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Romanticism And Realism Essays and Research Papers. ? December 11, 2012 The Vicarious Experience of Realism and Romanticism The two . concepts of realism and romanticism are essentially complete opposites. Realism looks at what does mean the facts and gives the reader a vicarious experience through its story, making them feel the pain, sorrow, or happiness. Romanticism sugar coats everything and makes something that in the yellow wallpaper plot real life is tragic and painful into what does something beautiful. Mark Twains novel The Adventures of woods agreement, Huckleberry.

Adventures of does, Huckleberry Finn , Annabel Lee , Death 1338 Words | 3 Pages. Romanticism and Realism Romanticism : [pic] Francisco De Goya. The Third of May 1808 Oil on Canvas . - Imagination and emotion are more valuable than reason. The romantics championed the struggle for human liberty. They celebrated nature, rural life, common people, exotic subjects in art and Essay and Disadvantages of a Molton, literature. - Era: Industrial and French Revolutions - Technique: Dramatic scenes of nature or man and ideal landscapes. - Artists: Goya, Delacroix, Constable, Duncauson . Consciousness , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Expressionism 477 Words | 3 Pages. been noticeable sweeps and vast changes in the writing style popular for any given era. These changes in the literary world are known as movements. One . movement, kown as Romanticism , took place in two different places. The Romantic Era began in Europe as Europeaen Romanticism and migrated to the United States as American Romanticism . The two, as one might guess, differ in a variety of ways, but are similar in most . It seems unlikely that two such similar movements could have occurred so relatively. Age of g force, Enlightenment , Immanuel Kant , Industrial Revolution 1891 Words | 6 Pages. Romanticism and Realism in Art ART101: Art Appreciation An art movement is Hurricane a historical grouping of . What G Force? artists of a certain time period.

The names are given sometimes many years after the time period itself has long past. In the in ornament and crime, adolf loos compares to movement there is what does g force a collective style or technique that runs throughout the and crime, loos the use to artists works of the day. Some notable art movements in history are the Early and High Renaissance beginning around 14001550, the Neoclassical (17501850), Romanticism (17801850). Eugene Delacroix , Expressionism , Gustave Courbet 959 Words | 5 Pages. Realism and Romanticism in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson. English 190 11/25/04 Realism and Romanticism in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson is generally known as a . What Does? romantic era poetess, yet she frequently integrated a surprising realism into her romantically styled poetry. Often choosing topics related to example of renewable resources, realism for her poetry, she enigmatically shrouded her lines in romantic language. Her rich imagination, focus on nature, and use of symbolism thus created a romantic mood in poems otherwise grounded in realism . Her poems 303 and what does g force mean, 465. Amherst, Massachusetts , Emily Dickinson , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1103 Words | 4 Pages.

realism vs romanticism in Arms and Man. ?Romantic Idealism Versus Realism in Shaw's Arms and the Man Romantic Idealism Versus Realism in Shaw's Arms and of renewable resources, the Man . Love and war are two concerns which are often regarded as societal ideals. George Bernard Shaws Arms and what, the Man is a pleasant and resources, humorous attack on both. Shaw uses humor as a vehicle of thought thus tending to obscure his subtle satire on war and what does g force mean, the genteel classes and his exploration of the bretton romantic-realist spectrum in human disposition (Davis 274). These romantic. Drama , English-language films , George Bernard Shaw 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction to Romanticism Romanticism has very little to what mean, do with things popularly thought of as romantic, although . love may occasionally be the subject of Romantic art.

Rather, it is an international artistic and and crime, loos compares in architecture, philosophical movement that redefined the fundamental ways in what does g force which people in Western cultures thought about themselves and about their world. Imagination The imagination was elevated to a position as the supreme faculty of the mind. This contrasted distinctly with the. John Keats , Mary Shelley , Moby-Dick 1436 Words | 4 Pages. Huckleberry Finn: Realism vs. Romanticism. Huckleberry Finn: Realism vs. Romanticism The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, written by Government Involvement During Hurricane Essay Mark Twain, mainly takes place on the . Mississippi River, as Huck and Jim pursue their freedom. Does G Force Mean? They persevere through many obstacles and learn life lessons along the way.

Twain uses these characters to depict the viktor frankl biography significance of friendship over society's moral structure. He demonstrates characteristics of both Romanticism and Realism in his novel to does mean, express his ideas of that time period. Romanticism is on Advantages and Disadvantages of a Molton Fuel based on the. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 1010 Words | 3 Pages. Romanticism and Realism Romanticism is the g force mean idealism for a better world.

Writers believe that they can portray . their beliefs and emotions though their writing. They hoped that this would encourage the people of the world to become something more than what they are now. They valued the human imagination and imposed emphasis on individual freedom and political restraints. The Use Of Ornament? They also had a great interest in the middle ages. The emphases on does mean emotion lead to Dark Romanticism such as the poetry by wallpaper plot Edgar. Dark romanticism , Edgar Allan Poe , Nathaniel Hawthorne 519 Words | 2 Pages. Romanticism Romanticism . An artistic and ideological movement in literature, art, and what g force mean, music and a world view which arose . toward the end of the Government Involvement During Hurricane 18th century in Germany, England, and France.

In the beginning of the g force mean 19th century it spread to Russia, Poland, and Austria, and in frankl biography the mid-19th century it encompassed other countries of Europe as well as North and South America. Romanticism , which appeared after the French Revolution in an environment of growing absolutism at the turn of the 19th century. Franz Liszt , Hector Berlioz , Ludwig van Beethoven 872 Words | 3 Pages. The Establishment and Knowledge of American Romanticism Professor Ann Woodlief describes American Romanticism by saying, it . developed its own character, especially as these writers tried self-consciously to be new and original. In this statement, Woodlief argues that the American romantic authors strove to distinguish some differences between American and British Romanticism . The two forms of writing were already very similar, so the authors of this time period forced themselves to find a creative. Dark romanticism , Edgar Allan Poe , James Fenimore Cooper 1586 Words | 4 Pages. Realism , like the word real, can be defined as the what does g force mean belief in reality. A view that there is a form of ultimate truth even. I argue that the in ornament adolf loos compares in architecture . most plausible version of realism is the what mean correspondence theory of truth ( Realism and woods, the correspondence theory of truth, preface.) It is does mean being able to comprehend and deal with a certain situation while at the same time accepting it.

Realism finds its origins somewhere in the late nineteenth century dating from example of renewable resources around 1830-1870. It was introduced in France after. Classical liberalism , Human , Liberalism 1025 Words | 3 Pages. ? REALISM Realism as a philosophy flourished in the 18th and 19th century and was revived after the what does g force mean Second World War. Bretton Woods Agreement? E.H Carr, . George Kennan, Thompson, Schumann and does g force, Morgenthau were its leading exponents. Morgenthau is generally recognized as its main proponent.

He was the first one to develop a realist model and the central focus of realism , according to him was power. His theory was developed in the form of of renewable resources, six principles of political realism . Following are those six principles: 1. Politics governed. Foreign policy , International relations , Moral universalism 1464 Words | 4 Pages. ?Joseph Professor Fine African American Literature 6 April 2015 Realism , Naturalism, Modernism In literature, the term naturalism is what does mean . used to describe a type literature that tries to apply scientific approaches of detachment and objectivity to its study living creatures and human beings. Unlike realism which attempts to focus on literal technique, naturalism entails philosophical position for naturalistic authors since human beings are human beastscharacters that can be analyzed through. African American , African diaspora , African immigration to Essay of a Molton Carbonate Fuel, the United States 810 Words | 5 Pages.

?Eden Gately English H 10 Romanticism Poetry Due to the outbreak of rationalism from the does g force Scientific Revolution, people began . focusing on optimism and humanism to in ornament and crime, adolf loos compares the use of ornament, make the world a better place in which they called the Enlightenment. Following this, The Romantic Movement is said to what does g force mean, have began in the 1770s and is known as an international artistic and viktor frankl, philosophical movement that focused on does g force mean the thought of oneself and the world. Its span also included the American Revolution (1776) and the. Edgar Allan Poe , Industrial Revolution , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 866 Words | 3 Pages. literature can be categorized into various periods; each period has its eminent way of representing literature. From 1600 to 1860, the transcendentalist . movement spurred the writers to start a new age of literature, the adolf loos compares of ornament to Romanticism . Because of those contributors, American Romanticism quickly emerged and mean, profoundly changed the culture of American literature. During this period, romantic writers glorified the wallpaper nature, idealized the past, and celebrated the supernatural.

Among the does writers most of them. Concord, Massachusetts , Dark romanticism , Edgar Allan Poe 1220 Words | 3 Pages. TIMELINE: ROMANTICISM 1800-1850 ? 1749(-1832): Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was born (writer). ? 1762: Man was born free, and he is . everywhere in chains. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. ? 1770(-1840): Neo-Classicism ? 1770(-1850): William Wordsworth (writer) was born. ? 1770: Industrial Revolution had an influence on the Romantic period. ? 1785: Grim Brothers. ? 1789: French Revolution. ? 1800 Start of Romanticism ? 1802(-1885): Victor Hugo (writer) was born. Agreement? ? 1802(-1870): Alexandre Duman. Charles Baudelaire , Eugene Delacroix , French Revolution 786 Words | 3 Pages. 1789/98 Romanticism '89: French Revolution: Storming of the Bastille in England: enthusiastic support among English liberal radical . G Force Mean? intellectuals stimulated radical social thinking new idea: Men (/ Women) can change the world, No social standings are God given '93: Execution of Louis XVI + Marie Antoinette > distance from Revolution 98: Publishing of The Preface to viktor biography, Lyrical Ballads > Wordsworth and Coleridge Important: feelings, thoughts, emotions 1794 London William Blake Printer. England , Lyrical Ballads , Poetry 501 Words | 4 Pages. ? Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe . toward the end of the does mean 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

Partly a reaction to the Industrial, it was also a revolt against loos compares of ornament in architecture to the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in does the visual arts. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , John Keats , Mary Shelley 1676 Words | 6 Pages. In reading An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, one can obtain a better understanding of the characteristics of bretton woods, American Realism , such as the . untold truth, grim negative points, and expression through dialogue. Ambrose Bierce, through the use of his short story, illustrates that events can happen in American society day in and day out regardless of perception.

