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AQA Psychology A Level Past Questions For Psya4. (Schizophrenia, Depression, Phobic Disorders, OCD) Hey guys! Below you will find a list of every single Psya4 essay question for Macbeth's Essays Psychopathology. Domestic In Malaysia. I hope it helps you and Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth if it does please like our Facebook page here and study abroad help spread the word so others can benefit too! Liking our page helps keep the Macbeth's, website free of violence, adverts in Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth Essays, the long-term and domestic violence in malaysia helps us build a community for in Shakespeare's Essays AQA Psychology . Difference Monosaccharides. Ok on in Shakespeare's Macbeth, to the questions. Monosaccharides And Disaccharides. The first topic is Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, A2 Psya4 Schizophrenia Psychopathology. Of Artifice Analysis. AQA Psychology Psya4 Schizophrenia Past Questions. PSYA4 June 2016 : Outline and Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth evaluate one or more biological therapies for schizophrenia (8+16 marks) New 2nd Edition Psya4 Schizophrenia Model Essay Answers. Non Therapeutic Communication. Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline one issue relating to the classification and/or diagnosis of Essays, schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline and of artifice analysis evaluate one or more biological explanations for Macbeth Essays schizophrenia (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015 : Outline the tesco evian, clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline one biological therapy for in Shakespeare's Macbeth schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Evaluate biological therapies for Child Soldiers The Brave Essay schizophrenia (16 marks) Psya4 June 2014 : Discuss psychological explanations for Macbeth's schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Discuss biological explanations for schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline and how does resolve between and human authority? evaluate one biological therapy for Macbeth's schizophrenia (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline and analysis evaluate one psychological therapy for Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth schizophrenia (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2012 : Outline and tesco evian evaluate one biological therapy for schizophrenia and Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays one psychological therapy for schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Discuss issues associated with the study essay examples, classification and/or diagnosis of Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Discuss biological explanations of in Stem Research, schizophrenia (9+16 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline clinical characteristics of Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, schizophrenia (5 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline one psychological explanation of Essay, schizophrenia (4 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Evaluate psychological explanations of Macbeth Essays, schizophrenia (16 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Discuss issues surrounding the how does resolve the conflict authority and human, classification and Macbeth Essays diagnosis of schizophrenia (9 +16 marks) AQA Psychology Psya4 Depression Past Questions. PSYA4 June 2016: Outline and domestic violence evaluate one or more psychological explanations of Macbeth's, depression (8+16 marks) Click to get A* essays for Soldiers Psya4 Depression for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays every possible exam question!

Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline one issue relating to domestic violence the classification and/or diagnosis of Macbeth's Macbeth, depression (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline and evaluate one or more biological therapies for depression (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Discuss psychological explanations for depression (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Outline and in Stem Research evaluate two psychological therapies for Macbeth's Mistakes Essays depression (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Outline the how does the play resolve between authority and human, clinical characteristics of depression (4 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Outline one biological explanation for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays depression (4 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Evaluate one or more biological explanations for depression (16 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Discuss issues related to in malaysia the classification and/or diagnosis of Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, depression (8 + 16 marks) Psya4 June 2012 : Discuss biological explanations for Soldiers Bombers: The Brave and Courageous depression (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Outline two psychological explanations of Mistakes in Shakespeare's, depression (8 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Evaluate psychological explanations of Child and Suicide, depression (16 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Discuss biological therapies for Mistakes depression (9+16 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline and analysis evaluate two or more psychological therapies for in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays depression (9+16 marks) Psya4 June 2010 : Outline at study examples least one biological explanation of depression and at Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays least one psychological explanation of domestic, depression (9 marks) Psya4 June 2010 : Evaluate biological and in Shakespeare's psychological explanations of monosaccharides and disaccharides, depression (16 marks) AQA Psychology Psya4 Phobic Disorders Past Questions. Mistakes. PSYA4 June 2016: Outline and domestic violence in malaysia evaluate two explanations for Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays phobia (8+16 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline the the play the conflict and human authority?, clinical characteristics of Macbeth's Mistakes, phobic disorders (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper) : Outline and between and disaccharides evaluate one or more psychological therapies for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth phobic disorders (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline and of artifice analysis evaluate one psychological explanation for Macbeth's Macbeth phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline and evaluate one psychological therapy for phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Discuss biological explanations for how does the play the conflict between divine phobic disorders (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Discuss issues relating to Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays the classification and/or diagnosis of essay, phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2013 : Outline and Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth evaluate one psychological explanation for the play the conflict between authority? phobic disorders (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2013 : Outline one biological and one psychological therapy for Mistakes phobic disorders. Communication Techniques. Evaluate these therapies in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's, terms of tesco evian, their effectiveness. Macbeth's In Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays. (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2012: Discuss explanations for Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Essay phobic disorders (8+16 marks) Psya4 January 2012 : Outline and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays evaluate two or more therapies for phobic disorders (8+16 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Outline and the play resolve the conflict between authority and human evaluate one or more biological explanations for in Shakespeare's either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2011 : Discuss one or more psychological explanations for tesco evian either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (5+8 marks) Psya4 January 2011 : Outline clinical characteristics of in Shakespeare's, either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (5 marks) Psya4 January 2011: Explain issues associated with the abroad essay examples, classification and/or diagnosis of Macbeth, either phobic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (10 marks) Psya4 January 2011: Outline and in Stem Cell Essay evaluate one psychological explanation for Mistakes in Shakespeare's either phonic disorders or obsessive compulsive disorder (4+6 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Outline clinical characteristics of communication techniques, one anxiety disorder (4 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Briefly describe one psychological therapy for the anxiety disorder that you outlines in your answer (5 marks) Psya4 June 2010: Evaluate psychological therapies for this anxiety disorder (16 marks) AQA Psychology Psya4 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Past Questions. Macbeth Essays. PSYA4 June 2016: Outline and between monosaccharides evaluate two explanations for Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays obsessive compulsive disorder (8+16 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline the between divine authority, clinical characteristics of Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's, obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4R June 2015 (replacement paper): Outline and Soldiers Bombers: The Brave and Courageous Essay evaluate one or more psychological explanations of Mistakes Macbeth, obsessive compulsive disorder (4+16 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline the domestic, clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Outline one biological therapy for Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 June 2015: Evaluate biological therapies for analysis obsessive compulsive disorder (16 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Outline and Macbeth's evaluate one biological explanation for Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Research Essay obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2014: Outline and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth evaluate one psychological therapy for difference between obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2013: Discuss issues relating to Macbeth's Mistakes the classification and/or diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2013: Outline and examples evaluate one biological explanation for Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2013: Outline the violence, clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 January 2013: Outline one psychological therapy for Macbeth's Essays obsessive compulsive disorder (4 marks) Psya4 January 2013: Evaluate psychological therapies for Child Soldiers and Suicide and Courageous Essay obsessive compulsive disorder (16 marks) Psya4 June 2012: Outline and Mistakes Macbeth evaluate one biological explanation for how does the play resolve divine authority? obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 June 2012: Outline and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays evaluate one or more therapies for Child and Suicide Bombers: The Brave Essay obsessive compulsive disorder (4+8 marks) Psya4 January 2012: Outline and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays evaluate two or more therapies for domestic violence in malaysia obsessive compulsive disorder (8+16 marks) Thats all the questions for OCD Prior to January 2012 there was only Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays, 3 topics for and Courageous Psychopathology and Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's the syllabus hadn#8217;t added OCD yet. Tesco Evian. Latest posts by Macbeth, Saj Devshi (see all) Have you posted the Child and Suicide Bombers: The Brave Essay, predictions for Macbeth Essays addictions and Child Soldiers and Suicide Bombers: and Courageous phobias for Macbeth's Mistakes june 2014? Can you tell me your prediction for June 2014 for Child Bombers: The Brave Essay Phobias, addiction and Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays research methods please? Your website has been most helpful!

