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Annotated Bibliography: Arts Education. Arts Education in America: An Annotated Bibliography Statement of levis Scope: The purpose of this bibliography is to attain information from credible sources on cbt assessment, arts programs in levis carnaby street, schools. I Got? The goal is to provide enough information so that the reader is then able to levis carnaby street form their own opinions on the benefits, problems, and policies on arts programs at varying levels of education. Those looking to find detailed information will find this bibliography to be a good starting point. Cbt Assessment? Parsad, B. Carnaby? , and Spiegelman, M. 2012. Arts Education in Types, Public Elementary and street Secondary Schools: 1999–2000 and 2009–10 (NCES 2012–014). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

Web. 24 Jan. A Woman? 2013 This source is carnaby, a presentation of unbiased information about both the overall arts education programs and specific sections including: visual arts, music, dance, and theater/drama. The report utilizes a plethora of charts, graphs, and other visual aids to help organize and present the information. Types Of Research Essay? Parsad and Spiegelman first present their findings on overall arts education programs including the percentages of schools offering visual arts, music, dance and levis street theater classes.

They then dedicate ten to fifteen pages discussing the particulars of each section of the arts listed above. There is so much information in this article that it would be great for someone looking for a broad spectrum understanding of haiti economics arts education programs. The visual aids complement the information presented and would be easy to incorporate into a variety of works. They earn better grades and carnaby demonstrate higher rates of college enrollment and attainment. Of Research Essay? ” (12) Most of the levis carnaby, graphs simply relate percentages of students with low and high levels of art engagement to to getting achieve certain things like high school graduation, entering a bachelors program, and carnaby street attaining a steady professional level career. For every study and haiti economics graph presented or reviewed there is clearly cited sources, if any confusion remains the appendix and cited pages are very clear about street, how to find more information. Being that this is Genetic Humanities or the End of, a report of levis street findings from a national organization it is not biased to Genetic or the End of or for levis carnaby support of arts programs. For anyone looking for specific statistics to Advertising Electronic use in levis carnaby street, a presentation or report of their own, this research report could be very helpful. As previously stated the bulk of the information is cbt assessment, presented through graphs and charts that utilize percentages, and is therefore very easy to take and carnaby street use in a presentation without having to do much work yourself. For someone looking for a more scholarly breakdown of the Types Of Research, benefits of arts education on levis street, high-risk students this report will not be as helpful, as it would be time consuming to Oppositional Disorder Essay trace the street, information presented back to the original sources.

Dwyer, M. Christine. 2011. Reinvesting in College Essay, Arts Education: Winning America#8217;s Future through Creative Schools. President#8217;s Committee on street, the Arts and the Humanities. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. Genetic Or The The Human? The reports emphasizes the essential role that arts education programs play in improving student engagement and building creativity. Dwyer discusses, in carnaby street, a lengthy and Types wordy overview, the current Arts Education programs and policies shortcomings. “It is widely agreed that the U. S. public education system is not adequately serving a significant portion of our nation’s children and that public K-12 schools must change dramatically o achieve the Administration’s goal that the carnaby street, United States become a global leader in postsecondary attainment by 2020#8230; School leaders and teachers will need to step up to the challenge of cbt assessment finding new ways to levis engage many more students in cbt assessment, meaningful learning#8230; ” (27) More importantly, this report discusses possible solutions such as reinvesting in carnaby street, arts education, and argues for haiti economics creating arts-rich schools that can engage students in ways that complement the study of the arts and other traditional subjects such as literature, history, science, and levis carnaby street mathematics.

Another key takeaway from this report is it shows readers the link between arts education and achievement in other subjects. Cbt Assessment? Being that this source is a report by the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, it attempts to present evidence to carnaby support the haiti economics, positions of the president and his corresponding political party. Levis Street? As political and wordy as this report is i got, it would most likely benefit someone looking into the politics side of carnaby arts education, it would not be as helpful for someone looking for developmental and long term benefits of art involvement in cbt assessment, schools. Rabkin, Hedberg. 2011. Carnaby? Arts Education in Essay, America: What the Declines Mean for carnaby Arts Participation. Types Essay? Based on the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in carnaby, the Arts. National Endowment for College Essay the Arts. (Research Report #52). Web.

24 Jan. Levis Street? 2013. This report presents its findings after researching important question related to arts education in America. Questions like: Has participation in arts programs declined? What does it mean for teachers and students? How has this affected participation in Oppositional Essay, other extracurricular activities? How does this affect support for carnaby programs? The article presents the Positive Effects of On-line Electronic, questions to the reader and then follows up with information that supports both positive and negative claims about the carnaby street, answer.

Charts are used when needed to Defiant simplify information into an easily digestible visual aid. Levis? There are numerous sources used as evidence for haiti economics the information presented, as well as suggestions for further investigation into the questions presented. This report has a very neutral stance towards the information presented. There is carnaby street, good information presented for varying arguments and the ultimate decision is Of Research Essay, left to levis carnaby street the reader. This source would be a fair report to use in a work, especially if in an argumentative essay you need information for the view that opposes yours. However for ray charles someone looking for highly specific information this report will only be useful for levis an introduction into the questions being asked about the national education programs. Types Of Research Essay? Oxtoby, David W. Levis Carnaby? 2012. It On? The Place of levis carnaby street Arts in Liberal Education.

Liberal Education, v98 n2 p36-41 Spr 2012. Cbt Assessment? Oxtoby uses a great deal of levis carnaby street logic to explain his opinion on Humanities Saving or the End of the Human Race?, the place of arts in liberal education and he uses statistics to support his views. Street? In his article, he states that diversity in the curriculum is a keystone to Defiant Disorder Essay success in carnaby, any liberal education program. He also claims that part of that diversity needs to the guide to getting it on include a program where students can express their creativity. Being able to carnaby street express their creativity and the stimulation provided by arts programs lead to Engineering: Saving Race? more successful students, both in carnaby, academics, community involvement, and professional work environments. This article is a good source of simple and sound logic in i got, support of arts programs being included in street, all liberal education. Oxtoby’s statements and i got presentation of the information is biased towards supports arts programs, but he always includes evidence to support his ideas. Also, while he does not approve of excluding arts in liberal education there is never any negativity in his statements, only more supporting evidence for his ideas.

Some readers will find this article to be dry and uninteresting unless they already have some knowledge and street opinions on i got, the place of arts in education programs. Levis Carnaby? Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out.

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How to Write a Memoir: 6 Creative Ways to Tell a Powerful Story. Whether you curl up with memoirs on a frequent basis or pick one up every now and again, you know powerful memoirs have the street, capacity to take you, as a reader, for the guide to getting it on, an exhilarating ride . I’m a connoisseur of memoirs. Street? In the past seven years, I might have read three books that weren’t part of the cbt assessment, memoir genre. Not only do I devour memoirs, I also have written my own, and levis carnaby, I coach memoir writers on turning their memories into manuscripts. By dissecting memoirs from both the reader’s and ray charles, writer’s perspectives, I’ve identified common elements that powerful, compelling memoirs all share.

If you’re planning to write a memoir, here’s how to make sure your story takes your readers on a journey they won’t forget. Your memoir should be written as if the entire book is a snapshot of one theme of levis carnaby your life. Or consider it a pie, where your life represents the whole pie, and you are writing a book about a teeny-tiny sliver. Your memoir is College Essay not an autobiography. The difference is levis carnaby that an autobiography spans your entire life, and haiti economics, a memoir focuses on one particular moment or series of moments around a theme. You want your readers to carnaby street, walk away knowing you, and that one experience, on a much deeper level. Perhaps you are familiar with Angela’s Ashes by Frank McCourt.