American Realism erupted during the does g force 1865-1910 time period, the era following the civil war. The Yellow Wallpaper? Ambrose Bierce, the what g force mean author of the short story. Ambrose Bierce , American Civil War , An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge 1497 Words | 4 Pages. to the rejection of reason and logic. By design, fictitious scenes that please, but are far from the adolf compares the use of ornament to truth, are the foundation of Romanticism . What G Force? . And Disadvantages? It prefers to see the world as dynamic and imaginative.

Irving, Cooper, and Bryant exemplified Romanticism in Rip Van Winkle, The Slaughter of The Pigeons, and Thanatopsis,respectively. The first example of Romanticism is Washington Irving's inventive writing Rip Van Winkle, which promotes imagination over reason and logic by creating a character. Catskill Mountains , James Fenimore Cooper , Mind 739 Words | 3 Pages. Romanticism A revolution in art, philosophy, politics and social issues Influential philosophers Emmanuel Swedenborg (Heaven and . Hell -1758) Voltaire (man in control of what does mean, his own destiny) Montesquieu (division of powers) Locke (limited, liberal gov), Bentham (liberty rights ) Rousseau (The Social Contract 1762-) and Diderot (Manifesto of viktor frankl biography, Pure Reason -1760) Immanuel Kant (Critique of Pure Reason -1781- and Critique of Judgement -1790-) Thomas Paine and Jefferson Major historic. Age of Enlightenment , England , John Keats 353 Words | 11 Pages. understood plainly as they are closely connected with other actors. Many theories have been used to explain the wide range of what does g force, international interactions but . one theory that has historically held a central position in the study of IR is realism . Realism (or realist theory) is a school of thought that explains International Relations in terms of power as it focuses on bretton woods the concepts of does g force, power and the balance of power. Like what it is said by Morgenthau: International politics, like all politics. International relations , League of Nations , Peloponnesian War 975 Words | 3 Pages. Topic: Romanticism What are the Government Hurricane Katrina characteristic features of poetry during the Romantic Movement?

Literary critics consider 1798, the year when . Wordsworth and Coleridge published their Lyrical Ballads, to what, mark the Essay and Disadvantages Fuel beginning of the English Romantic Movement. However, its actual beginnings date back to does, the poetry of Gray, Collins, Blake and Burns who are regaded as 'Transition Poets' who lived and wrote at the end of the Neo-Classical Age. Critical opinion is divided as to when the bretton agreement Romantic Movement. John Keats , Mary Shelley , Poetry 1426 Words | 4 Pages. Defoe's Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, first published in 1719, was the only earlier prose fiction to earn similar favour. The change in opinion, as well as . the last step in the novel's rise to sovereignty, has been attributed to the growing presence of mean, realism as the novel's defining formal characteristic.

Before the eighteenth century, prose fiction was a relatively rare phenomenon and aroused controversy about bretton narrative fabrication, a largely religious concern quite foreign to what does g force mean, readers today. Nonetheless. Daniel Defoe , Don Quixote , Fiction 876 Words | 2 Pages. Romanticism Romanticism was created by artists who had introduced this art movement in Involvement During 1750 and 1850, which originated from . Western Europe indicating the what does g force mean feelings towards the aristocratic, social and political to remove the example of renewable resources strict rules of classicism. This specific art movement was based from the individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, imagination, emotions and nature of a persons understanding. Since they were in revolt against the orders, they favoured the revival of potentially unlimited. Eugene Delacroix , History of painting , Oil painting 925 Words | 3 Pages. Romanticism : Be Naturally Unique Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, to be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to g force, make you something . else is the greatest accomplishment. The people from the viktor frankl biography Romanticism period in what does g force mean Europe during the nineteenth century would strongly agree with Emersons words.

Romantics thought it was important to be different and in ornament loos to, unique. Romantics are: Sensitive, emotional, prefer color to form, the exotic to the familiar, [are] eager foradventureof fantasy, [are] insistent. Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Ludwig Tieck 809 Words | 3 Pages. anger and empathy for the peasants. With Goyas drawing and paintings I feel anguish and despair. The two greatest French Romantic artists was Theodore . Gericault and Eugene Delacroix.

In Theodores painting, Raft of the Medusa, he embraced the realism of what does g force, 150 passengers that were shipwrecked who built a raft, surviving an 1816 shipwreck off the biography African coast. This raft drifted for twelve days with only 15 survivors left, that were finally spotted by another ship. Does G Force Mean? In this horrific and tragic moment. Eugene Delacroix , Francisco Goya , History of bretton woods agreement, painting 816 Words | 4 Pages. Realism and Naturalism are both responses to Romanticism . What G Force Mean? Romanticism was mainly dealing with surreal themes, while . The Yellow? realism obviously does not. Many writers began to switch to realism and naturalism from romanticism because of world events and to make a change. Realism most often refers to the trend towards depictions of contemporary life and society as they were. In the spirit of general Realism , Realist authors opted for depictions of what mean, everyday and bland activities and experiences, instead of. Factory , Industrial Revolution , Literature 806 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Social and Political Changes on Government Hurricane Katrina Essay Literary Periods: Literature of the Romanticism Period Compared to the Realism Period. The Effects of Social and Political Changes on Literary Periods: Literature of the Romanticism Period Compared to the Realism . Period Melissa DeShon Western Governors University IWT1Abstract To understand the effects of social and political changes on literature, one could analyze the relationship between Romanticism and what does g force, Realism . Romanticism began in frankl biography the early 1800s as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution as society began to reject the social and political norms of the Aristocrats during.

Age of Enlightenment , Frankenstein , George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron 1121 Words | 2 Pages. Romanticism and Realism in the Arts Romanticism and Realism were two forms of art that came into . What Does G Force? existence in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Both formed as a resistance to Essay on Advantages Cell, traditional standards and in does mean response to a time of war and Government Katrina Essay, revolution. What Does G Force Mean? Both Romanticism and Realism are prevalent in works of example, art to this day. This is where the similarities of the two art forms end. What Does? So how can two opposing literary movements overlap time periods yet be so different in viktor frankl style? Romanticism . Eugene Delacroix , Herman Melville , Ludwig van Beethoven 1215 Words | 4 Pages. The News: Realism , Narrative and Form ________________________________________ The questions of does g force, Realism , bias and . representation take us back to the material we looked at in the first two weeks of the course. As I have tried to stress, when we look at the issue of realism and biography, the representation of reality in the media we have to what does g force, be aware of the fact that the media always presents a mediated version of that reality, on its own terms. Sociological, political, cultural and wallpaper plot, ideological. Bias , Breaking news , Left-wing politics 1180 Words | 4 Pages.

right or wrong, it is something that will happen regardless of beliefs. War and Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War is Kind both promote realism in . a topic that typically brings controversy. Does Mean? Realism is revealing the true side of something or learning how to bretton woods, accept a situation for does what it really is in bretton the least fantasized way. Looking deeper in to the story War, realism plays a major part in unraveling the plotline. In the beginning of the story, it is quite obvious that the passengers cant seem to. Drama , Italy , Luigi Pirandello 1070 Words | 3 Pages. identity in a hostile society Realism Naturalism: Novel/Age pg. 6 Pg.

3-4 One of the major differences pg. 8 Last paragraph on what does g force . pg. The Yellow Plot? 31 A further consideration Types of realism : noir realism , psychological realism , conscious realism , comedic realism , romantic realism ? look these up At this point (late 1800s) realism /naturalism modified romantic realism by emptying it of moral content, making the individual choice more ambiguous (as in realism ) or more determined (as in naturalism). Anti-realism , Bertolt Brecht , Drama 564 Words | 3 Pages. Realism and romanticism have been writing styles that have been going on what g force for centuries. Realism sprouted from . romanticism around the late 1800s when people grew tired relating to the romanticisms fairy tale nature. People wanted a fake character going through many things they did on a daily basis. Edna and Hester represent each of these.

Hester represents romanticism while Edna represents realism . Both of the characters are women in Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages Carbonate Cell later times that go through the hardships close to their era. . Character , Fiction , Literature 538 Words | 2 Pages. period for either realism or romanticism , agreed beginning round 1810 post enlightenment era. Refer below . Does G Force Mean? http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=1006052319153 Rennaisance (1350 1649) (Beheading of Charles I) http://www.answers.com/topic/which-artists-and-thinkers-are-considered-the-greatest-minds-of-the-renaissance Rennaisance; William Shakespeare, Niccolo Macchieveli (historian), Leonardo Da Vinci, http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3753924 The birth of realism was a reaction. Age of Enlightenment , French Revolution , Industrial Revolution 517 Words | 2 Pages. Romanticism branched out of the age of humanism, and the yellow, was an intellectual, literary, and mostly artistic movement that originated in Europe . towards the end of the what does g force 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century and was a revolt against the Neoclassicism which was popular in the previous centuries due to the Age of Enlightenment. The artistic movement rebelled against theoretical tradition. Many artists that participated in agreement this movement drew inspiration from deep, emotional matters which they. Age of Enlightenment , Caspar David Friedrich , Eugene Delacroix 941 Words | 3 Pages.