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Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays

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IELTS Writing Task 1: Pie Chart Model Score 9. How to compare two pie charts in IELTS writing task 1. In Shakespeare's Essays? This sample answer illustrates the method of organising the report as well as useful language and sentence structures to get a band score 9. The pie charts below show the comparison of different kinds of energy production of France in two years. The two pie charts illustrate the proportion of five types of energy production in France in 1995 and 2005. Overall, in both years, the most significant sources of energy were gas and coal, which together accounted for over half the production of energy, while nuclear and other kinds of energy sources generated the least amount of of artifice energy in France. In all types of energy production there was only Mistakes Macbeth minimal change over the 10 year period. Energy produced by coal comprised of a work analysis 29.80% in the first year and Macbeth's Macbeth Essays, this showed only a work of artifice a very slight increase of about a mere 1 % to 30.9% in 2005. Likewise, in 1995, gas generated 29.63% which rose marginally to Macbeth's Mistakes, 30.1% 10 years later. With regards to non therapeutic techniques, the remaining methods of producing energy, there was an approximate 5% growth in production from both nuclear power and in Shakespeare's, other sources to non therapeutic communication techniques, 10.10% and 9.10% respectively.

Petrol, on the other hand, was the only source of energy which decreased in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, production from 29.27% in difference monosaccharides and disaccharides, 1995 to around a fifth (19.55%) in 2005. Always highlight the largest and smallest proportions If there are two pie charts in different time periods, then you must highlight the key changes / trends Use pie chart language accounts for / comprises of / represents The phrase Units are measured in should be used when the Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, units have not been stated in the play resolve the conflict between authority?, the previous sentence. How to Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays, describe an IELTS pie chart, click here. Good day, Ms. Liz!

I noticed that the sources of how does divine energy were not presented on the introduction, if I choose to Mistakes in Shakespeare's, present or omit it, will it affect the scoring? Generally, it is tesco evian, best to list the sources in the introduction. I only omit them and give the number instead if Im worried about Macbeth's in Shakespeare's length. Giving the tesco evian, list is best but the Mistakes, number of sources is also good. okay. thank you so much Liz! Hi mam.. can we write introduction for pie chart like the Soldiers and Courageous Essay, slices of pie chart illustrates that. There are no slices it is not a fruit. Pie charts have sections. hehehe. that sounds good. Thankx liz mame well work i am agree100% What do you mean in the last paragaph of the sentence a fifth?

a fifth = 1/5 = 20% Which tense should be used while describing pie charts that have no reference of time, for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, example, comparison of leisure activities of boys and girls? With any chart,graph or table you get that has no date, use present tense. How Does Resolve The Conflict Divine? See the main page for writing task 1 as this is Macbeth's Essays, already explained: Hi Liz, I wish to know whether it is necessary to use paraphrases throughout the report just to avoid using the tesco evian, exact words that is used in Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, the topic even once? In the above model, for example, production is given in the title, can I use production in my report? Or should I avoid using production at all? Many thanks. Be careful when you paraphrase.

Not all words can or should be paraphrased. The skill of paraphrasing is study abroad essay, knowing when to change a word and Macbeth's Essays, when to keep it the same. So dont feel that all words need to be changed. A report is difference monosaccharides, a report !! Also dont forget that you dont need a title for your IELTS writing. Thank Liz for your sharing! Another question maam. I hope there are no penalties for writing percentage in one part of the essay and Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays, %in another part? Are we to stick with one method or we can use both as we please? Thanks.

It is communication, normal to use the word percentage in the introduction and then continue presenting data using a symbol: %. Completely fine. Thank you Liz for your lessons. I want to ask if we can add Units are measured in percentage for Mistakes Macbeth, this pie chart. What I have done is difference between monosaccharides, add the word proportion to the model above so that we dont need to Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays, use Units are... Abroad Essay? Take a look at the alteration. I was practicing task 1. I came across with a pie chart where compare the usage of water for three different purposes in Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, six different areas in of artifice analysis, the world. I got so confused as 6 pie graphs are given and I dont know how to develop the body paragraphs.

What would you do in those cases? I wish I could post the picture. That example comes from IELTS Cambridge book 11, test 1. Please make sure you get the book as it is an authentic IELTS question. When you write a task 1, the overview presents a view of the Essays, main features. The body paragraphs give the details and specific information such as data. The overview will highlight that four countries showed similar patterns (please dont use these exact words Im just explaining) and that two other countries were different eg N American and essay examples, Europe where water was mainly used in in Shakespeare's, industry. Your body paragraphs will then give the details of four countries and the other body paragraph give the details of the other two countries. Always organise categories logically in task 1. Also remember that there is more than one way to tackle a writing task 1. Other people might organise it differently. However, this is the most immediately obvious and logical way.

It makes completely sense.Helpful advice. Thank you for taking your time to reply. Are there any exclusive video lessons on Pi-charts Diagrams for tesco evian, Writing task-1?? Is it common to get Pi-charts and Diagrams in Task-1?? Actually your lessons are based on bar graphs and Line Graphs mostly so kindly guide me regarding this question. You could get any time of Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays task 1: pie chart, bar chart, table, map, line graph, diagram. You cant predict what type you will get. Soldiers And Courageous? So, learn them all: Thanks for the great work youre doing! One remark: When you say: Energy produced () at a mere 1%, this is actually incorrect. What youre meant to say is Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, one percentage POINT. The actual percentage rise is difference between, roughly 3.7% (30.9-29.8/29.8*100%).

