimate end. This proletarian fate did not embitter Sam. The Punic Wars. He was good with people, liked them; they adored him.

By the late 1940s he was a factory manager. He made enough money to send his son to a great university, to be taught by High Drop Outs Essays, noted scholars who would escort him to fame. You will experience a bad time but sooner or later you will achieve your goal. The guidebook had been right. The Punic Wars. This was America; optimism, it seemed, made sense. Carl Sagan was born in Brooklyn on November 9, 1934. His mother, Rachel, named him in honor of her biological mother, Chaiya/ Clara, the mother she never knew, in Sagan's words. As a science popularizer, Sagan sometimes drew on High Essays, childhood memories to illustrate scientific points. Scene. Most of School Drop us have a memory like this: you're lying in your crib, having awakened from your nap, he and his wife, Ann Druyan, wrote in Shadows of the punic wars Forgotten Ancestors . You cry for your mother, at first tentatively, but when no one comes, more emphatically.

Panic mounts. Where is High School Outs Essays, she? Why doesn't she come? you think, or something along those lines#151;although not in words, because your verbal consciousness is still almost wholly undeveloped. She enters the room smiling, she reaches in the punic wars and picks you up, you hear her musical voice, you smell her perfume#151;and how your heart soars! Rachel was madly in love with her little boy. Drop Outs Essays. She told him he was brilliant. He believed her. Of Production. Throughout Sagan's life, Rachel's devotion to High Essays, her son awed or amused or disgusted outsiders.

She worshiped the ground he floated above, joked Peter Pesch, the best man at Sagan's first wedding. Dr Strangelove. He could do no wrong. That's got to be a good start in life#151;a mother that thinks you are the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth. Outs Essays. Sagan's boyhood friend Robert Gritz recalls Rachel bragging to everyone about scene Carl#151;for example, gloating, Oh, Carl got an A! The writer Timothy Ferris, who befriended Sagan in the 1970s, remembers the aged Rachel as an ur -mother who'd made a kind of shrine to Carl in the spare bedroom with all his awards and everything, and to whom every accomplishment was just a step toward the next accomplishment. There's no way of understanding him without understanding her very well, says Sagan's first wife, scientist-author Lynn Margulis. His mother had made him so dependent on this one relationship#151;on her . High. He was worthy of every attention, all the time, every need [was] always filled. Despite this adoration, there were hidden fears in Sagan's life. He later wrote that starting at For High Athletes, age two, he was frightened . by real-seeming but wholly imaginary `monsters,' especially at night or in the dark. I can still remember occasions when I was absolutely terrified, hiding under the bedclothes until I could stand it no longer, and then bolting for High School Drop Outs the safety of my parents' bedroom#151;if only I could get there before falling into the clutches of . The Presence. Sometimes he awoke drenched in sweat, my heart pounding. Steam Distillation. (A child is terrified of the dark, then grows up and becomes an astronomer.

Psychoanalysts may make of Drop Outs Essays this what they will.) Rachel's devotion to Carl was double-edged. She had experienced life's darker side. She had little patience with those#151;even children#151;who fantasized about of production life. The slightest whimsical observation might irk or anger her.

In his final years, Sagan recalled a blustery fall day when he was about age five, looking out the living room window at School Drop, Lower New York Bay. The water was choppy and the sun was about to set. Why Should Be Banned. His mother came by the window and they gazed toward the Atlantic Ocean. On the other side of the School Drop Essays sea, World War II was beginning. There are people fighting out there, killing each other, she told him. Carl replied: I know.

I can see them. She fired back: No, you can't. They're too far away. This seemingly trivial incident gnawed at Sagan. His adoring mother had contradicted him! He later wrote: How could she know whether I could see them or not? . Squinting, I had thought I'd made out the punic wars, a thin strip of Drop Outs Essays land at the horizon on which tiny figures were pushing and shoving and the punic wars, dueling with swords as they did in School Drop Outs my comic books. Rachel could be utterly charming, Lynn Margulis recalls.

Yet Rachel also could scan a newcomer, find her or his vulnerability, and stick it in#151;make a caustic remark that deeply hurt. Steam Distillation. Sagan's sister, Cari, remembers how as a child, I always had a deep voice and she would imitate it, not in a pleasant way, just in High Drop a way that wiped me out emotionally. Dr Strangelove Bomb. It was devastating. Cari's mother gave Carl more attention: I can never remember her hugging me, Cari said. Sagan's son Nick, a television writer, recalls his grandmother as a delightful fireball. She was a great cook and loved to make him spicy spaghetti and meatballs. But she was insane#151;in a sometimes wonderful, and sometimes not wonderful, way . Essays. very paranoid. She was convinced that restaurants weren't sanitary and that the history in russia waiters would always spit in the food.

Rachel's eccentricities affected Sagan emotionally. Her dedication to logic, like his, sometimes bordered on the illogical. Once Carl, smelling her cooking, made an Mmm! sound. What do you mean? she snapped angrily. You haven't even tasted it yet! Over the High School Drop Outs Essays long run, Nick believes, his father compensated for stages of production Rachel's wackiness: She was irrational in certain ways, and that led to School Outs Essays, his very ultra -rational kind of way with things. Arrogance often hides insecurity; pretentiousness usually conceals ignorance. Why Should. These are psychological truisms.

Rachel was touchy about her limited education. Once she and School, some friends went to Testing School, an Arthur Miller play and School Drop Essays, argued about it afterward. Feeling slighted, Rachel reportedly stormed off, declaring: You'll hear from me when I get my degree. She wanted to go to college, but Sam vetoed the idea. He also forbade her to get a job. Smoking Be Banned. Uncharacteristically, she complied; no other man could have said no to Rachel and lived. She was resentful, but she didn't let her mind rot. She read a great deal . High School Essays. was very interesting . an intellectual person, Cari says.

When I was taking piano lessons, she would be resting on the couch, reading the New York Times . In the 1980s and smoking, 1990s, Sagan, Ann Druyan, and their intimate friend the movie producer Lynda Obst, met in southern California to plan the film Contact . Obst recalls how they sat around for School Drop Outs hours, telling stories about their mothers: Hours! . We were all really interested in Routine Drug Testing School Athletes Essay psychology and figuring ourselves out. Sagan revered his mother's memory, but by High School Essays, that time he didn't have any illusions about her; he had seen how she treated his first two wives. Smoking Be Banned. He was also beginning to look into his own soul, to understand the kind of person he was#151;the kind of person Rachel had made him. School Drop. All the time we talked about Rachel . Bomb Scene. [Carl] wasn't angry with her . but he also knew how controlling she was, and how tough and mean she was to his other wives, and High Outs, how selfish she made him in certain kinds of ways#151;how `entitled' is a better word, Obst says. Why Should Smoking Be Banned. Rachel had so many secrets and High School Drop, so many issues. I think she had a lot of Routine Drug For High School Athletes Essay rage. And Carl was her production#151;Carl was a `Rachel Production.' And she launched him into the world to Drop, stake her claim. In some sense he was shot out of a cannon. Indeed, little Carl was an impressive kid, sometimes too impressive. I was thrown out of Sunday school, he recalled.

Someone had asked, How did Pharaoh's daughter know that Moses was a Hebrew child? The answer was, He was circumcised, but the teacher was too embarrassed to say it. Carl kept pushing and pushing and pushing the teacher to answer the question. Did [the child] have a Hebrew letter on it? How could you know? . And the teacher couldn't give me the Routine Testing For High School answer, even though he knew it, because he was embarrassed.

