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Le Laocoon de Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Of Passions! De l’imagination comme fondement d’une nouvelle methode critique CNRS, umr 8547, Pays germaniques / Transferts culturels, Ecole normale superieure. Pages : 144 ISBN : 9782130534419 DOI : 10.3917/leph.032.0197 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Les Etudes philosophiques. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte.

Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon S’il fallait, a la maniere des dictionnaires, resumer les theses defendues par Lessing dans le Laocoon, on fossil record, arriverait, comme ces memes dictionnaires, a un resultat finalement malingre. Examples! D’une demonstration herissee de details erudits emergent deux axiomes centraux : la peinture (autrement dit, les arts plastiques dans leur entier, selon l’acception lessingienne) est soumise au principe de simultaneite et represente des corps coexistant dans l’espace, tandis que la poesie, soumise au principe de diachronie, represente des actions se succedant dans le temps ; par ailleurs, le peintre recourt a un langage constitue de signes « naturels », c’est-a-dire fondes sur la reproduction mimetique de la nature, tandis que le poete recourt a un langage constitue de signes « arbitraires », c’est-a-dire portes par les conventions de la langue. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! Si ces theses paraissent quelque peu chetives sur le plan conceptuel, elles n’ont en outre guere le merite de la nouveaute.

Avant 1766, date de parution du Laocoon, et pour le seul XVIII e siecle, les developpements abondent sur les differences temporelles et semiotiques qui separent la poesie de la peinture. Examples Of Passions! Depuis Shaftesbury jusqu’a Daniel Webb, en passant par Jonathan Richardson, de nombreux theoriciens anglais, notamment, se sont preoccupes de cette question [1] [1] Berengarius Turonensis, Aufbau, Bd. Hpv Vaccination And Cons! 7, p. Of Passions! 323-324. Title For Essays! . Examples! Parmi ces ecrivains, que Lessing connaissait bien, il en est un qu’il a lu avec une attention particuliere, bien qu’il ne le cite a aucun endroit de son Laocoon : James Harris. Record! Dans son Treatise concerning Music, Painting and examples of passions, Poetry (1744), Harris entend etablir une distinction nette entre les arts soumis aux lois de la representation synchronique (tels que la peinture) et les arts soumis aux lois de la representation diachronique (tels que la poesie) – une distinction qui s’accompagne, comme chez Lessing vingt ans plus tard, d’une opposition semiotique entre signes naturels (propres a la peinture) et signes arbitraires (propres a la poesie) [2] [2] Sur ce leitmotiv lessingien, cf. Antigoeze, IX, Aufbau. Record Biology! . Examples! Quant a la tradition francaise de reflexion sur l’art, elle n’est pas pauvre non plus en considerations sur la difference entre ces deux arts durant toute la premiere moitie du XVIII e siecle.

Citons pour exemple Roger de Piles qui, en enoncant la regle picturale des trois unites dans son Cours de peinture de 1708, presente la loi de la simultaneite comme un privilege de la peinture. Hpv Vaccination Pros And Cons! Quant a Du Bos, il insere dans ses Reflexions critiques de 1719 de multiples remarques sur la difference temporelle entre poesie et peinture, malgre sa fidelite apparente au principe de l’ ut pictura poesis [3] [3] Pour cette tradition anglaise, cf. Of Passions! Hugo Blumner, Introduction. Gallery! . Examples Of Passions! En 1760 enfin, Claude-Henri Watelet developpe a son tour cette distinction dans son poeme L’Art de peindre [4] [4] J. Hpv Vaccination Pros! Harris, Three Treatises. The First concerning Art. Examples! . Que les theories de Lessing ne soient ni originales dans leur contenu, ni meme particulierement convaincantes dans leur formulation, n’ote pourtant rien a l’interet du Laocoon . Mac's Second Def Comedy Essays! Car cet interet reside ailleurs. Examples Of Passions! Au c?ur de son essai, Lessing recourt, pour se designer lui-meme, a l’image du promeneur, livrant par la une clef essentielle pour la lecture de son ouvrage [5] [5] Jean-Baptiste Du Bos, Reflexions critiques sur la. The Ident Gallery! . Examples Of Passions! Ce qui importe en effet a Lessing comme a tout promeneur, c’est moins le terme de la marche que son processus meme, moins la fin du parcours que le cheminement qui y conduit. Definition Biology! En d’autres termes, ce qui importe a Lessing, c’est moins la formulation definitive de la these que la methode qui y mene. Cet ordre de priorite se lit d’ailleurs tres explicitement dans la configuration typographique meme des pages. Examples! Pour expliquer sa demarche, pour en signaler toutes les finesses, Lessing n’hesite pas a inserer en bas de page des notes veritablement demesurees. Pros! En de nombreux endroits, le texte principal se trouve reduit a deux ou trois lignes fluettes, le reste de la feuille etant occupe par de luxuriantes remarques en petits caracteres. Examples! Cette ostensible disproportion, qui obligea d’ailleurs l’editeur a des prouesses typographiques, reflete fidelement la conviction de l’auteur : la formulation de la « these », cantonnee au texte principal, est accessoire par rapport a la presentation de la demarche, reservee a l’espace infrapaginal. Cet equilibre etrange n’a d’ailleurs pas echappe a ceux qui, peu apres la mort de Lessing, chercherent a reediter cet essai.

Des 1788, Karl Lessing, le frere de Gotthold Ephraim, publie chez Vo a Berlin une version contenant non seulement le texte original de 1766, mais aussi une partie importante des brouillons preparatoires laisses dans les papiers personnels de l’auteur, les Paralipomena . Gallery! Le procede, reitere en 1792, aboutira dans la seconde moitie du XIX e siecle a la publication de l’edition canonique de Hugo Blumner, qui donne en plus du texte de 1766 l’integralite des textes preparatoires a cette publication [6] [6] Dans L’Art de peindre de Cl.-H. Examples! Watelet, on fossil definition biology, peut par. Examples! . Dans l’histoire editoriale de la litterature allemande moderne, le Laocoon fait ainsi figure de pionnier : il est l’un des tout premiers ecrits a avoir ete soumis a un travail d’investigation genetique, qui arrime fermement le texte publie a son passe, a son elaboration anterieure, a son cheminement avant publication. L’exemple contre l’axiome : fonction de la critique. Quelle est donc la marche de ce texte ? Des l’abord, la progression de ce petit traite parait marquee par une etrange dualite methodologique. Gallery! Lessing entame son essai sur le mode deductif en enoncant en preface le principe suivant : les Modernes, en reduisant les reflexions sur l’art a la seule regle de l’ ut pictura poesis, ont fort mal compris les Anciens. Examples! Poesie et peinture sont en realite nettement separees. Hpv Vaccination And Cons! Tres vite, cependant, l’auteur abandonne cette methode d’exposition. Des le premier chapitre, il opte pour une progression inductive, remplacant l’enonce d’axiomes par l’analyse detaillee d’exemples. Examples! Un cas singulier lui sert de point de depart, celui de la description que Winckelmann donne du Laocoon dans ses Reflexions sur l’imitation de 1755 [7] [7] Laokoon, p. Record Definition Biology! 144 ; Trad., p. Examples Of Passions! 142 (chap. XX). Definition Biology! . Examples! Winckelmann, note Lessing, semble subordonner peinture et poesie aux memes lois en affirmant que, comme le Philoctete de Sophocle, le Laocoon sculpte ne crie pas.

Or cette comparaison, fondee sur le principe d’une stricte conformite des deux arts, est erronee. De Winckelmann, Lessing passe ensuite a d’autres auteurs, accuses d’avoir commis une erreur comparable. Record Definition! Parmi ceux-ci, deux noms apparaissent comme des cibles privilegiees : celui de Joseph Spence qui a voulu ramener dans sa Polymetis les descriptions poetiques des dieux a des objets artistiques anterieurement existants ; et celui du comte de Caylus qui a voulu transcrire les chants d’Homere en sujets picturaux [8] [8] La premiere edition du Laocoon, la seule publiee du. Of Passions! . The Ident Gallery! Les conclusions generales decoulant de ces exemples sont laissees a la discretion du lecteur. Examples Of Passions! Lessing, lui, se garde bien d’etablir une nomenclature exhaustive des principes propres a chaque art. Essay On Fitness Training: To Overcome! Tout au plus se risque-t-il, par touches successives, a esquisser un lexique de leurs termes distinctifs.

Ainsi, « decrire » se dira en poesie beschreiben et en peinture schildern ; ou encore, les notions de « tableau » et de « pittoresque », empruntees au vocabulaire de la peinture, ne pourront s’employer sans autre precision en litterature [9] [9] Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Gedancken uber die Nachahmung. Of Passions! . For Essays! Le cours sinueux de cette enumeration d’exemples est brusquement interrompu au chapitre XVI. Of Passions! Soudain, renouant avec la methode qu’il avait adoptee en preface, Lessing dresse sur le mode apodictique la liste generale des lois propres a chacun des deux arts. Hpv Vaccination Pros And Cons! La peinture, soumise a la regle de l’instant fecond, represente a l’aide de formes et de couleurs des corps dans l’espace, tandis que la poesie represente a l’aide de sons des actions dans le temps. Examples Of Passions! Mais cette posture deductive n’est que de courte duree. Bernie Mac's Second Jam Special Essays! Les chapitres suivants, fondes sur des exemples essentiellement tires d’Homere et de Winckelmann, procedent de nouveau par induction. Cette structure etrange, ou la methode deductive est en permanence subvertie par la methode inductive, ou l’enonce du principe est sans cesse etouffe par l’analyse detaillee de l’exemple, cette structure deroutante donc, car d’apparence fort tatonnante, n’est en realite nullement le fruit du hasard. Elle decoule directement de la conception precise que Lessing a de la fonction du « critique » (Kunstrichter) . Of Passions! De fait, le critique est pour Lessing celui qui place l’ « effet » (Wirkung) de l’?uvre singuliere au centre du discours.

L’idee est exprimee des les premieres phrases du Laocoon . L’auteur distingue en effet, au seuil de son essai, trois instances connexes dans la formulation du discours sur l’art : tout d’abord l’ « amateur » (Kunstliebhaber) qui juge d’une ?uvre d’apres l’effet, ou encore le sentiment, qu’elle produit en lui ; le « philosophe », qui cherche a demeler les « regles generales » dont procede cet effet ; et enfin le « critique », qui verifie l’adequation de ces regles generales aux cas singuliers des ?uvres [10] [10] Joseph Spence, Polymetis or an hpv vaccination pros, Enquiry concerning. . Of Passions! Deux caracteristiques distinguent donc le critique : l’attention au sentiment personnel suscite par l’?uvre et l’empiricite de la demarche – autrement dit, le souci de l’exemple. Gallery! L’idee ici enoncee n’est certes pas neuve. Des 1719, l’abbe Du Bos lui avait donne sa pleine formulation en faisant du « sentiment » produit par une ?uvre donnee le critere ultime du jugement artistique. Avec le Laocoon, Lessing s’inscrit resolument dans cette tradition. Examples! Il participe ainsi nettement d’une tendance qui, depuis le debut du XVIII e siecle, cherche a faire passer les theories de l’art d’une problematique de la production artistique a une problematique de la reception par l’individu. Dans l’argumentation lessingienne, deux cibles sont tout particulierement visees par cette conception de la critique. Hpv Vaccination Pros! Il s’agit tout d’abord de la « critique de regles », une critique legislatrice qui se concoit avant tout comme enonciatrice et gardienne d’un corpus de lois propres a garantir la production du beau. Examples Of Passions! Dans l’histoire mouvementee des polemiques feroces qui ont oppose Lessing a quelques-uns de ses contemporains, cette critique normative est notamment incarnee par Johann Christoph Gottsched, l’homme de lettres accuse d’avoir voulu imposer a la scene allemande les regles theatrales du classicisme francais. Title! La marque distinctive et le defaut principal de cette critique legislatrice reside selon Lessing dans sa demarche deductive.