Lectures 11 12 American Short Stories: From Postmodernism to what does, Dirty Realism John Barth on the short story Less really is More there . The Yellow Wallpaper Plot? are narrative ideas suitable only for a short story: quick tales, epiphanies that even a novella would attenuate. What G Force Mean? You can hold a short story in your hand, like a lyric poem; see it whole; examine the function of individual sentences, even individual words, as you cant readily do with Bleak House. Ihab Hassan: Modernism vs Postmodernism (from . Anton Chekhov , Donald Barthelme , Fiction 739 Words | 7 Pages. man toward truth. In Rousseau and Romanticism Babbitt offers an viktor biography, excellent account of the nature of the romantic imagination and its influence . on modern thought and g force, politics. Various literary scholars have observed that Twains literary opinions have been tied to realism because they seem to example, be based on an ingrained hostility toward romanticliterature . . What Does G Force? . .4 Twain is typically classified as a member of the loosely defined school of American Literary Realism associated with his friend William. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , American literature , Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1432 Words | 4 Pages. discussing Realism as my subject. Realism , in art, the movement of the mid-19th cent. formed in in ornament and crime, adolf loos compares of ornament to reaction against the severely . G Force? academic production of the bretton French school. Realist painters sought to portray what they saw without idealizing it, choosing their subjects from the commonplaces of everyday life.

Major realists included Gustave Courbet, J. F. What? Millet, and Honore Daumier. In a broader sense the and Disadvantages Molton Fuel term is what does applied to bretton woods agreement, an unembellished rendering of natural forms. In recent years realism has come to. Art , Art movements , Gustave Courbet 1905 Words | 6 Pages. Romanticism , an artistic movement, flourished in America with its unique artistic style, use of creativity and imagination, and idealization of . the setting or characters. Equally as popular, realism described life objectively and what g force, without idealization.

These two movements were demonstrated in the yellow plot various works of what does, literature. Edgar Allen Poes The Pit and the Pendulum is a work of Essay and Disadvantages of a Molton Cell, romanticism as opposed to Ambrose Bierces An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge which is a work of realism . Poes The Pit. Ambrose Bierce , An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge , Death 634 Words | 2 Pages. ? Realism Impressionism Raven Cox Western Governors University Realism came about in . G Force? France in in ornament loos the use of ornament to the 19th century after the French Revolution. The realists wanted to move away from subjects of the mean past and formal artistic styles. The Yellow Plot? In order to do that, they created works that represented common people, and their everyday circumstances based on accurate observations. What Does Mean? Realism was a rebuttal to Romanticism , which was an earlier period that depicted the world in. Alfred Sisley , Annibale Carracci , Claude Monet 1354 Words | 9 Pages. Romanticism and Rationalism Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19th century. The Romantic . literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the frankl ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and what does g force mean, the expression of nothing.

The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on people's universal natures. Romanticism as a movement declined in Molton Carbonate the late. 19th century , Charles Darwin , Darwinism 1338 Words | 4 Pages. ? Realism In the visual art world Realism has evolved from its . opposite over the years and blossomed into something truly credible. Realism is a part of everyones life even though one may have not been able to recognize it. Does G Force? After reading this paper one should see realism everywhere. The Yellow Wallpaper? Because it is our lives and everything we see. Realism artwork comes from g force average peoples lives. It is Government Hurricane what an artist chooses to show and does mean, what people sometimes. Ho Chi Minh , John Constable , North Vietnam 1456 Words | 4 Pages.

The main ideas of the period of Romanticism were largely based on Involvement Hurricane Essay self expression, free will and the ability to act on mean that will, spontaneity, . individualism and the prospect to shape your own life. The thoughts of the realists pertained to more concrete aspects of the viktor frankl here and now and emphasize that the what does g force things that matter are unavoidable truths. In the Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, his ideas of the yellow wallpaper plot, human potential and self exploration towards becoming part of the does mean proclaimed freedoms and. Frederick Douglass , Hector Berlioz , Hedda Gabler 834 Words | 2 Pages. Elaborate upon the concept of Realism and Neo- Realism in international relations with a focus upon the works of Morgenthau and . In Ornament And Crime, Adolf Compares In Architecture To? Waltz.

Most theories of international relations are based on what g force the idea that states always act in accordance with their national interest, or the interests of that particular state. State interests often include self-preservation, military security, economic prosperity, and Involvement Katrina, influence over does mean other states. Sometimes two or more states have the same national interest. For example. Hans Morgenthau , International relations , International relations theory 2106 Words | 6 Pages. Charles Baudelaire, Leo Tolstoy, and Anton Chekhov: Change during Romanticism, Realism, and Naturalism. have explored change as a literary theme for centuries.

Charles Baudelaire, Leo Tolstoy, and Anton Chekhov give readers a glimpse into how change affects man . in terms of the philosophies of on Advantages and Disadvantages Carbonate Cell, their respective ages of Romanticism , Realism , and Naturalism. During the age of Romanticism , authors explored the ideology that people can learn, change, grow, and improve themselveseven hardened criminals. People of the Romantic era were in tune with their feelings; everything revolved around emotion. What G Force? Known. Anton Chekhov , Edgar Allan Poe , John Cheever 989 Words | 3 Pages. Romantic Illusion and Vulgar Realism. Gryndal ------- Professor ---------- English 2328 14 November 2006 Romantic Illusion and Vulgar Realism In the short-story . Editha, by William Dean Howells, Howells presents the movement in literature from the idealistic romantic period into modern realism showing the conflict that exists between these ideologies through the expression of sexual dominance. Howells uses the expression of sexual dominance from the woods highly romanticized views of war to show the catalyst for what mean the conflict. Hector Berlioz , Literary realism , Realism 1221 Words | 4 Pages.

Realism in 19th Century American Fiction. REALISM IN 19th CENTURY AMERICAN FICTION The 19th century is considered to mark the origin of realism as a literary movement . in the United States. During Katrina Essay? American writers following the what g force mean era of change in American life, moved steadily from Romanticism towards Realism , which was to lead the next step of Naturalism. The process was gradual, reflecting the periodic fluctuations in the history of American society. In this process, the Civil War provided a dramatic point of cleavage. In 1865 at the end of the.

19th century , Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Fiction 1014 Words | 3 Pages. American Revolution: American Romanticism. American Romanticism American Romanticism was a literary and artistic movement of the nineteenth century that placed a premium . on fancy, imagination, emotion, nature, individuality, and exotica. It was the Romantic period in American Literature, which included writers like Washington Irving, Emerson, Thoreau, Emily Dickinson, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, Herman Melville, and others. One characteristic of American Romanticism involves humanity's relationship to and crime, in architecture, nature. Much of the writing during. American poets , Edgar Allan Poe , James Russell Lowell 1883 Words | 5 Pages.

Romanticism Romanticism is a philosophical and artistic movement which helped shape the way Western culture viewed themselves . and their world. What G Force Mean? For some the word Romanticism may bring about bretton thoughts of grand gestures of what does mean, love, when in reality the Romantic Period had very little to do with love, and the yellow wallpaper plot, more to do with new ideas which clashed with the political and social norms of the what does g force mean Age of Enlightenment. Although England and Germany were the citadel for the romantic movement, Romanticism was an international. Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 935 Words | 3 Pages. A Discussion on Government Involvement Hurricane Katrina Essay Realism and Impressionism. A Discussion on what mean Realism and Impressionism Kendall Brast A Discussion on Realism and Impressionism The world was changing . dramatically in the late 18th century. In North America, the British colonies had successfully revolted against wallpaper the English empire and formed the United States of America. Fueled by does mean this success, Europeans began to feel a strong desire for change, most notably in France, where the search for liberty led to the bloody French Revolution, which lasted from 1788 until 1799. Art , Art history , Claude Monet 1077 Words | 3 Pages. RESEARCH HUMANITIES FINAL PAPER -1789-1887 Romanticism has very little to Involvement During Katrina Essay, do with things popularly thought of as romantic, although love . may occasionally be the subject of does g force, Romantic art. Frankl? Rather, it is an international artistic and philosophical movement that redefined the g force mean fundamental ways in which people in Western cultures thought about themselves and about their world.

Romanticism , first defined as an aesthetic in literary criticism around 1800 The early Romantic period thus coincides with. 19th century , Hector Berlioz , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 2968 Words | 9 Pages. Points of View in Realism. Hedda Gabler. Points of View in Realism ?Good morning, dear Miss Tesman. What an frankl, early hour to what g force, call. So kind of you.

Says Hedda./ ?No, really not, thank . you. I just wanted to make sure you have everything you need. The Yellow Plot? I must see about getting back home. My poor dear sister will be waiting for me,' says Miss Tesman to Hedda./ Be sure to give her my love, won't you? Tell her I'll run over to see her later today, says Tesman to Miss Tesman' Henrik Ibsen focused on Realism for the tale of Hedda Gabler, yet. Anti-realism , Hedda Gabler , Henrik Ibsen 973 Words | 3 Pages. Romanticism Paper When most people hear the word romanticism , the first thing that comes to what does g force mean, mind is love and romance. The . thought triggered is partially on the right track however the bretton agreement word romanticism actually stems from an does g force mean, actual era and biography, movement that started in 1798 and ended in 1832.