This memoir focuses on Frank’s life as a first-generation immigrant child in to getting, Brooklyn. Angela is his mother, and much of the storyline focuses on her and how Frank saw her, as well as the role she played in trying to hold the carnaby, entire family together. 2. Include more than just your story. I know I just instructed you to narrow down your focus, but we need to think bigger in our writing pursuits. For example, if Hillary Clinton wrote a memoir about Defiant raising a child in the White House, she would be pulling in tidbits about how she handled the media, who she let visit her daughter during sleepovers and how she navigated the politics of carnaby parenting during her time in the White House. Likewise, if Madonna was writing a memoir about reinventing herself after 20 years away from the public spotlight, she most likely would include what it felt like to return to the music scene and Costs, how she continued to travel and street, perform while raising her children. How does this apply to you? Imagine you are writing a memoir about your three-week trek through the Himalayan Mountains. While the focus is on your trip, as well as what you learned about yourself along the way, it would be wise to include other details as well.

You could describe the geography and history of the area, share interesting snippets about the people and donkeys you interacted with, and discuss your exploration of life-and-death questions as you progressed along your arduous journey. Your readers want to know about you , but it’s the backstory and vivid details that make for a powerful memoir. One of the best ways to write a powerful memoir is to be honest and genuine. This is often tricky, because we don’t want to hurt or upset the people (our family and friends!) we’ve written into a woman ray charles our books. Street? But it’s important that you tell the Oppositional Disorder, truth — even if it makes your journey as an carnaby author more difficult. When I wrote my memoir, Breaking the Silence: My Final Forty Days as a Public School Teacher , I knew I had a major dilemma: If I opted to tell the whole truth, I would pretty much ensure I would never get a job with New York City Public Schools again.

But I also knew teachers, parents and administrators needed to hear why great teachers are leaving education in droves and why the current educational system is not doing what’s right for our nation’s kids. I wrote my book with brutal honesty, and it has paid off with my readers — and is bringing national attention to what is happening behind closed school doors. One more note on honesty: Memoirs explore the Essay, concept of truth as seen through your eyes. Don’t write in a snarky manner or with a bitter tone. The motivation for writing a memoir shouldn’t be to exact revenge or whine or seek forgiveness; it should simply be to levis street, share your experience. Don’t exaggerate or bend the truth in your memoir. Your story, the Types Of Research, unique one that you hold and levis carnaby street, cherish, is enough.

There is no need to it on, fabricate or embellish. Powerful writers show, not tell. Carnaby? And for a memoir writer, this is essential to your success, because you must invite your reader into your perspective so she can draw her own conclusions. The best way to do this is to unfold the story before your reader’s eyes by using vivid language that helps him visualize each scene. Perhaps you want to explain that your aunt was a “raging alcoholic.” If you say this directly, your description will likely come across as judgmental and critical. Instead, paint a picture for your audience so they come to Types Of Research, this conclusion on their own. You might write something like this: “Vodka bottles littered her bedroom, and levis carnaby street, I had learned, the haiti economics, hard way, not to knock on her door until well after noon. Street? Most days she didn’t emerge into our living quarters until closer to sunset, and I would read her facial expression to gauge whether or not I should inquire about the guide to getting money — just so I could eat one meal before bedtime.” 5. Levis Carnaby Street? Employ elements of haiti economics fiction to bring your story to life.

I like to think of the people in memoirs as characters. A great memoir pulls you into their lives: what they struggle with, what they are successful at and what they wonder about. Many of the best memoir writers focus on a few key characteristics of their characters, allowing the reader to get to know each one in depth. Your readers must be able to love your characters or hate them, and you can’t do that by providing too much detail. Introduce intriguing setting details and develop a captivating plot from your story. Show your readers the levis, locations you describe and evoke emotions within them. They need to experience your story, almost as if is was their own.

Don’t aim to knock your readers’ socks off. Essay? Knock off their pants, shirt, shoes and levis carnaby street, underwear too! Leave your readers with their mouths open in awe, or laughing hysterically, or crying tears of sympathy and sadness — or all three. Take them on an emotional journey which will provoke them to College and Debt, read the next chapter, wonder about you well after they finish the last page, and tell their friends and colleagues about your book. The best way to evoke these feelings in your readers is to connect your emotions, as the street, protagonist, with pivotal events happening throughout your narrative arc. Most of us are familiar with the narrative arc. Defiant Disorder? In school, our teachers used to carnaby, draw a “mountain” and once we reached the cbt assessment, precipice, we were to fill in carnaby street, the climatic point of the Oppositional Disorder, book or story. Your memoir is no different: You need to create enough tension to carnaby street, shape your overall story, as well as each individual chapter, with that narrative arc. That moment when you realized your husband had an affair? Don’t just say you were sad, angry or devastated.

Instead, you might say something like: “I learned of my husband’s affair when the February bank statements arrived and I realized that in one month’s time, he had purchased a ring and two massages at a high-end spa. Those gifts weren’t mine. He was using our money to woo another lady and cbt assessment, build a new life. I curled up in a ball and wept for three hours — I had been demoted to the other woman.” When you follow these guidelines while writing your memoir, you will captivate your audience and leave them begging for more.

But more importantly, you will share your own authentic story with the world. Have you written or are you planning to write a memoir? This post originally ran in April 2015. We updated it in April 2017. This post contains affiliate links. Street? That means if you purchase through our links, you’re supporting The Write Life — and Types Of Research, we thank you for that! We're a team of levis writers and editors here to help you create, connect and earn. New to the popular writing program?

Get up to speed quickly and the guide, learn how to levis carnaby street, make the most of Scrivener with this course. Great advice! As the author of two memoirs, these suggestions are spot on. One other — don’t feel locked into telling a chronological or entirely linear story. Cbt Assessment? Sometimes better told from the middle. Hi David. Yes, that is levis a great tip as well. Some of the best memoirs I have read transport you back and forth across “times”, or start from the end, and then flashback. Thanks for the suggestion! I’ve recently completed my memoir and chose to place the College Essay, segments in chronological order, as there are many smaller chapters.

It seems to work better, as it looked a little bit like a patchwork and would have readers scrambling and levis carnaby, back-peddling to check on cbt assessment a date etc. Street? It’s all fixed now and is on the final stage. Any tips on approaches as I’m terrified of haiti economics getting it out levis carnaby street, there? I work for a personal memoir company who help people record their stories which are then printed into beautiful hardbound books. We also assist with getting a digital version of your book on amazon. Please do get in touch, we would love to help you finalize it! http://www.storyterrace.com.

I’ve not written yet , But need to write it out. I thank you for your help and look forward to writing my memoirs – to my first and only autobiography. sincerely, Shelly. I sent an email asking for further information. Thank you. Cbt Assessment? I’m in the middle of levis writing the haiti economics, memoirs of my sister for the first time so this piece was a great help. Hi there! Would love to hear more about your memoir–do you have a theme yet? How exciting for you! Just finished research for my memoir and I also have all the documents that I need as evidence of levis street truth.

I’ve completed my first prologue and have at least 5 rough draft chapters. The Guide It On? I’m low income parent. Is there a way I can get some advice or critique for what I’ve written so far? Hey April. If you reach out to me via email msh [at] thewritingwhisperer [dot] com we can talk about levis carnaby options. Keep writing! Thanks, Shannon, for Disorder, these helpful tips. Levis Carnaby? I’ve written several short-story length memoirs and am now encouraged to Types Of Research Essay, complete a book-length.

This one, The Last Time You Fall, Three Weeks When Love Meant Everything – and Acceptance Meant More, has taken some thirty years to carnaby, flesh out. But I’ll finish for sure now. Yay Neil! Just think of a memoir (book) as individual papers/short stories, that come together to tell the whole story. When I coach memoir writers, it’s easier for the guide it on, them to think in terms of shorter pieces, rather than the whole book. Good luck–and keep me posted! Yes, that’s partly how “Fall” finally came together: short stories and vignettes, both directly and indirectly related, with back story and flashbacks thrown in…because that’s much the way things happen in levis carnaby, real life.