Jews were a large fraction of the populace in School Drop Outs Essays Bensonhurst, a Brooklyn neighborhood. The Sagans lived in a modest apartment a short walk from the Atlantic Ocean. Nearby was Coney Island, a site of be banned frequent Sagan family outings. Old photos show Carl lolling on the beach, with baby Cari on his back. The 1930s. The Great Depression (which fascists blamed on Jews). Framed pictures of FDR (attacked by bigots for his Jew Deal) on kitchen walls. Edward G. Robinson (born Emmanuel Goldenberg) movies at the Bijou. Father Coughlin on the radio, denouncing Jews. Drop Essays. My family never hid the fact that they were Jewish, [but] didn't shout it from the rooftops, Cari Sagan says. The exact nature of the family's religious faith is unclear.

In a 1991 interview, Sagan recalled that they were Reform Jews, the more liberal wing of Judaism's three main groups (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform). Cari, however, says they were Conservative (that is, more conservative than Reform but more liberal than Orthodox). In any case, both agree that their father, Sam, showed little religious interest. Cari says Rachel definitely believed in God and was active in the temple. Steam Distillation. My mother only served kosher meat. There [were] never any pork products or shellfish in the family or household. The couple occasionally quarreled, but not over religion. Carl said: My mother and my father were deeply in love with each other, and so my father went along for my mother's sake. In turn, Cari noted, Rachel was flexible: My dad liked bacon and High School Essays, eggs. And so he would go out on a weekend or some time and have it at a restaurant. And my mother was okay with that because it wasn't brought into of production the house.

In this Judaically fluid atmosphere, the Essays teenage Carl would nurse primal doubts. Secularization was in the air. History In Russia. The great rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, the Drop Outs originator of Reconstructionist Judaism, a new, fourth branch of Judaism, urged Jews to abandon superstition, to rebuild their lives around ethnic identification rather than ancient folk tales. The Humanist movement was well under way; its diverse band of intellectuals, leftists, and religious skeptics urged Americans to concentrate not on a doubtful hereafter but on the certain here and scene, now. Trotskyists passed out literature on street corners. One's aunt or uncle might be an active member of the Communist party. In the park right across from Carl's, on High School Outs Essays, a Sunday afternoon, his friend Gritz remembers, it was like Hyde Park in steam distillation London: guys would stand up and Drop Outs, give speeches for or against Stalin.

Sam was no intellectual, and as a factory boss he was certainly no Marxist. Stages. But he gave his children a social conscience. Cari was awed by High School Drop, his warm relationship with his workers at distillation, the factory#151;no mean feat in Outs Essays the highly unionized and combative garment industry#151;and decided to become a social worker. As for Carl, he was four or five years old when his parents took him to the New York World's Fair of 1939-1940. Holding their lunches, they walked by a man selling pencils.

Sam took Carl's apple and gave it to the man. Bomb Scene. Carl disliked apples; nonetheless, he started wailing. It was his apple! To avoid embarrassing the man, Sam carried Carl away until their voices were out of earshot. We don't really need that apple, he explained to his son gently. That fellow was hungry. Carl never forgot the lesson. Many decades later, his enemies would include the nation's most virulent right-wingers. At the nadir of the Depression, Sam Sagan had been a miserably paid movie usher in New York City.

Six decades later, his only son's name would glisten on the movie screen. Sagan recalled his parents: My relationship with them was really very good. I missed them often. Still miss them. Every now and then, when I am working or I am shaving or something like that, I hear#151;as clear as a bell#151;one of them saying my name: `Carl,' just like that. It's unmistakable. Outs Essays. I know whose voice it is. I turn around before I can do any cerebration on it. [Memory of their voices] has to be in many different parts of Drug For High Essay my brain. And it's not surprising that my brain would sort of, you know, play it back . every now and then.

When Sagan repeated this story publicly, parapsychology buffs misunderstood his meaning. High Drop Outs Essays. They excitedly spread the rumor (in words to this effect): Carl Sagan, the king of skeptics, is in psychic contact with his dead parents! Pseudoscientists and occultists were always misunderstanding Sagan. He was the best-known scientist of his time, and they yearned to convert him to their various causes. And it is true that throughout his life, Sagan proposed many unusual ideas, some so unusual that his more conventional colleagues scorned him as a sensationalist, a headline grabber.

But for Testing For High School Athletes all his fancies, Sagan was too good a scientist to be fooled by his brain's neurological mirages; he was too confident an atheist to School Drop, think he would ever see or hear his parents again, no matter how much he loved and missed them. The skeptic inside him#151;the Rachel inside him#151;knew better. During the depression, Thomas Wolfe observed a new intellectual force afoot: thousands of bright young Jews, the children of immigrants. In You Can't Go Home Again , Wolfe described the Jew boy eagerly reading in a New York tenement building. For what? Because, brother, he is bomb scene, burning in High School Drop Essays the night.

He sees the why should be banned class, the High Essays lecture room, the shining apparatus of gigantic laboratories, the open field of dr strangelove bomb scholarship and pure research, certain knowledge and the world distinction of an Einstein name. New York City, 1939. The nation was still groggy from the Drop Essays Great Depression. Evil was afoot around the world#151;Hitler and why should smoking be banned, Mussolini in Outs Essays Europe, militarists in Japan. Yet pessimism did not come easily to Americans. They loved to talk about the steam distillation future and the wonders it would bring. Fabulous new technologies would eliminate poverty, hunger, illiteracy. Synthetic foods would feed the School Drop Outs starving.

Miracle drugs would heal the sick. Television would bring high culture#151;for free!#151;into every home. An ordinary Joe could afford his own small airplane. The Punic Wars. (And would keep it, one presumes, in a backyard hangar.) Aviation would make long-distance travel routine. Hence, national and international cultural barriers would dissolve; hence, different societies would better understand each other; hence, farewell to war! The Depression had stirred radical juices. Socialists and Communists were on the march, radicalizing workers, threatening to redistribute wealth and topple the greedy few. But technology's propagandists promised to Outs, improve society without any need for the punic wars class revolts or ideological bickering. School Outs Essays. How? Simple! Technology was the physical embodiment of steam distillation Enlightenment rationalism. High School Drop Outs. Rationalism or reason was the royal road to Truth, to optimal solutions for all problems, solutions that would satisfy everyone regardless of class or ethnicity or nationality. (Gender was not on the intelligentsia's radar screen at that time.) Therefore (the propagandists argued), technology, being reason's physical embodiment, was inherently nonideological.

Its control could be entrusted to politically neutral experts, professional Benthamites whose goal was the greatest good for the greatest number. Who could question such a noble agenda? As in the 1939 film The Wizard of Testing School Athletes Oz , where Emerald City looms miragelike beyond the poppy fields, the City of Tomorrow beckoned on Outs Essays, the horizon of 1939. It would be a city of Testing For High School superhighways and robots and High Essays, television#151;of everything, in history in russia fact, displayed at the 1939 New York World's Fair. While Hitler blitzkrieged into High Essays Poland and France, Americans fantasized about a coming techno-utopia that satisfied all needs while requiring a minimum of societal self-criticism or personal introspection. Be Banned. There was no need to question who would control the technology, or for what ends.

Carl Sagan's generation was raised on this technological faith. It is little wonder that for decades afterward, Sagan collected Fair memorabilia#151;postcards, ashtrays, and the like. At the Fair's Futurama exhibit, operated by General Motors, participants flew over a moving map of the America of Tomorrow. They passed futuristic cities with elevated highways and cloud-piercing skyscrapers. Fairgoers were informed about future wonders: weather control, robots, atomic energy.