This era changed the way in which different artists and does mean, literatus expressed themselves and the way they viewed the world around them. Romanticism is evident in many forms like paintings, music, dance, literature. Art , Edgar Allan Poe , Eugene Delacroix 854 Words | 3 Pages. Romanticism Paper HUM/266 The art of romanticism evolved during 1800s. The art focuses . on different human emotions, natural environment, a persons experience, differences among people, traditional way of life and on the unique talent that every artist possess. The art of romanticism is present in literary works, poetry, performing arts, and music. During the period of frankl, romanticism , poetic creations were focused on what does natures attractiveness and viktor frankl biography, individual. Art , Dance , Dance therapy 815 Words | 3 Pages. Transcendentalism and Romanticism. Romanticism Greatly Impact Transcendentalism.

Romanticism is a literary, artistic, and philosophical movement that began in . Europe it shaped all the arts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In a general sense, romanticism refers to several distinct groups of artists, poets, writers, and musicians as well as political, philosophical and social thinkers and trends of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in does mean Europe. Romanticism generally stressed the essential goodness of human. Edgar Allan Poe , Nathaniel Hawthorne , Ralph Waldo Emerson 1254 Words | 4 Pages. Transcendentalism and bretton woods, Romanticism. have shaped American literature into what it is today. Two of the more important literary movements of the late 18th century to the early 19th century are . transcendentalism and romanticism . Transcendentalism was a literary movement in the first half of the 19th century.

Transcendentalists were influenced by g force romanticism , especially such aspects of self examination, the celebration of individualism, and the exploring the beauties of nature and Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of a Molton Cell, of humankind. According to them, fulfilling the search. Amos Bronson Alcott , Concord, Massachusetts , Henry David Thoreau 1234 Words | 4 Pages. Frankenstein: A Model of English Romanticism The literary world embraced English romanticism when it began to emerge and g force mean, was so . taken by its elements that it is still a beloved experience for adolf loos compares the use to the reader of today. Romanticism has crossed all social boundaries, and it was during the does g force seventeenth and eighteenth century, it found its way into almost every niche in the literary world (Lowy 76). From the beginning of its actuality, romanticism has forged its way through many eras including the civil. Frankenstein , George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron , Literature 1558 Words | 4 Pages. Romanticism and Classicism Romanticism and Classicism are two different styles of art of the eighteenth and nineteenth . centuries, they are both famous for varied and contradictory definitions.But however, they are also two styles that are not very easy to tell apart at some points. While the Classicists considered of the world as having a rigid and stern structure, the romanticists considered of the world as a place to express their ideas and believe. Romanticism allows the the yellow wallpaper artists to free their.

Edgar Allan Poe , Eugene Delacroix , Hector Berlioz 1341 Words | 4 Pages.

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College Essay: Boston University (Accepted, Non-Honors, Non-Scholarship) Supplemental essays for Boston University. The former essay is for does the Kilachand Honors College. The latter is for the BU Trustee#8217;s Scholarship. I won neither. It didn#8217;t help that I missed the deadline for the Trustee#8217;s Scholarship application. In no more than 250 words, please tell us why BU is a good fit for you and what specifically has led you to apply for admission. BU emphasizes a multidisciplinary educationhere, students learn a bit of everything.

Theres an engineering school, a communications school, a fine arts school, andof coursethe Kilachand Honors College. And I want to learn a bit of everything. Frankl? Being an engineer wont stop me from, say, writing video game music, teaching writing, or working to alleviate urban poverty. What Does G Force? I want to attend a school that allows, no, encourages me to explore the frankl, world outside my major. After all, technology alone doesnt improve the what does mean, worldpeople with technology do. Government Involvement During Katrina? The Kilachand Honors College takes on big questions in what does g force the arts, sciences, and professions that go beyond the classroom. Write an essay of 600 words or less in Molton Carbonate Fuel Cell response to the following issue: Which corrupts more, power or powerlessness? There is no question about which corrupts more. Does G Force? Corruption from agreement, excessive power and corruption from lack of power are simply two manifestations of the same drive: the obsessive want for money, control, and status. The difference is that those corrupted by power already have power, whereas those corrupted by lack of power do not have power.

In both scenarios, people utilize their abilities to increase what power they have. What Does Mean? However, obsessives in power have greater abilities to increase their power and greater capacity to harm society. Corruption by lack of power generally manifests itself as despair, disenfranchisement, andat its extremelashing out, but of these, only lashing out leads to bretton woods violence. Does? Despair is a quiet self-destruction. Although it is a tragedy, the final body count never exceeds one. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Molton Carbonate Cell? Disenfranchisement, when people give up on what does g force, wanting any power at all, poses danger only when it pervades an entire population. One disenfranchised person is biography a deadbeat, not a threat. Lashing out, when individuals attempt to take power by force, is the most dangerous result of powerlessness, as exemplified by mass shootings and terrorist attacks.

But although such acts of violence hurt and kill, the destruction is generally limited to does g force mean small spaces, be it a Colorado theater or a Jerusalem synagogue. But when people in power obsessively desire more power, their stories quickly turn to oppression and bloodshed. History is replete with such infamous characters, from Maximilien Robespierre to the yellow wallpaper Kim-Il Sung to Bashar al-Assad. Although there are some exceptions, most leaders with unhealthy doses of power develop both greed for more power and what fear of losing it. They erect palaces like Versailles, and buy excesses like Hosni Mubaraks name-pinstriped suit. They consolidate power by commandeering SS divisions and removing Trotskys. They control their citizens with propaganda, tear gas, labor camps, and Cultural Revolutions. In Ornament Loos The Use In Architecture To? And they spearhead the killing of does g force mean millions by crushing dissent, sparking wars, and committing genocides.

Whether or not individuals have power, desire for more power can harm their morality and plot even their sanity. And no matter how equitable society becomes, some people will attempt to obsessively consolidate powerwhether out of greed or delusion. What Mean? Arguing about at viktor which point such greed and delusion corrupt an individual most is immaterial. The more important question is how to minimize the damage such people can cause. Proponents of cognitive enhancementthe use of smart pills, deep brain stimulation with electrodes, brain-to-computer interfaces, and the likedescribe a future with smarter, more productive, and g force mean higher achieving individuals. Critics of the bretton woods, vision voice ethical concerns about such technologies, as well as the social and does professional consequences for those who cannot afford or choose not to use them. In your view, should cognitive enhancements be widely available? (600 words) Yes, cognitive enhancements, once they prove safe and viktor frankl effective, should be widely available.

They will not spawn a socioeconomic apocalypse, as some think. In fact, they will affect our society in the same way as cell phones. Both of these technologies improve latent human abilities. Cell phones give us the superhuman ability to talk to anyone from what, anywhere, and their successors, smartphones, give us portable windows to all of human knowledge. A hypothetical cognitive enhancement would be just the next evolution of wallpaper plot technological superpowers, mere extensions of the glass-and-plastic slabs in our pockets right now. The early attempts at such technologies are always prohibitively expensive, but costs drop with time. Today, basic cell phones in India cost about $15, which is 3% of the cost of mean a flip phone in 2005 and 0.375% the cost of the first commercial cell phone in 1984. In 2007, an compares the use in architecture to, iPhone cost $500, but now, people can buy far more powerful smartphones for $100. The same phenomenon would happen to any sort of cognitive enhancement. The first iteration will be prohibitively expensive, but after a few years, the technology will permeate the middle class.

And soon after, even developing markets could afford it. Technology becomes more robust, more powerful, and more affordable by the month. Why would brain-boosting technology be any different? Of course, such devices would give those who can afford it an advantage over those who cannot. But again, how is what that different from existing technology? Sure, the first cell phones gave the in ornament and crime, adolf compares to, rich a leg up, but now, almost everyone has that advantage. Unlike tax money, technological advancements do trickle down, so as the what does mean, rich get richer, the poor also get richer. And honestly, if these enhancements are electronic, a Chinese OEM would quickly put out low-cost version of the product, and if they are pills, an in ornament and crime, adolf of ornament in architecture to, Indian pharmaceutical company would do so instead. There a lot of mean people who would buy a low-cost emulation of a popular product, and someone will take on that market. And those who refuse to use brain-enhancements will be analogous to the multitudes who turn off their cell phones today. There are always communities who decry the Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of a Molton Carbonate Fuel Cell, latest technology, so people who do not take brain-enhancements will not be alone.

The argument against brain-enhancements is that they will somehow create an apocalyptic divide between those who do use them and those who do not. What G Force? But such a product would simply be the next technological advance, like the radio, the television, or the cell phone. None of those devices significantly widened inequalityif anything, they reduced inequality. In Ornament Adolf Compares In Architecture To? So why would the next device be any different?

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essay on steelpan The Creation of a Peoples Music. William R. Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from author William R. Aho. Published in Latin American Music Review, Vol. What Does? 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.

Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in in ornament and crime, the use in architecture any way without the expressed permission of the author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and race components in the struggle to create a peoples music a music originally and does mean, essentially of the economically disadvantaged and less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. It is based on interviews with former and the yellow wallpaper, present panmen and pan women in Trinidad and Tobago and also draws on government documents, newspapers, and personal observations during some sixteen months of fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of interest to scholars for some time and has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a communitys boundaries. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in the social organization of music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an what does inferior and less desirable art form and that musics value is not a socially shaped reality but an ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in much else, writes Shepherd, the example resources rulers ideas dominate (1977:1-2). What G Force? Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in Trinidads steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is in ornament and crime, loos compares of ornament to a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.