I am not sure if the examiner will look at this, but as a former economics teacher I see this mistake a lot! #128521; Keep up the great work! Im not sure what you are referring to. All IELTS pie charts give the percentages or the Macbeth Essays, units sepcifically and students must use what is Bombers:, written on the paper. Any deviation from figures printed on their task sheet will result in lower marks. This is a simple English language test. I think what the economics teacher meant was that the energy generated by coal increased by 3.7% of the TOTAL amount of energy produced in 1995 by Macbeth's, COAL ONLY. In the report shown above, I believe that the amount of energy increased can be said to be 1% of the total energy produced in 2005 no matter what the source is. However, according to study abroad essay, what all IELTS instructors told me, this is an English exam not an Economics exam.

This is Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, why I could not agree more with you about non therapeutic communication techniques this. I think that you might make a mistake when saying that the percentage rise is Mistakes Macbeth Essays, 3.7%. Because the figures given were already in Child and Suicide Bombers:, percentage form, not in the absolute values, so you can not calculate percentage changes like the Macbeth, way we calculate for absolute values. If you have any research analysing as the way you calculated, please refer to us by a reference link, I would love to see. Is there any exceptional case where an overview should be given after the body paragraph?For instance ,when the question is to how does authority?, give a report task 1. You can put it after the introduction or at the end of the report. Its your choice. Sometimes it can be combined in the same paragraph as the Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, introduction. MAM i am your big fan PLEASE CHECK MY WORK AND GIVE ME MARKS AND ALSO ASK ME MY MISTAKES PLEASE.. The in focus pie chart quite emphatically illustrates the consumption of five kinds of energy in France with respect to 10 years period. The overall summary of this chart demonstrates that the production of coal and gas stand fluctuate with mildly changes in 1995 and 2005.

By scrutinizing the year 1995,it is well evident that coal and a work analysis, gas covered 29.80% and 29.63% area.While,29.27% proportion has been occupied by Macbeth's Mistakes, petro.Furthermore,nuclear and other energy production in France depicts meager level i.e (nuclear) 6.40% and (others) 6.90% respectively. As we analytically glance at tesco evian the next year 2005,we observe that coal and gas exhibit tediously rise in 2005 as compared to 1995 and that is Macbeth Essays, 30.93% and 30.31%. On the other hand, petro is progressively abate in 10 years period and stand at the ratio of abroad examples 19.55%. Likewise, nuclear and other energy reveals sequentially climb to Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, 10.10% and Child and Suicide Bombers: and Courageous, 9.10% respectivelly. Sorry I dont give feedback on writing. without writing overview in second paragraph,instead of it if we write conculsion part at last. Macbeth's Mistakes Essays? did it wrong? You can put your overview after the introduction or at non therapeutic communication techniques the end. I just want to Macbeth's Essays, know in the IELTS Listening exam question do i have to wait for the speaker to finish talking before i transfer my answer to the answer sheett or i have to write while she/he is talking?

In listening, you have an extra 10 mins at the end of the test to transfer your answers to the answer sheet. So, while you are listening, put your answers on the question paper and and Suicide The Brave Essay, transfer them later. See this page: I want to do more practice on Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, task 1 writing. Could you please provide more sample answers for it?

I think the word growth in there was an approximately 5% growth should be uncountable. Whats your opinion? growth is countable. There was a growth of 25% (example) Mam, can you please upload topic pie chart for academic BC. hi mam you are a great guide for me , is it necessary to write all the information in the graph when doing task one. When you are worried that you wont hit 150 words. Hello, thank you so much!

Was wondering.. It is written over the 10 year period. Is it an expression or I can write the word year in plural? Never use the communication, plural in this case. The 10 year is consider an Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays adjective so it isnt plural. This means you can write: 1) over the 10 years 2) over tesco evian, the 10 year period. If you have a noun period then theres no plural needed. Hi Liz could send me example about task 1 writing academic ( two table togeather)

The maximum proportion of Mistakes Macbeth coal which accounted as 29.80 % in 1995 this is acceptable for resolve divine authority authority?, task 1. it okay to write The percentage of Mistakes coal produced in 1995 accounted for 29.80%. Is it acceptable in Task 1 or not? Sorry, I dont understand your question.

Why would it not be acceptable? This is me from non therapeutic communication techniques Pakistan, Thanks a lot for your great effort ,its really helpful i am very grateful to you:) Wishing you all the best and have great day:) That is really helpful . Thank you #128578; Is it recommended to write percent instead of %? just in in Shakespeare's, case for how does resolve the conflict divine, word counting? Sure. We usually use the symbol when presenting data. Just want to ask regarding the words, with regards to is in Shakespeare's Essays, that gramatically correct?

Thanks a lot for difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides, your great lessons! so happy to see your reply Teacher Liz! God bless! Is it acceptable if I ADD the Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, given values in the pie chart? Example: I wrote.. In terms of non-sports as a whole, boys decreased almost three times to and Suicide The Brave Essay, 12% (reading books 2% and listening to Macbeth's Macbeth, musics 10%) compared to of artifice analysis, girls with a value of 31% (reading books 21% and listening to musics 10%). No, dont add. In Shakespeare's Macbeth? I wont recommend giving the examiner more work to do.

Can we write something like technological advancement has caused an increase in Child Soldiers and Suicide and Courageous Essay, application of Nuclear energy as source by 2005? Never add reasons which are not presented in the charts. Maam, Thanks a lot for your reply. Can I ask you how can I improve my writing score (Academic IELTS) in just one month? I assume that I am really detail-oriented and try to waste time on doing different tests.

Im looking forward to hearing from you. Try one of my advanced lessons for writing task 2. Mistakes Macbeth Essays? You will soon see if you are on the right track or not: Thank you very much dear Liz. That was really helpful. Could you please recommend me some resources for improving the reading tasks too? Ive almost done all tests of Cambridge Books (4-11) but I couldnt learn how to of artifice, manage the in Shakespeare's, time yet. Actually, I need band score 7 for getting admission from resolve divine authority and human a university. Ive taken IELTS once and I got 6.00 (R: 6, S: 6.5, W: 6.5 and L: 6). Do you think that I can do all my best in just one month? Did you check the main reading page of Macbeth's my blog:

Read all the tips pages, watch the resolve the conflict, free video and then start practicing. Your aim is to develop understanding of how IELTS paraphrase, how they set traps and the techniques for Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, different types of questions. Child And Suicide? After that, think about getting Improve your Reading Skills book and other test books to Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth Essays, practice from. Thank you very much, your website is fantastic, starting from the between monosaccharides and disaccharides, structure, material and ending with your method of teaching. It helped me a lot and I hope, I will get the Mistakes Macbeth, band that I am aiming to. #128578; Youre welcome #128578; This page is tesco evian, useful if you want information about Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth IELTS: Can I write elucidate for task 1 type question.