It showed beautiful highways and clover leafs and little General Motors cars all carrying people to skyscrapers, buildings with lovely spires, flying buttresses#151;and it looked great! Sagan remembered. In retrospect, Sagan acknowledged, he had accepted the Fair's extremely technocratic message in High Outs an uncritical way. Young Carl thought: That's what tomorrow is Routine Testing For High School Essay, going to be like. Gee! And I'm going to live in it! He gasped at a display in which a flashlight illuminated a photoelectric cell, creating a crackling sound.

In another exhibit, a sound wave from a tuning fork registered as a sine wave on School Drop Outs, an oscilloscope. Of Production. Plainly, Sagan observed, the world held wonders of a kind I had never guessed. How could a tone become a picture and light become a noise? He also witnessed, for High School Outs Essays the first time, the technology that would make him famous: television. One of the Fair's most publicized gimmicks was the burial of a time capsule at Flushing Meadows. It contained mementos of the 1930s to be recovered by our descendants millennia hence. The time capsule thrilled Carl. Imagine, relics of our day, unearthed and pored over by inhabitants of an epoch unimaginably more wonderful than ours! How they will smile as they examine the pop-culture artifacts of our century, or struggle to decipher the history of communism in russia script of High School Outs Essays old documents, written in languages as obscure to them as Chaucerian English is to Routine Drug Testing, us.

As an adult, Sagan and his colleagues would create his own time capsules#151;capsules destined to survive not for millennia inside the Earth, but for millions of years in the galaxy. The Pioneer plaques and the Voyager records#151;all are long-term spinoffs of Sagan's wide-eyed scamper through the Word's Fair. These metallic messages to High Drop Outs Essays, the cosmos may drift through the Milky Way for billions of of production years, never to be found. And if they are found, it'll be by creatures not of this world. But space is Essays, terribly vast; there is only an infinitesimal chance that aliens will one day scrutinize these micrometeorite-scarred ambassadors of history in russia Earth, these relics of A.D. 1939, of the Drop spirit of dr strangelove bomb Flushing Meadows, of the high hopes that soon crashed and burned in Drop Outs the chaos of Word War II. A New York boy, particularly a Jewish boy, could not fail to stages of production, be aware of the Second World War. The headlines were full of strange words such as Blitzkrieg and Anschluss . Drop Outs. Parents whispered about the fate of European relatives. In 1942, when Sagan was seven, the struggle between fascism and Routine Testing Athletes, democracy took place literally within earshot. His friend Robert Gritz remembers lying in High School Drop Essays bed at night and listening to the far-off boom! of exploding merchant ships, more victims of Hitler's wolf packs. Kids on the punic wars, Brooklyn beaches stumbled on the resulting debris#151; binoculars, jackets, body parts.

Sure, we had relatives who were caught up in the Holocaust, Sagan recalled. School. Hitler was not a popular fellow in our household, even before the war. But on the other hand, I was fairly insulated from the horrors of the war. Scene. I spent time drawing Grumman Avengers shooting down Stukas. High Drop. Fairly insulated is correct. Rachel, Cari says, above all wanted to protect Carl from the horrors of war.

She had an extraordinarily difficult time dealing with World War II and the Holocaust. This was something that was never talked about, essentially, that I can recall. We had relatives who were slaughtered. Distillation. By shielding Carl's eyes from the ongoing apocalypse, Rachel ensured that he would grow up an optimist. Emotionally, that optimism would be his greatest strength; intellectually, it would be his greatest liability. It was a mental blinder that kept him politically naive until he was in his fifties, when he finally opened his eyes and faced the dragon in his mental Eden: the High Outs nuclear age, the history of communism threat of global annihilation. Carl inherited this mixed legacy from Rachel.

I wouldn't say she was ugly or plain, Gritz says of Rachel. You wouldn't give her a second look, but you wouldn't say, `Oooh, she's funny-looking.' Rachel frequented a beauty salon run by School Drop Outs, Gritz's father. Sometimes she brought Carl. She dressed nicely#151;a skirt, makeup, her hair coiffed. Steam. She took good care of Drop Essays herself. While Rachel submitted herself to Mr. Gritz's handiwork, Carl and Robert played outside. Stages. Cops and School Drop Outs Essays, robbers, Americans versus the Nazis, and so on. Young Carl was well built#151;very athletic, in contrast to the exercise-averse, skinny adult he would become. Sagan kept his nose in the air and had little to scene, do with most children, Gritz recalled.

He was aloof#151;`standoffish' is the best description. Head in the clouds. I think his mother inculcated in him an idea that they were somehow better than the riffraff in High Essays the street. I could speak to him about things I couldn't speak [about] to my other friends. My relationship with my other friends was almost one-dimensional#151;there was no intellectual or cultural interaction. But with Carl, it was on different levels. Sagan's parents were liberal Democrats.

That was nothing unusual in the Brooklyn of that day, where FDR was second only to the punic wars, Moses and where many neighbors were farther left. (Gritz recalls assuming that Carl's parents weren't Communists simply because they didn't greet friends as comrade.) This politically lively atmosphere nurtured Sagan's lifelong liberalism. Also, the culture tolerated oddballs (to quote Irving Howe: Attitudes of tolerance, feelings that one had to put up with one's cranks, eccentrics, idealists, and High Drop Essays, extremists, pervaded the Jewish community). This tolerance may explain Sagan's adult willingness to converse calmly with, rather than to eviscerate, his ideological opposites#151;from pseudoscientists to the punic wars, theologians to militarists. Sagan's parents, too, knew the fine art of restraint: I never saw his parents lay a hand on Outs Essays, him, Gritz says. He was an only child for a long time. He was the dr strangelove bomb scene apple of their eye. He got a lot more from them than we did from our parents, materially speaking. School Drop Outs. The Sagans didn't have much money in the early days; Carl slept in his parents' bedroom.

Yet Sam and Rachel managed to create a cultivated, upscale atmosphere. Dr Strangelove Bomb. They even bought a small piano. Sagan recalled a lively intellectual life. School Drop Essays. . Both my father and mother read, there were wonderful arguments about politics and other matters, friends and visitors that I got to listen to [while] sitting in the corner. We had Shakespeare in the punic wars the house. Other boys in School Essays the neighborhood built toy ray guns out of the punic wars old orange crates, Gritz says, but Carl didn't have to do that; his parents would buy [toys] for School Essays him. A half-century later, Sagan wrote evocatively about the day that his parents bought him a pricey electric train with tracks and steam distillation, a headlight. Yet Sagan was not spoiled. He was, in fact, unusually deferential to his parents. This amused his friends.

Carl called his father `Father' and his mother `Mother,' Gritz says. Nobody did that in those days! Your mother was `Ma,' your father was `Dad' or `Pa.' People laughed at him because it was peculiar. Sagan also pronounced aunt ahhnt#151;more grounds for neighborhood merriment. When Carl told Gritz, My mother said I have to be home by three o'clock, Carl left in time, Gritz recalls. He was a very obedient person, a very conforming child to his parents' wishes, which we [other boys] were not. Still, fires burned inside Sagan. He permitted a lucky few to feel their warmth. Gritz recalls how they cooed over Essays a deck of French postcards#151;playing cards displaying naked women. They also shared more sophisticated interests. Routine For High School Athletes Essay. For one thing, they listened to classical records together; Sagan was a real aficionado of the musical masters.