Le critique legislateur commence par enoncer les regles intangibles de la production du beau, a l’aune desquelles les ?uvres singulieres sont ensuite jugees. Mais a cote du modele deja ancien de la critique normativo-deductive se profile pour Lessing un autre adversaire, plus jeune et plus menacant : l’esthetique. Examples Of Passions! Apres la parution d’ ?sthetica de Baumgarten en 1750 et des Anfangsgrunde aller schonen Wissenschaften de Georg Friedrich Meier (1748-1750), l’esthetique s’impose rapidement, en depit de quelques resistances, comme discipline philosophique a part entiere dans l’espace intellectuel allemand. Gatsby! Des la fin du XVIII e siecle, elle figure dans tous les programmes d’enseignement des universites germaniques [11] [11] Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 13 ; Trad., p. 41 (preface). Gatsby! . Of Passions! Or cette nouvelle science philosophique ne satisfait guere la definition lessingienne de la critique. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! Des la preface du Laocoon, Lessing ne se fait d’ailleurs pas faute de le souligner : [Ces considerations] sont nees accidentellement et se sont plutot developpees au hasard de mes lectures que grace a l’etude methodique des principes generaux. Examples Of Passions! Ce sont les materiaux confus d’un livre a ecrire, plutot qu’un livre. Cependant je me flatte que, meme comme tels, ils ne soient pas tout a fait a dedaigner. Essay Training: A Way To Overcome! Nous autres Allemands ne manquons pas de livres a systeme. Examples! Deduire, en partant de quelques definitions et dans le plus bel ordre possible, tout ce que nous voulons, c’est a quoi nous nous entendons mieux que personne au monde. Baumgarten reconnaissait qu’il etait redevable au dictionnaire de Gesner [12] [12] Pour un apercu sur cette rapide institutionnalisation. Bernie Mac's Def Comedy Essays! d’une grande partie des exemples cites dans son esthetique.

Si mon raisonnement n’est pas aussi serre que celui de Baumgarten, du moins mes exemples conserveront davantage la saveur de la source [13] [13] Johann Mathias Gesner, Novus lingu? et eruditionis. Examples Of Passions! . Ce que Lessing reproche a Baumgarten, c’est donc d’abord sa methode d’exposition systematique et deductive – caractere de fait tres present dans ?sthetica . Fossil Record Definition Biology! En eleve scrupuleux de l’ecole wolffienne, Baumgarten s’en tient en effet a un formalisme logique strict, procedant d’abord par l’enonce des principes et negligeant singulierement les exemples. Examples! On chercherait en vain un examen tres developpe de tel ou tel passage d’Homere dans ?sthetica. The Ident! C’est donc aussi – et meme surtout – contre cette nouvelle science philosophique que Lessing prend resolument parti lorsqu’il se fait l’avocat d’une critique inductive, empirique et non systematique de l’art. Rien d’etonnant a ce que cette conception de la critique ait ete defendue par un representant de l’ Aufklarung allemande. Examples! En soutenant en effet le principe d’une critique inductive et centree sur l’effet singulier d’une ?uvre donnee, Lessing tend a conferer a l’amateur un pouvoir nouveau. Fossil Record! Le Liebhaber devient en matiere d’art un juge tout aussi autorise que les theoriciens institues, qu’ils soient membres d’academies, peintres ou erudits de tous ordres. Examples! De facon symbolique, c’est d’ailleurs en premier lieu a l’amateur que Lessing, au seuil du Laocoon, reconnait le droit d’emettre un discours sur l’art.

Dans la hierarchie lessingienne, le philosophe et le critique d’art ne viennent qu’apres le Liebhaber [14] [14] Laokoon, p. Bernie Mac's Second Def Comedy Jam Special Essays! 15 ; Trad., p. Examples! 42-43 (preface ; traduction. Bernie Def Comedy! . Examples Of Passions! Le Laocoon, par sa structure inductive et a-systematique, participe ainsi d’un mouvement central des Lumieres allemandes et, plus largement, des Lumieres europeennes : l’intronisation du public comme instance legitime de jugement. Pour valoriser ce « recepteur » commun qu’est l’amateur, il faut promouvoir un organe particulier : l’imagination. Hpv Vaccination! Lessing a apporte une contribution importante a la promotion de la Einbildungskraft dans la pensee sur l’art du milieu du XVIII e siecle. Dans ses textes critiques, l’imagination du spectateur ou du lecteur se voit en effet dotee d’une force productive au moins egale a celle de l’auteur meme de l’?uvre d’art. Examples! En d’autres termes, l’amateur participe a la creation de l’?uvre au meme titre que l’artiste ou le poete. Gatsby! Cette equation nouvelle se lit avec une force particuliere dans le Laocoon . Of Passions! L’essai abonde en reflexions sur la maniere dont un tableau ou un poeme agit sur l’imagination du spectateur ou du lecteur. Fossil Record Definition! Ainsi, remarque Lessing, « notre imagination » est « pleinement satisfaite » par l’image virgilienne des deux serpents qui enserrent de leurs doubles anneaux le corps et le cou de Laocoon [15] [15] Laokoon, p. Examples! 13 ; Trad., p. Title! 41 (preface). Of Passions! . Mais l’imagination ne constitue pas seulement l’arbitre de la reception de l’?uvre : elle est plus encore une instance centrale dans sa production meme.

Ainsi, dans le domaine des arts plastiques, c’est l’imagination du spectateur qui decide du choix de la scene a representer : « Cela seul est fecond qui laisse un champ libre a l’imagination. The Ident Gallery! » [16] [16] Laokoon, p. Examples! 56 ; Trad., p. Hpv Vaccination Pros! 70 (chap. Examples! V). The Ident! Autrement dit, l’instant fecond est celui qui permet au spectateur de depasser en esprit la scene representee. « Plus nous voyons de choses, plus il faut que nous puissions en imaginer. Examples! » [17] [17] Laokoon, p. Gatsby Gatsby! 32 ; Trad., p. Examples Of Passions! 56 (chap. The Ident Gallery! III). Examples Of Passions! En peinture et en sculpture, l’imagination ne restera libre que si l’artiste evite de representer le moment paroxystique. The Great Gatsby! Aucun instant ne jouit en effet moins du privilege de stimuler l’imagination que la representation du stade ultime de l’affect. Of Passions! « Au-dela [de l’instant paroxystique], il n’y a plus rien, et presenter aux yeux le degre extreme, c’est lier les ailes a l’imagination. Hpv Vaccination And Cons! » [18] [18] Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 32 ; Trad., p. Definition! 56 (chap. Examples Of Passions! III ; traduction. Essay On Fitness Training: To Overcome! C’est pourquoi le Laocoon sculpte ne crie pas : en sages connaisseurs de leur art, les artistes ont evite de representer le moment de la douleur supreme, car cet instant aurait enchaine l’imagination.

Cette attenuation apparente n’en est d’ailleurs pas vraiment une, car l’imagination, dont la caracteristique est d’extrapoler, passe aisement du murmure de douleur represente a son paroxysme non represente. Examples Of Passions! « Lorsque Laocoon gemit, l’imagination peut l’entendre crier. Gallery! » [19] [19] Laokoon, p. Examples! 32 ; Trad., p. And Cons! 56 (chap. Examples! III). Le meme raisonnement vaut pour la litterature. Title For Essays! En poesie, c’est encore le fonctionnement de l’imagination qui dicte la facture du texte, en autorisant et en prescrivant meme, a l’inverse de la sculpture, la representation du cri de Laocoon. Examples! Dans un poeme, en effet, le poete n’est pas lie par la loi de l’instant fecond : « Il prend chacune de ses actions, s’il le veut, a leur commencement et les conduit a travers toutes les modifications possibles jusqu’a leur conclusion. Second Jam Special! » [20] [20] Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 32 ; Trad., p. 56 (chap. Gatsby Gatsby! III ; traduction. Examples! Ainsi inscrits dans la duree, les instants representes en poesie agissent sur l’imagination de l’auditeur ou du lecteur tout autrement qu’en peinture ou en sculpture.

Ils peuvent a tout moment etre ramenes a une circonstance anterieure ou ulterieure, qui leur ote un peu de leur intensite propre. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! Rien ne s’oppose, partant, a ce que le poete represente le moment de la douleur supreme. Examples! « Le Laocoon de Virgile crie, mais ce Laocoon qui crie est le meme que celui que nous connaissons et que nous aimons deja comme le patriote le plus clairvoyant, comme le pere le plus affectueux. Gatsby! Nous attribuons son cri, non a son caractere, mais uniquement a son intolerable souffrance. Examples! C’est elle seule que nous entendons dans son cri, et c’est par ce cri seul que le poete pouvait nous la faire comprendre. Essay Training: A Way Depression! » [21] [21] Laokoon, p. Of Passions! 36 ; Trad., p. Fossil Record Biology! 58 (chap. Examples Of Passions! IV ; traduction.

En d’autres termes, les instants representes en poesie, perdus dans un enchainement d’evenements, agissent moins fortement sur l’imagination, ce qui rend possible la representation des affects les plus violents. Plus encore : c’est sur la faculte d’imagination que Lessing appuie ses distinctions les plus fondamentales entre poesie et peinture. Gatsby! Ainsi, dans les arts plastiques, l’imagination du spectateur se meut dans des frontieres etroites – celles-la memes que lui imposent les signes « naturels » qu’utilise le peintre. Of Passions! Autrement dit, par le fait meme de la semiotique propre a la peinture et a la sculpture, le spectateur d’un tableau ou d’une statue peut difficilement sortir en esprit des limites strictes de la scene representee. Gatsby Gatsby! La liberte d’invention qui est laissee a son imagination est des plus reduites. Examples Of Passions! C’est pourquoi, pour suggerer un beau corps a l’imagination du spectateur, le sculpteur doit representer directement ses lignes memes.

Il doit en toute immediatete figurer ses formes palpables, ce qu’il parvient le mieux a faire en leur otant tout vetement [22] [22] Laokoon, p. Mac's Second Jam Special Essays! 36 ; Trad., p. Of Passions! 58-59 (chap. Fossil Record! IV ; traduction. Examples Of Passions! . Training: To Overcome Depression! En poesie au contraire, ou regnent les signes « arbitraires », la liberte d’imagination du lecteur est infiniment plus grande. Examples! « Chez le poete, un vetement n’est pas un vetement, il ne cache rien, notre imagination voit a travers. Pour elle, la souffrance du Laocoon de Virgile est aussi visible sur chaque partie du corps, qu’il porte ou non des vetements. Definition! Pour elle, le bandeau sacerdotal couvre son front, mais ne le cache pas. Of Passions! Non seulement ce bandeau ne detruit pas, mais il fortifie l’idee que nous nous faisons du malheur de la victime. And Cons! » [23] [23] Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 57-59 ; Trad., p. Second Essays! 71-72 (chap. Of Passions! V). Gallery! La peinture et la sculpture tiennent donc l’imagination du spectateur enfermee dans les limites etroites de la scene representee. Examples Of Passions! La poesie, au contraire, parce qu’elle use de signes arbitraires, c’est-a-dire moins directement mimetiques, laisse au lecteur une possibilite infinie de recomposition personnelle de l’image. Pour illustrer cette infinie liberte de l’imagination en poesie, Lessing recourt a un exemple privilegie : Homere. Homere, remarque-t-il, ne decrit jamais a proprement parler la beaute de ses personnages. The Ident! « Il dit : Niree etait beau ; Achille etait encore plus beau ; Helene avait une beaute divine.

Mais nulle part il ne se laisse aller a la peinture detaillee de ces beautes. Examples Of Passions! » [24] [24] Laokoon, p. Second Def Comedy Essays! 58-59 ; Trad., p. Examples! 72 (chap. V). Essay On Fitness A Way To Overcome Postnatal Depression! Et, pourtant, nul ne sait mieux que lui suggerer a l’imagination du lecteur l’ineffable beaute d’Helene. Examples! Lui « qui s’abstient si soigneusement de toute description detaillee de la beaute physique et nous dit a peine, en passant, qu’Helene avait les bras blancs et une belle chevelure, sait pourtant nous donner de sa beaute une idee qui surpasse de beaucoup tout ce que peut accomplir l’art sur ce point » [25] [25] Laokoon, p. The Ident! 145 ; Trad., p. 143 (chap. XX). Examples! . En d’autres termes, si Homere est de fait le premier des poetes, c’est qu’il a su porter a son sommet cette liberte infinie que la poesie, potentiellement, laisse a l’imagination de tout auditeur. Title For Essays! Aucun peintre, aucun sculpteur ne parviendra a atteindre dans le langage des formes plastiques la beaute de son Helene. D’une hierarchie cachee : poesie et peinture en leurs prerogatives. Ce fonctionnement differencie de l’imagination dans les deux arts explique le rapport hierarchique qui les regit souterrainement. Of Passions! Pour Lessing, en effet, la poesie est superieure a la peinture. Certes, l’auteur du Laocoon n’avoue d’autre ambition que celle de tracer une ligne de partage stricte entre ces deux arts, revendiquant pour seul projet le souci d’etablir leurs lois specifiques.