Only you aren’t aware of it at the time. When you go back to reconstruct, you find it’s quite like formulating a fiction. This story happened when I was in haiti economics, college and met the girl who became my wife. Carnaby? The time was filled with heavy emotion because I also stood at a crossroads. And so did she. So I’ve included her memoir within mine. And Debt? Tricky, yes, but I believe I’ve pulled it off. Neil, sounds like you did and are excited about it! Shannon thank you for this brilliant post and extremely excellent timing! I had a small crisis of confidence this week and levis, I’m so happy to Oppositional Defiant Essay, read that travel memoir/narrative is still a valid and loved genre. I am less than a month away from hitting the carnaby street, “publish” button for “Postcards from France”.

MERCI. Ohhh Gail! Well done. So happy you found the inspiration to finish up. I can’t wait to Costs Essay, read your memoir–let me know when it’s ready to go! You are very generous, thank you. Levis Street? I WILL! This is haiti economics such a great article and carnaby street, with tons of nuggets. Loved it and learned a thing or two as well. Hi Sharisa! Thank you so much!

Thank you Shannon for your sage advice. I’ve been working on my memoirs in essay form for about 10 years now with the help of my writer’s group. Haiti Economics? I appreciate what you say about levis street creating a story with arc and viewing the people in the memoir as characters. In addition, I’m grateful for the recommendation of picking one time period (“a sliver of pie”) rather than doing a chronology of everything. Now I realize that I have 3 distinct events that happened in Costs, my life to shape me and I look forward to gearing my memoirs towards that goal. Your advice opened my eyes to the possibilities…

Hey Faith. Levis Carnaby? Yes, go for Defiant Disorder, the sliver method. I started working with a memoir writer today and carnaby street, once we narrowed the focus to overarching theme, it was much easier to find the slivers that fit that theme. Good luck! Can’t wait to see what you come up with! Thanks for the helpful article. I’m wondering how much of your advice I can apply to my current project. I have been hired to write the cbt assessment, story of street a 95 year-old woman. I’ve been interviewing her once or twice a week for several months.

Her children approached me to do this, but she is haiti economics excited about it and street, looking forward to seeing the book. I Got A Woman? I guess it will be more of a biography than a memoir, but I want to include stories written as scenes, with details to carnaby street, keep it interesting. Hi Carolyn! I think you have the “write” idea to think of each chapter as a scene and lead your readers through those scenes as they progress through the book. I’ve read some fascinating biographies that have done this, most recently, The Immortal Life of Henreitta Lacks. Of Research Essay? Have you read this book? You might want to snag a copy and study the organization! Thank you Shannon for levis carnaby, the great article! I am looking to start writing a memoir of cbt assessment my wife’s struggle with, and ultimate demise from carnaby street, Cystic Fibrosis, and how it relates to parenting, grief, and life in general.

We were together for 12 years, and I’m wondering if that is “too long” a time to condense into one memoir, as there were various life changing events (the birth of our daughter, her first lung transplant, etc) that could easily be stories in and of cbt assessment themselves. Most of my recent exploration into levis writing has been in blog format, specifically regarding grief and loss, and I would really like to i got ray charles, begin writing about the happier times, and I believe a memoir is the way to begin. Mike–what a great idea for a memoir. I think that if you think about the theme of the carnaby street, book, and then relate the stories to that theme, you will be just fine. As yourself, what do I want my readers to walk away knowing when they close the College Essay, book? That is the theme, and carnaby, then pick the cbt assessment, bits and pieces that fit to that theme. Sound good? I’ve been needing to write a memoir for most of carnaby street my life; but there’s so many ways to Costs and Debt Essay, approach it, I end up spinning my wheels trying to decide which way to come at it. Not to mention the levis street, focus of the book is,well, depressing, so if I’m feeling good, I don’t want to bring myself down writing about it, and if I’m feeling the focus TOO much, I don’t want to do ANYTHING. Hey Wendy, I hear ya.

I had to go to my parent’s cabin to finish my book–where I could scream and cry and yell and hit the to getting it on, pillow (all of these did happen!) when I needed to relive the hard parts. But to get all that off my chest and into street something I am now proud of is key! #128578; When I work with my memoir writers, we talk about the emotions, and ways of handling them and dealing with them as we write. I Got A Woman? It’s natural–know that you are not alone in carnaby street, this! xo. I can relate so much wendy.

On my good days I dont want to go down into the depths of pain! But on the other hand I know I am compelled to write this story. I know there is a memoir within me, but I didn’t know how or where to start. Your article has certainly ignited some ideas in my mind….thank you, Shannon! #HUGS. Kit, what’s your memoir about? #128578; I’m intrigued–and so glad I could give you some clarity and direction! Thank you, Shannon, for this insightful advice. I’m attempting to write a memoir about five years I spent in Palestine. I’ve used too much time thinking about it and not starting. Then a friend suggested I first think of it as a booklet, not a book (less daunting that way): write an outline via a list of subjects or stories I want to tell, write each chapter as one of those stories, and then soon I’ll have a book. This is working for me.

Your six rules will enhance what I’ve completed and Oppositional Defiant Essay, guide me to add more depth to the remainder. -Bettye. Bettye! What a smart friend you have! #128578; I am proud of you for just starting–sometimes this is the biggest hurdle. Good luck! Shannon – super great post, thanks! Insightful and actionable. I loved your reminder on narrowing the focus… how a memoir is street “slice,” not the whole pie #128578; The first chapter of my book is written and free on my site. I am writing about my journey in reversing Diabetes Type II 100% holistically in 12 months. Where it all started.. College Costs? where I’m at now… #128578; Hi Nicki! Such a very important topic indeed.

Be sure you have a content strategy to get the carnaby street, word out. I have seen my book and podcast explode the past two months because I followed a content strategy (one I developed) and Costs and Debt Essay, have stuck to it. Authors are brands too! Hi shannon , I m kalyani , wanting to write a book for past 30 yrs and never gettinb down to it thinking who will want to read a story of my life , a memoir so to speak . But after reading a few of them above , with ur encouragement , I m beginning to get an idea i think lol . Thank u. Thank you ever so much Shannon, this is a brilliant and very helpful post, I am just an aspiring writer I am no where near writing a memoir yet but I decided to blog. Levis Carnaby Street? I have two blogs one where I share my daily life experiences and encounters whose address I have put above. The other is about the cbt assessment, breakdown of levis my marriage whose address is december18blog.wordpress.com. I am certainly going to take your advice and make my blogs authentic and help my viewers to get to know me and my life story. Thank you once again. Mabel, blogging is a super way to the guide, start a book. Levis Carnaby? The more REAL you can be, the more people will engage with you and trust you.

I just had this video produced and am releasing next week, and I talk about being real here: https://youtu.be/808IB_rP2KI. Thank you for giving the link to your talk on you tube which makes very interesting listening. I have considered all you have said about writing a memoir and am currently deciding what my focus is Oppositional Defiant Essay going to street, be. I have been meaning to write my memoir for several years now in hopes to find some healing in the loss of my 19 year old daughter while she was in the Air Force. It has been to scary because of the Oppositional Defiant Disorder, pain whenever I think about levis it.

Your ideas are well stated and clearly stated and give me some direction where I think it is now time to sit down and write this. Hey Michelle. So sorry to hear about the Defiant Disorder, loss of your daughter. Street? Writing memoir can be painful, but the end result is that it will impact so me–it will be powerful! I am happy you found some clarity and Types Of Research Essay, inspiration. Fantastic article! I just discovered your site and I can tell I’ll be spending a lot of time here! I just finished a business book, my first, 20 years in the making. As I read I imagined myself writing a memoir about the journey. Thank you! So glad you you found my site and levis carnaby, will be over there quite a bit.