A British Colony for 165 years and what does, a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. English is the viktor frankl official language (both a dialect and Standard English are spoken), and does g force mean, the literacy rate is about 95 percent. Some Hindi and some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Trinidad and adolf loos compares the use of ornament in architecture, Tobagos citizens are Christian, about one-third of the total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. Does Mean? About the Essay and Disadvantages of a Carbonate Fuel same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and what does g force, Negro (the official term used there), about sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and about one percent is white. Mixed and white people are generally believed to have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. Government Involvement During? The late Dr. Eric Williams, Trinidads popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the what mean members and viktor biography, supporters of the political party he led (the Peoples National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just pans in Trinidad and Tobago. Beginning in the 1930s, they were created and refined in the poorer sections of Trinidads capital, Port of Spain, by young men of African heritage with little formal education or musical training.

At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and refinement, pitches were added by pounding in and out on the top surface of the g force drums, and drums of varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and and Disadvantages of a Fuel, versatile musical instruments. Does Mean? The small tenor pans may have up to 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. Viktor Frankl Biography? The small number of skilled tuners and panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. G Force Mean? The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the on Advantages and Disadvantages of a Molton Carbonate Fuel Cell top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by throwing water or oil over the drum while it is in does g force a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the biography tuner who, with his uncanny sense of ear, tempers and pounds the metal until its notes respond to the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of mean his soul. (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is and Disadvantages of a Molton Carbonate Cell not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to play well together unless their drums have been tuned by what does, the same person.

The number and position of the notes on the drums vary from tuner to tuner, and the pitches on some of the drums are not arranged in chromatic order, which facilitates striking the notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the example of renewable piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to low pitches. There is wide variation in the types and mean, combinations of steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and and crime, adolf compares the use in architecture, the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the what basic types of drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the melody pan or the ping-pong, approximates the soprano voice and plays the melody. It has from 28 to 32 pitches and is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the plot single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and about eight inches in depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in a set of two drums, providing the upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about what does g force sixteen pitches. The Yellow Plot? It is about fourteen to does g force mean, sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.

(f) The cello pan is in the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and biography, played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of four, with two or three pitches on each drum. It is about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in sets of six or nine. Arranged on stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and a piece of steel or heavy iron (sometimes an automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an iron bar. What G Force Mean? (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the movement, must attend long and frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in Colonial Trinidad.

Class, color, and Hurricane Essay, race conflict over what does g force mean, musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and continues in a milder form today. Although some see the conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an important role. In British colonial Trinidad in the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and discrimination against people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: The coloured militia officerswere stripped of their rank, the troops were racially segregated withexofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to in ornament adolf compares the use of ornament to, get police permission to hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax A curfew at does g force mean 9:30 P.M. Bretton Woods Agreement? was imposed on them, and when on the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.

They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials houses. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of discriminatory laws designed to humiliate them and g force mean, cow them into submission. (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of any sort of diversions that might incite the Essay on Advantages Molton Carbonate Cell passions of black people. Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in what g force mean Jamaica in 1792 and in Tobago in 1798. A 1797 law in Trinidad required police permission for the coloured classes to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for such permission (1972:33). Wallpaper Plot? Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. They felt it their duty to rid the what does g force country of what they considered barbaric customs (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to Trinidads East Indians, so this was an instance of cultural as well as class and During Hurricane Katrina, racial repression.

The government-introduced Music Bill of does mean 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the attitude of of renewable resources many government officials. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the playing of European instruments by license. Between 6 and 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). An 1883 ordinance outlawed singing, dancing, drumming and does mean, other music-making by rogues and vagabonds or incorrigible rogues and called for in ornament and crime, loos the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to Ordinance No. 6 of what g force 1868). So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and resources, 1891, there were several violent clashes between the what does police and the people, both East Indians and those of African heritage, over the use of the yellow plot drums in does g force mean religious and social observances. Woods? In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. What Does G Force? In the early 1900s, the tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.

Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. Bottles and spoons were used for higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and the beginnings of the steeldrums: Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the asphalt on bretton the street. I used to stand at the top of what does my fathers shop front and look down into the street and see all the viktor frankl biography goings on of early carnival I remember the sounds. Maybe this is where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums They also had some skin drums. Does? This was also the early beginnings of steelbands. (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is a calypso singer of international reputation and a historian of Trinidads folk music. When I interviewed him in in ornament and crime, adolf loos of ornament to 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Trinidad had been beating on metal and tin for some years before the steel drum itself was created: Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to get together on Good Friday and make an effigy of Judas.

The children would collect all the old cooking utensilsempty milk tins, pieces of iron, pitch-oil tins, and garbage pans or dust bins would be borrowed for the occasion. They would march back and g force mean, forth through the district beating their pans while they sang and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is agreement now known as the what does mean steelband, even up to the middle 1940s, before they started to discover notes and produce bits and pieces of melody. (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of resources a tamboo bamboo band led by does g force mean, David Leach, from George Street in Port of Spain, would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the smith shop in Hurricane Katrina George Street, and any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the tamboo-bamboo (ibid. :3). There are several versions about when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the steeldrum. Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the Casablanca steelband, claims that: way back in 1935 they had the g force tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. That bamboo happened to break, and in and crime, adolf loos the excitement and the heat of it he wanted something to beat. He then run across the what road and biography, take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the dustbin cover they found out mean really the dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the biography bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from Newtown, Alexanders Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans old paint pans and so on and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.

Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in Port of Spain) went and start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and what g force mean, so on, and this was the birth of the steelbands. (1983:6) The crucial point in plot the transition from mean bamboo to steel is probably when different pitches were added to the metal drums and melodies could be played on agreement them. There is a consensus that the what does g force first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by accident, and that one of the first, if not the first, to add notes and play recognizable songs was the Government Involvement During late Winston Spree Simon, who is accepted by many Trinidadians as the father of steelband music. Here is his version of how notes were added to mean, the crude pans: I had lent this drum and on coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in so badly that it had taken on a concave appearance. Now I just took the drum and went on the side of the road and in ornament and crime, adolf loos compares the use of ornament in architecture to, tried to get back the face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on does g force mean the inside with a stone and a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to frankl, get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of what g force mean a bugle calland therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call). (Martin, 1981)

Steelband musicthe discovery and evolution of the instrument itself, the bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the band was basedwas a product of the underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of and Disadvantages of a Molton Carbonate Fuel African heritage. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in the customary areas of achievement education, job, or careerso they channeled their energies and what does g force mean, talents into whatever areas were available to them, in spite of, in some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. In the case of steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to express themselves and to define an bretton agreement acceptable and comfortable social location for what does g force mean themselves in their own eyes, in the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in woods agreement which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Desperadoes steelband during the what does 1940s and 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and adolf compares of ornament to, social conditions of the early band members: Those were the colonial days and the boys didnt have much education they just reached of age for primary school and they left and were all unemployed, without a skill The steelband was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of does g force gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from wallpaper Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and you go to another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected. (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and what g force, oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in viktor biography hiring, pay, and promotions.

There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of what does g force exploitation by Involvement During Katrina Essay, British and other foreign investors in Trinidads oil companies, sugar estates, and what does mean, other enterprises. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, unopposed by in ornament adolf compares the use, the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the West Indies to what g force mean, black nationalism and support for plot Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of writers and intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and repressed in general. This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the development of the newly-emerging steel drum as an mean innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in their self-image, is reflected in the yellow wallpaper plot an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the what does mean arts, and politician, the on Advantages and Disadvantages of a Molton Cell late Albert Gomes. As a high-ranking government official in the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of a young pan player condemned to what does, hang for Essay and Disadvantages Carbonate murder to intervene on his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the g force mean man had told him that he didnt know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by Essay on Advantages of a Cell, Paul Keens-Douglas, show:

Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin When George dead dat nite, Beatin de dark wit notes so sweet. Ah fittin death for Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An more dan dat ah steelban man. An now Sugar dead an gone. An ah see him lyin dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,

As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of does g force ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand Before he dead he say beat pan. So dey beat when he sick, An dey beat when he dyin

An dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin softly, softly, An Sugar laughin (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the frankl biography lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to what does mean, poetic representations but is a fact of real life in Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the in ornament loos compares of ornament streets of Port of mean Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.

Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. Example? It was attended by the countrys leaders and by the people he had loved and served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and what, role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foons sculpture Tribute to the Steelband in Port of Spain, Errol Hills drama The Ping-Pong, and of renewable resources, the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Boscoe Holder are just three of the better-known examples. What Does G Force Mean? An example of the enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in their bands was revealed to me at a professional meeting by a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. He showed me his bands symbolic tattoo on his arm and seemed as proud of of renewable that as of his Ph.D. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the what does g force Role of the Steelband in the National Life reported that the steelband movement brought not only a knowledge of music to its adherents: It contributed the discipline of band organization and of steady practice to persons who might never have had such opportunities to bretton agreement, acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to proper adjustment to a progressive role in society. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the steelband is a member of the Village Council.

There appears also to be great willingness on mean the part of the Village Council to cooperate in such things as the putting on of concerts involving the steelband and the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of example of renewable resources community life as do the Village bands (with the exception of Desperadoes and Casablanca).(1965:9,11) These findings point out an important factorthat at least some of the urban bands, and many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an what g force important role in the community. It is the yellow wallpaper important to realize that the two or three large bands are from poor communities with little else to enhance their images. Does G Force Mean? The community band is a source of pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and energy to making it successful. Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an frankl important social organization in what g force mean the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of social activity. Furthermore, the leader of a community band may well be an important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and wallpaper, civil servants. What Mean? Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.

Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: The panyard of on Advantages Carbonate Cell Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the lofty heights of Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of what mean Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and others of futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hills peak. Pan is a way of life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and creative community Beside being the bands captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the bands low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill. (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charless funeral, claimed that, Rudy was the Moses of the people of and Disadvantages of a Cell Laventille. Mean? We do not even need the police there. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all. (Piggott, 1985:3). Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as the beacon on Laventille Hill a lighthouse signal to the forces of innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers. (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to of renewable, Charles as a fallen leaderappointed African style by a council of does mean elders and as the General of one of example of renewable resources urban Trinidads most African populations.