Puisque ces deux formes artistiques different profondement dans leurs regles et dans leur langage, toute comparaison, tout examen de leurs merites respectifs est d’ailleurs logiquement impossible. Essay A Way To Overcome! Pour mieux marquer son intention, Lessing recourt, a plusieurs reprises, a l’image de « deux sages et bienveillants voisins », pacifiques dans leurs rapports, mais jaloux de l’integrite de leur territoire propre [26] [26] Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 154 ; Trad., p. Essay Training: To Overcome Postnatal Depression! 150 (chap. Of Passions! XXI). Title For Essays! . Cette rupture proclamee avec la tradition de l’ ut pictura poesis vise trois groupes precis. Il s’agit tout d’abord de refuter les travaux recents de quelques « critiques vicieux » (Aftercritik) qui, comme Joseph Spence, le comte de Caylus ou Jean Boivin, « comparant les ouvrages d’un poete avec ceux d’un peintre sur le meme sujet (. Examples! ), considerent les differences comme des fautes dont ils incriminent l’un ou l’autre, selon qu’ils s’interessent plus a la poesie ou a la peinture » [27] [27] Laokoon, p. Hpv Vaccination! 130, 132 ; Trad., p. Examples Of Passions! 132, 133 (chap. . . Gallery! Mais, a cote de ces mauvais critiques, Lessing entend egalement rompre quelques lances avec un type precis d’artistes : les peintres d’allegories, qui « veulent faire de la peinture un poeme muet avant d’avoir examine dans quelle mesure elle peut exprimer les idees generales sans s’eloigner de sa destination naturelle et sans devenir une ecriture arbitraire » [28] [28] Laokoon, p. 15 ; Trad., p. Examples! 42 (preface) ; J. The Great! Spence. . Of Passions! La critique de la « manie allegorique » (Allegoristerei) n’est certes pas neuve en cette seconde moitie du XVIII e siecle. Shaftesbury, Jonathan Richardson, Du Bos ont, bien avant Lessing, souligne les dangers que ce genre facilement abscons faisait encourir a la peinture [29] [29] Laokoon, p. And Cons! 15 ; Trad., p. Examples Of Passions! 42 (preface). On Fitness Training: A Way Postnatal! . Examples! Notons cependant que Lessing, s’il n’occupe pas en cela une position originale a son epoque, contredit en tout cas fortement un contemporain celebre : Winckelmann. Second Jam Special Essays! L’annee meme de la publication du Laocoon, l’auteur des Reflexions sur l’imitation fait en effet paraitre, avec son Essai sur l’allegorie, une defense vibrante du genre allegorique [30] [30] H. Blumner, Introduction, in of passions Lessings Laokoon, ed. Biology! . La refutation lessingienne de l’ ut pictura poesis vise enfin un troisieme groupe : les poetes « descriptifs », c’est-a-dire ces ecrivains accuses d’avoir repandu en Allemagne la Schilderungssucht . Examples! Ces poetes denatures qui « ont voulu faire de la poesie une peinture parlante sans savoir precisement ce qu’elle peut et doit peindre » [31] [31] J. On Fitness A Way Postnatal! J. Examples Of Passions! Winckelmann, Versuch einer Allegorie, besonders. Mac's Jam Special! comptent parmi les plus grands noms de la litterature allemande de l’epoque : il s’agit d’Albrecht von Haller, le celebre auteur de l’hymne aux Alpes, mais aussi, a travers lui, de Bartold Hinrich Brockes, d’Ewald Christian von Kleist ou encore de Salomon Gener [32] [32] Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 15 ; Trad., p. Record Definition! 42 (preface). . Examples! La description d’un paysage, d’un corps, d’un objet inerte – si beau soit-il – est pour Lessing une aberration en poesie, car elle enfreint l’une de ses lois majeures : la representation de l’action. Fossil Record Definition Biology! Contre ces trois groupes, donc – poetes descriptifs, peintres allegoristes et theoriciens de l’ ut pictura poesis –, Lessing revendique pour seule ambition de demontrer l’autonomie stricte de la poesie et de la peinture. Tres vite, cependant, ce rapport de stricte autonomie s’avere dissimuler un rapport hierarchique precis, d’ailleurs allusivement mentionne au seuil meme de l’essai : la poesie regne sur « une large sphere », tandis que la peinture se meut « dans des limites etroites » [33] [33] Laokoon, p. 125 ; Trad., p. Examples Of Passions! 127 (chap. Mac's Def Comedy Jam Special! XVII). Examples! . L’idee, dont Lessing avait pu trouver la trace dans quelques-unes de ses lectures (James Harris ou l’abbe Du Bos [34] [34] Laokoon, p. Title For Essays! 14 ; Trad., p. 42 (preface). Of Passions! ), revient discretement dans la suite du texte.

En raison meme du « champ illimite » qu’elle laisse a notre imagination, la poesie dispose d’une sphere infiniment plus « vaste » que la peinture [35] [35] H. Gallery! Blumner, Introduction, in of passions Lessings Laokoon, ed. . Essay Training: Depression! Cette extension superieure se manifeste tout d’abord dans les developpements sur la laideur. Examples! De tout temps, en effet, la representation de la laideur est interdite en peinture, affirme Lessing. Chez les Anciens, elle enfreignait la loi de la beaute, consideree comme la regle supreme de l’art dans l’Antiquite ; chez les Modernes, qui ont remplace la loi de la beaute par celle de l’expression, elle contrevient encore a la liberte fondamentale de l’imagination. Title! Un visage laid, si expressif soit-il, ne suscitera jamais que degout en peinture [36] [36] Laokoon, p. Examples! 60 ; Trad., p. Hpv Vaccination! 78 (chap. Examples Of Passions! VI). Essay Training: To Overcome Postnatal! . Examples Of Passions! Rien en revanche n’interdit de representer la laideur en litterature. Title! Pour accrediter sa these, Lessing convoque les autorites les plus reconnues : Sophocle decrivant l’antre souille de Philoctete, Homere evoquant la laideur repoussante de Thersite ou encore le corps defigure d’Hector traine au sol [37] [37] Laokoon, p. 22 sq., 31 sq., 169 sq. Of Passions! ; Trad., p. Training: A Way Postnatal! 48 sq. . Examples! La superiorite de la poesie sur la peinture se manifeste par ailleurs dans la representation de la passion. On Fitness To Overcome! La poesie peut evoquer les affects les plus forts, tels que la colere, le desespoir, la douleur extreme, tous sentiments qui restent proscrits en peinture. Of Passions! Ainsi Sophocle peut-il representer son Philoctete gemissant et se lamentant ouvertement, tandis que Timanthe, peignant le Sacrifice, doit voiler le visage du pere d’Iphigenie, parce qu’il n’est pas autorise a representer le degre supreme du desespoir [38] [38] Laokoon, p. For Essays! 165, 177 ; Trad., p. Of Passions! 159, 168 (chap. For Essays! XXIII. Of Passions! . Pros And Cons! « Dans l’eloquence et dans la poesie, il y a un pathos qui peut etre porte aussi loin que possible sans devenir parenthyrse », tandis que, dans les arts plastiques, ce meme pathos devient rapidement excessif [39] [39] Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 38, 28 ; Trad., p. Gatsby! 60-61, 50 (chap. Examples! IV. Title For Essays! . Examples Of Passions! Enfin, un ultime privilege distingue la poesie de la peinture : celle-ci ne peut representer que le visible, celle-la est tout a fait fondee a representer aussi l’invisible.

Lorsque Homere evoque Hector derobe par Apollon aux regards d’Achille, il ne contrarie en rien les regles de son art. The Great Gatsby! En revanche, lorsque Caylus recommande instamment au peintre d’envelopper dans une nuee un personnage theoriquement soustrait aux regards, il meconnait gravement les lois de la peinture [40] [40] Laokoon, p. Examples! 202 ; Trad., p. Gallery! 188 (chap. Examples! XXIX). The Great! . Cet ordre hierarchique se traduit enfin par un rapport de priorite chronologique. Examples! Lessing entend en effet apporter sa propre contribution a l’epineuse question agitee avant lui par de nombreux antiquaires : de quelle epoque date le groupe du Laocoon redecouvert a Rome en 1506 ? Plus precisement : a-t-il ete realise avant ou apres la description de Virgile ? Qui, du sculpteur ou du poete, a servi de modele a l’autre ? De prime abord, et selon sa strategie habituelle, l’auteur affecte une parfaite neutralite dans ce domaine. The Great! Il parait envisager avec une meme distance sceptique les deux partis en presence. Examples! Le premier camp, represente par Bartolomeo Marliani et Bernard de Montfaucon, soutient que le Laocoon sculpte est une imitation de Virgile ; le second, represente par Paolo Alessandro Maffei et Jonathan Richardson, date a l’inverse le groupe sculpte d’une epoque beaucoup plus ancienne, en raison de sa beaute [41] [41] Laokoon, p. Essay On Fitness Training: To Overcome Postnatal Depression! 102 sq. Examples Of Passions! ; Trad., p. The Ident Gallery! 109 sq. Examples Of Passions! (chap. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! XI. Of Passions! . Biology! A la fin de l’essai, cependant, Lessing devoile plus nettement sa position : le Laocoon date de l’Empire romain. Examples Of Passions! Il a ete execute soit pour la collection d’Asinus Pollion, un contemporain du poete, soit pour l’empereur Titus, mais en tout cas sur le modele de Virgile.

Le but de la demonstration est facilement identifiable : il s’agit de contredire la these defendue en 1764 par Winckelmann dans l’ Histoire de l’art dans l’Antiquite, qui situe, en des termes d’ailleurs assez vagues, l’?uvre « dans la meilleure epoque de l’art grec », c’est-a-dire environ vers le IV e siecle avant J.-C., sous le regne d’Alexandre [42] [42] Laokoon, p. Gallery! 48 sq., 59 sq. Examples Of Passions! ; Trad., p. Title For Essays! 68 sq., 77 sq. Of Passions! . Pros And Cons! Ce perilleux exercice de datation, agremente de toutes les precautions rhetoriques necessaires, vient couronner et clore la these sous-jacente a l’ensemble du texte : la poesie est pour Lessing la matrice de la peinture. Non seulement elle contient, dans l’ordre thematique, tous les sujets autorises au peintre, mais elle est aussi, dans l’ordre chronologique, la source ultime de tous les arts. Examples Of Passions! Homere est non seulement le premier des poetes, mais il est plus encore le premier de tous les createurs [43] [43] Laokoon, p. The Ident! 190 ; Trad., p. Examples! 178 (chap. On Fitness Training: A Way To Overcome Postnatal! XXVI) ; J. Examples! J. Hpv Vaccination And Cons! Winckelmann. Examples Of Passions! . Bernie Mac's Jam Special! En d’autres termes, c’est chez un poete que les peintres doivent chercher leur pere. Cette hierarchie implicite des arts se traduit par une difference essentielle de statut intellectuel et sociologique. Of Passions! Peinture et poesie n’ont pas part identique au genie, une notion qui commence a apparaitre de facon insistante dans le discours theorique sur l’art des annees 1760 et qui, dans l’?uvre de Lessing, sera amplement developpee dans la Dramaturgie de Hambourg . Dans le Laocoon, cette distinction surgit au detour d’un developpement sur le statut de l’invention dans les deux arts. En peinture, remarque Lessing, « l’execution nous semble plus difficile que l’invention ; c’est le contraire chez le poete » [44] [44] Laokoon, p. 161-162 ; Trad., p. Record Definition! 155 (chap. Of Passions! XXII). Essay Training: To Overcome Depression! . Examples Of Passions! Autrement dit, un peintre aura beau emprunter la totalite de son sujet a un poete, il n’en sera pas pour autant accuse d’imitation servile, si tant est que son tableau soit techniquement reussi.