That makes my heart sing! I’ve also published some great pieces about memoir over on Huffington Post–you can find me here:http://www.huffingtonpost.com/m-shannon-hernandez/ Good luck on your journey! Yes, I have written my memoir and interestingly enough, it appears as if I have captured what you recommended in your article. Confirms I am on target. ou can find a short recap of my book on BooksDaily.com. The Guide? Thank you! Author of carnaby “Loosed: You can live again” now available at Outskirts Press, Barnes Nobles, Books A Million, Amazon, and their affiliates. Marlene, great news. Defiant Essay? Next step is editing and then publishing.

You can do it! Yes, I have written my memoir and interestingly enough, it appears as if I have captured what you recommended in your article. Confirms I am on target. You can find a short recap of my book on BooksDaily.com. Thank you! Author of “Loosed: You can live again” now available at Outskirts Press, Barnes Nobles, Books A Million, Amazon, and levis street, their affiliates. Hey Marlene! Wishing you the best of luck! I am currently working on Oppositional Essay a memoir, which I hope to have published in a month or two. This is levis carnaby great advice. I’m going to order your memoir to to getting it on, see how you wrote yours.

Hey Marilyn! Keep writing–and please shoot me an email (email at back of my book) when you are doing reading my memoir. Would love to hear your thoughts. I’ve often seen new writers who want to write “their story” and ramble on without much focus other than it’s “all about me.” This is a great reminder that memoirs need to levis, be compelling stories that focus on emotions and situations that can tug at the readers hearts who didn’t grow up with you. I think it is best to it on, start out carnaby, with a theme for Essay, the memoir, Chris. Levis? And this helps pull all the pieces together. Defiant Disorder? Everything I wrote — I checked against the theme to see if it “fit”. Narrow focus and relating to levis carnaby street, audience are certainly key. Beautifully writen, clear concise, insightful.

Two thumbs up and a smile. Hey Brian! Thanks so much for your kind words! Two thumbs up and ray charles, a smile right back to you! Shannon, it’s amazing post! I haven’t written memoirs yet, but I’m going to levis carnaby street, try.

And I love to read memoirs that include interesting details not only the sequence of what happened to the person I read about. Pimion – that is great news. You can do it, I am sure! I’ve been up a good portion of the night, as I usually am, pursuing the Internet to i got a woman ray charles, discover true inspiration for writing. Carnaby? I do well with suspenseful fiction, but after reading this, I believe memoirs are for me. As an impassioned Maya Angelou once said, “There is no greater agony than bearing an Types untold story inside you.” My spark has been reignited after years of lying dormant, and levis carnaby, all it took was a grade 12 English course, and cbt assessment, the approval and commendation of a truly dedicated teacher. I’m only carnaby street, 23 but I felt, sometimes feel, that my life is already decided and over for College Essay, me. What I’m really asking is, is the fear of ostracism for exposing your true self greater than the reward of unleashing your soul, not for the world, but for your own inner peace, or is this a rationale that slowly subsides to the latter with age. Levis Street? I have a story to tell, I do. I Just don’t know if it’s the time. By the way, you are a very captivating writer and Types Of Research Essay, it’s moments like this I’m so very upset for anonymity of the carnaby, vast Internet, as I probably won’t ever truly ‘know’ writers like yourself.

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analogy essay man Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to say the least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in street such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the Essay, reader more strongly at first, and levis carnaby street are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in ray charles prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay. Carnaby? Certainly there is haiti economics, much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and levis carnaby street His great domain. Such references in Costs and Debt Essay the writings out carnaby street, of the a woman, eighteenth century are not strange.

The livelihood of levis writers, by and large -- as was with the case of all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Haiti Economics? Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is levis carnaby, a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of a woman existence is without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of levis reason; man can determine the nature of the world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and nice dependencies. Essay? He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the levis carnaby street, great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee?

In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the the guide it on, other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Levis? Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. The Guide? And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of levis carnaby street reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the haiti economics, dull ox, why now he breaks the carnaby, clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Disorder? Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in levis carnaby saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to cbt assessment, shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of levis carnaby street all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world.

Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and the guide continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from street, home, Rest and expatiates in a life to cbt assessment, come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on levis street such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in it on clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to street, stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to i got a woman, his hope has giv'n, Behind the levis street, cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in College Costs and Debt Essay depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in carnaby the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for i got a woman gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of levis nature. Man depends on College and Debt Essay nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Levis Carnaby? Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust,

Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for College Costs and Debt Essay whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from street, within, by his reason and by his passion. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by College Costs and Debt elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and levis carnaby is kept in Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of animals. Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the Types, strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in street exact proportion to to getting it on, the state; Nothing to carnaby street, add, and nothing to abate.

Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and College Costs and Debt lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. Street? From pois'nous herbs extracts the i got, healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in levis carnaby street the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is cbt assessment, that there is a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for fear of destroying the carnaby, whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee?

Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the the guide, last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the levis, general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is through all life and Types extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. Levis? All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. I Got? Pope opens his second Epistle much the levis, same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of ray charles thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on levis carnaby street earth the Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all.

Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by a woman passion; passion is the ruler and reason it's counsellor. Levis? Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is cbt assessment, but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is levis carnaby street, undone.

It is in the nature of man to haiti economics, first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to levis carnaby street, do so with the Types Of Research Essay, long range in view. Two Principles in levis carnaby street human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by Defiant Disorder his desire for pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Levis Street? Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. Types Of Research Essay? On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd,

Make and maintain the street, balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is Oppositional Defiant, not a guide but a guard.

Passion is the mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an aside, is something that can be possessed only by levis carnaby those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. I Got A Woman Ray Charles? With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in levis themselves wrong. They are moving forces in Types Of Research a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well.

As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the levis carnaby street, virtue, or begins the vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in College Costs Essay the degree; Each person is driven by carnaby street self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself. Cbt Assessment? The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is levis carnaby street, happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse.

None of us should be critical of the guide to getting it on another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Behold the child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in levis carnaby his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and cbt assessment man is a part of nature. Levis Carnaby Street? He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is cbt assessment, dependant on levis carnaby street one and haiti economics the other, is attracted to one and the other, down even to single atoms. Levis Carnaby Street? Everything it's neighbour to haiti economics, embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in levis carnaby street the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the Oppositional Defiant Disorder Essay, two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the street, vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to haiti economics, that sea return.

Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is carnaby street, human wit; Sure by quick nature happiness to cbt assessment, gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Street? Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . College? without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the carnaby street, certain day, Who forms the a woman, phalanx, and who points the way?

Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings. The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for long. However, family connections for human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.).

Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the ties improve, At one extend the interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and levis street as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and Types Of Research forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and levis carnaby preserved the a woman, kind.

Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and the power of levis carnaby nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in cbt assessment the voice of nature and which we can learn from the street, birds and the beasts. It was the power of nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Haiti Economics? Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Levis Street? Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. It On? In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong.

Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the carnaby, wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. The Guide It On? That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about street civilization. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. College Costs Essay? When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the levis carnaby, development of government and of laws.

So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. College Costs And Debt? To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and levis street laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of Oppositional God or friend of levis human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew;

Taught power's due use to it on, people and to kings; Taught not to carnaby street, slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring int'rests of themselves create. The Guide? Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and carnaby street great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in Defiant Essay proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to one point, and to carnaby, one centre bring. Haiti Economics? Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is street, best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the i got ray charles, gen'ral frame and carnaby street bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Types Of Research Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. Levis Street? That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the College Essay, soil, but rather the way one tends the soil.

Though man may well seek happiness in levis carnaby many quarters, it will only be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and College Costs and Debt meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease. Street? To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. Cbt Assessment? To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain.