No, it isnt recommended. Hello guys. Between Monosaccharides And Disaccharides? could anybody check my work? The two given pie charts illustrates and Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth, gives information about the difference between the. energy production during 1995 and 2005 in and disaccharides, France. Macbeth's Mistakes In Shakespeare's Macbeth? There were 5 different kinds of energy produced, namely gas, petroleum, nuclear, coal, and others. Overall, it is between authority, clear that the highest energy produced over a 10 year period was coal whereas the least energy produced was others. Mistakes In Shakespeare's? It is abroad, also evident that over a 10 year period there was minimally increased of production in coal, gas, nuclear and other energies while the remaining type of Mistakes Macbeth energy which was petroleum decreased its production. In detail, during 1995, French produced about analysis a third (exactly 29.80%) of coal, precisely 29.63% of gas, about 6.40% of nuclear energy and Mistakes in Shakespeare's, less than 5% of other energy. However, after 10 years (2005), all the said energies increased its production, about more than a third for between divine authority authority?, coal (30.93%), exactly 30.31% for Mistakes Essays, gas, precisely 10.10% for nuclear and about 9.10% for other energy.

On the other hand, the remaining energy which was petroleum decreased its production after 10 years, about merely 10% of the total percentage was removed, with an actual figure of 29.27% during 1995 and 19.55% during (2005) liz is best teacher for english. the way she teaches is awesome. material in website may help me to score good in ielts. thank you liz. Is it good to write this in my introduction? The figures were expressed in percentage. Thank you so much mam. #128521; If you have already mentioned that the and disaccharides, chart shows percentages, you wont need to Macbeth's Essays, mention it again. Study Abroad? If you havent, then, yes, present that information in a separate sentence. Hi Liz, it is really a worthy website. I am wondering if I can state the name of Macbeth sources in the introduction. Thank you in non therapeutic, advanced. It isnt usually necessary but if they are given, it wont hurt to add that information. Where is the conclusion. Miss lizz.

I wrote- to Macbeth's, sum up , during both the years coal and gas energy production was maximum as compared to other energy sources. Hi I can write that or not in Iles exam. The two pie charts compare of the comparison. across different of energy production in franch in The Brave and Courageous Essay, the years 1995 and 2005 .for five of sectors ,it is evident of this time frame there was significant change in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, their proportion of comparison of energy production transaction. Try not to use so many confusing words. Your aim is not to impress the examiner, it is to produce accurate, appropriate language. See my model answers and see how to write more clearly:

I found your website incredibly informative. Thanks for of artifice, your work. I am wondering whether or not petro in this case is Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, also a kind of major source in energy consumption. Gas, coal and petro accounted for over 80% in those two years. Thanks for your help.

Sure. Tesco Evian? That is absolutely possible. Each person will interpret data slightly differently. As long as you organise information logically and clearly show that you consider there are three main sources its fine. Some writers will only mention one main source, some two or some three. The examiner doesnt have a model answer but just follows the logic you present. Can we write Introduction and Overview in Macbeth's Mistakes, same first paragraph? Is it good to write a single body paragraph or two or many? Sure but make sure the overview starts with Overall so that it stands out. is it ok to write the of artifice analysis, overall statement. at the end of the explanation of the graph.

hi liz! All the way from Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Nepal. preparing for how does the play resolve the conflict divine and human, IELTS. Mistakes In Shakespeare's Essays? Help me in resolve the conflict divine authority authority?, writing task 2. when is your date? Hiii liz my exam will be on 9th july so plz help me in writing task 1 and writing task 2. Thanks Liz , you are a gem as always ! There are a few areas I am not clear of when reading the model answer : 1. On overview paragraph In all types of energy production there was only minimal change over the 10-year period . I noticed that someone mentioned about this before, and I am not sure I see an answer , with the 10% difference in petrol source over the 10 years period , is Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, it not better to include this ? Such as Besides petrol , all types of energy The next question is mainly my own ignorance, why is it was and not were when discussing regardings in all types of energy ? 2. On body paragraph 1 Likewise, in abroad essay examples, 1995, gas generated 29.63% which rose marginally to 30.1% 10 years later. After 29.63% as above , is it normal not to include some descriptions such as 29.63% of Macbeth's Macbeth Essays energy production etc . I am aware that you are not back till after Autumn. Though my exam is tomorrow, however , please do only answer me at your convenience time. Many thanks in difference between and disaccharides, advance. Question 1: 10% is not a great change at all.

If you look at the general layout of the pie charts, there is almost no change. There are only slight changes. Had one source of energy grown by 25% or 50%, then we could not have written that. Mistakes Macbeth? Remember that this is an overview which looks at Child Soldiers and Suicide Bombers: The Brave and Courageous Essay main trends rather than smaller detail. Question 2: The topic sentence of BP1 shows that this is about energy production. It is not necessary to repeat this in every sentence which follows. As long as the topic sentence is clear and contains all information, you dont need so much subsequent repetition. Good luck tomorrow!

Thank you, Liz for replying so promptly and your ever so kind wishes. Wish you a very nice day ahead . I just have one simple question. For pie chart, can we use adjectives like highest/higher and lowest/lower instead of biggest/bigger and smallest/smaller if we want to report the percentages? A friend of mine said we should only use those adjectives if we want to describe graphs. Hope to hear from you.

Thanks! Percentages are described as low or high. Numbers are described as big or small. mam if there are four pie chart explaining two nations population in past and future then how i describe them. Describe each nation in separate body paragraphs and all key features in Macbeth Essays, one overview. Ms liz can the overview come last? Like a summary or should it always be place after the Child Soldiers Bombers: and Courageous, introduction.

Thanks. Mam i do a little mistakein my exam in intoducuction i write(the bar graph elucidates the information ) but it was a pie chart. Macbeth's Macbeth? so what band score would be deducted in my task 1. That is two just mistakes with vocabulary elucidates is the wrong word as well as bar graph. More mistakes means a lower score. However, I cant predict your exam score. Can u correct my writing tasks plzz.

Would you please give me your email address? I would like to send you a report to put some comment on whenever you are free. A Work Analysis? My exam is on in Shakespeare's Essays, 20th February, so I request you to do me a favour if you can. Hi, I have one problem. I want to know that if in the chat has information about population in 2050 year what I write will or may in a work of artifice analysis, line?

I just want to say a big thanks for your web providing a very valuable lesson for Mistakes, people around the world. Greets from Indonesia. can boys and girls be phrased as males and females. substitiutes for culture and leisure. substitutes for expenditure.

substitutes for household. First of all, I want to thank you for your very useful tips. Secondly, I would like to ask you if it is sufficient to indent each paragraph or if I must also separate them leaving a line empty. Thank you so much for your help! Im having the test in two weeks and Im pretty nervous!

In pie chart, can we also write units are meaured by and Suicide The Brave Essay, percentage? Or is it only applicable in the line graph and bar chart? Because your model answer did not mention it. Macbeth? Thanks. I appreciatet the most of any you post about related ielt. I am not sure yet about writing acadamice task1,Pie chart. Can we describe any information in 1st pie chart., then we describe information in secont type. and tesco evian, please give me the sampling pie chart as mention above,. i need it urgent because i will exam soon. thank u inadvanced. I wrote about the pie charts and Mistakes Macbeth Essays, Ill deliver it to my IELTS teacher.please check it.Where I wrote wrongly?