Qu’un poete, en revanche, se contente de reprendre l’idee d’un autre artiste, et il se verra a bon droit retirer une grande part de son merite. Si Virgile avait emprunte a la sculpture l’idee de montrer Laocoon et ses enfants pris dans le meme n?ud, le principal et le plus grand merite de son ?uvre lui serait alors enleve ; il ne lui resterait que le moindre. Title! Car il est plus important d’imposer d’abord cette idee a l’imagination que de l’exprimer par des mots. Examples! Si, au contraire, l’artiste l’avait empruntee au poete, il conserverait encore a nos yeux un merite considerable, bien que celui de l’invention lui fut retire ; car l’exprimer dans le marbre est infiniment plus difficile que de l’exprimer par des mots et, quand nous mettons en balance l’invention et l’expression, nous sommes toujours disposes a reduire nos exigences d’un cote si nous nous estimons combles de l’autre [45] [45] Laokoon, p. Definition Biology! 98 ; Trad., p. 105 (chap. Examples! XI). For Essays! . La distinction ici esquissee est lourde de consequences. Of Passions! La peinture et la sculpture, dans leur definition meme, restent plus proches de l’artisanat que de l’art. Leurs criteres dominants ne sont pas l’invention, mais l’execution ; pas le genie, mais la perfection technique. And Cons! Autrement dit, le merite d’un tableau ou d’une sculpture ne reside pas dans la nouveaute du sujet : il est tout entier dans la maniere de le traiter. Examples Of Passions! Lessing va plus loin encore : si le poete doit forger lui-meme son sujet, le peintre se voit en revanche deconseiller de le fabriquer seul. Mac's Jam Special! Il est preferable, pour l’intelligibilite du tableau, qu’il se contente de reprendre une scene deja traitee par un poete connu. Examples Of Passions! C’est pourquoi le comte de Caylus commet aux yeux de Lessing une grave erreur lorsqu’il incite les peintres a inventer, a partir de figures homeriques, des sujets nouveaux, non traites par Homere.

Valable pour les tableaux d’histoire, cette loi s’etend a tous les genres. For Essays! Le bon paysagiste, par exemple, est celui qui appuie son paysage peint sur un paysage lu : Dans certaines circonstances, le merite de l’artiste est meme plus grand s’il a imite la nature a travers le poete que sans lui. Of Passions! Le peintre qui represente un beau paysage d’apres la description d’un Thomson a fait plus que celui qui reproduit directement la nature. Hpv Vaccination And Cons! Le second voit un modele devant lui, le premier doit forcer son imagination pour avoir l’impression qu’il le voit. L’un cree le beau en partant d’impressions vives et sensibles, l’autre a partir d’images vagues et faibles suscitees par des signes arbitraires [46] [46] Ibid. . On ne saurait denier plus fortement au peintre et au sculpteur toute pretention au genie. Examples Of Passions! Seul le poete peut aspirer a l’invention veritable. Il ne reste a l’artiste qu’a s’appuyer sur la puissance de creation de l’ecrivain. A Way! En d’autres termes, si la poesie est bien un art autonome, la peinture et la sculpture sont des arts encore largement heteronomes.

Dans sa nomenclature des formes artistiques, Lessing se montre, on examples, le voit, encore tres tributaire de representations issues des siecles anterieurs [47] [47] Ibid. . Training: A Way Postnatal Depression! Conformement a la regle du doctus pictor en vigueur dans le discours sur l’art depuis la Renaissance, l’artiste le plus noble est a ses yeux celui qui peut asseoir son ?uvre sur l’autorite d’un texte. Derriere cette hierarchie des arts se profile un conflit disciplinaire et institutionnel precis : celui des philologues contre les historiens d’art, c’est-a-dire, plus generalement, celui des tenants de la primaute des textes contre les partisans de l’etude de l’objet. Examples! Entre ces deux groupes, la rivalite est ancienne. Title For Essays! Depuis la Renaissance, les antiquaires ont coutume d’emailler leurs ouvrages de plaidoyers en faveur de la lecon des monuments, jugee infiniment plus sure que celle de textes pervertis par la tradition – a quoi les philologues repondent communement par la defense des vertus de l’ecrit. Par sa formation intellectuelle, Lessing appartient clairement au camp des philologues. Examples Of Passions! C’est sur sa connaissance precise des textes antiques qu’il fonde ses premiers grands essais critiques : le traite sur la vie et les ?uvres de Plaute de 1750 ou encore le traite sur les tragedies de Seneque de 1754 [48] [48] Cf.

Nathalie Heinich, Du peintre a l’artiste. Artisans. The Ident! . Dans le Laocoon, il ne cesse de faire etalage de son erudition en la matiere, citant de longs passages de Sophocle ou de Virgile en version originale, comparant les traductions ou evoquant avec une coquetterie visible tel commentateur oublie. Of Passions! En apparence, certes, il affecte un profond respect pour son rival Winckelmann, qui se voulait le fondateur d’une histoire veritable de l’art, c’est-a-dire d’une histoire reposant non sur l’etude des livres, mais sur l’examen direct des monuments. « Quelques ouvrages ont deja paru sous le titre d’histoire de l’art, annoncait Winckelmann dans la preface de son Histoire de l’art dans l’Antiquite en 1764. Mais l’art n’y a que peu de part, car leurs auteurs ne se sont pas suffisamment familiarises avec lui et ne pouvaient par consequent rien livrer qu’ils ne tinssent des livres ou qu’ils n’eussent appris par oui-dire. Mac's Essays! » [49] [49] Wilfried Barner, Produktive Rezeption. Examples! Lessing und. Fossil Record! C’est donc par l’evocation solennelle de cet ouvrage majeur que Lessing entame le chapitre XXVI de son Laocoon : M. Examples! Winckelmann vient de publier son Histoire de l’art dans l’Antiquite . Je ne risquerai pas un pas de plus avant d’avoir lu cet ouvrage. For Essays! Raisonner a perte de vue sur l’art d’apres des idees communes ne peut conduire qu’a des chimeres que tot ou tard, a sa honte, on examples of passions, trouvera contredites par les ?uvres d’art [50] [50] J. Gallery! J. Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums. Of Passions! . S’il affiche pour le « flambeau de l’histoire » une reverence apparente, c’est pourtant bien dans un but exactement contraire que Lessing redige sa demonstration : prouver, contre les tenants du « voir », la vertu du « lire » – autrement, dit montrer que le texte est une source plus sure et plus feconde pour l’analyse des monuments que l’examen direct de ces monuments eux-memes. The Ident Gallery! Contre Winckelmann, qui ne cesse de se vanter d’avoir reellement vu a Rome les statues dont il parle [51] [51] Laokoon, p. 183 ; Trad., p. Of Passions! 173 (chap. Hpv Vaccination Pros And Cons! XXVI). Of Passions! , Lessing neglige ostensiblement de se referer a d’autres sources que la tradition ecrite.

Il se garde bien par exemple de faire allusion a telle copie de platre, telle gravure ou telle medaille du Laocoon, dont il aurait eu le loisir d’analyser les formes tangibles dans quelque collection allemande. La demonstration n’en est que plus puissante. Gallery! Alors que l’antiquaire Winckelmann, qui a vu de ses yeux le Laocoon a Rome, n’arrive qu’a esquisser une datation tres floue du groupe (qu’il situe vers le IV e siecle avant J.-C.), Lessing, sans avoir jamais vu le Laocoon de marbre, parvient a etablir avec une grande assurance la date de sa realisation : entre Asinus Pollion, l’ami de Virgile, et la fin du regne de Titus (81 apres J.-C.) [52] [52] Elisabeth Decultot, Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Examples Of Passions! Enquete. Training: To Overcome Depression! . La demonstration est reiteree a propos de la statue qu’il est convenu d’appeler le Gladiateur Borghese ou encore le Discobole . Examples Of Passions! Dans l’ Histoire de l’art dans l’Antiquite, Winckelmann, en s’appuyant avec force details sur son experience visuelle directe, exclut qu’il s’agisse d’un gladiateur ou d’un discobole. For Essays! Le personnage represente serait bien plutot un soldat grec. Nullement, retorque Lessing sans avoir jamais vu la statue, mais en s’appuyant sur un long passage de l’historien antique Cornelius Nepos. Examples! Il s’agit en fait d’un Chabrias [53] [53] Laokoon, p. The Ident Gallery! 190 ; Trad., p. Of Passions! 178 (chap. Gatsby Gatsby! XXVI). Of Passions! . Ainsi, le texte livre selon Lessing des renseignements infiniment plus surs et plus precis pour l’elucidation des ?uvres plastiques que l’examen empirique de ces ?uvres elles-memes. Si le rapport entre arts plastiques et poesie constitue bien le sujet proclame du Laocoon, il serait cependant errone de reduire l’essai a cette seule thematique. Title For Essays! Au-dela – ou en deca – de l’argument theorique annonce dans le sous-titre, Lessing nourrit en effet des ambitions polemiques beaucoup plus personnelles : il s’agit, d’une part, d’en decoudre avec Winckelmann et ses nombreux admirateurs ; d’autre part, de contrer les partisans du theatre classique francais.

Ces deux groupes, puissants en Allemagne comme dans toute l’Europe, n’ont en soi guere de points communs ni meme d’interets partages. Of Passions! Winckelmann, par exemple, n’a jamais cache son hostilite pour la France de Louis XIV et son esthetique deletere [54] [54] Laokoon, p. Fossil! 197 sq. Examples Of Passions! ; Trad., p. Biology! 184 sq. Of Passions! (chap. Hpv Vaccination And Cons! XX. . Tout l’art du polemiste Lessing sera donc de reunir en un meme camp ces deux partis etrangers l’un a l’autre, en les presentant comme les complices d’une meme erreur. Pour proceder a ce rapprochement force, Lessing commence par imposer au texte winckelmannien des inflechissements notables. Examples! Dans les Reflexions sur l’imitation comme dans l’ Histoire de l’art dans l’Antiquite, l’ambition de Winckelmann n’etait en effet nullement de formuler une theorie coherente du rapport entre arts plastiques et poesie. Ce n’est donc qu’au prix d’un detournement hardi, voire d’un gauchissement severe, que Lessing parvient a eriger Winckelmann en theoricien consequent de l’ ut pictura poesis . Gallery! Deux points de dissension, en soi fort mineurs, fournissent le pretexte de ses attaques : d’une part, l’evaluation de Virgile, que Winckelmann semble critiquer pour avoir represente Laocoon hurlant ; d’autre part, la datation du groupe sculpte, dont l’historien d’art situe la realisation bien avant l’ Eneide . Of Passions! Dans les deux cas, Lessing, manifestement resolu a rompre quelques lances avec son rival romain, n’hesite pas a hypertrophier un detail anodin du texte winckelmannien. Postnatal Depression! Contrairement a l’image grossissante qu’en donne en effet Lessing, Winckelmann, loin de critiquer ouvertement Virgile, se contente de mentionner allusivement le cri de son Laocoon, sans prononcer en aucune maniere un jugement clairement negatif a ce sujet [55] [55] Pour l’hostilite de Winckelmann au siecle de Louis XIV. Examples Of Passions! . Par ailleurs, il reserve l’essentiel de ses arguments concernant la datation du marbre a une simple note de bas de page [56] [56] J. J. Gallery! Winckelmann, Gedancken uber die Nachahmung der. Examples Of Passions! . Cette accentuation, apparemment arbitraire, de divergences subalternes cache cependant une dissension plus profonde.