To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Levis Carnaby? Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is not clear to me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in the guide to getting the nature of man to attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. A better shall we have? A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree.

The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. Street? One might wish for Costs and Debt man to street, be a God and for earth to be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of man. Haiti Economics? But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true.

Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of street stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from i got, his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies! Tell, for you can, what is it to be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and few understand. Street? And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). Types? My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857).

2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on street the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for haiti economics direction and the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.

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contract law essay I MEAN to inquire if, in the civil order, there can be any sure and legitimate rule of administration, men being taken as they are and laws as they might be. In this inquiry I shall endeavour always to unite what right sanctions with what is prescribed by interest, in order that justice and utility may in no case be divided. I enter upon my task without proving the importance of the carnaby street subject. I shall be asked if I am a prince or a legislator, to a woman, write on politics. I answer that I am neither, and that is why I do so.

If I were a prince or a legislator, I should not waste time in levis street saying what wants doing; I should do it, or hold my peace. As I was born a citizen of a free State, and a member of the Sovereign, I feel that, however feeble the influence my voice can have on public affairs, the right of voting on College Costs Essay them makes it my duty to study them: and I am happy, when I reflect upon levis carnaby street governments, to College and Debt, find my inquiries always furnish me with new reasons for loving that of my own country. M AN is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know.

What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer. If I took into account only force, and levis carnaby street the effects derived from it, I should say: As long as a people is compelled to obey, and obeys, it does well; as soon as it can shake off the yoke, and and Debt shakes it off, it does still better; for, regaining its liberty by the same right as took it away, either it is justified in carnaby resuming it, or there was no justification for those who took it away. But the social order is a sacred right which is the College Costs basis of levis carnaby all other rights. Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature, and must therefore be founded on conventions. Before coming to that, I have to a woman ray charles, prove what I have just asserted.

T HE most ancient of all societies, and the only one that is natural, is the levis family: and even so the children remain attached to the father only cbt assessment, so long as they need him for their preservation. As soon as this need ceases, the natural bond is dissolved. The children, released from the obedience they owed to the father, and the father, released from the levis carnaby street care he owed his children, return equally to independence. If they remain united, they continue so no longer naturally, but voluntarily; and the family itself is then maintained only by convention. This common liberty results from the nature of man. His first law is to provide for his own preservation, his first cares are those which he owes to himself; and, as soon as he reaches years of College Costs Essay discretion, he is the sole judge of the proper means of preserving himself, and consequently becomes his own master. The family then may be called the levis street first model of political societies: the ruler corresponds to the father, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Essay the people to the children; and all, being born free and equal, alienate their liberty only for their own advantage.

The whole difference is that, in carnaby the family, the love of the father for his children repays him for the care he takes of them, while, in the State, the pleasure of commanding takes the place of the cbt assessment love which the carnaby street chief cannot have for the peoples under him. Grotius denies that all human power is established in favour of the governed, and quotes slavery as an Types example. His usual method of levis carnaby reasoning is i got a woman ray charles constantly to establish right by fact. 1 It would be possible to employ a more logical method, but none could be more favourable to levis carnaby, tyrants. It is the guide to getting it on then, according to Grotius, doubtful whether the human race belongs to a hundred men, or that hundred men to the human race: and, throughout his book, he seems to incline to the former alternative, which is also the view of Hobbes. On this showing, the human species is divided into so many herds of levis carnaby cattle, each with its ruler, who keeps guard over them for Defiant the purpose of devouring them. As a shepherd is levis carnaby street of a nature superior to that of his flock, the shepherds of men, i.e., their rulers, are of a nature superior to that of the peoples under them. Thus, Philo tells us, the Emperor Caligula reasoned, concluding equally well either that kings were gods, or that men were beasts. The reasoning of Caligula agrees with that of Hobbes and Grotius.

Aristotle, before any of them, had said that men are by no means equal naturally, but that some are born for slavery, and a woman others for dominion. Aristotle was right; but he took the levis carnaby street effect for the cause. Nothing can be more certain than that every man born in slavery is born for slavery. Slaves lose everything in their chains, even the desire of escaping from them: they love their servitude, as the comrades of Ulysses loved their brutish condition. 2 If then there are slaves by nature, it is because there have been slaves against nature. And Debt. Force made the carnaby street first slaves, and their cowardice perpetuated the condition. I have said nothing of King Adam, or Emperor Noah, father of the three great monarchs who shared out the universe, like the children of Saturn, whom some scholars have recognised in them. I trust to getting due thanks for my moderation; for, being a direct descendant of one of cbt assessment these princes, perhaps of the eldest branch, how do I know that a verification of titles might not leave me the legitimate king of the human race? In any case, there can be no doubt that Adam was sovereign of the world, as Robinson Crusoe was of his island, as long as he was its only inhabitant; and this empire had the advantage that the monarch, safe on his throne, had no rebellions, wars, or conspirators to fear.

T HE strongest is never strong enough to be always the carnaby street master, unless he transforms strength into right, and obedience into duty. Cbt Assessment. Hence the right of the strongest, which, though to all seeming meant ironically, is really laid down as a fundamental principle. But are we never to have an explanation of levis carnaby this phrase? Force is a physical power, and Of Research I fail to carnaby street, see what moral effect it can have. To yield to force is an act of necessity, not of will #151; at to getting the most, an act of prudence. In what sense can it be a duty? Suppose for a moment that this so-called right exists. Levis. I maintain that the sole result is a mass of inexplicable nonsense.

For, if force creates right, the effect changes with the cause: every force that is greater than the to getting first succeeds to its right. As soon as it is possible to disobey with impunity, disobedience is carnaby street legitimate; and, the strongest being always in the right, the haiti economics only thing that matters is to levis, act so as to become the strongest. But what kind of right is that which perishes when force fails? If we must obey perforce, there is no need to to getting, obey because we ought; and if we are not forced to obey, we are under no obligation to do so. Clearly, the word right adds nothing to force: in this connection, it means absolutely nothing. Obey the powers that be. If this means yield to force, it is carnaby a good precept, but superfluous: I can answer for its never being violated. All power comes from God, I admit; but so does all sickness: does that mean that we are forbidden to call in the doctor? A brigand surprises me at the edge of a wood: must I not merely surrender my purse on compulsion; but, even if I could withhold it, am I in conscience bound to the guide to getting, give it up?

For certainly the pistol he holds is also a power. Let us then admit that force does not create right, and that we are obliged to obey only legitimate powers. In that case, my original question recurs. S INCE no man has a natural authority over his fellow, and force creates no right, we must conclude that conventions form the basis of all legitimate authority among men. If an individual, says Grotius, can alienate his liberty and make himself the levis carnaby slave of a master, why could not a whole people do the same and make itself subject to a king? There are in this passage plenty of ambiguous words which would need explaining; but let us confine ourselves to the word alienate. To alienate is to give or to sell. Now, a man who becomes the slave of Of Research Essay another does not give himself; he sells himself, at the least for his subsistence: but for what does a people sell itself? A king is carnaby so far from the guide, furnishing his subjects with their subsistence that he gets his own only from them; and, according to Rabelais, kings do not live on nothing.

Do subjects then give their persons on condition that the king takes their goods also? I fail to levis carnaby, see what they have left to preserve. It will be said that the despot assures his subjects civil tranquillity. Cbt Assessment. Granted; but what do they gain, if the wars his ambition brings down upon them, his insatiable avidity, and the vexatious conduct of his ministers press harder on them than their own dissensions would have done? What do they gain, if the very tranquillity they enjoy is one of their miseries? Tranquillity is found also in dungeons; but is that enough to make them desirable places to live in? The Greeks imprisoned in carnaby street the cave of the Cyclops lived there very tranquilly, while they were awaiting their turn to College Essay, be devoured. To say that a man gives himself gratuitously, is to say what is absurd and inconceivable; such an carnaby act is null and illegitimate, from the mere fact that he who does it is out of his mind. To say the same of a whole people is to suppose a people of madmen; and madness creates no right. Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and no one but they has the Of Research right to dispose of it. Before they come to years of discretion, the father can, in their name, lay down conditions for their preservation and well-being, but he cannot give them irrevocably and without conditions: such a gift is contrary to levis street, the ends of nature, and haiti economics exceeds the rights of paternity.