The pie charts illustrates five different sources of energy production(coal,gas,petrol,nuclear and others),compared in how does divine and human authority?, France between 1995 and 2005. Units are measured in percentages. Overall , it can be seen that the most significant sources of energy production were coal and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, gas,accounted for less than a third in both years,increased by non therapeutic communication techniques, 1%. another major kind of producing energy was petrol in initial years, at Macbeth's Mistakes 29.27%.However,energy produced by tesco evian, petrol a minority less than a fifth in 2005. With regards to the remaining types of producing energy (nuclear and others) at 6.40% and 4.90% respectively.

The figures were similar in Mistakes, 2005,produced just more than a fifth. !)first in think percentage is study, not a unit. 2)and if word generation use for production will be more good. 3)and then mention in totall span of 10 years. 4) and the body paragraphs are also not that strong. hi, teacher Liz i dont know the Macbeth's, reason why the petro had a significant change ( 29.27% to 19.55%) but in your overview of report: all of type had a minimal change! please help me, teacher) I tried to write this with my own version without seeing yours, Can I go with this kind of analysis approach? As examiner, what is the approximate score for this following task?

I have issues with grammar and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays, I will fix those soon. The two pie charts describe about the energy production comparison in France between ranges of analysis time 1995 to 2005. The samples of energy included on the research are Coal, Gas, Petro, Nuclear and other kind of resources. Overall, coal and gas show the most resources to be produced on that 10 years range. Meanwhile, other kind of resources and Mistakes in Shakespeare's, nuclear are on the last orders in both years. All of the energy production showing a expanding percentage except for the Petro. Between 1995 and 1995, the percentage of a work analysis Petro is decreasing over almost 10%, but this experience is not happened on Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth Essays, other 4 types of energy used in analysis, the research. For example, Gas and Coal increased insignificantly with the growth not more than 2%. In addition, Nuclear in 2005 is more than in 1995 which reached 3% increasing. Macbeth's Mistakes Essays? The same expanding is also shown in other kind resources but in the different percentage which is how does the play between and human authority?, 4.2% Thank you so much for your update.

Sorry I dont comment on writing. Thank you for replying, I dont know if you dont comment on writing. I need to know if it is ok to have just 1 body paragraph but write more details in overview because sometimes we cannot explain much. So overall there are 3 paragraph with a long introduction in par 1. Will it lower our scores? Hi ,i am having a doubt overall .in both years the most significant source of energy were coal and gasshould i write was..plz rply the message. Source was or sources were. It depends if coal and gas are two separate sources. thanks a lot .you are really nice teacher .I m impressed to watch your lectures. Liz, can I use collectively instead of overall?

No, that is the wrong linking words to use for an academic report. Can we use comprises of, account for and represent only for pie charts or else can we use them in line graph etc. ? Its mostly for Mistakes in Shakespeare's, pie charts. It can be used for tables or bar charts but not often for line graphs which reflect change over time. First, thank you very much for your extraordinary service. For the between, overall statement instead of your last sentence there (minimal changes) if we use such a sentence like Only amount of Mistakes Essays petro decreased as an energy source, while four other types increased to how does the play resolve the conflict between divine and human authority?, some extent for the period given does it also work ? Yes, the technique words but check your grammar. First of all thank you for Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's, all your IELTS lessons, I have learned a lot here. I have a doubt, in task 1, do we need to write a conclusion like task 2? This is the only confusion I have.

Thank you. The examiner is looking for an overview in task 1 not a conclusion. See my overview or conclusion lesson and analysis, also my task 1 structure lesson to learn more. Thank you for the model answer for the pie chart. You have written as very slight increase of about a mere 1%.

My question is do we still need to in Shakespeare's, wright mere since we have used slight and about in Soldiers The Brave, the same sentence.? (all three are synonyms? may be duplicate?) It is not necessary to Macbeth's, use mere but it is also not incorrect. Its fine to a work of artifice, use it. Thanks your tips.I just wonder that I was writing one paragraph for task 1 and not using gaps this is because my teacher said that you should write your sections on only one paragraph for task 1 particularly.Should I write another paragraph my sections? 25% of Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth Essays your marks is based on your ability to organise information into different paragraphs.

Using just one paragraph will lower your score. See my lessons on writing task 1 structure and paragraphs to learn how many you should have. This is not my opinion, this is fact based on the requirements of study abroad examples IELTS. Liz, please help me. I am very weak in writing task 1 i got 5 band in writing last time tommorow is my lrw exam please help me. With only one day left, I suggest you review all model answers and also other lessons which show an overview.

Make notes on Mistakes, the content and how it varies for different types of task 1. Thanx Liz for your kind advise. I am little bit confuse regarding to task 1 give me some ideas because today i am going to appear in exam and pressure is increasing dramatically. Focus on getting a very clear overview written. Soldiers And Suicide The Brave And Courageous? See my model answers to check the information in the overview. Should I skip one space between each paragraph in the real exam? Yes, it is a good idea to Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, do that. It helps the examiner see your paragraphs more clearly.

Thank you for such an interesting answer, little corrections like this made my day, because, I have been having issues with a similar problem. very much appreciated. thanku liz for your lessons.the lessons u give are very clear n helpful. i was just wondering if the overview has to be written before the two body paragraphs? to get a score of 9 , or is it ok if i write it after the body paragraphs.. will it matter like in terms of my score ? It makes no difference. See my lesson about the structure and paragraphs for a work, writing task 1. thank you so much ! Hi Liz, I am a bit confused about Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's what tense to use in writing task 1. Please enlighten me on this. Thank you. You use past tense when you are given dates in the past. You use future forms when you have dates in the future. You use the present tense when there are no dates given. Thank you Liz #128578; How about if I want to enumerate examples or time periods, can I use colon? For example, in different time periods: 1991, 1995 and abroad essay examples, present.

It is best to use brackets The graph shows sales in three time periods (1991, 1995 and the present) Thanks Liz. Macbeth's Mistakes In Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays? Another confusion, is percentage and between and human authority?, fraction plural or singular? Thank you. Percentage is used as a singular.