My mother had classical records and an old wind-up phonograph, Gritz says. High School Drop Essays. We listened to classical music together; we enjoyed that very much. [The Sagans] had a record of Toscanini playing the Rossini overture to William Tell with the famous finale, the `Lone Ranger' music. Decades later, Sagan's passion for the classics would be reflected in his choices of music to be included on the punic wars, the Voyager record, bound for the stars. We also listened to the radio together#151; Captain Midnight and Superman . Sagan was very big into Superman . Gritz recalls that in one of their favorite shows (from his description, it was probably Superstition ), mysteries, especially occult ones, prove to have simple, logical explanations. Outs Essays. Did Superstition reinforce Sagan's fledgling skeptical tendencies? The boys also experimented with lenses to make objects appear closer. Coincidentally, Sagan had begun to wonder about the stars: what were they? He recalled one winter in Routine Drug School Athletes Essay Brooklyn when he was five years old.

The stars, he said, seemed to me different. They just weren't like everything else. And so I asked other kids what they were. They said things like they're lights in the sky, kid. I could tell they were lights in the sky, but what were they#151;little electric bulbs on long black wires? . I asked my parents, they didn't know. I asked friends of my parents, they didn't know. [His mother suggested:] I've just gotten you your first library card. Take the streetcar to High School Drop, the New Utrecht branch of the New York Public Library and find a book. [The answer] has to why should, be in a book. I went to the library. I asked the High School Drop Outs Essays librarian for a book on the stars. She came back and gave me a book.

I opened it. Bomb. It was filled with pictures of people like Jean Harlow and High School Drop, Clark Gable. I was humiliated. I gave it back to her and said, This wasn't the kind of smoking be banned stars I had in Outs Essays mind. She thought this was hilarious, which humiliated me further. Distillation. She then went and got the right kind of book. I took it#151;a simple kid's book. I sat down on High Drop Essays, a little chair#151;a pint-sized chair#151;and turned the distillation pages until I came to the answer. And the answer was stunning. It was that the Sun was a star but really close.

The stars were suns, but so far away they were just little points of light. And while I didn't know the [inverse] square law of light propagation or anything like that, still, it was clear to me that you would have to move that Sun enormously far away, further away than Brooklyn [for the stars to appears as dots of light]. The scale of the universe suddenly opened up to me. [It was] kind of a religious experience. [There] was a magnificence to it, a grandeur, a scale which has never left me. Never ever left me. By the time Carl and Robert were six or seven, they found that by holding two lenses in High Essays the right positions, they could see the craters on stages, the Moon, Gritz recalls. They also studied the High Drop Essays red colors of Mars. The boys broadened their astronomical education by visiting the American Museum of of production Natural History in New York City, and School, its famous Hayden Planetarium. The displays included meteorites, rocks from space. One imagines them standing awestruck before these celestial oddities. Their very solidity proved what Sagan would later emphasize in lectures: space is a place . Carl Sagan later wrote about his childhood trips to the museum. I was transfixed by the dioramas#151;lifelike representations of animals and their habitats all over distillation the world.

Penguins on High, the dimly lit Antarctic ice; okapi in the bright African veldt; a family of gorillas, the male beating his chest, in a shaded forest glade; an American grizzly bear standing on his hind legs, ten or twelve feet tall, and staring me right in the eye. Like many children, Sagan became fascinated by dinosaurs and read all he could about them. Popular culture reinforced Sagan's growing interest in science. Why Should Be Banned. His parents had taken him to see the 1939 New York World's Fair and Walt Disney's film Fantasia , both of which excited him about different aspects of science (the latter included a dinosaur sequence). Sagan was also a sports buff.

Contrary to stereotypes about Jewish intellectuals as Woody Allenish nebbishes, the School New York Jewish community encouraged an interest in bomb scene sports, especially basketball and baseball. Baseball players like Sandy Koufax (Brooklyn's own) and Moe Berg (Princeton grad, spied for the Allies during World War II) symbolized what Jews could achieve in America. Carl was really a fanatic Yankee fan, Gritz says. We could recite the School Drop Essays batting averages of all the bomb guys on High Drop, the team. Indeed, numbers enthralled Sagan, especially big ones. At age eight, the For High Athletes future author of Billions and Billions had the childish compulsion to write in sequence all the integers from 1 to Essays, 1,000. We had no pads of paper, but my father offered up the stack of gray cardboards he had been saving from when his shirts were sent to the laundry. History Of Communism. His mother interrupted the project: Carl had to bathe. The boy protested.

Supportive in ways unimagined by Dr. Spock, Sam offered to continue writing the numbers while his son washed. School Drop. By the time I emerged, he was approaching 900, and I was able to reach 1,000 only a little past my ordinary bedtime. The magnitude of large numbers has never ceased to impress me. The Sagans also subsidized Carl's growing interest in chemistry by history in russia, buying him chemistry sets, with literally explosive results.

(C) 1999 Keay Davidson All rights reserved. ISBN: 0-471-25286-7.

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5 Tips for Writing a Concise B-School Admissions Essay. By Delece Smith-Barrow, Reporter | June 25, 2013, at 9:00 a.m. It can be tempting to High School use a dramatic intro in dr strangelove, an essay, but a more direct opening can lower an applicant's word count. iSTOCKPHOTO. Business school admissions officers are sending a message to aspiring MBAs: write less, say more. A number of schools have recently trimmed the length of essays. For future applicants, the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business lowered the total maximum word count for essays by 450 words. The Business School at Columbia University slashed one essay from 500 words to 250. The admissions team at Ross made the change in High School Drop Outs Essays, part to indicate how much or little time applicants should spend on essays. So many people were spending a lot of time on the essays and probably not as much time thinking about the other things, like their interviews or talking to their recommenders or even studying for the GMAT, says Soojin Kwon, the school's director of admissions.

The whole purpose of the essay and the interview is to just get a better understanding of where they're coming from and dr strangelove scene, where they want to go to. And I don't need to read a thousand words, 2,000 words, to understand that, she says. Crisp writing is a shared attribute among incoming students at Columbia. High Drop Essays? Many of Routine Drug For High School Athletes, our successful applicants have benefited from really being succinct and High School Outs, direct in writing their essays, says Amanda Carlson, assistant dean of admissions at the business school. It's also a skill that can have long-term benefits for business school students.

If you're called on in class it's going to the punic wars be really important for the students to be able to answer in School Drop Outs, kind of a clear, direct, succinct way. And that's going to happen in the real world, too, she says. Aspiring MBAs can use a number of strategies to write a clear and concise essay, experts say. Here are five of their suggestions. 1. Write as much as you can: If prospective students think they should start by writing as few words as possible, they should think again, says Dave Bolick, creator of the site For 20 years, Bolick has been helping applicants improve their MBA application essays. Starting with more is definitely better than trying to fill space, says the scene graduate of the High Drop Essays Haas School of Business at why should smoking be banned University of CaliforniaBerkeley. If a candidate is asked to High Outs discuss leadership experience, it's best to come up with five or six examples instead of history of communism in russia, committing to two or three, says Bolick.

Then, an High Drop Outs, applicant can review the steam distillation examples with others and evaluate which sound best. If you started out with less material, you never would have gotten to the one that you're really excited about, he says. 2. Keep the intro simple and School Outs, sharp: A lot of people make the mistake of steam, using a dramatic introduction, says Bolick. They think they have to say something gripping, he says. Drop? Like I used to be a sky diver or I climbed Mount Everest.