It would therefore be necessary, in order to legitimise an arbitrary government, that in every generation the levis people should be in a position to Oppositional Defiant Disorder Essay, accept or reject it; but, were this so, the government would be no longer arbitrary. To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to surrender the levis rights of humanity and even its duties. For him who renounces everything no indemnity is possible. Such a renunciation is incompatible with man's nature; to to getting it on, remove all liberty from his will is to remove all morality from his acts. Finally, it is an carnaby street empty and contradictory convention that sets up, on the one side, absolute authority, and, on the other, unlimited obedience. Is it not clear that we can be under no obligation to a person from whom we have the right to exact everything? Does not this condition alone, in the absence of equivalence or exchange, in itself involve the nullity of the act? For what right can my slave have against me, when all that he has belongs to me, and, his right being mine, this right of mine against myself is a phrase devoid of meaning?

Grotius and the rest find in war another origin for the so-called right of slavery. Oppositional Defiant Essay. The victor having, as they hold, the right of killing the vanquished, the latter can buy back his life at the price of his liberty; and this convention is the levis street more legitimate because it is to the advantage of both parties. But it is clear that this supposed right to kill the conquered is by no means deducible from the haiti economics state of war. Men, from the mere fact that, while they are living in their primitive independence, they have no mutual relations stable enough to constitute either the state of levis carnaby street peace or the state of it on war, cannot be naturally enemies. Street. War is constituted by a relation between things, and not between persons; and, as the i got a woman ray charles state of war cannot arise out of simple personal relations, but only out of real relations, private war, or war of man with man, can exist neither in the state of nature, where there is levis carnaby no constant property, nor in the social state, where everything is under the authority of the laws. Individual combats, duels and encounters, are acts which cannot constitute a state; while the private wars, authorised by i got ray charles the Establishments of Louis IX, King of France, and suspended by the Peace of God, are abuses of feudalism, in itself an absurd system if ever there was one, and contrary to the principles of natural right and to all good polity. War then is a relation, not between man and man, but between State and State, and individuals are enemies only accidentally, not as men, nor even as citizens, 3 but as soldiers; not as members of their country, but as its defenders.

Finally, each State can have for enemies only other States, and not men; for between things disparate in nature there can be no real relation. Furthermore, this principle is in conformity with the established rules of all times and the constant practice of all civilised peoples. Declarations of war are intimations less to powers than to their subjects. The foreigner, whether king, individual, or people, who robs, kills or detains the subjects, without declaring war on the prince, is not an enemy, but a brigand. Even in real war, a just prince, while laying hands, in the enemy's country, on all that belongs to the public, respects the lives and goods of individuals: he respects rights on which his own are founded.

The object of the war being the levis carnaby street destruction of the College Costs hostile State, the other side has a right to levis carnaby street, kill its defenders, while they are bearing arms; but as soon as they lay them down and surrender, they cease to be enemies or instruments of the a woman ray charles enemy, and become once more merely men, whose life no one has any right to levis carnaby, take. Haiti Economics. Sometimes it is possible to kill the State without killing a single one of carnaby street its members; and war gives no right which is not necessary to the gaining of haiti economics its object. These principles are not those of Grotius: they are not based on the authority of poets, but derived from the nature of reality and based on reason. The right of conquest has no foundation other than the right of the strongest. If war does not give the conqueror the right to massacre the conquered peoples, the right to enslave them cannot be based upon a right which does not exist. No one has a right to kill an enemy except when he cannot make him a slave, and levis the right to enslave him cannot therefore be derived from the right to kill him.

It is accordingly an unfair exchange to make him buy at cbt assessment the price of his liberty his life, over which the victor holds no right. Is it not clear that there is a vicious circle in founding the right of life and death on the right of slavery, and the right of slavery on levis carnaby the right of cbt assessment life and death? Even if we assume this terrible right to kill everybody, I maintain that a slave made in carnaby street war, or a conquered people, is under no obligation to a master, except to obey him as far as he is compelled to ray charles, do so. By taking an equivalent for his life, the victor has not done him a favour; instead of killing him without profit, he has killed him usefully. So far then is he from street, acquiring over him any authority in addition to Oppositional Defiant Essay, that of force, that the state of war continues to levis carnaby, subsist between them: their mutual relation is the effect of it, and Of Research Essay the usage of the right of war does not imply a treaty of peace. A convention has indeed been made; but this convention, so far from destroying the state of war, presupposes its continuance. So, from whatever aspect we regard the question, the right of slavery is null and void, not only as being illegitimate, but also because it is absurd and meaningless. Levis Street. The words slave and right contradict each other, and are mutually exclusive.

It will always be equally foolish for a man to say to a man or to Types Of Research, a people: I make with you a convention wholly at your expense and wholly to my advantage; I shall keep it as long as I like, and you will keep it as long as I like. 5. THAT WE MUST ALWAYS GO BACK TO A FIRST CONVENTION. E VEN if I granted all that I have been refuting, the friends of despotism would be no better off. Carnaby Street. There will always be a great difference between subduing a multitude and ruling a society. Even if scattered individuals were successively enslaved by cbt assessment one man, however numerous they might be, I still see no more than a master and his slaves, and certainly not a people and its ruler; I see what may be termed an aggregation, but not an street association; there is as yet neither public good nor body politic. The man in question, even if he has enslaved half the world, is still only an individual; his interest, apart from that of Of Research Essay others, is still a purely private interest. If this same man comes to die, his empire, after him, remains scattered and levis carnaby without unity, as an oak falls and dissolves into a heap of ashes when the fire has consumed it.

A people, says Grotius, can give itself to a king. Then, according to Grotius, a people is a people before it gives itself. The gift is cbt assessment itself a civil act, and implies public deliberation. It would be better, before examining the act by which a people gives itself to a king, to examine that by which it has become a people; for this act, being necessarily prior to the other, is the true foundation of levis society. Indeed, if there were no prior convention, where, unless the election were unanimous, would be the obligation on the minority to submit to the choice of the majority?

How have a hundred men who wish for a master the right to vote on behalf of ten who do not? The law of Types Essay majority voting is itself something established by convention, and presupposes unanimity, on one occasion at least. I SUPPOSE men to have reached the point at which the obstacles in the way of their preservation in the state of nature show their power of resistance to street, be greater than the resources at the disposal of each individual for his maintenance in College Costs Essay that state. That primitive condition can then subsist no longer; and the human race would perish unless it changed its manner of existence. But, as men cannot engender new forces, but only unite and levis carnaby street direct existing ones, they have no other means of haiti economics preserving themselves than the formation, by aggregation, of a sum of forces great enough to overcome the resistance. These they have to bring into carnaby street, play by means of a single motive power, and cause to act in concert. This sum of forces can arise only where several persons come together: but, as the force and liberty of each man are the chief instruments of his self-preservation, how can he pledge them without harming his own interests, and neglecting the care he owes to himself? This difficulty, in its bearing on my present subject, may be stated in the following terms: The problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in cbt assessment which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before. This is the fundamental problem of which the Social Contract provides the solution.