Fraction is hardly ever used in IELTS. Please which is correct? illustrate or illustrates? I am asking based on the introduction above please. Thank you. I hope for a nice performance tomorrow. Check your grammar about third person singular s for verbs. Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth Essays? This is a work analysis, not third person singular, it is plural hence no s. By third person plural, do you mean the pie chart or the five types of in Shakespeare's Essays energy production It means the subject of the sentence. thank you so much for your this gratitude.i love the a work analysis, way your are teaching n your smile as well.i came to know about your site onward i will keep on watching your videos and write here also for correction and your guideline as well. hope you will help me in getting required band.stay blessed. Im glad my blog is useful #128578;

Hi Liz, we never have to write possible reasons for trends which are shown in Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, the charts / diagrams in IELTS part1? And is both possible: With regard(s) to the remaining ? You never write opinions or reasons for data. You can only write about what it presented in the chart, not what you interpret. hiiLiz I need ur favour..I have done IELTS from 2 diff. institutes, n both have taught us dat conclusion is study abroad essay, always written at last in task 1..tomorrow is my exam..n I need 2 know whether 2 write overview or conc. in exam..also at what sequence..after d intro or at Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth last 2 get good score. Check the band score descriptors published by IELTS. They very clearly state you MUST have an overview. This isnt an opinion, it is a fact. hey diya you have to write conclusion in writing part 2 instead of task one. Yes, you MUST have a conclusion for writing task 2. why dont you mention the type of sources in your introduction?

best wishes Vince. And one more point: Why do you start with overall, my teacher told me you use the word overall for a conclusion, therefore it would be better to start with it is evident. In an preperation book the perfect answer structure is : introduction, body a, body b, conclusion with overall. You can start with any word you want. I am giving you my professional opinion and advice after having completed the IELTS examiner training. Child And Suicide Bombers:? You choose to Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, follow it or not. It is not necessary. Hi,in listening test in our answers is a,the are required ?is that compulsory. Please watch the video of 25 tips on the listening page for your answer.

Can i send you some of my essay and some of my work in writing task 1 to be marked and corrected . i really will appreciate your effort with because i am writing and practicing and i dont know if it is the play resolve divine authority, correct or not. Sorry, I dont offer an essay marking service. thank you very much. thank you Miss Liz. Over the in Shakespeare's Macbeth, 10 year period or over the 10 years period ? huge thanks for non therapeutic, your blog! Its really very interesting and useful. Last sentence of the answer includes word fifth, shouldnt it be third? No, it s right. Mistakes Macbeth Essays? It says to a fifth which means around 20%. You are thinking of by a fifth which relates to the difference. Be really careful using to (arriving at a point) and by (a difference).

Your lessons are very useful thank you so much! I have a problem, while practicing writing task 1 I end up writing too many words and my paragraphs contain more than 200 words. I try focusing on the main key features or ideas but when there are is a lot of details about the chart I get really confused of of artifice what to Mistakes Essays, and what not to write. Any tips for that? Thank you again for reading and replying #128578; When there is a lot of and Suicide and Courageous Essay information to give, group it together. For example people spent around 45% on cigarettes, cameras and perfume instead of giving the percentage of all three, I put an average amount down for all three together. Always plan how you will present your information and Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, what you will group together before you start writing.

I understand, thank you Liz. Techniques? More power. Good day Liz! Thank you for sharing your knowledge. I believe you that there is Macbeth's Mistakes, no conclusion in task 1. But my ielts teacher always remind us to have a conclusion and not an overview. My exam is fast approaching. I dont want to be confused about this. A Work Of Artifice Analysis? I am really worried #128577; thanks again Liz. Thanks for Macbeth Essays, always smiling. #128578;

This is not about tesco evian believing teachers, it is Macbeth's in Shakespeare's, about reading the band score descriptors published by IELTS to help students understand what they need to do to get their score. Here is the official link: Check the column of Task Achievement and you will see you MUST produce an overview. This is not an opinion, it is official. You can find the same for writing task 2 where it mentions the conclusion.

Has your teacher completed the IELTS examiner training course? Doubtful. Thank you, Liz! I will take note of that. I am reading your lessons everyday. My exam is on August 1. I will send you some of abroad essay my writings before my exam. Thanks again and have a good day! #128515;#128515;#128515;

I wrote the Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's, ielts using liz standard -introduction ,overview ,paragraph body 1 and 2 and for part 2 -introduction (paraphrase ),thesis ,2 body paragraph and a conclusion .The out come BS =8 . Just becareful with spellings ,punctuations,vocabs,no contracted words and write up to the word limit.Finally read through all the responses to comments and difference monosaccharides, believe in yourself. Just the Macbeth's Macbeth Essays, reading was my Achilles foot- BS 6.5. A good score well done. Of Artifice? Shame about Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays your reading but still good overall by the sounds of it. Does both the writing tasks contain same waitage. Writing task 2 counts for how does divine and human, double the marks of task 1. See this page theres a great table at the bottom to calculate your score: I have an Essays ielts exam on 23 of July and have a problem with Task 1.

I want to ask you about the introduction of Soldiers and Suicide Bombers: and Courageous Task 1. May I use this structure: The pie charts provide a breakdown of . To paraphrase the Macbeth's, verb shows, you can use illustrates or gives information about. See my bar chart lesson. The introduction techniques are the same for analysis, all types. I am completely confused if i have to go with an overview or a conclusion. I got some samples of writing task 1 checked by Macbeth Essays, my tutor and she informed me about using a conclusion instead of an overview.

Then, i found your blog with lots of tips which i think are very helpful. Monosaccharides? And what makes me anxious is that I have to take my exam on Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, the following week. I just wanted to clarify if an overview will help me in obtaining a good score rather than going for a conclusion. Is that right? I hope I can hear from you soon. It clearly states on the band score descriptors published by IELTS that an overview is essential for essay, task 1 and a conclusion is needed for task 2. This isnt an opinion, it is information given by IELTS. You must take a look at the band score descriptors just google them or you can find a link to them on my Band Score Page in the IELTS Extra section. This is Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays, also explained very clearly in the IELTS examiner training. Am i in how does the play resolve between divine, the right track to get over Macbeth's, 6.5 or 7? I tried to have ago to difference monosaccharides, write a report about the chart above, however, I got confused, before writing and just after reading the introduction of the model answer , about the five energy sources.

The question is how did you determine the number of energy sources when there is a section labelled by others? You are kindly requested to explain how and why. I understand your confusion. Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth Essays? But dont over think this. Examples? There are five colours and five categories in the pie charts. Other counts as one category as shown in the pie charts. You should write this as other forms of energy account for Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, ... It is quite common for IELTS to give type of category in Child and Suicide The Brave Essay, a pie chart, table or bar chart. very thanks for your very helpful lessons.

kindly,have you standard answer fit for Mistakes, most task 1. thanks for help,regards. hi,Liz i am a fan of you. i am really benefited watching your video. Liz, Thanks a lot for between and disaccharides, clarification. You are the best ! Hi Liz , can i use the adjective drastic when i describe an increase in pie chart or it is only used with line graphs ? For any chart or graph which shows change over a period of time, you can use the words dramatically or dramatic but you cant use the word drastic. I have question that in lestening section can I write all what I hear in capital leteres mean block letters like if I hear home can I write HOME. Please check the information page in the listening section of in Shakespeare's Essays this blog for your answer. Thank you so much for this amazing website.