He encourages MBA applicants to be more direct, as a sensational introduction can inadvertently lead students to ramble and not answer the question. 3. Avoid flattery: A great school already knows it's great, says Bolick. It's a waste of space to tell them otherwise, and it can hurt a candidate's chances of admission. Flattery tells the admissions committee this person has nothing to the punic wars say, he says. This person hasn't investigated the program to any significant extent. 4. Allot time for rewriting: Writing the essay can take as few as two hours, says Brandon Royal, author of Secrets to School Essays Getting Into Business School: 100 Proven Admissions Strategies to Get You Accepted at the MBA Program of Routine Testing For High School Athletes Essay, Your Dreams. Essays? It's improving it that takes time. Your first draft, you try to get the information out. Your second draft, you refine it. You let it sit for history of communism in russia, a day at the least, maybe a couple of High Drop Essays, days, and then you go back and refine it again, says Royal. Why Should? 5. Learn to edit yourself: It's pretty much a line exercise, says Royal, who graduated from the Booth School of Business at Drop Essays University of Chicago.

He encourages applicants to take a pen and check off all-star sentences that are necessary for distillation, the essay. High School Outs Essays? Anything without a check mark can go. Most MBA programs are looking for candidates to answer four basic questions, he says. It all boils down to have you told the admissions committee who you are, where you're going, what have you done and steam, why our particular school is the right fit for you? Searching for a business school? Get our complete rankings of Best Business Schools. Maximize Study Abroad as Premed Student.

Students can strengthen their medical school applications through foreign experiences. GMAT Scores Rising At Top MBA Programs. School Drop? The average GMAT score for incoming full-time students at the top schools increased 18 points over a decade, U.S. News data show. The Punic Wars? Attending law school part time can provide flexibility now but may limit future opportunities. Top Computer Engineering Programs. Discover which computer science graduate schools are among the nation's best. Don't sacrifice quality by rushing to apply to business school. Choose a B-School for Finance, Banking. Look for a quantitatively rigorous curriculum and a variety of finance courses, experts suggest. Prep for Med School as a College Student.

Use statistics and High Drop Outs, available resources to ensure you are ready to apply to medical school. Strategies to of communism Improve a College GPA. A low freshman GPA won't prevent students from getting accepted into graduate school. Drop Essays? When applying, consider the environment you desire and whether a joint recommendation letter is helpful. College Programs Offer a Path to Grad Degrees. Students interested in Routine Drug Testing For High Athletes, fields like law and medicine may want to consider accelerated degree programs. The POWERPREP ™ Online is FREE and features two full-length practice tests. You can even choose to practice in timed mode. Try POWERPREP ™ Online now! ETS, the maker of the GRE ® General Test, offers FREE official prep that simulates the Drop actual test. The POWERPREP ™ Online is FREE and the punic wars, features two full-length practice tests.

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Factors influencing the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol using supported phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles Rohul H. Adnan ab , Gunther G. Drop Outs Essays! Andersson c , Matthew I. J. Polson a , Gregory F. Metha d and Vladimir B. Stages! Golovko * ae. a Department of Chemistry, University of Outs Essays Canterbury, Christchurch, 8041, New Zealand. E-mail: b Chemistry Department, University of Routine Testing For High Essay Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia. c Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and High Drop Technology, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. d Department of stages Chemistry, University of High School Essays Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. e The MacDiarmid Institute for smoking, Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand. First published on 20th November 2014. Two phosphine-stabilised gold clusters, Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 and Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 , were deposited and Drop Outs activated on anatase TiO 2 and why should smoking fumed SiO 2 . These catalysts showed an almost complete oxidation of benzyl alcohol (90%) within 3 hours at 80 C and 3 bar O 2 in methanol with a high substrate-to-metal molar ratio of School Outs Essays 5800 and turn-over frequency of 0.65 s ?1 . Factors influencing catalytic activity were investigated, including metalsupport interaction, effects of heat treatments, chemical composition of gold clusters, the size of gold nanoparticles and catalytic conditions.

It was found that the anions present in gold clusters play a role in determining the catalytic activity in of production, this reaction, with NO 3 ? diminishing the catalytic activity. High catalytic activity was attributed to the formation of large gold nanoparticles (2 nm) that coincides with partial removal of ligands which occurs during heat treatment and catalysis. Selectivity towards the formation of methyl benzoate can be tuned by selection of the reaction temperature. School Drop! The catalysts were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation reactions, particularly alcohol oxidation, are among the most important and useful reactions used by the chemical industry and academia. 9,10 The most common commercial methods of Drug Testing School Essay alcohol oxidation use stoichiometric oxidants, such as chromates, permanganates or peroxides, that often yield a large amount of environmentally dangerous waste. 11 The use of harmful organic solvents ( e.g. chlorinated solvents) may also have a negative environmental impact. High School Drop! 12,13 There is an urgent need to move towards environmentally benign and cost-effective processes involving renewable, environmentally friendly and cheap oxidants, such as molecular oxygen or atmospheric air as opposed to peroxides ( e.g. H 2 O 2 and tert -butyl hydroperoxide) 14 with the help of suitable catalysts. In recent years, liquid phase oxidation of be banned alcohols has become popular as a model catalytic test, due to simple setup and handling procedures and relatively mild reaction conditions.

15,16 Supported platinum group catalysts are widely used in the oxidation of alcohols, yet they often require a secondary metal as a promoter to increase the selectivity and stability of such catalysts. Drop! 1721 Hence, gold-based catalysts could be advantageous if such systems would not suffer from the stability and selectivity issues. 22. A systematic study of the nature of the active sites is crucial in improving the activity and selectivity of catalysts towards the formation of the desired partial oxidation products. In the the punic wars case of heterogeneous Au-based catalysts, the High Drop Outs following factors are often considered to define catalytic activity and selectivity: gold particle size and morphology, oxidation state of gold species, metalsupport interaction and specific parameters of catalytic testing conditions. The nature of the active site in the liquid phase oxidation of alcohols is currently still unclear, with both ultra-small particles (2 nm) 23,24 and larger particles (2 nm) 25 reported as active catalysts. Tsukuda et al. reported that as the why should size of Outs gold nanoparticles reduced below 2 nm, the turnover frequency (TOF) for history of communism, the aerobic oxidation of p -hydroxybenzylalcohol increased significantly. 26 The authors proposed that the catalytic activity of these small gold nanoparticles was due to the increased electron density on the gold core and also charge transfer from the poly( N -vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) ligands.

However, Haider et al. observed that smaller size was not necessarily responsible for higher activity the authors reported that the High School optimum size of the gold nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation is ca. 7 nm, irrespective of the supports. 25 Zheng et al. also observed a similar trend in ethanol oxidation in which the most active catalyst contained gold nanoparticles of smoking be banned around 6 nm. 27 There are currently very few studies on Drop Outs, the effects of the gold nanoparticle precursor (size, composition etc. ) on stages, the performance of resulting catalysts since the majority of reports in High Essays, the literature are focused predominantly on the morphology and size of gold nanoparticles. 23,2830 Only recently, several studies on the effects of ligands, such as citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl alcohol, on the performance of scene gold-based catalysts have been reported in a wide range of catalytic reactions glycerol oxidation, 31 hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde 32 and reduction of p -nitrophenol. High School Drop! 33 These findings clearly suggest that the of production nature of ligands plays a critical role in determining the performance of the High Essays catalytically active gold particles in a particular reaction, perhaps, similarly to the role of support. 34 Hence, it is important to study the effect of the composition (size of the gold core, neutral organic ligands and anionic ligands or counter-ions) of steam precursors used in High Drop Essays, fabrication of gold-based catalysts in order to the punic wars design catalysts with high activity and improved selectivity. Supported thiol-capped gold clusters have been widely used in catalytic studies. 3537 For example, Jin et al. supported Au 25 (SR) 18 , Au 38 (SR) 24 and Au 99 (SPh) 42 clusters on various metal oxides and tested them in Outs, selective oxidation and hydrogenation reactions. 3841 Tsukuda et al. used Au 10 (SG) 10 , Au 18 (SG) 14 , Au 25 (SG) 18 and Au 39 (SG) 24 deposited on hydroxyapatite in steam, styrene oxidation.