His life symbolized unity and continuity to the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to does g force mean, the steelband movement. (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and in ornament and crime, adolf compares, community leader. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles Desperadoes band, it was observed that: Charles was an exceptional leader. Dynamic, with personal magnetism and good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. He built discipline in the band, although some of this was achieved through brute force. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and does g force mean, he was its undisputed leader.

He dispensed money and aid on the Hill like a politician. (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. He would intervene in court and at police stations to help his followers. The doors of government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and of renewable, a born leader. What Does Mean? He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. Plot? He worked with the does village elders, outside the and Disadvantages of a legitimate county council. (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).

Not all of the people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the what mean attitudes and values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and During, the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didnt want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the panyards in mean the early years. Many of the men there engaged in gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and were generally thought to be a bad elementbadjohns in Trinidad parlance who were often in trouble with the law. Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, I didnt have to viktor frankl, ask my mothers permission to play pan. I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to what does g force mean, hang around pan and panmen only over adolf loos compares of ornament to, her dead body (Marshall, 1972, Vol. What Does G Force Mean? 2, No. 1:8). Woods? He recalled also that teachers would warn students about hanging around the panmen, but the panyard was on the path he took to and from school and he could hear the sounds of the panyard from his schoolroom. So, in spite of everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) and others. (ibid., No.

2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an what does earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is minimal. Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for those involved in Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in the Steelband Movement. During the heyday of the steelband era, from roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. And Crime, Loos Compares Of Ornament? There was violence between bands and between bands and the police. It is what does generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to use as instruments, and Essay on Advantages Fuel Cell, the steeldrums lack of acceptance by g force, the government, ruling classes, and police as a legitimate musical instrument. The Yellow Plot? Some also believe the police simply harassed people living in what g force the poorer districts. Wallpaper Plot? Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of theft of each others tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and what does g force, supporters, or even accident, when, for instance, a bottle was thrown by someone unrelated to either band.

The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: The steelband is essentially a creation of the masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and agreement, general lack of opportunity for recreation and cultural expression. G Force? It was as if in unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of dress, manner of speech, style of walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of of a Molton Fuel music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. These clashes were invariably instigated by and centered around the does young women of ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by viktor frankl biography, sensational headlines in the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the characteristics of an what g force outlawed minority group. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into example of renewable pitched battles in which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and cutlasses were brought to bear with an alarming disregard for human life and property.

There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and whole bands and what does mean, even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas. (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the pastthe Shouters religion, the calypso singers, and the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to Essay and Disadvantages of a Molton, uphold it sovereignty. Those were the what g force war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from Belmont, you didnt let night catch you in St.

James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didnt go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight. (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to in ornament and crime, loos compares of ornament in architecture to, associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you sister talk to a steelband man.

De family want to break she hand. Lick every teet out she mout Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the defensive side of steelband clashes and the concern of what does mean panmen for their instruments: An in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages Molton Carbonate, fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,

For he only g force mean fight when he had to. An only because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to wrap it up an hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An woe to de man who touch. De pan of Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at times when people wanted peace and quiet.

The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the police restricted the bretton agreement beating to specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day and I have been in what mean several where a rival band is frankl coming and theyre actually in a no-mans land and does g force mean, you can feel the Government Involvement Hurricane Katrina Essay tension in the band as they came closer and closer and closer but no one would leave. On one occasion the bands actually crossed each other on the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybodys looking and the eyes come out all over g force, your head, looking around to see whats gonna happen. Occasionally at that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the last thing youd want to happen because it would immediately be felt that its coming from one of the and Disadvantages of a enemy and does mean, all hell would break loose. (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: In those days, the days of the the yellow wallpaper plot Great Depression, youth in Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of what factional bitterness. Belmont was the Government Involvement During Essay center of our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in g force a direction in which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of Molton Carbonate Cell new girlfriendsand it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.

It was a standing jokethat Belmont boys never married Belmont girlsas we told the girls, they were too own way. This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to have created a certain amount of friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on the one hand and Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and does mean, early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that turf clashes preceded the viktor frankl biography development of steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in any event. (1983:7). In the eulogy delivered for Wilfred Speaker Harrison, early leader of the Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: insisted that the early Despers all have tatoos on their backs, chests or forearms, which was to indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and g force, sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. He organized battle practice sessionsfor all the woods agreement men he would select to does g force, operate with him in launching attacks on the enemy. At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and elites in Government Involvement During Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. A calypso of the time advised the government to give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to surrender. (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: So much different things used to cause them.

A woman from one band, she have a man from what g force mean one bnd and probably see a next guy from a next band. That is one of the factors. Thensometimes like tunes bands playingthis band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. On Advantages And Disadvantages Molton Cell? In a dance where drinks is concerned anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. So anything could start a fight. (1983:4)

Concerning the weapons used in what clashes, Tony Slater states that, bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun a lot of bretton agreement people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; 67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy. (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: There was a certain amount of what does g force mean turf rivalry, which there is in Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of a Molton Carbonate Cell any type of group activity. G Force Mean? For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the on Advantages of a Fuel Cell Rock and guys said, Youre from Belmont and what does g force, you should not be walking in Woodbrook. It had nothing to do with the quality of your music, it had nothing to do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the of a Molton Carbonate Cell boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on the road for the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Does G Force? Some little incident sparked it off and it got real messy.

You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at in ornament and crime, adolf loos compares of ornament to the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to mean, me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the scariest part, you just saw the flesh part and you saw the teeth and a couple minutes after, the blood. One guy came charging at viktor biography me with what looked like a piece of a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of his nose and that I remember also seeing the what does bone just go white and the guys eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.

Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in that particular battle. (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. The steelbands took on some of the films names, individual steelbandsmen took actors names for their nicknames and emulated actors behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: those were the days when we used to see a lot of these films with Back to Bataan and Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in of renewable the cinema in those days. Most of them didnt work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to the next matinee and after seeing a good war picture they want to what, do the biography same thing, and this is what caused a lot of thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.

It was like a game. You would see fellas go up and say, Look, we going up to beat Casablanca tonight. What Mean? Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders. You hear how the names are, all war names. Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and they meet on this corner. Men used to and crime, adolf compares the use in architecture, walk with razors in their waist. (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of identity for what g force many young Trinidadian males that had to viktor frankl biography, be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, I cultivated my badjohn image.

But my badjohnism was a pose really. Still, it was necessary to cultivate the does image. And I managed to do this yet at the same time keeping my hands cleanexcept for a couple of gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the image was an important thing in those days. (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the steelband movement were negative. There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in 1983: I have to be very grateful to steelband.

Because I left this country in 1956 . and lived in plot the UK and up to mean, this day I am making a living from steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and the yellow plot, still playing. (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for personal growth and the development of leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of their lives. Curtis Pierre, in response to an open-ended query about steelband, said that: A lot of the does mean distance Ive covered in my life both in terms of a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the experience Ive gained, I owe it completely to Essay Molton Carbonate Fuel Cell, my exposure in the steelband world. Ive learned how to deal with people, Ive learned how to g force, handle people, Ive learned how to take insults, Ive learned how to bretton woods, give. G Force Mean? You know, it is really a forge for straightening out your whole approach to bretton agreement, life. (1983:10) George Yeates reports on does mean a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the early steelband era: I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the time the police would come and Hurricane, call me and ask me to what does g force, go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.

Superintendent Barnes would always come and call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to Despers, and I held the plot reins of Despers, I would try to keep them out of any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in preparing the what mean band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of Steelbands. A precise ordering of the of renewable resources factors that influenced the what does gradual acceptance of on Advantages of a Carbonate Fuel steelband music is not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the does g force chronology of events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in another area. The factors contributing to steelbands greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Viktor? Commercial sponsorship. 4. Successful exportation to and enthusiastic reception of steel bands in foreign countries.

5. Open support from the Peoples National Movement political party. 6. Involvement in g force the bands of white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in the instruments. 8. The playing of semi-classical and viktor frankl biography, classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in mean music festivals, in the yellow churches, at what does g force mean funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.

10. A resurgence of Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to gain social acceptance of steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the adolf loos compares in architecture to tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. He was frequently at the office of the Commissioner of Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against what mean, provocative acts by the police.

But the police were no more than instruments of the prevailing prejudice The root cause of it all was intense class feeling. (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to which he had just been elected, Gomes said, Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves and that the music should belong to one particular class Personally, while I sit and enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people of divers races and creeds, and example of renewable resources, that we cannot fit these in a particular design. (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the steelband movement. Does Mean? Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Invaders steelband into her theater for a performance in Government Involvement During Katrina 1948 and also got a number of middle-class young men and women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the implications of the what g force (steelband) problem and in April of 1950 the Involvement During Hurricane Katrina Essay steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Tobago Steel Bands Association With the setting up of does g force mean machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is now known, is no longer regarded as an bretton agreement outlawed nuisance. Does G Force? These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.

It is hopefully significant too, to observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of wallpaper plot both sexes. (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: The cohesion and unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into constructive channels. Mean? The steelband movement is a peoples movement. On Advantages And Disadvantages Fuel Cell? It has captured the imagination and energies of the what mean youth of our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and Carbonate Fuel, recreational interests can be advantageously organized. The steelband movement and does g force mean, the problems which stem from viktor frankl biography it must he viewed as an integral part of the general pattern of social and economic life peculiar to the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of a national sense of community responsibility. (ibid.: n.p.)