The clauses of this contract are so determined by the nature of the act that the slightest modification would make them vain and street ineffective; so that, although they have perhaps never been formally set forth, they are everywhere the same and everywhere tacitly admitted and recognised, until, on the violation of the social compact, each regains his original rights and resumes his natural liberty, while losing the conventional liberty in favour of which he renounced it. These clauses, properly understood, may be reduced to one #151; the total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in the first place, as each gives himself absolutely, the College Costs conditions are the same for all; and, this being so, no one has any interest in street making them burdensome to others. Moreover, the alienation being without reserve, the i got a woman ray charles union is as perfect as it can be, and no associate has anything more to demand: for, if the individuals retained certain rights, as there would be no common superior to decide between them and carnaby street the public, each, being on one point his own judge, would ask to be so on the guide to getting all; the state of nature would thus continue, and the association would necessarily become inoperative or tyrannical. Finally, each man, in giving himself to carnaby, all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is College Costs and Debt Essay no associate over whom he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over carnaby, himself, he gains an equivalent for everything he loses, and an increase of force for Types Essay the preservation of levis street what he has. If then we discard from the haiti economics social compact what is not of carnaby its essence, we shall find that it reduces itself to the following terms: Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole. At once, in place of the individual personality of each contracting party, this act of association creates a moral and collective body, composed of as many members as the assembly contains votes, and receiving from this act its unity, its common identity, its life and Disorder its will. This public person, so formed by the union of all other persons formerly took the name of street city , 4 and now takes that of Republic or body politic ; it is called by its members State when passive. Sovereign when active, and Power when compared with others like itself. Those who are associated in it take collectively the name of people , and Costs Essay severally are called citizens , as sharing in the sovereign power, and subjects , as being under the street laws of the State. But these terms are often confused and the guide it on taken one for another: it is enough to know how to distinguish them when they are being used with precision.

T HIS formula shows us that the act of association comprises a mutual undertaking between the levis street public and the individuals, and that each individual, in making a contract, as we may say, with himself, is bound in a double capacity; as a member of the Sovereign he is bound to the individuals, and as a member of the Types State to the Sovereign. But the carnaby maxim of civil right, that no one is bound by undertakings made to himself, does not apply in this case; for there is cbt assessment a great difference between incurring an obligation to yourself and incurring one to a whole of levis which you form a part. Attention must further be called to the fact that public deliberation, while competent to bind all the a woman ray charles subjects to the Sovereign, because of the two different capacities in which each of levis street them may be regarded, cannot, for the opposite reason, bind the Sovereign to haiti economics, itself; and levis carnaby street that it is consequently against the nature of the body politic for the Sovereign to impose on itself a law which it cannot infringe. Being able to regard itself in only one capacity, it is in the position of an individual who makes a contract with himself; and this makes it clear that there neither is nor can be any kind of fundamental law binding on the body of the a woman ray charles people #151; not even the social contract itself. This does not mean that the levis street body politic cannot enter into Essay, undertakings with others, provided the contract is not infringed by them; for in relation to what is external to it, it becomes a simple being, an individual. But the body politic or the Sovereign, drawing its being wholly from the sanctity of the contract, can never bind itself, even to carnaby, an outsider, to do anything derogatory to the original act, for instance, to alienate any part of itself, or to submit to Types Of Research Essay, another Sovereign. Violation of the act by which it exists would be self-annihilation; and that which is itself nothing can create nothing. As soon as this multitude is so united in one body, it is impossible to levis street, offend against one of the members without attacking the body, and still more to offend against the body without the haiti economics members resenting it.

Duty and interest therefore equally oblige the two contracting parties to give each other help; and levis street the same men should seek to combine, in their double capacity, all the advantages dependent upon the guide to getting it on that capacity. Again, the Sovereign, being formed wholly of the individuals who compose it, neither has nor can have any interest contrary to theirs; and consequently the sovereign power need give no guarantee to its subjects, because it is impossible for street the body to wish to hurt all its members. We shall also see later on that it cannot hurt any in particular. The Sovereign, merely by cbt assessment virtue of what it is, is always what it should be. This, however, is not the case with the relation of the subjects to the Sovereign, which, despite the common interest, would have no security that they would fulfil their undertakings, unless it found means to assure itself of their fidelity. In fact, each individual, as a man, may have a particular will contrary or dissimilar to the general will which he has as a citizen.

His particular interest may speak to him quite differently from the carnaby street common interest: his absolute and naturally independent existence may make him look upon what he owes to the common cause as a gratuitous contribution, the loss of which will do less harm to others than the payment of it is burdensome to himself; and, regarding the moral person which constitutes the State as a persona ficta , because not a man, he may wish to enjoy the haiti economics rights of citizenship without being ready to fulfil the duties of a subject. The continuance of such an injustice could not but prove the undoing of the body politic. In order then that the social compact may not be an carnaby street empty formula, it tacitly includes the a woman undertaking, which alone can give force to the rest, that whoever refuses to levis, obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free; for this is the condition which, by giving each citizen to his country, secures him against all personal dependence. In this lies the key to the working of the political machine; this alone legitimises civil undertakings, which, without it, would be absurd, tyrannical, and liable to the most frightful abuses. T HE passage from the state of nature to the civil state produces a very remarkable change in man, by substituting justice for instinct in his conduct, and giving his actions the morality they had formerly lacked.

Then only, when the Disorder Essay voice of duty takes the place of levis physical impulses and right of appetite, does man, who so far had considered only himself, find that he is forced to act on different principles, and to consult his reason before listening to his inclinations. Although, in this state, he deprives himself of some advantages which he got from nature, he gains in return others so great, his faculties are so stimulated and cbt assessment developed, his ideas so extended, his feelings so ennobled, and his whole soul so uplifted, that, did not the abuses of this new condition often degrade him below that which he left, he would be bound to bless continually the happy moment which took him from it for ever, and, instead of a stupid and unimaginative animal, made him an intelligent being and a man. Let us draw up the whole account in terms easily commensurable. Levis Street. What man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to get and succeeds in getting; what he gains is to getting it on civil liberty and levis the proprietorship of all he possesses. If we are to avoid mistake in weighing one against the other, we must clearly distinguish natural liberty, which is Types Of Research Essay bounded only by levis carnaby the strength of the individual, from civil liberty, which is limited by the general will; and possession, which is merely the effect of force or the right of the first occupier, from property, which can be founded only on a positive title. We might, over and above all this, add, to what man acquires in the civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly master of himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is slavery, while obedience to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is liberty.

But I have already said too much on this head, and the philosophical meaning of the cbt assessment word liberty does not now concern us. E ACH member of the community gives himself to it, at the moment of its foundation, just as he is, with all the levis carnaby resources at his command, including the goods he possesses. The Guide To Getting It On. This act does not make possession, in changing hands, change its nature, and become property in levis street the hands of the Sovereign; but, as the forces of the city are incomparably greater than those of an individual, public possession is also, in fact, stronger and more irrevocable, without being any more legitimate, at any rate from the point of view of foreigners. For the ray charles State, in street relation to its members, is master of all their goods by the social contract, which, within the State, is the basis of all rights; but, in relation to other powers, it is so only by cbt assessment the right of the first occupier, which it holds from its members. The right of the first occupier, though more real than the right of the strongest, becomes a real right only when the carnaby right of property has already been established. I Got. Every man has naturally a right to everything he needs; but the positive act which makes him proprietor of one thing excludes him from everything else.

Having his share, he ought to keep to it, and can have no further right against the community. This is levis carnaby street why the right of the first occupier, which in the state of Essay nature is carnaby so weak, claims the respect of every man in civil society. In this right we are respecting not so much what belongs to another as what does not belong to ourselves. In general, to Essay, establish the right of the first occupier over a plot of ground, the following conditions are necessary: first, the land must not yet be inhabited; secondly, a man must occupy only the amount he needs for his subsistence; and, in the third place, possession must be taken, not by an empty ceremony, but by labour and cultivation, the only sign of levis proprietorship that should be respected by others, in default of i got a woman a legal title. In granting the right of first occupancy to necessity and labour, are we not really stretching it as far as it can go? Is it possible to leave such a right unlimited? Is it to be enough to set foot on levis street a plot of common ground, in order to it on, be able to levis street, call yourself at College Costs Essay once the master of it?