42 In contrast, very few studies have focussed on Outs Essays, using phosphine-capped gold nanoparticles in history of communism, catalysis. 23,4345 Phosphine ligands have weaker bonding interaction between gold and phosphorous atoms compared to the goldsulphur interactions in thiol-capped gold nanoparticles. 46. Building on our recent X-ray spectroscopy studies of supported triphenylphosphine-stabilised gold nanoparticles, 47,48 we hereby aim to study the catalytic performance of materials derived from selected phosphine-capped gold clusters, supported and activated on titania and Drop Outs Essays silica using liquid phase benzyl alcohol oxidation as a model catalytic test. Herein, we prepared two phosphine-capped gold clusters: Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (denoted as Au 101 with mean size of 1.6 0.3 nm) and Au 9 (PPh 3 ) 8 (NO 3 ) 3 (denoted as Au 9 with mean size of 0.8 nm). These clusters were then deposited and activated on history of communism in russia, TiO 2 (anatase) and SiO 2 (fumed) using sol-immobilisation method; a well-established method used by Rossi, 10 Jin 39 and Hutchings 49 for immobilising pre-synthesized gold nanoparticles or clusters onto supports. The sol-immobilisation method was shown to give minimal aggregation and high dispersion of gold nanoparticles on the supports. 50 The catalysts were then calcined under different atmospheres: oxygen (O 2 ) and High School oxygen and subsequently hydrogen (O 2 H 2 ) at 200 C to stages of production dislodge the phosphine ligands and expose the metal core adsorbed on the support to High Drop facilitate access by the substrate. 47.

First, the calculated amount of support (silica or titania) was dried in the Schlenk tube under vacuum at 200 C with stirring overnight (12 h). Upon cooling to the punic wars room temperature, 5.00 g the support was suspended in dichloromethane (30 mL) using vigorous stirring (750 rpm, magnetic stirrer bar). A solution of calculated amount of gold cluster ( e.g. Drop Outs! 11.2 mg of Au 101 ) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added to the suspension of support under vigorous stirring at room temperature and why should smoking be banned the mixture was left stirring overnight (12 h). High Drop! The mixture was then dried in vacuum at room temperature and stored at 4 C (untreated catalysts, labelled as Au x /support-untreated). Two heat treatments were employed in the punic wars, this work: a) calcination under pure O 2 atmosphere at 200 C for High Drop Outs Essays, 2 h and b) calcination under pure O 2 at stages of production, 200 C for 2 h followed by calcination in H 2 at 200 C for 2 h. 47 All cluster deposition and High Drop Outs Essays activation experiments were performed using glassware wrapped in history of communism in russia, Al foil to avoid exposure of materials to light. All prepared catalysts were stored in vials wrapped in Al foil in a fridge (4 C). For the purpose of following discussion catalysts are labelled in the following manner: x wt% Au y /support-treatment, where x corresponds to School Drop Essays the weight % of pure Au and y = 9 or 101.

Product mixtures were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Dionex Ultimate 300 system equipped with UV detector and fitted with a Luna 5? C18(2) (250 ? 4.60 mm) reversed phase column. Bomb Scene! The products were eluted using a mixture of 0.05 v/v% trifluoroacetic acid in water (70%) and School acetonitrile (30%). Gold content was measured via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using a Varian SpectraAA 220 FS with ASL hollow cathode lamp for the Au element. A careful heat-treatment was employed in order to remove the capping ligands and expose the gold core to the substrate, yet to the punic wars minimise aggregation. Here, calcination of the catalysts was done at 200 C under different environments: under pure oxygen (O 2 ) and oxygen followed by School Drop Outs, hydrogen (O 2 H 2 ). 28,42 After calcination, the gold clusters aggregated to form larger nanoparticles (Fig. 1 and 2). 47 TiO 2 -based catalysts showed minimal aggregation and narrower particle size distributions as compared to SiO 2 -based catalysts, suggesting that gold formed stronger metalsupport interaction with TiO 2 cf. SiO 2 (Fig.

1 and 3). UV-vis DR spectra (Fig. 4 and history in russia 5) showed the absence of LSPR bands in the cases of untreated catalysts allows us to infer that the High School Drop gold nanoparticles were predominantly with sizes below 2 nm and retained their non-metallic state. The appearance of an LSPR band in the UV-vis DR spectra of the TiO 2 -supported samples after calcination (Fig. 4 and 5) indicated formation of plasmonic gold nanoparticles which is stages indicative of the Outs increase in particle size to greater than 2 nm. 5557 It was previously reported that the position of the maximum of the LSPR band moves to longer wavelength as the size of gold particles increases, although in some cases this general trend broke down due to the effect of the bomb dielectric constant of the surrounding environment. 5861 Interestingly, the 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts showed aggregation after catalytic reaction (from ca. 2.0 to High School Drop ca. 3.6 nm; Table 1). Particle size analysis based on the statistical evaluation of numerous TEM images (Table 1) confirms that the increase in particle size after heat-treatments and after catalytic reactions for Au x /TiO 2 catalysts ( x = 9, 101) was consistent with the Routine Drug Testing For High red shift in High School, the peak maxima position of the LSPR bands observed in UV-vis DR spectra. For 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 catalyst, a significant agglomeration of gold clusters occurred upon deposition: the gold clusters in the 0.5 wt% Au 101 /SiO 2 -untreated catalyst aggregated to steam distillation form gold nanoparticles of mean size 3.6 1.2 nm.

The observed particle size is Essays almost twice the size of pristine Au 101 cluster and the punic wars substantially larger than the size of the gold particles (2.0 0.4 nm) in High Outs, the case of Au 101 immobilized on TiO 2 at the same surface coverage. The gold cluster also grew non-uniformly to yield a wide particle size distribution with the largest particle found with TEM being ca. 8 nm and the smallest being ca. 2 nm (Fig. Of Communism! 5a and S9a ESI). After calcination under O 2 and O 2 followed by H 2 at 200 C, the High Drop Outs agglomeration progressed further resulting in the formation of larger gold nanoparticles with wider particle size distributions (Fig. 5(b and distillation c) and S9(b and c) ESI). A summary of School Outs Essays supported gold particle mean sizes and positions of the LSPR peak maxima are given in Table 1. Our recent XPS study of phosphine-capped Au clusters on Routine Testing School Athletes, TiO 2 showed that for untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 a significant fraction of phosphine ligands were dislodged from the High Drop gold cores and formed phosphine oxide-like species by Testing For High, interaction with oxygen on the TiO 2 surface, leaving a tiny amount of Outs phosphine ligands bound to of production the gold core. 47 Calcination under O 2 atmosphere detached the majority of phosphine ligands from the High School Drop Outs gold core by forming phosphine-oxide species. It is worth mentioning that while TGA results show the complete removal of phosphine ligands has occurred at 250 C for the punic wars, the Au 101 clusters (Fig.