Par-dela ces details, il y va en effet de la conception generale de la Grece et, plus largement encore, de la representation de l’ « humain ». And Cons! Le Grec est pour Lessing l’homme de l’affect. Examples! Il est celui qui eprouve et exprime intensement peur, plaisir, tristesse ou douleur. The Ident Gallery! Il est, en d’autres termes, la quintessence de l’humain. Le Grec etait different. Examples! Il sentait et craignait ; il laissait voir ses douleurs et son chagrin ; il ne rougissait d’aucune des faiblesses humaines, mais aucune ne pouvait le detourner du chemin de l’honneur ni de l’accomplissement de son devoir [57] [57] J. J. Fossil Definition Biology! Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums. Examples! . C’est au seul « barbare » qu’est reservee la qualite douteuse de l’insensibilite heroique. Chez le barbare, l’heroisme etait une flamme claire et devorante, toujours vive et qui consumait toute autre vertu ou, du moins, l’obscurcissait. (. Mac's! ) [Homere] veut nous faire savoir que les Grecs civilises peuvent seuls etre braves sans cesser de pleurer, tandis que, pour rester braves, les Troyens barbares doivent d’abord etouffer toute humanite. Of Passions! (. Title! ) « Je ne blame pas ceux qui pleurent », fait-il dire ailleurs au raisonnable fils du sage Nestor [58] [58] Laokoon, p. Examples! 20 ; Trad., p. Gatsby! 46 (chap. Examples! I). Title For Essays! . Cette conception de la Grece est directement dirigee contre une cible contemporaine. Of Passions! A travers elle, Lessing entend en effet combattre une esthetique precise : celle du classicisme francais et, tout particulierement, de son theatre. En excluant de la representation theatrale les demonstrations du sentiment, en imposant a la scene les seules regles de l’heroisme et du stoicisme, les Francais ont choisi la barbarie troyenne contre de l’humanite grecque. Title! La bienseance et le bon gout sont les nouveaux visages de l’inhumanite. Il est remarquable que, parmi les rares tragedies antiques qui nous soient parvenues, il se trouve deux pieces ou la douleur corporelle entre pour une grande part dans le malheur qui frappe le heros souffrant.

C’est, avec le Philoctete, l’ Hercule mourant . Of Passions! (. On Fitness To Overcome Postnatal! ) Grace a nos aimables voisins, ces maitres en fait de convenances, un Philoctete qui gemit, un Hercule qui crie seraient aujourd’hui les personnages les plus risibles et les plus insoutenables sur la scene. Examples! (. Gallery! ) Tout ce qui est stoique est antitheatral, et notre pitie est toujours proportionnee a la souffrance que manifeste le personnage qui nous interesse. Examples! Si nous le voyons magnanimement supporter son malheur, il est vrai que nous admirerons sa grandeur d’ame, mais l’admiration est un sentiment froid et l’ebahissement passif exclut toute passion plus chaleureuse comme toute image distincte de son objet [59] [59] Laokoon, p. For Essays! 20-21 ; Trad., p. 46 (chap. Examples Of Passions! I). Hpv Vaccination! . On reste saisi par l’usage pour le moins hardi que Lessing fait de la figure de Winckelmann dans cette polemique antifrancaise. Examples Of Passions! Winckelmann, qui n’a cesse de se presenter comme un Grec veritable – et que nombre de ses lecteurs, de Goethe jusqu’a Schelling, en passant par les freres Schlegel, ont d’ailleurs celebre comme tel –, Winckelmann, donc, se trouve implicitement place par Lessing du cote des barbares. Bernie! En accentuant l’heroisme de Laocoon, en lui interdisant de crier, il repudie l’expression de l’humanite sensible. Examples! En un mot : il se revele un non-Grec. For Essays! Plus encore : l’auteur des Reflexions sur l’imitation, qui n’a cesse de combattre le modele du classicisme francais et de se camper en pourfendeur du siecle de Louis XIV, devient implicitement, sous la plume de Lessing, un representant de cette esthetique abhorree. Examples Of Passions! Il devient un avocat des regles de bienseance francaises. Fossil Record Definition Biology! C’est aussi par ces prouesses que le polemiste Lessing est passe a la posterite. Berengarius Turonensis, Aufbau, Bd.

7, p. Of Passions! 323-324. Sur ce leitmotiv lessingien, cf. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! Antigoeze, IX, Aufbau, Bd. Of Passions! 8, p. On Fitness To Overcome Postnatal Depression! 387 ; Berengarius Turonensis, Bd. Examples! 7, p. Bernie Second Def Comedy! 315 : apologie des heretiques, qui veulent avant tout « voir avec leurs propres yeux » ; Briefe, antiquarischen Inhalts, piece 52 (citee et traduite par J. Of Passions! Bialostocka dans son introduction a la traduction du Laocoon, Hermann, 1964 ; Hanser Verlag, Bd. Bernie Essays! 6, p. Examples Of Passions! 376-381) ; Axiomata, Aufbau, Bd. Fossil Definition Biology! 8, p. Examples! 190-191 ; Gegen F. W. Title For Essays! Mascho, Bd. Of Passions! 8, p. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! 143 ; Uber eine zeitige Aufgabe, Bd. Examples! 7, p. 557 ; Selbstbetrachtungen und Einfallen, Unterebrechung im theologischem Kampf, Bd. Mac's Second Def Comedy Essays! 8, p. Examples Of Passions! 410. Pour cette tradition anglaise, cf.

Hugo Blumner, Introduction, in Lessings Laokoon, ed. Hpv Vaccination! par H. Blumner, 2 e ed. Examples Of Passions! corrigee, Berlin, 1880, p. For Essays! 1-67 ; Anthony Cooper, lord Ashley, 3 e comte de Shaftesbury, A Notion of the of passions Historical Draught or Tablature of the Def Comedy Jam Special Judgement of examples of passions Hercules, according to hpv vaccination and cons Prodicus, Londres, 1713 ; Jonathan Richardson senior, An Essay on examples of passions, the Theory of Essay on Fitness Training: A Way Painting, Londres, 1715 (traduit in examples id., Traite de la peinture et de la sculpture, 3 vol., Amsterdam 1728) ; Daniel Webb, An Enquiry into fossil, the Beauties of examples Painting, Londres, 1760. Bernie Mac's Second Def Comedy! On peut affirmer avec certitude que Lessing a lu Shaftesbury et Richardson. Examples Of Passions! Il est en revanche possible qu’il n’ait pas connu l’?uvre de D. Bernie Second Def Comedy Jam Special! Webb. J. Harris, Three Treatises. Of Passions! The First concerning Art.

The Second concerning Music, Painting and title, Poetry. Examples Of Passions! The Third concerning Happiness, Londres, 1744. Jean-Baptiste Du Bos, Reflexions critiques sur la poesie et sur la peinture, ed. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! par Dominique Desirat (d’apres l’edition de 1740), Paris, 1993 (1 re ed., 1719 ; 2 e ed., 1733 ; 3 e ed., 1740), p. Examples Of Passions! 28-37 (partie I, section 13). Title For Essays! Trad. allemande par G. Of Passions! Funcke : id., Kritische Betrachtungen uber die Poesie und Mahlerey, aus dem Franzosischen des Herrn Abtes Du Bos, 3 vol., Copenhague, 1760-1761. Title For Essays! Du Bos etablit notamment une distinction entre la loi de simultaneite propre a la peinture et le principe de representation diachronique propre a la poesie. Dans L’Art de peindre de Cl.-H. Of Passions! Watelet, on peut par exemple lire les vers suivants : « Chaque art a ses moyens qui reglent son pouvoir » ; « Le peintre moins aide, dont on the great gatsby gatsby, exige autant, / Pour parvenir au c?ur, n’a jamais qu’un instant » (cite par H. Of Passions! Blumner, Introduction, in title Lessings Laokoon, ed. Examples! par H. Title! Blumner, op. cit., p. Of Passions! 38-39).

La premiere edition du Laocoon, la seule publiee du vivant de Lessing, parut chez Christian Friedrich Vo a Berlin : G. E. Pros And Cons! Lessing, Laokoon oder uber die Grenzen der Mahlerey und Poesie (. Examples Of Passions! ). Essay Postnatal Depression! Erster Theil, Berlin, 1766. Examples Of Passions! Cette edition, qui se donnait pour la « premiere partie » de l’ouvrage, appelait donc une suite, qui ne vint jamais. En 1788, Karl Lessing fait paraitre chez le meme editeur une « edition augmentee », qui donne comme deuxieme partie quelques extraits du Nachla de l’ecrivain (les Paralipomena ). Essay On Fitness Training:! Il renouvelle le procede quelques annees plus tard en publiant, dans le volume 9 des Vermischte Schriften de Lessing (1792), la « premiere partie » du Laocoon de 1766, accompagnee d’une seconde partie « fictive », sur la base de Paralipomena complementaires. Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Gedancken uber die Nachahmung der griechischen Wercke in of passions der Mahlerey und Bildhauer-Kunst [Friedrichstadt], 1755 ; 2 e ed. Hpv Vaccination And Cons! augmentee : Dresde, 1756. Joseph Spence, Polymetis or an examples of passions, Enquiry concerning the gatsby Agreement between the examples of passions Works of the Roman Poets and the Remains of the Essay on Fitness Training: Depression Ancient Artists, Londres, _ 1747, 2 1755 ; Anne Claude Philippe de Tubieres, comte de Caylus, Tableaux tires de l’ Iliade , de l’ Odyssee d’Homere et de l’ Eneide de Virgile, avec des observations generales sur le costume, Paris, 1757. Pour un apercu sur cette rapide institutionnalisation, cf. Of Passions! K. Title! Barck, J. Examples! Heininger et D. Gatsby Gatsby! Kliche, Art. Examples Of Passions! « Asthetik/asthetisch », in title Asthetische Grundbegriffe. Historisches Worterbuch in of passions sieben Banden, ed. The Great! par K. Of Passions! Barck et al., vol. Gatsby Gatsby! 1, Stuttgart/Weimar, 2000, p. 308-400. Johann Mathias Gesner, Novus lingu? et eruditionis Romanae thesaurus, 4 vol., Leipzig, 1747-1748 (ouvrage qui est une edition remaniee du Thesaurus lingu? latin? de Robert Estienne, Paris, 1531).

Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 15 ; Trad . Essay Training: To Overcome Depression! , p. Examples Of Passions! 42-43 (preface ; traduction legerement modifiee ; phrases soulignees par nous). Laokoon, p. The Ident Gallery! 32 ; Trad . Examples! , p. Title! 56 (chap. Of Passions! III ; traduction modifiee). Laokoon, p. The Ident Gallery! 32 ; Trad . Examples! , p. Record Definition Biology! 56 (chap. Examples Of Passions! III ; traduction modifiee). Laokoon, p. On Fitness Training: Postnatal Depression! 36 ; Trad . Examples Of Passions! , p. 58 (chap. Fossil Record! IV ; traduction modifiee).

Laokoon, p. Examples! 36 ; Trad . Biology! , p. Examples! 58-59 (chap. Essay On Fitness Depression! IV ; traduction modifiee). Laokoon, p. Examples Of Passions! 15 ; Trad . The Ident Gallery! , p. Of Passions! 42 (preface) ; J. Title For Essays! Spence, Polymetis, op. Of Passions! cit. Fossil Record Definition! ; Comte de Caylus, Tableaux tires de l’ Iliade , op. Examples Of Passions! cit. Pros! ; Jean Boivin de Villeneuve, Apologie d’Homere et bouclier d’Achille, Paris, 1715. H. Examples Of Passions! Blumner, Introduction, in fossil record definition Lessings Laokoon, ed. Examples Of Passions! par H. Blumner, op. Title For Essays! cit., p. Examples Of Passions! 25 sq. J. The Ident! J. Examples! Winckelmann, Versuch einer Allegorie, besonders fur die Kunst, Dresde, 1766. H. Bernie Second Def Comedy! Blumner, Introduction, in of passions Lessings Laokoon, ed. Record Definition! par H. Examples! Blumner, op. Bernie Essays! cit., p. Examples! 33 sq. Laokoon, p. Gallery! 22 sq., 31 sq., 169 sq. Of Passions! ; Trad . On Fitness A Way Postnatal! , p. Examples! 48 sq., 55 sq., 162 sq. The Ident Gallery! (chap. Examples! II, III, XXIV). Laokoon, p. 165, 177 ; Trad . The Great Gatsby Gatsby! , p. Examples Of Passions! 159, 168 (chap. Bernie Mac's Second Def Comedy Jam Special! XXIII, XXV).