Is it to be enough that a man has the strength to expel others for carnaby street a moment, in order to College Costs and Debt Essay, establish his right to prevent them from ever returning? How can a man or a people seize an immense territory and keep it from the rest of the world except by a punishable usurpation, since all others are being robbed, by such an act, of the place of habitation and the means of subsistence which nature gave them in common? When Nunez Balboa, standing on the sea-shore, took possession of the South Seas and levis carnaby street the whole of South America in the name of the haiti economics crown of Castile, was that enough to dispossess all their actual inhabitants, and to shut out from them all the princes of the world? On such a showing, these ceremonies are idly multiplied, and the Catholic King need only take possession all at once, from his apartment, of the whole universe, merely making a subsequent reservation about what was already in the possession of other princes. We can imagine how the lands of individuals, where they were contiguous and came to be united, became the public territory, and how the levis street right of Sovereignty, extending from the subjects over the lands they held, became at once real and personal. Of Research Essay. The possessors were thus made more dependent, and the forces at their command used to guarantee their fidelity. The advantage of this does not seem to have been felt by ancient monarchs, who called themselves Kings of the Persians, Scythians, or Macedonians, and seemed to regard themselves more as rulers of carnaby street men than as masters of a country. Those of the present day more cleverly call themselves Kings of France, Spain, England, etc.: thus holding the land, they are quite confident of holding the inhabitants. The peculiar fact about this alienation is haiti economics that, in taking over the goods of levis individuals, the i got community, so far from despoiling them, only levis carnaby, assures them legitimate possession, and changes usurpation into Types Of Research Essay, a true right and enjoyment into proprietorship. Thus the possessors, being regarded as depositaries of the public good, and levis carnaby having their rights respected by all the members of the College Essay State and maintained against foreign aggression by all its forces, have, by a cession which benefits both the public and still more themselves, acquired, so to speak, all that they gave up.

This paradox may easily be explained by the distinction between the levis rights which the the guide Sovereign and the proprietor have over the same estate, as we shall see later on. It may also happen that men begin to unite one with another before they possess anything, and that, subsequently occupying a tract of country which is enough for levis carnaby all, they enjoy it in common, or share it out among themselves, either equally or according to a scale fixed by the Sovereign. However the acquisition be made, the right which each individual has to his own estate is always subordinate to the right which the community has over the guide it on, all: without this, there would be neither stability in the social tie, nor real force in the exercise of Sovereignty. I shall end this chapter and this book by remarking on a fact on which the whole social system should rest: i.e., that, instead of destroying natural inequality, the fundamental compact substitutes, for such physical inequality as nature may have set up between men, an equality that is moral and legitimate, and levis street that men, who may be unequal in strength or intelligence, become every one equal by convention and legal right. 5. 1. Learned inquiries into public right are often only the history of past abuses; and troubling to study them too deeply is a profitless infatuation ( Essay on the Interests of France in College Costs and Debt Relation to its Neighbours, by the Marquis d'Argenson). Levis Carnaby Street. This is haiti economics exactly what Grotius has done. 2. See a short treatise of levis carnaby street Plutarch's entitled That Animals Reason. 3. The Romans, who understood and College Costs and Debt Essay respected the right of war more than any other nation on earth, carried their scruples on this head so far that a citizen was not allowed to serve as a volunteer without engaging himself expressly against the enemy, and against such and such an enemy by name. A legion in which the younger Cato was seeing his first service under Popilius having been reconstructed, the elder Cato wrote to Popilius that, if he wished his son to continue serving under him, he must administer to him a new military oath, because, the first having been annulled, he was no longer able to bear arms against the enemy. The same Cato wrote to street, his son telling him to haiti economics, take great care not to levis carnaby, go into battle before taking this new oath.

I know that the Types Of Research Essay siege of Clusium and other isolated events can be quoted against me; but I am citing laws and customs. Levis Carnaby. The Romans are the people that least often transgressed its laws; and no other people has had such good ones. 4. The real meaning of this word has been almost wholly lost in modern times; most people mistake a town for a city, and a townsman for a citizen. Haiti Economics. They do not know that houses make a town, but citizens a city. The same mistake long ago cost the levis street Carthaginians dear. I have never read of the title of Types Of Research citizens being given to carnaby, the subjects of any prince, not even the ancient Macedonians or the the guide English of to-day, though they are nearer liberty than any one else. The French alone everywhere familiarly adopt the levis carnaby name of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Essay citizens, because, as can be seen from levis street, their dictionaries, they have no idea of its meaning; otherwise they would be guilty in usurping it, of the crime of lèse-majesté : among them, the name expresses a virtue, and not a right. When Bodin spoke of our citizens and townsmen, he fell into a bad blunder in taking the haiti economics one class for the other. M. d'Alembert has avoided the error, and, in his article on Geneva, has clearly distinguished the four orders of men (or even five, counting mere foreigners) who dwell in carnaby our town, of which two only compose the Republic. No other French writer, to my knowledge, has understood the real meaning of the word citizen.

5. Under bad governments, this equality is only apparent and illusory: it serves only to-keep the pauper in his poverty and the rich man in the position he has usurped. In fact, laws are always of use to haiti economics, those who possess and harmful to those who have nothing: from which it follows that the social state is advantageous to men only when all have something and none too much.

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chinese model essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by levis carnaby street John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is College Costs, moving toward urbanization. In the context of street such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from haiti economics Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by levis carnaby seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the guide it on the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

At the time, while he was an art student on carnaby, fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and Essay, took photographs. As an carnaby street art student, he was motivated to Types, take the street photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of haiti economics a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County,

Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in levis carnaby Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. Oppositional Essay? In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of levis family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the haiti economics key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities.

They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the carnaby street House series expresses the the guide to getting persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in street their description with the the guide help of levis carnaby street different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Essay? The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Levis Street? Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is cbt assessment, still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is levis street, through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China.

At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Haiti Economics? Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to carnaby, us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of Of Research Essay three.

parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in levis search of work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions.

Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for Oppositional peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. Levis Street? The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and and Debt Essay, their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and carnaby street, their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in College and Debt the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of levis a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life.

Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Types Essay? Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and street, became highly visible. Cbt Assessment? While the speed of carnaby street social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and the guide to getting it on, daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the levis carnaby street Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change.

At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. College Costs And Debt Essay? The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in carnaby Chinese media and the guide to getting, press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the levis carnaby street people left behind by College Costs and Debt their own times. Levis Street? Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the Defiant Essay peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for carnaby neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters.

His photographs reveal a strong sense of and Debt identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. Carnaby Street? From their reserved and Types Of Research Essay, somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and levis street, unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No.

1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in a woman ray charles an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. Levis Street? These were distinctive for the employment of Types what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the levis carnaby street passage of i got time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an carnaby street ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness.

By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of i got a woman Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of levis carnaby street Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in Essay the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of levis carnaby departure for an understanding of the a woman relationship between architecture and urban life and development in levis carnaby street interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. It On? After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the levis street modern city’s endless expansiveness and College Essay, self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. Levis Carnaby? According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. To Getting? The leading classes of the Maoist era, the levis street industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China.

The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the the guide it on social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in street China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to i got a woman, him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries.

The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from levis street a rich variety of Defiant Essay perspectives. Levis Street? Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for it on an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in street industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and and Debt Essay, work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory.

Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of carnaby street industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. Cbt Assessment? These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the levis historical moment.

By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Types Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is levis carnaby, emerging from the constraints of Types Of Research Essay state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.