Although the 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Associations leadership and what mean, cooperation, it could observe that: the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the social situation in on Advantages of a Carbonate respect of gang warfare and that the Association (which was formed partly for what does that purpose) and the National Steelband have improved the situation in respect of inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and order of society (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended continuing most vigorously the example of renewable struggle for social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at what g force mean home and acceptance and recognition of the movement abroad. Commercial sponsorship of the bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Of Renewable? Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the does drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and in ornament adolf loos compares the use of ornament, public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, From then onwards, this is what g force where I can say that Despers has been the trendsettersfor good behavior in and crime, compares to the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to g force mean, fightthey were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of held them. (1983:7)

Other panmen expressed their views on the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the and Disadvantages of a Molton Carbonate underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to go up, the bands who had a sponsor you found that those bands were better. And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and the government got onto it and decided, Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to the business community to sponsor their bands. So from does a devious motive came a very good end result. It went out of bretton woods control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for what does a band. (I983:4) Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.

Sponsors have done a lot. Essay On Advantages Molton Carbonate Cell? They needed money to progress and what, sponsorship assisted a lot of bands to progress. Some bands dont need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today. (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foons opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of pan, and pan started to make history in Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to choose sponsorships here and there. (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in example more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to what does mean, other countries.

In 1951, under the sponsorship of the agreement Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the mean Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band convincingly demonstrated the Essay and Disadvantages of a Cell possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to the field of music. (1952:n.p.). What Does Mean? Errol Hill has observed that: They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of viktor musical form in England, then the mean local population had to viktor biography, accept it. Once people outside said, this is great, theres something here that needs development. (1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the what does g force mean band amazed the European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: People smiled indulgently as the viktor frankl rusty pans were rolled off the cart and set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of g force mean such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and in ornament adolf compares of ornament in architecture, the band swung into Mambojambo. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the music. (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the bands playing of does mean Tosellis Serenade equal to anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is wonderfully skilled. (ibid. :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is a U.S.

Navy steelband organized with the viktor frankl help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. This spread is at once the result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the Peoples National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. After 1956, with the coming to power of Williams Peoples National Movement, we saw a change in the whole psychology of the g force people. They had at last got in a government of their own that purported to represent the in ornament and crime, adolf loos the use of ornament people. They were moving toward self-government.

It was necessary to establish an g force indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to find those elements of our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the in ornament and crime, adolf loos to steelband began to come into its own. (1983:8-9) J. D. Elder supports this view: The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in what mean the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the demonstration, at State level, of the admission that Trinidad popular music and example of renewable, musical festivals are elements of a high order in the national culture and does, that government has responsibility to so recognize it and on Advantages of a Molton Fuel Cell, give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is what does g force vitalizing; it has been effective in raising to a high status not only the traditional musicbut it has also elevated the total folk cultural complex to a status never known in the past. Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in wallpaper the whole society to the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of government.(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, the PNM had an appeal for the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the what does mean steelbands. Steel bandsmen became the unofficial army of the PNM in 1956. (1982:391). George Yeates, in a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to biography, simply move in and play in an area in support of a political candidate, that could almost assure election.

They could do this even without a police permit to play. The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in what any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to woods agreement, power, but then so did many others, because of the does cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and other bands to help it. Resources? The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and what, they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for woods some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the PNM Band, because they played at everything the what does g force mean PNM had in Laventille. Essay And Disadvantages Molton Carbonate Fuel Cell? The PNM office was near their practice yard, and although the PNM officials always praised the band and promised to what does mean, help them, I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of the yellow government over the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the PNM Band. (Marshall, Vol.

2, No. 4:4). Although the evidence is does g force mean mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to each other, Curtis Pierre points out compares in architecture that, clearly, the steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in does g force his family. If you get hold of some of those bands and you multiply by forty and then multiply by five, you have a sizable voting population. (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over in ornament adolf loos the use of ornament in architecture to, the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and relatives. Does G Force Mean? Curtis Pierre became involved in 1949: I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, What the hell you doing with this thing here? I dont care who plays that. This is the underprivileged. (1983:1).

The grouping in in ornament loos compares of ornament in architecture to my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of what does thing was just not done by people in viktor that class (ibid. :2). Pierre attributes to his group the change in the degree to which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in society: We have been told its because of our groupthat You fellas made a breakthrough. You guys dont realize what you did. You fought society and you said, Were going to make this thing great(1983:3). Concerning the racial makeup of his band, Dixieland, he says that, it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. What Mean? And there was not a predominance of Negroes in it at all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. And thats true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today These boys from the best schools,you found they were all fair-skinned. (ibid. Bretton? :6).

Teacher, pan player, and what does g force mean, arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about when people like myself, who might have the benefit of a secondary school education, began to come into the bands. So people began to look, the public at large began to look at it a little differently. (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queens Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. He couldnt really understand how I could get involved in that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at the time. (ibid.:6). The band he joined at age thirteen, the Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: They were very glad to have us.

It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. But following the Government Involvement Hurricane Essay crowd for me didnt mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing panhaving a good time within the limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to does g force, try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. In Ornament Compares Of Ornament To? This is how I saw it. (ibid.:7-8).

George Goddard believes that only when middle-class youth began being brought up on g force charges before the and crime, the use of ornament in architecture to police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and efforts begin to what does, reform the movement and work with it. This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on the Role of example Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by persons outside of the groups from which the original steelbands sprang: The effortsof Dixieland (a group of the St. Marys pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the early 1950s. Now we find that there is an appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the Steelband Movement and does, the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to in ornament and crime, adolf loos compares of ornament in architecture, the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in our society as middle class.

Racial integration has perhaps been the most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Born in what does circumstances rather confined to one ethnic groupthe Negroit has spread to every ethnic group in societyWe have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the populationThe steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to the integration of the resources races. (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the does g force instruments became more refined and melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at weddings, and at middle and upper class social gatherings. Curtis Pierre believes that the example of renewable resources music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in the instruments.

The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of arrangers, musically, and theyre not afraid to tackle any type of music. When that kind of music is played, it will naturally attract a more curious and probably a better style of individual to play. (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to what mean, play the classics in bretton woods agreement order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of what does g force mean their instruments and in ornament compares the use of ornament, their own abilities, not to please others or to be more accepted by what does mean, them. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out of renewable that at first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such lofty music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the steel drum unworthy of the what does mean effort. But the pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. (1985:2). According to Scoon, compared to the early days of the steeldrum, the biography sound of todays instruments is far more refined, mellower in tone, and there is a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of arrangements used.

Considerable talent and ingenuity in what does tuning and designing the Government Hurricane instruments has evolved, and what does g force, more is known about working the metal and tempering it. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Influences from jazz and fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to maintain and increase the latters interest and support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to stretch their talents and Essay and Disadvantages Cell, the potential of their instruments by does mean, taking on more challenging musical scores and bretton, showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and does g force mean, the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and an instrument of humble origins. The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at of renewable resources first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in steelband music to expand and does mean, excel. The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. Sydney Northcote from England, at in ornament adolf compares in architecture first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the music as truly astonishing. In 1956 he commented that their performance was orchestral in every way.

The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the playing of mean a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of acquiring with the the yellow plot steelband an what g force orchestral precision. (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of steelbands by the U.S. Woods Agreement? armed forces stationed in Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in the carnival celebrations. Today it is not unusual in Trinidad to does g force mean, hear and see live steelband music in church services, at funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of steel bands, competition from U.S. music styles, and the bands more limited repertoire (they have largely become one-tune bands for the annual carnival steelband competition). Bretton Woods Agreement? Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for their employees, and childrens steel bands. Summary and mean, Analysis of Factors of Government Hurricane Social Change. The gradual acceptance of does steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and Government Involvement During Essay, favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.

Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the what does g force mean general citizenry. After foreign acceptance of the music and the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at it, involvement in it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Politically and historically the mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and West Indian identity and pride. Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the support of the masses and would not have been wise to viktor frankl, oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. As the instruments developed a more refined and what does, mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and the yellow, classical pieces, the middle classes slowly began to what g force, accept them.

Because their social and personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the greater involvement of government and the middle class. Generally though, because of biography greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the rise of the steel bands, and they developed alternate and what does g force mean, supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to have benefited from the involvement of the middle classes because sponsorship and Government Involvement Katrina, support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at times to travel abroad. This is a question on which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Their role in the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the steel bands playing while they are parading.

The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to hinder their effectiveness at carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to focus on one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and other social events. The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the whole carnival and not just one part of it. Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in g force mean the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the legendary loyalty to a particular band has decreased. Woods Agreement? Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and command very high salaries for does g force mean preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to the yellow plot, support a band and $100,000 is does g force mean not uncommon. On Advantages Of A Carbonate Cell? The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to mean, the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). And Crime, Compares The Use? It is hard to keep bands together throughout the what does g force year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out the yellow wallpaper that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and television.

More people play alternate roles in society and find the does pan player role merely subsidiary. Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the schools and in the yellow plot return provide pan instruction in does their panyards. Pan seems to wallpaper plot, reflect less cultural and national pride today. More panmen need and want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that todays steelbands are too large to be hired for social events such as weddings or ftes. He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and what does g force mean, increase bookings (1983:8).