Laokoon, p. 48 sq., 59 sq. Examples! ; Trad . Gatsby! , p. Examples! 68 sq., 77 sq. The Great Gatsby! (chap. V et VI). Laokoon, p. Examples! 190 ; Trad . Essay On Fitness Training: To Overcome Postnatal! , p. Examples! 178 (chap. XXVI) ; J. Essay Training: A Way To Overcome Postnatal! J. Of Passions! Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, Darmstadt, 1993 (reimpression de l’edition de Vienne de 1934, d’apres la 1 re edition de 1764, a Dresde), p. Fossil Record! 324. Cf.

Nathalie Heinich, Du peintre a l’artiste. Examples Of Passions! Artisans et academiciens a l’age classique, Paris, 1993. Wilfried Barner, Produktive Rezeption. Lessing und die Tragodien Senecas, Munich, 1973. J. The Great Gatsby! J. Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, op. Examples! cit., p. Essay Training: A Way To Overcome Postnatal Depression! 9-10. Elisabeth Decultot, Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Examples! Enquete sur la genese de l’histoire de l’art, Paris, 2000, p. 217-243. Pour l’hostilite de Winckelmann au siecle de Louis XIV, cf. On Fitness Training: A Way To Overcome Depression! E. Of Passions! Decultot, Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Enquete sur la genese de l’histoire de l’art, op. Title! cit., p. 181 sq. J. Of Passions! J. Gallery! Winckelmann, Gedancken uber die Nachahmung der griechischen Wercke in examples der Mahlerey und Bildhauer-Kunst (d’apres le texte de la 1 re edition de 1755), in Second id., Kleine Schriften.

Vorreden. Of Passions! Entwurfe, ed. Definition! par Walther Rehm, Berlin, 1968, p. Of Passions! 43 : « Cette douleur, dis-je, s’exprime pourtant sans aucune colere dans le visage et dans la posture d’ensemble. The Ident! Il ne pousse aucun cri effroyable, comme celui que chante Virgile au sujet de son Laocoon. Examples Of Passions! » L’allusion au Laocoon hurlant de Virgile disparait totalement de la description du groupe parue en 1764 dans la Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, op. Second Def Comedy! cit., p. Examples! 324-325. J. The Great Gatsby! J. Examples! Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, op. The Great Gatsby! cit., p. Of Passions! 323-324. Laokoon – Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Laokoon, ed. par Wilfried Barner, in id., Werke und Briefe in gallery zwolf Banden, ed. Examples! par W. Barner et al., vol. Def Comedy Jam Special! 5/2, Francfort/Main, 1990. Trad . Examples! – Lessing, Laocoon, trad. For Essays! de A. Examples Of Passions! Courtin (1866), revue et corrigee, avec une introduction de Jolanta Bialostocka, Paris, 1990. Resume — S’il fallait resumer les theses defendues par Lessing dans le Laocoon, on gallery, arriverait a un resultat finalement malingre.

L’idee que la peinture represente au moyen de « signes naturels » des corps coexistant dans l’espace, tandis que la poesie represente au moyen de « signes arbitraires » des actions se succedant dans le temps a ete en effet maintes fois developpee par d’autres auteurs avant l’essai de 1766. Ce constat n’ote pourtant rien a l’interet du Laocoon . Examples Of Passions! Car cet interet reside ailleurs. Bernie Mac's Second Essays! Il se situe non pas dans l’expose definitif de la these, mais dans la methode qui y mene, une methode que Lessing veut d’abord inductive, c’est-a-dire fondee sur l’exemple. Examples Of Passions! Le present article entend analyser la conception de la critique qui se degage de l’essai : refus de la methode deductive, role central devolu a l’imagination, intronisation du public comme instance legitime de jugement – le tout sur fond de polemique antiwinckelmannienne. Zusammenfassung — Wollte man die in definition biology Lessings Laokoon verteidigten Thesen zusammenfassen, so wurde man zu einem eher sparlichen Ergebnis kommen. Examples Of Passions! Da die Malerei anhand « naturlicher Zeichen » nur koexistierende Korper im Raum und die Poesie anhand « willkurlicher Zeichen » nur sukzessive Handlungen in der Zeit darstellt, wurde in Essay on Fitness Training: to Overcome der Tat schon vor der Erscheinung dieses Traktats von anderen Autoren dargelegt. Examples Of Passions! Dies gereicht aber dem Essay keineswegs zum Nachteil, denn seine Bedeutung liegt anderswo. Bernie Second Def Comedy Jam Special Essays! Sie liegt weniger in of passions dem Inhalt der Thesen selbst, als in record biology der Methode, die zur Aufstellung dieser Thesen fuhrt. Of Passions! Lessing sucht nach einer induktiven Methode, die auf der prazisen Analyse von zahlreichen Beispielen beruht. For Essays! Ziel des vorliegenden Artikels ist es, den Lessingschen Kritik-Begriff zu untersuchen, der sich aus der Methodologie dieses Essays ergibt : Ablehnung der deduktiven Verfahrensweise, Erhebung der Einbildungskraft zum entscheidenden Vermogen sowohl fur die Produktion als auch fur die Rezeption der Kunstwerke, Inthronisation des Publikums als vollberechtigter Kunstrichter – lauter Aspekte, die vor dem Hintergrund einer scharfen Polemik gegen Winckelmann entwickelt werden. utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Examples Of Passions! Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Essay On Fitness Postnatal! Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web. Examples Of Passions! En savoir plus.

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Starting a Family Entertainment Center / FEC | Fun Center | Commercial Arcade Game Room. Arcade, Sports and Redemption Games, all at the very best prices available, and also provides arcade business planning, interior, space and theme design and examples of passions, internet, viral, social and event marketing services to all Family Entertainment Centers and hpv vaccination pros, Arcades. Guidelines For Starting / Planning Family Entertainment Centers and examples of passions, Commercial Arcades. Starting a new amusement business can be a rewarding experience but it must be planned out. properly in fossil record definition order to examples succeed. Hpv Vaccination And Cons. First you must consider the feasibility of the idea in the region that. you wish to operate in. For this we offer world-class feasibility studies handled by our arcade, FEC. and LBE (location-based entertainment) partner consultants White Hutchinson. We also offer a.

wide variety of examples, additional services such as business planning, layouts, theming, training and more. For more information on all entertainment-related consulting services we provide, please click here. changing with little notice, we cannot create amusements or arcade machine cost estimates more. than 90 days in record definition advance of examples of passions, purchase. But we can offer qualified amusement buyers and owners. some basic, generalized equipment cost estimates, based upon Essay on Fitness Training: A Way to Overcome Postnatal Depression the project information you provide. Commercial Arcades and examples, Family / Location-Based Entertainment Centers Overview : The following guide offers some basic insights, facts and Essay on Fitness Training: A Way Postnatal Depression, thoughts on starting new arcades. and Family Entertainment Centers worldwide - Although not a comprehensive startup guide, it. does covers a number of of passions, important steps, points and issues that should be recognized prior.

to planning a successful commercial arcade, fun center or family entertainment center facility. Entertainment in amusement industry jargon) facilities are a very popular form of entertainment. across the world, especially in emerging / developing regions such as Africa, Eastern Europe, East Asia, South America and the Middle East, as parents increasing seek fun, yet safe and. wholesome activities for their children, along with teens and adults seeking public excitement. to 50,000 Sq Ft (15,000 Sq M) or more, and the typical standalone arcade game room ranges. from 1,500 to 5,000 Sq Ft (475-1525 Sq M) in size, with a complete turnkey budget for FEC's.

starting about $1,000,000, and smaller traditional arcades starting around $250,000 - A good. rule of thumb for budgeting many facilities uses $125 - $300 per the ident gallery, Sq Ft or $410 - $985 / Sq M. for total project costs, but depends a great deal on examples where in the world the facility will be located. small arcade spaces and game rooms for Essay to Overcome Depression, bars, restaurants, hotels, resorts, casinos, cruise. ships and such, would be to calculate using 10 to 15 games per examples, 1,000 Sq Ft (300 Sq M) and. using a average installed game price from $6,000-$8,000 per game, for budgetary purposes.

and implement, with the assistance from Essay Training: A Way Depression, one of examples of passions, our experienced Commercial Arcade Consultants. helping to gatsby select the correct mix of games depending on your location, space, demographics and. budget. Examples. Most small arcades and game rooms can be planned and launched within 12 to 18 weeks. design, construct and furnish, and typically take from 6 months to over two years to gatsby gatsby launch. can vary depending on the complexity and size of the facility, as well as the geographical location. most Family Entertainment Centers and LBE's include a large redemption arcade game area, and. many times include large format attractions such as bowling alleys, go-cart tracks, batting cages, motion theater and ride simulators, laser tag rooms, miniature golf courses and other amusement- park like components, along with extensive food and of passions, beverage operations, birthday party rooms, etc. they are usually located near high-density residential areas, schools, malls, high traffic retail and record definition biology, or.

commercial zones. The correct size and location for a profitable facility depends on many factors, but the population size (within a 30 minute drive of examples, your proposed location) combined with current. local area demographics and factoring in any competitors currently operating in or around your. geographical area are some of the the great gatsby, most important ones to consider during the feasibility stage. Are you looking to open a small arcade geared towards teens and adults, or one catering to kids. style facility, complete with arcade and examples, extensive food and beverage operations, catering to young. and middle-aged adults with a bar that serves alcohol, or perhaps some entirely new approach ? Family Entertainment Center, Fun Center, Arcade and LBE Development Checklist : In the beginning stages of pros and cons, forming a new arcade, Family Entertainment Center or LBE plan, there. are a few crucial steps that must be completed prior to purchasing any arcade equipment - And. as you will read below, purchasing equipment is one of the last items on the general checklist . that must be addressed upfront. Your most immediate concern, outside of creating a business plan.

and obtaining financing, is of passions being sure that you can secure zoning approval for your facility from your. local zoning board (in most countries) before you proceed. Although most governments have now. relaxed some of the title for essays, strict zoning codes that have discouraged facilities from examples, opening in the past, there are a few areas where entertainment locations are strictly regulated, or banned in rare cases. prepared business plan for Essay Training: A Way Postnatal, your project is crucial to examples its success. Larger facilities with budgets of. $750,000 or more should count on obtaining a comprehensive Site Feasibility Study (which can. run from title, 50 to examples of passions 100+ pages) that will be highly instrumental in and cons pre-determining the future profitability.

and ROI for examples of passions, your project, as well as being a highly instrumental tool in securing project financing. the size / scope of the specific project being analyzed - And your BMI Worldwide Arcade Consultant. can arrange to the ident gallery have a Feasibility Study conducted on your behalf with one of the top industry analysts. a feasibility study (if needed), and have completed your initial business plan (including all startup and. construction costs + initial year's operational and marketing costs) and examples, are ready to move ahead, the.

next step is to set a arcade game budget and determining the the great gatsby gatsby, proper game mix for your project, which is largely dependent on your targeted customer type, local demographics and type of of passions, facility. related equipment. Depending on the type and size of title for essays, your arcade, this could include anything from. just arcade games to token changers, card swipe systems, ticket redemption centers, counters or. machines and more. Examples. Your BMI Worldwide Arcade Consultant can help determine for you the best. way for customers to pay for the ident, game usage, either via coins, tokens, or for larger facilities with 40 or. more games, card swipe systems and card readers that eliminate the examples of passions, hassle of token collection. and offer real-time, internet accessible data on the performance and profitability of fossil record, your arcade.

opening your new facility, one of the examples of passions, last, but most crucial steps is to get the word out to the local community about gallery, your facility ! Entertainment facility marketing and advertising is examples of passions one of the most commonly overlooked steps in creating a highly profitable operation, and effective marketing of gallery, your entertainment center, both online and offline, are absolutely paramount to future success. General Step-By-Step Guidelines For Opening New Arcades, FEC's, Fun and LBE Centers : 1) Selecting the location for your Arcade Game Room, FEC or LBE, if not already decided. high-density / high foot traffic areas near malls, schools, commercial and examples, retail zones, and the great, residential neighborhoods. The correct size and location for your facility will depend on variety of factors such as local population size, number of. other competitors and the market demographics within your area, along with the size and examples, budget of and cons, your project. Before you continue your path towards opening a new Arcade or FEC facility, you must insure that this type of. business can be granted zoning approval if required, which is usually from your local area's zoning board,

before proceeding further. Of Passions. Some areas in the ident the past discouraged arcades FEC's from opening in of passions their area, so it is Essay on Fitness Training: A Way Postnatal Depression mandatory you check with your local authorities first. and conducting a Feasibility Study to project profitability (facilities larger than 8000 Sq Ft) that your project will be profitable and suitable for of passions, your desired location. Feasibility Studies can run anywhere from.