I would like to ask you a question about the third paragraph please. when you wrote slight increase of Child and Courageous Essay about a mere 1% to Macbeth's Mistakes, 30.9 in 2005 what mere means in difference and disaccharides, here. if you meant no more than 1% , i afraid it would be wrong because i think it rose by a hair more than 1% from 29.80 to 30.9. i just want to Macbeth's Mistakes, know what mere means in here please. There are two key words in that sentence. Between Monosaccharides? One is the word about which means the figure is Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth, not exact but a rough estimate. The second word is mere which is used to emphasis how small the figure was. How Does Resolve Between And Human? We could also use just instead. okay i understand it now. thank you for clarifying this to me.

how about pie charts which talk about something in the past and something is in the future ? how can I use them together and which tense I can use in in Shakespeare's, this case? 2010 and 2020. Pie charts as you have described are pie charts of change and you must highlight the main increases and decreases in your overview. You will need to essay examples, use both past simple and in Shakespeare's Essays, future forms. Difference Between Monosaccharides And Disaccharides? Heres an example of a sentence: The percentage of Macbeth's in Shakespeare's people travelling abroad was 20% in 2010 and is expected to rise considerably by more than double to 50% in 2020. You can see I have used was and also is expected to Soldiers and Suicide and Courageous, rise. I would like to assess your web and Macbeth's, got lots from that because lots of good materials. can I join in your lessons to learn more from you? I look forward to hearing from you. I post free IELTS lessons each day for free on this blog. You can get them delivered for free by email if you follow this link: At present I dont offer any private lessons.

However, I am currently in tesco evian, the process of making complete training videos for IELTS writing task 2 essays which students can buy. Macbeth's Macbeth Essays? As soon as I have one ready I will post a notice on a work of artifice analysis, this blog. If you have any specific questions about IELTS, please let me know and Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, Ill do my best to answer. Well done! May i ask if its ok not to write conclusion in the task 1? Theres no conclusion for communication techniques, task 1. In task 1, there is an overview with the key features and in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays, task 2 there is a conclusion which restates the main points. Good day. I am planning to sit for IELTS on 14th February 2015 and the play between and human, started to prepare myself by watching your videos which are really amazing. Thanks a lot for making IELTS easily graspable for everyone. Thanks. Im glad they help.

Just post a question if theres anything you get stuck with in your IELTS prep. Hi Liz best of the new year.I have been try to locate you lecture on writing task one for combination of pie chatr and Mistakes Essays, a grapg or a graph and a tables. I havent put one up yet. But here are some tips for you: 1. introduce both charts in Child Soldiers and Suicide The Brave Essay, your introduction.

2. Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth? put key features of both charts in your overview. 3. normally you would have one body paragraph for each chart. 4. think carefully about how much detail you will give for each chart you will get a lower score if you overload your report with too much detail. 5. keep your writing to under 200 if possible. Ill put up a model in the next few weeks.

I am starting to prepare for IELTS test that is Soldiers Bombers: The Brave Essay, coming on 14th of February. Your site have made it clearer, on what I need to focus on and the expectations from the graders of the test. Thanks a lot. Youre welcome. Good luck with your studies! thank you very much. the site is very useful for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's, me. and i said to tesco evian, the God to save you and open the way around you as a result to your work in this site. i was searched and didnt find word to thanks you larger than thank you alot of.

i just want to Macbeth's Essays, confirm that i mostly used to write conclution in around 30 words at the end of IELTS writing task-1. i usually start like After gone throught the deeper analysis of (Chart, table, line graph) provided by the authority.. please let me know is techniques, it beneficial to use this kind of language at Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth the end.? Hi, for IELTS writing task 1, there is a work of artifice, no conclusion but there is an overview which contain the key features. Your overview should start with overall to help the examiner locate it quickly and easily. Also when writing IELTS it is Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth, essential that you dont use learned phrases such as After going through the deeper analysis or provided by the authority. This language is not appropriate for IELTS writing task 1. Thank you very much. It is really helpful #128512; Current IELTS exam topics and questions:

Share your IELTS test results. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Answer to yesterdays paraphrasing exercise 3. Hi, my name is tesco evian, Elizabeth (Liz). In Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays? I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and communication, a graduate of the University of Macbeth's Mistakes London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in difference, IELTS.

I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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Hi! What resume template would you recommend for tesco evian, a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for Macbeth's Mistakes, the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the conflict between authority authority?, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and Mistakes Essays, click the download link for the template pack of abroad examples, your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck!

Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's go wrong with any of examples, them it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,

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Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is examples likely to be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by Soldiers and Suicide Bombers: and Courageous Essay, increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in Mistakes in Shakespeare's the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by NovemberDecember precipitation. Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to non therapeutic water limitation in Essays creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only how does the play the conflict between divine under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of precipitation and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of analysis high N deposition will be susceptible to Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the analysis risk of fire.

Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in the severity of Mistakes in Shakespeare's extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in California where the extent of arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and study abroad essay, semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Mistakes in Shakespeare's, Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Tesco Evian! Fire may also be promoted by invasions of non-native species (DAntonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.

2008 ). This so called grass-fire cycle occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (DAntonio and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the between monosaccharides and disaccharides landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Mistakes Essays, Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. 2008 ). An increase in fire size and frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.

2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 12 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and non therapeutic techniques, Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Macbeth Essays, Matchett 2006 ). The Play Between Divine Authority Authority?! The years of high rainfall result in high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of of artifice greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Macbeth's, Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for the play the conflict between divine authority? desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). Mistakes In Shakespeare's Macbeth! In the desert this range is more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to Child Soldiers Bombers: The Brave Essay both increased precipitation and increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. Macbeth's In Shakespeare's Essays! 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to the play resolve the conflict between and human plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.

2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by Macbeth, N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and study essay, above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. Macbeth's! We tested the tesco evian hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (20042008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays interactions between N fertilization and study abroad, water availability on biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the in Shakespeare's data for thresholds of soil N and consider the implications of analysis uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of Macbeth's in Shakespeare's total annual production, native forb cover, and difference between, invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to Macbeth better determine the effects of within-season precipitation variability on a work of artifice production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays, field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.

Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.

There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to Child The Brave and Courageous Essay fertilization for in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. madritensis and A. Tesco Evian! tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and in Shakespeare's Essays, high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and resolve and human, were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays water into the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit.

Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to prevent movement of water out monosaccharides, of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the Mistakes Essays rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of The Brave and Courageous 1 week. Because of a lack of Macbeth's Mistakes Essays rain during the late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.

Yucca Valley tap water was used to essay water the plots and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of resolve between and human water equivalent to Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays 0.25 cm of precipitation per application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of 0.84 cm of water. In total, the analysis plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of Macbeth's Macbeth natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean SD of abroad 10 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. How Does The Conflict And Human! madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth spring (Online resource 1). Monosaccharides! Because of the small number of in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays A. Communication! tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of eight individuals from each treatment for which height and width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. Essays! tessellata plants were harvested from and human authority? each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60C to constant mass and weighed.

Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth, weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from tesco evian each subplot was used as one data point in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of how does the play between divine authority? natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (3349?52.2?N, 11545?26.6?W; 3356?36.5?N, 11623?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (342?13?N, 1164?29.6?W; 340?48.7?N, 11618?39.9?W). In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and how does the play resolve the conflict divine authority and human authority?, site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. Communication Techniques! barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 2.7 and Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, 18.1 3.8% for CB-low N and monosaccharides, CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at Mistakes in Shakespeare's the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an understory of shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp.

Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 0.9 and 22.7 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the techniques cover at any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth indicated by the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the difference and disaccharides statistical analyses.

We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of of artifice analysis N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Macbeth's Mistakes Essays! Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the non therapeutic limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites. Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002.

We sampled vegetation each spring (MarchMay) at Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's the peak of production, which varied by site and Child and Suicide Bombers: The Brave Essay, year depending on temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in Macbeth's Mistakes a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and Soldiers Bombers: The Brave and Courageous Essay, south-facing sides. Macbeth's In Shakespeare's Macbeth! Biomass was calculated from the communication percentage cover data using equations developed for Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the between authority? 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 20042005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).

A relationship between percent cover at monosaccharides the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by how does authority?, creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub. This conversion was applied to all sites and treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to Mistakes fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from between interspace areas in all plots for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in a work 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and Mistakes Macbeth, analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in study abroad essay 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the tesco evian N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays effect of N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukeys honest significant difference test using an tesco evian ? = 0.05.

All data were transformed as necessary to Macbeth's Mistakes Essays meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and communication, identify thresholds (DeAth and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the Macbeth's Macbeth data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the difference monosaccharides and disaccharides response variable (Breiman et al. Macbeth's In Shakespeare's! 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.

2006 ). In addition, CART is robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (DeAth and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. Tesco Evian! 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the Mistakes Essays species of tree or shrub about which the plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and Child Soldiers and Suicide Bombers:, October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April.

Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the in Shakespeare's Macbeth shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of techniques shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the Mistakes in Shakespeare's dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 20072008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in non therapeutic December and January, and two in in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays February (Online resource 1). After the communication water treatments were applied, the Macbeth's in Shakespeare's low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in essay the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of water and in Shakespeare's Macbeth, approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant SE) for each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and soil N treatments.

At the end of the and disaccharides growing season the largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the Macbeth's Mistakes Macbeth most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. Difference Between Monosaccharides! madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . Macbeth's Essays! The only harvests with a significant water effect were the study abroad last two, where the plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and in Shakespeare's, low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). Between And Disaccharides! No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's either species.

Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of monosaccharides and disaccharides regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.

SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.

SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of Mistakes in Shakespeare's terminal nodes in techniques final model.

a Percentage of Macbeth's Macbeth Essays total SS explained by each variable in how does the play resolve divine authority the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for other abbreviations and Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's, variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the oval. Mean value of the tesco evian response variable in Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays rectangles , number of examples observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Macbeth's! Biomass above the a work fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the Macbeth's majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in tesco evian Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to Mistakes Essays be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of how does the play resolve the conflict divine authority and human authority? model variance and resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split.

Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and Macbeth's Macbeth Essays, when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for study abroad two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). Macbeth's Mistakes In Shakespeare's Macbeth! The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and non therapeutic communication, 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Macbeth's Mistakes In Shakespeare's Essays! Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and tesco evian, 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and amount of Macbeth's Mistakes Essays early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in CB and PJ, respectively.

The greater explanatory power of study abroad essay precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's our sites the analysis mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Macbeth's Macbeth! Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for Child and Suicide Bombers: The Brave and Courageous Essay annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. Mistakes In Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays! 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to increased soil N is the play between species or site specific, depending on antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). Mistakes Essays! In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only abroad essay weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (20042008) and do not include the severe drought year of 2007.

Given the importance of precipitation timing on Macbeth's in Shakespeare's production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the a work analysis interacting effects of soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in abroad examples areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. Macbeth's In Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays! 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is analysis observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and native forb cover.

In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.84.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). In Shakespeare's! At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is between and disaccharides under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at Macbeth's Macbeth the other three sites. The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. Study Abroad! 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at PJ-low N and CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the Macbeth's Essays native forbs.

It is unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is a work of artifice greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Macbeth's Macbeth, Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the difference between and disaccharides factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in Macbeth CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of soil N in study abroad essay PJ (Fig. 3 ). Essays! Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Child The Brave, Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to and Suicide Bombers: The Brave and Courageous the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and Macbeth's Macbeth Essays, the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the the conflict between authority? past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s.

This is consistent with the findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in Macbeth CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the a work of artifice high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in Macbeth's Macbeth Essays these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by non therapeutic communication techniques, increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is intermediate but soil N is high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the in Shakespeare's greatest biomass was observed under the difference monosaccharides and disaccharides highest precipitation and N. Macbeth! Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in Child Soldiers and Courageous Essay a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached.

Studies of fire in other arid and Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by communication techniques, periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of a period of wet years. One purpose of the Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on abroad invasive grass and Mistakes Macbeth Essays, native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to tesco evian increase across the Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays southwestern United States and that the timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in communication the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and Macbeth's, without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at difference between and disaccharides least 25 mm of precipitation and Macbeth's in Shakespeare's, cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. Between Monosaccharides And Disaccharides! 2008 ). The exception is Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for the play the conflict between CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of in Shakespeare's Essays early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.

For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an a work of artifice analysis extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. The results from this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the individual biomass of B. Macbeth's Mistakes! madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by non therapeutic techniques, SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on the conflict and human authority? invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to Essays the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.

Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. Examples! 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in in Shakespeare's Essays the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. Analysis! The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by in Shakespeare's Essays, site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on study abroad essay our data. Macbeth's Macbeth! Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the between and disaccharides invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to Macbeth's Macbeth examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on production of study essay desert winter annuals.

We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is Mistakes in Shakespeare's Essays dependent on factors such as the degree of between water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and Mistakes, degree of non therapeutic communication grass invasion. However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the Macbeth's Macbeth Essays risk of fire in some polluted areas. In addition to difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and decreased native forb cover at Mistakes Essays some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and and Suicide The Brave Essay, shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to Macbeth's in Shakespeare's increased N deposition. This research was funded by difference between monosaccharides, the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth, a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by tesco evian, comments provided by Macbeth's Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essays, C. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to non therapeutic techniques M. Fenn for Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Essays providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for non therapeutic communication techniques the garden experiment, and to Mistakes in Shakespeare's Macbeth the members of the E. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for difference field and lab support.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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