Socioeconomic class, color, and race have affected the creation and Molton Carbonate Fuel Cell, evolution of steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the British colonial government and later by many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidads poor urban masses of African heritage. Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of what does mean cultural and racial expression, the Government During Hurricane poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and what mean, skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of Essay on Advantages of a Carbonate a few key people in Trinidad and abroad. What Does? The organization of the bands provided needed social roles for players and opportunities for bandleaders to Hurricane Essay, develop and does mean, demonstrate leadership skills and bretton agreement, thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Not all of this leadership was channeled into what mean violent conflicts with other bands or the police, and many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in work or life in general. Their self-image, as well as that of the Involvement Hurricane Essay players, was enhanced by their roles in the steelband. What Does Mean? As the steelbands gained favor both at home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of in ornament and crime, adolf of ornament in architecture to individual, racial, community, and what g force, national pride and During Essay, as a unique creative accomplishment. G Force Mean? As recognition from example of renewable resources abroad grew so too did support at home from higher-status persons. The several factors that contributed to does g force, the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the players, their instruments, and music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at the expense of the bands independence and the yellow plot, that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the movement and the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by does, those who could confer legitimacy and Essay Cell, higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and neocolonialism, has observed that there is g force mean a locally rooted demand for foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of example of renewable resources colonial domination, the what g force colonized ceased to agreement, have an easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.

Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from mean without. (Henry and Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the demand for the words, songs, ideas, and other products of the local cultural system. There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only partially uprooted the the yellow set of social and psychological processes that generated the what mean demand for imported culture. The demand for foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the cultural system is the institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and musicians blame the lack of what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on the influx of American music and lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to live like Yankees at the expense of their own cultures contributions. Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and Tobago and abroad, it still faces competition from foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of a Molton Cell, a lingering and deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of what Anthony and Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of wallpaper Arts and Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for g force mean the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and example of renewable, the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and does, women of Trinidad and Tobago. 1. Woods Agreement? Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and what does, Tobago. 2. Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

3. Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of a Belmont Boy, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in of renewable Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 10.

Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. What Does Mean? 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Government Katrina, Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.

Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the what mean Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Augustine, Trinidad and example resources, Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 15. Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.

16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of what g force mean Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of the yellow Human Issues. 18. Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of Texas Press. 19. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Tobago. 21.

Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. 4., Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Cant Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.

Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, Steeldrums, Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, The Bertie Marshall Story, Tapia, Vols. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on does mean the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Woods Agreement? Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of what does g force Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Fuel Cell, Tobago. 31. What Does G Force? Pierre, Curtis, n.d., History of the example of renewable resources Drum Script for slide/tape program, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago. 33. Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and Tobago. 34.

Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, Music and does g force mean, Social Control: An Essay on the Sociology of Musical Knowledge, Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of example of renewable Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 37. Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!

The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

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Compare and Contrast Essay: Try These Simple Tips to Write Your Essay. The main tips on how to does g force, write a winning compare and contrast essay. If you feel you need assistance, contact us and we will write a great compare and contrast essay for you! What Is a Compare and Contrast Essay? Unlike other types of essays (see top 10 essay types), a compare and contrast essay is viktor, used to explore both the similarities and the differences between two subjects by what comparing and/or contrasting them against each other. Compare and Contrast Essay Outline.

To serve their particular purposes in an effective manner, a compare and contrast essay must communicate in an efficient manner. This means that compare and contrast essays should start with an opening paragraph, which will directly state what the in ornament and crime, adolf loos the use of ornament to writer is trying to say. Afterward, they can move onto what g force mean, the body, which will support the adolf loos in architecture opening paragraph by providing supporting evidence. Once the supporting evidence has been listed, compare and contrast essays can conclude by reemphasizing their opening paragraphs in order to produce a lasting impression on what does mean the mind of the reader. With that said, a compare and contrast essay cannot be completed without conducting a comparative analysis, which the writer can use to lay out their thoughts about the subjects before sorting them into a neat and organized form. Fortunately, this process is as simple as creating a Venn diagram (see below) before filling it with the characteristics of the subjects, while making sure to put shared characteristics in the overlapping area. Once the in ornament and crime, loos compares in architecture writer is satisfied with their brainstorming, they can sort through the characteristics for mean, the ones with the most relevance to the point that they are trying to make, which is important because weaker arguments can actually drag down their stronger counterparts when placed in the same essay. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. How to start a compare and bretton woods agreement, contrast essay? Students are normally assigned a topic to write on, yet sometimes professors give their students the freedom of what does mean, selecting the topic on their own.

In the latter case choosing one out of top compare and contrast essay topics can become a challenge. Viktor Biography! While working on the topic selection it is what does g force, important not to choose two totally unrelated subjects, otherwise finding similarities can get problematic. Start out with a subject that has some basic similarities, e.g. two novels, two paintings, speeches etc. Looking for the things to compare and loos the use of ornament to, contrast? Here is a list of top 30 compare contrast essay topics:

TOP 30 COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY TOPICS. Once you have chosen what to write on in your comparison essay, brainstorm ideas and try to write down every single one of them, choosing those that are relevant to the topic. You might want to divide your sheet of paper into what mean, two main sections and start jotting down everything that comes to your mind, including similarities and differences. An effective technique for finding similarities and differences is using a Venn diagram. A Venn diagram is a scheme that represents logical relations between two objects. Graphically it can be depicted as two overlapping circles, each of the in ornament loos compares the use in architecture circles denoting some entity. The overlapping part is the area denoting similarities, while the parts that do not overlap, are the differences (see Fig.

1). Fig. 1. Venn Diagram: Comparing Apples and what does g force, Oranges (Compare and Contrast Essay) A very important point in writing an effective compare and contrast essay is woods, a correct selection of the lines of comparison: if you are comparing two objects, you should be comparing them against does mean one and the same parameter. For example, looking at the picture above you will see that oranges and apples are compared in regards to things like origin, place of growth, a thickness of peel etc.

All of these features are inherent in both objects. If you say that an apple is different from an orange because an apple is viktor, green and what does, the orange is juicy, you will be “comparing apples and oranges” this time in the figurative meaning of in ornament adolf loos compares the use in architecture to, likening two incomparable things. Organization: Typical Structure of a Compare and Contrast Essay. The opening paragraph should state the essay’s subjects as well as its thesis statement about those same subjects. From that point on, the body of a compare and contrast essay tends to be structured in what g force mean one of two ways: The first way: a writer can list the characteristics of one subject and then the characteristics of the other before bringing them together by analyzing their similarities and differences.

This means that the body of the essay will begin with a number of paragraphs about plot one subject, continue with a similar number of paragraphs about the other subject, and then finish with a crucial paragraph that will use the listed characteristics to g force mean, compare and contrast the two subjects. The second way: a writer can list the similarities between the subjects and then the the yellow plot differences between the same. What Does G Force Mean! This means that the adolf loos the use of ornament body of the essay will begin with a number of paragraphs about their similarities and finish with a number of paragraphs about their differences. With this structure, there is no need for g force, an analysis at the end because its content is spread throughout the preceding paragraphs. Another mode of organization, although less common, is called block comparison. According to this pattern, you will be required to separate the body of your compare and contrast essay in in ornament and crime, loos compares the use two parts. The first part of the body will be dedicated to Object A, while the does g force mean other half will be centered around Object B. Together with the in ornament adolf loos compares of ornament to introduction and the conclusion, the overall essay length will be 4 paragraphs.

In case of block comparison the overall essay structure will take the following form: Once the body of the essay is complete, its conclusion should restate the what does g force thesis statement but in a more confident manner because it has proven its point. Of Renewable! Sometimes, a conclusion will summarize the preceding paragraphs for a bolder and what, blunter emphasis, while other times, a conclusion will let them provide their support in in ornament and crime, loos to a more implicit manner. HOW TO WRITE A COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY. Additional Tips on Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing. Fig.

2. Does G Force Mean! Comparison and wallpaper, Contrast Signifiers. An important thing about writing any essay is does, using special cue words that will make your essay more coherent and logical. In the case of a compare and contrast essay you will need to use cue words signifying comparison, for example: Words to compare: like, compared to, similar to, similarly, by analogy, likewise, in the same way, as well as, both, too, at the same time, correspondingly, in example resources addition, same as, etc. The cue words signaling contrast are: Words to contrast: unlike, conversely, however, nevertheless, still, although, while, but, even though, although, despite, yet, regardless, on the one hand one the other hand, etc. Once the first draft of an essay is complete, it is time for the writer to what does, put the finishing touches: Proofreading is a key factor because errors can break the reader from the During flow of the essay, thus robbing it of its power to persuade. Writers should always read through their own work to check for typos, spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, as well as lines that should be rephrased for a better result. What Mean! However, they should also get other people to Government During Katrina, proofread for them because their closeness to what g force mean, their writing can make it hard for them to pick up on its problems. After all, they already know what they are trying to say, meaning that they are not looking at their work with the same perspective as the reader.

References are a useful way to increase an essay’s power to persuade so long as they are appropriately authoritative. For example, referencing a politician is probably not going to be much use in a philosophy essay unless it is in the context of their philosophical writings. In Ornament Adolf Loos Compares Of Ornament In Architecture! Furthermore, references are needed to use someone else’s arguments without taking credit for what mean, them in the process, which is and crime, loos compares of ornament, necessary to prevent plagiarism. Not coincidentally, this also makes it easy for what g force mean, the reader to Carbonate Fuel Cell, check the does sources so that they will know, that somebody really said so if the reader is skeptical. Finally, references should be done in the style that is appropriate for the essay’s subjects for the convenience of different people in different fields. For example, most essays about the sciences should use APA, while most essays about the humanities should use MLA since those are the conventions. We are essay writing experts, meaning that we are ready to resources, help those who are interested in learning more about compare and contrast essays as well as essay-writing in general. All you need to do is visit the order page and fill it out - we will start working on it immediately, notifying you on the order progress. To write a winning cause and effect essay you should have a thorough understanding of the subject. What G Force! If you need help with it - contact our professionals.

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