$5,000 to $35,000 USD, depending on the location and size of the project. BMI Worldwide uses the industry's top. experts to gatsby conduct these studies on your behalf to of passions determine if your project is both financially and technically feasible, and that the revenue, expense and development costs are realistic and achievable. Rather than delivering a stock development formula, as many consultants do (and which in for essays many cases may be obsolete), our feasibility studies. are bespoke, custom-tailored reports generated to find opportunities, advantages or weaknesses in your local area. marketplace, created by lack of competition, and unique characteristics of your market population and demographics. This is one of the few steps you are solely responsible for, but for large projects over $1MM USD, with your feasibility.

study and examples of passions, business plan documents in record hand, these will be the keys that will greatly assist you find and secure either. private investor, bank or government financing approval. theme park, amusement park or location-based entertainment facility (LBE) should always include expert advise. and review. Examples. Our global team of amusement industry experts and consultants are ready to share our extensive. knowledge on arcade design, planning, theming and construction, along with arcade industry best practices. equipment to for essays purchase for your facility, which will be determined usually by the size and type of facility you are. opening.

This can range from examples, video arcade games, redemption arcade games, motion simulators and the great gatsby gatsby, large. attraction rides and machines, to token machines or newer swipe card systems that eliminate the hassle and. security issues with token use, while providing real-time data on the profitability of your games, and the ability to. re-program game prices remotely, so you can offer special game prices for happy hour or set all games on. free-play for parties or other types of game promotions, which is time consuming for token-operated games. There are many types of effective marketing venues, tools and methods to choose from, and among these choices, some of the examples, most effective can be direct advertising, like display ads in Bernie Mac's Second Def Comedy Jam Special local entertainment guides, newspapers, radio, television or cable channels, and by offering discount coupons through local and examples, social media channels, and creating a high-quality website that showcases your facility and services.

Partnering with your local schools, churches, charities, youth centers and non-profits organizations to offer group discounts can also be very effective. And finally, creating high-quality print and online brochures that details everything your facility has to Essay Training: to Overcome Postnatal offer clients, from birthday parties to corporate gatherings, is a must for the facility's future success. How To Get Started Planning Your New Arcade, FEC or LBE Facility ::

BMI Worldwide's Family Entertainment Center Global Arcade Consultants are ready to examples share. with you our in-depth knowledge of current arcade industry trends and fossil biology, extensive knowledge of the. industry's best practices and examples, products, when you are ready to definition start your new entertainment project. or upgrade your existing location. We can provide thoughtful guidance in examples of passions areas from arcade game. selection to initial site selection, feasibility studies, space planning, interior design, building plans, food and beverage operations, prize redemption centers and marketing of your business, along. with some great ideas for your initial opening and the successful promotion of your new facility.

how many games will fit in my space? What do typical games cost? Are their governmental laws. affecting arcades? What about liability insurance? Where should I locate my arcade? Should I target. kids, adults or both?

What is the best way to advertise my arcade? Should I buy or lease my games? just looking for some general information on starting a new arcade, fun center or family entertainment. center, you might want to Bernie Second Def Comedy read our section on Starting a New Family Entertainment Center or Arcade Business for some additional information on the basic requirements for starting new arcade projects. Arcade Consultancy Service can help guide you in starting and executing your arcade, amusement. or entertainment venue project. We are able to examples offer our advice in person at your location anywhere. in the world, or via telephone or Skype, on Bernie Second Jam Special Essays topics such as obtaining initial site feasibility or site selection, design and examples of passions, theming services and equipment selection and for essays, procurement, all the way to complete turnkey project management.

We also offer other many other related services from our strategic partners that. are designed to help you successfully launch your new facility as economically and examples of passions, quickly as possible. notice we cannot offer formal product cost estimates or quotations more than 90 days in advance of purchase. Family Entertainment Centers, LBE and Arcades | Product Sales Contact Information : North America / USA / Canada : For more information about fossil record biology, arcade development, arcade development and planning, purchasing arcade equipment, detailed game specifications, game prices and shipping, please contact our North American Sales Department from. 6:00am to 5:30pm Eastern Time, Monday to Friday at (800) 746-2255 or anytime via our Online Sales Inquiry Form.

Please contact Sr. Luis Canon for more information about arcade development and planning, purchasing arcade. equipment, detailed game specifications, game prices and examples of passions, shipping in our Latin American Sales Department from. 9:00am to 6:00pm EDT [GMT - 4] Monday to for essays Friday at + 561-288-4889 (US) or via Skype at of passions luis.bmigaming or by. Please contact Ms.

Theresa Landman for more information about arcade development and Bernie Second Def Comedy, planning, purchasing. arcade equipment, detailed game specifications, game prices and game shipping from 11:00am to 10:00pm. SAST / GMT +2:00 Monday to Friday at examples of passions + 27-21-300-1893 (SA) or + 561-288-4889 (US) or via Skype at. Please contact Ms. Theresa Landman for for essays, more information about examples, arcade development and and cons, planning, purchasing. arcade equipment, detailed game specifications, game prices and game shipping from of passions, 10:00am to 9:00pm GMT. Monday to Friday at + 27-21-300-1893 (SA) or + 561-288-4889 (US) or via Skype at theresa.bmigaming or by. Please contact Mr. Hpv Vaccination Pros. Luis Canon for of passions, more information about arcade development, arcade development and planning,

purchasing arcade equipment, detailed game specifications, game prices and shipping from 9:00am to 6:00pm EDT. GMT - 4 Monday to Friday at + 561-288-4889 (US) or via Skype at gatsby gatsby luis.bmigaming or anytime via our Sales Inquiry Form. For more information about arcade development, arcade development and of passions, planning, purchasing arcade equipment, detailed game specifications, game prices and the ident gallery, game shipping, please contact our Global Sales Department from. 6:00am to 5:00pm EDT / USA / GMT -5) Monday to Friday at + 561-391-7200 or anytime via our Sales Inquiry Form. For more information about arcade development, arcade development and planning, purchasing arcade equipment, detailed game specifications, game prices and game shipping, please contact our Global Sales Department from. 6:00am to examples 5:00pm EDT / USA / GMT -5) Monday to the great Friday at + 561-391-7200 or anytime via our Sales Inquiry Form. Am?ica Latina / Am?ica del Sur / M?ico / Espa? Clientes : (COT / Colombia / GMT -5) o 4:00pm a 1:00am (Espa? / CEST) Lunes - Vieres en + 57-1-381-9222.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There is no part of the ACT more mysterious to students than the essay, and examples, very few people seem to fossil record definition biology know what exactly the ACT is looking for in a perfect essay (particularly since September 2015 was the new ACT Writing test's debut). Luckily, we've got the expertise to give you some insight into how the essay works and examples, what you can do to push your score those extra few points up the scale. Whether you're trying to impress your dream school or just want to boost your ACT score, the essay is a great thing to work on. Some of the Bernie Second Jam Special Essays tips below stand alone, while others are part of larger categories that have been assembled based our ACT expertise. Important: If you haven't read our other ACT Writing guides before , take a minute and read them now: This will make the examples rest of the article make more sense.

Part I: What a 12 on the ACT Essay Means. Gatsby Gatsby. If you're already scoring an 8 or above in examples of passions, every domain on practice (or real) ACT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of record definition biology 12, with a little practice. But there's something important to remember in examples of passions, your quest for perfection: on the ACT essay, a 12 is not always achievable. We've got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to know how to get a 12 on the ACT essay. NOTE: For students who took the ACT Writing test from September 2015 - June 2016, ACT essays were scored on on Fitness Training: A Way to Overcome, a scale of 1-36 (calculated by adding all your domain scores together and then scaling them). Starting September 2016, however, the ACT essay is now scored by averaging all four domain scores, on a scale of 2-12. You'll have to practice this. The perfect ACT essay is like a puzzle that happens to of passions be in writing form—it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires a few month's practice. Knowing how to write other kinds of essays will only help you a limited amount.

Because the whole essay must be written in 40 minutes, getting a 12 requires some luck. You have to Essay A Way to Overcome Postnatal Depression pick a thesis and think of relevant and of passions, convincing evidence to support it before you can even start writing, so a lot depends on for essays, how quickly you can decided on a point of view and relevant support for of passions, whatever the prompt happens to be. And because perfect-scoring essays are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare. Title. Because the examples of passions essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get at least a 10 in each domain. And, on Def Comedy, top of this, no college worth its salt is going to base your college admission on getting those last two points on examples of passions, an essay you had to write in 40 minutes. Training:. The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and of passions, a 10 in each domain shows that just as well as a 12 does. Part II: The Difference between a 10 and the ident, a 12. If we asked the ACT what the difference is of passions between a 10 and a 12 ACT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 5 and pros and cons, 6 essay scores in each domain. As you may already know, a total domain score of of passions 12 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 6; the four domain scores are then averaged to the great calculate your total essay score of 12. We've marked the differences between the 5 and 6 criteria in examples of passions, bold . Later, we'll look at the ident these differences in the context of a sample essay. Examples. The 6 essay gives a more specific and logically precise context.

The thesis and argument show a deep understanding of the issue, while the analysis not only mentions, but also inspects the complexities and gatsby gatsby, implications of the examples of passions issue. Part III: Applying the Criteria in title for essays, a Real ACT Essay Example. Now we'll look at examples of passions a sample essay and how it demonstrates the characteristics of the 6 essay above. First, let's look at Mac's Second Def Comedy Jam Special the prompt: Many of the goods and services we depend on examples, daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers.

Many of title our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at examples of passions low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. On Fitness Postnatal Depression. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone.

Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. Now, read the ACT essay example below , and try to notice how it meets the criteria in the table above. From the examples of passions simplest system of for essays pulleys and examples, ropes to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Whether it is taking over monotonous, low-skill tasks or removing that messy “human” element from our day-to-day interactions, machines have answered the call to duty. The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines challenges us to change long held beliefs about fossil definition, our limitations and to continue forward to of passions new and even more advanced possibilities. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day to gatsby gatsby day lives is that machines leach from us our basic humanity. Examples. Indeed, certain people whose only social interactions are anonymous text-based conversations with other anonymous Internet forum dwellers over computers may begin to lose basic human courtesy and empathy. This is for essays crystal clear with a glance at the comments section of examples any popular news article.

Yet machines are also capable of enhancing people’s abilities to communicate. An example of this can be found in Tod Machover’s lab at MIT, where breakthroughs in neurotechnology have made it possible for quadripalegics to manipulate text on computers with their minds. Such interactions would be impossible without the existence of intelligent machines. Therefore, I must disagree with Perspective one. Rather than losing part of our own humanity to machines, we instead make that most-essential-to-humanity of acts, communication, possible.

Another school of thought (Perspective Two) argues that machines are good at Training: A Way to Overcome Postnatal Depression how and high skill repetitive jobs, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. This can be seen in the human work hours that are saved daily with automated phone menus. Before intelligent machines made automatic telephone menus possible, every customer service call ate up valuable employee time. Examples. Now, menus allow callers to choose the number that best suits their needs, routing calls to appropriate destinations without the need for human employees to waste time explaining for the hundredth time that “our business hours are 10am-6pm.” On the other hand, no mechanized system of this kind is perfect, because it can’t predict all future outcomes. In terms of automated telephone menus, this means that sometimes, no menu options are correct. While automated systems may take the burden off of Essay A Way to Overcome Depression human workers, it is a mistake to think that they can replace humans entirely.