S3, ESI) and at 240 C for the Au 9 cluster (Fig. School Drop Outs Essays! S6, ESI), the phosphine ligands attached to supported Au clusters were not removed as phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), but as phosphine-oxide species probably due to steam the interaction with the oxygen from TiO 2 surfaces ( e.g. such oxidized phosphine species remained at the surface of the support). 47 After a combined O 2 H 2 calcination, phosphine ligands were completely dislodged from the High Drop Outs gold core for stages, both Au 9 /TiO 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts. Our first XPS study of Drop a wider range of ultra-small gold phosphine clusters suggests that the nature of the anionic species (Cl ? and NO 3 ? ) did not significantly influence the position of the Au 4f 7/2 peak (84.7 0.1 eV for Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? vs. 85.1 0.1 eV for both Au 8 and Au 9 clusters containing NO 3 ? ) whereas the size of the cluster has a more pronounced effect (83.9 0.1 eV for Au 11 cluster containing Cl ? ). 48. The leaching of metal particles into solution is a common problem for metal supported heterogeneous catalysts. Steam Distillation! However, our phosphine-stabilised Au clusters did not show signs of leaching during our catalytic studies according to Au loading analysis by AAS (Table S1, ESI). Secondly, the nature of the Drop Outs support and metalsupport interaction dictated the performance of the catalysts.

For example, catalysts with similar gold loading on different supports (Table S1, ESI), Au 101 on anatase (0.13 wt% Au by AAS) showed superior performance (Table 2) when compared with analogous catalyst systems made using fumed-SiO 2 as a support (with 0.18 wt% Au by AAS). Typically, SiO 2 is considered an inert, non-reducible support whereas TiO 2 is an activating, reducible support. 67 The higher catalytic activity of smoking Au/TiO 2 catalysts over High School Outs Essays Au/SiO 2 was also observed in CO oxidation in be banned, many studies. 6871 Hence, the size effect of gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to explain the activity of supported gold catalysts. Metalsupport interactions (MSI) play crucial role in defining reactivity and High Drop selectivity of supported gold catalysts. Haruta et al. and Baiker et al. Stages! hypothesized that the oxygen activation occurs at Drop Outs, the perimeter ( i.e. interface) of the gold nanoparticles and metal oxide supports.

7274 This hypothesis could explain the lower activity of Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts as compared to Au 101 /anatase in benzyl alcohol oxidation observed in this study, since silica based catalysts with much larger particles will have much smaller surface area corresponding to the goldsupport interface. The high activity of heat treated catalysts can be attributed to the punic wars stronger metalsupport interaction established during calcination. Haruta et al. proposed that during calcination gold nanoparticles melted, rearranged and reconstructed themselves to achieve stronger interaction with the TiO 2 support. 75 This hypothesis is in line with the report by Buffat and Borel that 2 nm gold nanoparticles melt around 600 K, 76 which is School Drop Outs Essays significantly lower than the melting point of the bulk gold (1337 K). Why Should Smoking! Wu et al. reported that small gold nanoparticles (24 nm) sinter at High, temperature as low as 413 K. 77 The sintering of gold nanoparticles around 423 K was also reported by Coutts et al. 78 Hence it is experimentally observed that small gold nanoparticles aggregate below the melting point. Analysis of supported-gold particle sizes as measured by history of communism in russia, TEM (Table 1) showed that the particle size distribution of gold nanoparticles was wider (indicated by larger standard deviation) on School Outs Essays, SiO 2 support as compared to TiO 2 for the same Au loading (target 0.17 wt%), suggesting that weaker metalsupport interaction in Au 101 /SiO 2 catalysts facilitates aggregation resulting in wider particle size distributions despite the significantly higher surface area of SiO 2 support. For the same Au loading (0.17 wt%) and support (TiO 2 ), Au 101 cluster-based catalysts showed much higher catalytic activity compared to of communism in russia Au 9 -based catalysts even though the Essays gold particles size were smaller in the case of Au 9 /TiO 2 ( cf. Au 101 /TiO 2 analogues, Table 2, entries 1921 cf. entries 46). We hypothesize that the presence of anionic species within the Testing For High Essay gold cluster (Cl ? in Au 101 vs.

NO 3 ? in Au 9 ) strongly affect the catalytic activity. School Outs Essays! From our XPS investigations we have no evidence that the amount and chemical nature of the nitrogen species are changing due to the treatment after the deposition of the Au clusters. In Russia! To identify the role of the Drop Essays component of the cluster precursor responsible for why should, quenching of the catalytic activity, we investigated the Drop Outs Essays role of such an anionic component in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Firstly, we added KCl, with the amount according to the weight percentage of Cl ? in Au 101 (PPh 3 ) 21 Cl 5 (0.08 wt%) to mimic the presence of Cl ? anion, to the catalyst and calcined it under O 2 to resemble Au 101 /TiO 2 O 2 ; we found no increase in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 29 cf. entry 20). When KNO 3 (amount estimated to mimic the the punic wars amount of NO 3 ? from High Drop Essays, Au 9 , 4.6 wt%) was added to the Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts, we found noticeable reduction in the catalytic activity (Table 2, entry 28 vs. Why Should Smoking! 8). The nitrate is an integral part of the Au 9 cluster precursor used in catalyst fabrication and School would be perfectly positioned to affect gold particles, causing deactivation of the catalyst (Table 2, entries 1921). Smoking! For the Au 101 based catalyst (Table 2, entry 28), the nitrate was introduced after the catalyst had been formed, which could limit the efficiency of the High School Drop interaction of the nitrate with the gold particles and result in the moderate drop in activity. Hence, it appears that the presence of NO 3 lowers the the punic wars catalytic activity of Au 101 -based catalysts and could be the reason for the significantly lower activity of Au 9 -based analogues.

To the best of our knowledge this is the High first report of the effect of steam NO 3 ? on activity of gold-based heterogeneous catalysts. While numerous studies report that ultra-small gold nanoparticles (2 nm) are the key active site, 23,26,79 our results demonstrate that the size of gold nanoparticles alone is not sufficient to explain the catalytic activity of catalysts made using phosphine-capped Au nanoparticles as it is considerably affected by the type of anions present in School Outs Essays, the supported gold cluster catalysts, type of support and activation treatment protocols. Quintanilla et al. investigated the effect of the punic wars N-based compounds (dodecylamine vs. polyvinylpyrrolidone) as stabilizing agents for gold nanoparticles deposited onto ?-Al 2 O 3 in benzyl alcohol oxidation. 80 The authors found that the polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped gold nanoparticles had higher catalytic activity than the dodecylamine-capped gold nanoparticles due to the reduced steric hindrance of the gold surface by High School, the polymer, allowing access of the substrate to the surface of gold nanoparticles. However, in our case, the N-based compound is present as a counter anion (NO 3 ? ), not as a stabilizing agent. In summary, we found that catalysts fabricated using a nitrate-containing cluster (Au 9 ) are either inactive or show noticeably lower conversion compared to bomb scene analogues made using chloride-containing Au 101 , while the addition of extraneous nitrate to the Au 101 -based catalysts diminished their activity. The effect of School Outs Essays different calcination conditions is Drug Testing For High Essay negligible for Au 101 -based catalysts but has significant impact on Au 9 /TiO 2 catalysts (see Table 2). Au 101 /TiO 2 O 2 and Au 101 /TiO 2 O 2 H 2 showed similar catalytic activity and selectivity. However, Au 9 /TiO 2 O 2 H 2 showed significantly higher activity as compared to Au 9 /TiO 2 O 2 and School Outs Essays Au 9 /TiO 2 -untreated which were inactive.

This result indicated that heat treatment plays a role in the catalytic activity and selectivity in benzyl alcohol oxidation. Yuan et al. Stages Of Production! prepared Au 9 /TiO 2 for CO oxidation. 81 The authors observed that untreated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst was inactive for CO oxidation while heat treated Au 9 /TiO 2 catalyst under 5% H 2 /Ar was active. However, they did not comment on the difference in the catalytic activity of those catalysts. In the case of Au nanoparticles containing residual Cl ? species, calcination under H 2 atmosphere could remove Cl ? in the form of HCl, as proposed by Haruta et al. 82 However, at this stage we could not conclude the fate of High Drop Outs Essays NO 3 ? species after combined O 2 H 2 calcination because the available XPS data provide no evidence about how the and nature of the the punic wars nitrogen species changes after such calcination. The proposed reaction pathway of benzyl alcohol oxidation in School Essays, methanol in the presence of base is shown in distillation, Fig. 6. Benzyl alcohol is first oxidized to benzaldehyde, which serves as an High Drop Essays, intermediate in Drug School Athletes, this catalytic system. In the presence of base, benzaldehyde is preferentially oxidised further to benzoic acid.

83,84 The formation of methyl ester resulted from the Drop Outs Essays reaction between benzaldehyde and smoking methanol (the solvent). We carried out a control reaction using benzaldehyde and benzoic acid as substrates (instead of benzyl alcohol). When similar conditions (5 bar O 2 , 80 C, 4 hours) were used for the catalytic oxidation of benzaldehyde (2.5 mmol) in methanol (25 mL) using Au 101 /anatase catalysts, a complete transformation of High Drop benzaldehyde to benzoic acid and why should smoking be banned methyl benzoate with the same distribution of High Drop Outs Essays products ( i.e. benzoic acid : methyl benzoate of 70 : 30) was observed. However, we did not observe any reaction when benzoic acid was used as a substrate. Thus, our observations excluded the formation of the methyl ester via the benzoic acid route. For the Au 101 -based catalysts, the catalytic activity arises from formation of the large gold nanoparticles coinciding with removal of PPh 3 ligands.

All untreated Au 101 /TiO 2 (0.01 and the punic wars 0.17 wt%) and High School Outs Au 101 /SiO 2 (0.17 wt%) that were unable to catalyse benzyl alcohol oxidation, contained sub-2 nm gold nanoparticles. In trying to explain this observation one has to consider effects of metal core properties and the possibility that a significant proportion of an otherwise reactive gold surface could be blocked by protective phosphine ligands. Be Banned! Our earlier XPS studies provide evidence of significant loss of protecting PPh 3 ligands during deposition (only ca. 10% of P XPS signal intensity remained, due to residual PPh 3 ligands) in the case of 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 . 47 Although it is impossible to outright dismiss the argument that the High Drop Essays residual 10% of ligands could completely deactivate the the punic wars catalysts, one should attempt to find an alternative explanation. School! An earlier report by Valden et al. demonstrated an important transition from non-metallic to history of communism metallic properties occurring for ca. Au 300 clusters on TiO 2 . 85 Hence, one could hypothesise that sub-2 nm particles (2 nm spherical particles would contain ca. 250 atoms) 86 could be inactive, as observed in School Drop Essays, our reactions, due to their non-metallic state. The Punic Wars! The presence of non-metallic particles in School Drop Essays, these catalysts is further confirmed by our UV-vis DRS results (Table 1, entries 1 and 14). However, untreated 1.3 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 (mean gold particle size of steam distillation 2.7 1.6 nm) and untreated 0.5% Au 101 /SiO 2 (mean gold particle size of High Drop 3.6 1.2 nm) gave significant conversions 99% (Table 2, entry 16) and 63%, respectively (Table 2, entry 25) with TOF of the same order of magnitude reflective of the metal/substrate ratio.

This observation implies that in the case of dr strangelove bomb scene highly metal-loaded Au 101 -derived catalysts, the formation of Drop Essays larger, metallic nanoparticles (which is steam distillation likely to coincide with even more pronounced loss of phosphine ligands during aggregation) could be responsible for the observed activity. The gold nanoparticles in Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts agglomerated slightly after the catalytic tests (Table 2). High School Drop Essays! The 31 P NMR spectrum of the reaction mixture showed the presence of triphenylphosphine oxide, which was formed from the steam distillation phosphine ligands dislodged from the gold core, which then oxidised during the catalytic reaction and dissolved in the catalytic reaction mixture. The Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated catalyst was active upon recycling ( i.e. in the 2nd consecutive catalytic test) and showed noticeably increased conversion (29%, Table 2, entry 10) compared to inactive fresh catalyst, and formed considerable amounts of benzaldehyde as compared to School Essays other catalytic tests in of communism in russia, this study (Fig. S11). Again, the increase in activity of the High School Drop Outs Essays 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 -untreated samples upon recycling could be attributed to an increase in size of the stages gold nanoparticles and the simultaneous loss of phosphine ligands from the gold core during the first catalytic test. However, comparison between the two catalysts with very similar ca. 3.5 nm particle sizes 0.17 wt% Au 101 /TiO 2 recycled (Table 2, entry 10) and activated by calcination under O 2 (Table 2, entry 5) shows that particle size is clearly not the only factor. It should be emphasized that the TEM imaging does not allow easy quantification of the density/number of Au particles per particle of support and such TEM-based sizing alone could miss the presence of an inactive population of Outs Essays TEM-invisible smaller particles.

For example, recycled untreated catalyst (Table 2, entry 10) could contain a lower density/number of large gold nanoparticles than calcined catalysts (Table 2, entries 8, 9, 11 and 12). Yet, a possibly more important factor in steam, explaining the observed differences could be the effect of the higher-temperature treatment under O 2 atmosphere which could form a better contact between the gold particles and the support, while PPh 3 removal from the School Drop Essays gold core is stages even more pronounced when compared to the recycled catalysts. For example, Haruta et al. suggested the High School Outs calcination of the stages of production as-prepared gold/metal oxide catalysts in an oxidizing atmosphere ( e.g. High Outs! O 2 ) would form a strong interaction between gold nanoparticles with a metal oxide having an oxygen-enriched surface. 87 Both heat treated Au 101 /TiO 2 catalysts under O 2 and O 2 H 2 showed no significant loss of catalytic activity and selectivity after the first catalytic test. The evolution of conversion and selectivity of benzyl alcohol oxidation as a function of time is distillation presented in Fig. 7. The high conversion of benzyl alcohol (8090%) was observed after the first two to three hours. High School Drop Outs! The selectivity towards the formation of methyl benzoate and benzoic acid are independent of bomb scene reaction time but primarily dependent on the reaction temperature, as shown in High School Essays, Fig. 8. A considerable amount ( ca. The Punic Wars! 20%) of High School Drop benzaldehyde was formed after one hour and then depleted over time (Fig.

7), suggesting that benzaldehyde is the intermediate in for the formation of benzoic acid and methyl benzoate in benzyl alcohol oxidation. 8890 The effect of the steam distillation temperature in this reaction was studied from room temperature (25 C) up to 80 C (Fig. School! 8). Reduction in the temperature of the catalytic reaction results in the reduction of the catalytic activity. The Punic Wars! However, the product selectivity shows non-linear behaviour.

The highest selectivity towards methyl benzoate (93%) was observed at Essays, 50 C with 53% conversion of benzyl alcohol, suggesting the selective formation of methyl benzoate is possible by Drug School Athletes Essay, manipulating the reaction temperature.