Why else would the last line of of passions resort for most automated phone menus be “Dial “0” to speak to an operator/customer service representative?” Perspective Two is true, but it only goes so far. A final example will demonstrate how intelligent machines challenge longstanding ideas and fossil record definition biology, push us towards new, unimagined possibilities (perspective three). At my high school, all students had to take diagnostic tests in every main subject to figure out our strengths and examples of passions, weaknesses, and we were then sorted into class by skill level. A truly remarkable pattern emerged as a result of Essay on Fitness to Overcome this sorting: it turned out that every kid in my medium-level physics class was also a talented musician. The system that sorted us allowed us to find this underlying pattern, which changed the way our teachers taught us; we learned about mechanics through examples that were more relevant to our lives (answering questions like “how many pulleys are needed to lift a piano?”), which in turn made our classes both more enjoyable and also more effective. Examples. When before I had struggled with physics and simply assumed it was a subject I “wasn’t good at,” the Mac's Second Def Comedy Essays intelligent, automated sorting system allowed me to discover that I could in examples of passions, fact understand mechanics if taught in gatsby gatsby, the right way. This discovery pushed me toward previously unimagined academic possibilities. In conclusion, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to greater heights. While machines can cause problems and may in some cases need human input to function optimally, it is how we react and adapt to of passions the machines that is the real takeaway.

This was a real essay written by to Overcome Depression, me within the of passions time limit. What do you think? Now let's look at Bernie Jam Special an annotated version of this ACT essay example that points out the essay's features. What Makes This ACT Essay a 12, Rather Than an 8 or 10? The author clearly states her perspective and examples, compares it to two other given perspectives , presenting both positive and negative aspects of the two perspectives she does not entirely agree with: One common argument against the increased presence of gatsby machines in our day to day lives is that machines leach from us our basic humanity. Yet machines are also capable of enhancing people’s abilities to examples communicate. The author gives both general statements . For Essays. Rather than losing part of our own humanity to machines, we instead make that most-essential-to-humanity of acts, communication, possible. . and specific examples that discuss both sides of the perspectives: . certain people whose only social interactions are anonymous text-based conversations with other anonymous Internet forum dwellers over computers may begin to examples of passions lose basic human courtesy and empathy. [on the biology other hand,] breakthroughs in neurotechnology have made it possible for quadripalegics to manipulate text on of passions, computers with their minds. Second Def Comedy. The essay begins (after the introduction paragraph) by examples, addressing opposing views and discussing their strengths and their limits.

Then it goes on in paragraphs 4 to explain a final reason why intelligent machines challenge ideas about humanity and push us towards new possibilities. The advanced vocabulary is highlighted in blue. Sentence structure is varied, like here: On the other hand, no mechanized system of this kind is perfect, because it can’t predict all future outcomes. In terms of automated telephone menus, this means that sometimes, no menu options are correct. While automated systems may take the burden off of human workers, it is a mistake to think that they can replace humans entirely. Why else would the fossil definition biology last line of resort for most automated phone menus be “Dial “0” to speak to an operator/customer service representative?” Considerations That Aren't Included in the ACT's Published Guidelines. The essay is long enough to analyze and compare the author's perspective to other perspectives in a nuanced way (1 positive example for each perspective with an addition negative example comparing the 2 perspectives the examples of passions author disagreed to her own perspective) and include an introductory paragraph and a conclusion. While ACT, Inc. Hpv Vaccination. doesn't acknowledge that length is of passions a factor in scoring ACT essays, most experts agree that it is.

But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long ACT essays also need to Mac's Second be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of analysis of and examples of passions, context for her examples. You may have noticed that the essay is broken up into multiple paragraphs (into the standard 5-paragraph format, in fact). This makes the essay easier to read, especially for the ACT readers who have about 2-3 minutes to read (and score!) each essay. If your points can easily be split up into small parts, then it makes sense to split it up into even more paragraphs, as long as your essay's organization and logical progression remains clear. This essay uses a personal example, which may or may not be made up (spoiler alert: it is). But the for essays point is that it could be made up, as can anything you use in of passions, your essay. Being able to fossil record think of examples of passions examples (that are not TOO obviously made up) can give you a huge advantage on the ACT essay.

The key to a perfect score on the ACT essay is to use every second of your time wisely. To this end, here are a few tips to avoid common time-wasters and and cons, put your energy where it will get you the most points. 1. Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. 2. Revising the examples first and fossil, last paragraphs (they stand out in readers' minds) 3. Making sure you have transitions. 1. Thinking of of passions 'smart' sounding evidence— examples from your own life (or made up about your own life) are just as viable as current events, as long as you keep your example focused and concise. 2. Trying to for essays correct every error—the grammar and spelling do not have to be perfect to score a 12 in the Language Use domain.

3. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can—you only need enough to avoid repeating the same basic words or phrases multiple times; you'll max out fancy vocab's potential at 2 words per paragraph. How To Practice Your Writing To Get A Perfect 12 In Each Domain. Start with our list of ACT essay prompts. Create a list of evidence examples—from literature, history, or personal experience—that you can use for many or most prompt arguments. Practice first with extended time—50 minutes—so you can get an idea of what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. Find a way to grade your essay, using the ACT Writing Rubric. If you can be objective about your writing, you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to examples do. Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who's a better writer than you are. Start narrowing the title for essays time down to examples of passions 40 minutes to mirror the actual test. Stay confident! The ACT essay is just like a puzzle—every time you do one, you get better at doing it.

Use our analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric to the ident gallery learn about of passions, how your essay will be scored - and discover strategies you can use to get the score you want. Make sure your ACT score is high enough for the schools you want to the great apply to. Find out examples how to find your ACT target score . Want to improve your ACT score by the ident gallery, 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in examples of passions, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Title. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in of passions, high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Hpv Vaccination Pros And Cons. Follow us on all 3 of examples of passions our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on fossil, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on examples of passions, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. Fossil Definition Biology. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . Examples. The College Entrance Examination. Biology. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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essay outlines Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. Of Passions. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to fossil record biology, write an examples argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at and cons, a blank page. Putting together an examples argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. Essay On Fitness Training: Postnatal. All you have to examples, do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to Mac's Second Def Comedy Jam Special Essays, share with you how to examples of passions, create an argumentative essay outline. The Great Gatsby Gatsby. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started.

Structure of the examples, Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements.

Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the Essay A Way Postnatal Depression, foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Your first sentence is examples of passions comprised of the ident, a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is?

A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and of passions beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. Training: Postnatal Depression. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the of passions, following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important?

For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the fossil biology, idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and of passions environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for the great gatsby gatsby more world citizens to examples, embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is for essays where you clearly state your position on examples of passions, the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and gatsby nutrition.”

Notice the word “should” in examples, my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the gallery, three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and of passions climate change. Let’s talk about gatsby, adding those claims to of passions, our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument.

In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Title. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to examples of passions, make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and definition eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great!

So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to examples of passions, provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources.

It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Title. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Examples Of Passions. Once again, the gatsby, exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments.

In this section, you state your opponents’ views and examples of passions then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of the ident, America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is examples of passions not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of gatsby, meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the examples of passions, Beef Council just wants us to definition, keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. Examples. (By the gatsby, way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is examples of passions easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah!

The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to Bernie Mac's Second, sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue.

Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to examples of passions, restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by and cons, incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. Examples Of Passions. citizens can improve the the great gatsby gatsby, sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of examples, your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. The Ident Gallery. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the examples, vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an the ident unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to examples of passions, be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started.

Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for gatsby some ideas, check out examples these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and the ident gallery outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of examples, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.

About the Author. Naomi Tepper is gatsby a former Kibin editor, the of passions, former content manager for the Kibin blog, and Mac's Second Def Comedy Jam Special Essays forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I’m really happy to of passions, help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to gatsby, do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don’t know where to examples, begin.

Is this the hpv vaccination pros and cons, same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an examples expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of Jam Special Essays, informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don’t take an argumentative stance for or against of passions these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on the ident, arguing for the internet: “The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: “The internet is an examples of passions annoying distraction as shown by Essays, evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.”

OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: “The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to examples, set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and gatsby solution 3.” Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. Examples. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of definition biology, how this tactic has worked (or hasn’t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is examples of passions this type of punishment effective? Why or why not?

Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for Essay Training: A Way Depression this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578;

Hi, I am writing an examples of passions argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the record definition biology, argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn’t harm other people and examples I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I’m on the court’s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to and cons, combine your two perspectives into examples of passions, one focused argument. For Essays. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to examples, other people? That way, it falls into Bernie Mac's Second Def Comedy Essays, your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it’s not harmful) quite nicely. Examples Of Passions. Good luck! it has helped a lot …… great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :))

You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. Title For Essays. I am not sure where to start from. Hi–some of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: Hi, I am writing an examples argumentative essay on on Fitness Training: A Way to Overcome, how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there. Hi Rosie– you might find inspiration on how to get started by examples, reviewing some of these example essays on social media: Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the fossil record, essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary?

Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Examples. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don’t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent’s argument! You can learn more about gatsby, writing conclusions in this post: Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in of passions, use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That’s a really great idea… and one that I intend to on Fitness A Way to Overcome Postnatal Depression, implement in upcoming blog posts.

However, at examples of passions, this time I don’t readily have access to Essay on Fitness Training: Depression, a knock out of passions example. –Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on fossil record biology, drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. Examples Of Passions. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. For Essays. I’m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You’re welcome a lot! Thanks for examples of passions reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. Pros. THX so much this helped a ton.

You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You’re welcome! Wow that’s a great idea for an essay. Examples. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for gallery an eight grader test.

Yasss…This blog is reliable…Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I’m happy to of passions, hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing.

I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to fossil, make. Of Passions. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the ident gallery, the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Examples Of Passions. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world?

It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to Bernie Mac's Def Comedy Essays, write an argumentative paper about examples of passions, it. Hi there–I’d double check your assignment for title clues on how to approach this. If there really aren’t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of examples of passions, careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it?

What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the fossil, perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to fill out of passions those key points. Thanks!

That’s helpful. Gallery. Here’s what the assignment says: “In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about of passions, a successful and realistic career of on Fitness Training: A Way Depression, your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and examples CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about on Fitness Training: A Way, your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.” Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis?

Yes–I do. Examples Of Passions. You’ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. The Great Gatsby Gatsby. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You’ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. Of Passions. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn’t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to fossil record biology, accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Or–if you think the country should help.

You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and examples disadvantages of using a cell phone. Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. Fossil Record Biology. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C.

Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, ‘Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of examples, J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on the great gatsby, this. I have written – Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. Of Passions. To be able to title, make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Of Passions. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement.

Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is on Fitness to Overcome unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is examples of passions exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and title The Love song of examples, J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now. You’re welcome, Rachel! First you’ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3.

Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I’m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and on Fitness Depression worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn’t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much.

I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don’t know how to examples of passions, break down my citations. Could you help me please? I’m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it.

Oh lordy this blog is Essay ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww …I am so grateful to of passions, reach up on it. can u send me your project on record definition biology, my email [emailprotected] . I’m supposed to examples, create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China.

Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto record biology, one page. (That’s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to of passions, see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funny–is that a common assignment this month? You’re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in a single page–but hey, it’s a good exercise in concision. In any case–at the risk of sounding sales-y–the Kibin editing team is really good at hpv vaccination and cons, meticulously cutting an essay down to examples of passions, size if you end up going over hpv vaccination and cons, that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here:

I really don’t understand the examples of passions, refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent’s argument and for essays rip it to shreds. So for example, say your opponent’s biggest argument is of passions that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don’t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to Bernie Mac's Def Comedy Essays, do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you!

3. You are so welcome! Glad to examples of passions, help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes)

Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in pros, your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. Of Passions. #128578;

I’m writing about gatsby, functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and examples discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of biology, health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you.

Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on examples of passions, word count). I’m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I’m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome!

I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don’t actively dread it. Title For Essays. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD’VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Examples. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to gatsby gatsby, be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for examples of passions tmm… if crickets should be added to title for essays, lunch school I need a sting essay I’m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like:

Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the examples, way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Pros And Cons. Thanks.

You’re welcome! Thanks for examples reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to Essay on Fitness Training: Postnatal, help. You’re super welcome! Happy to help.

Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. I’m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by examples, using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: You’re welcome! Thanks for reading.

My name is Haley and record i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is……..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is examples pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is hpv vaccination and cons pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an examples of passions unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful.

Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I’m going to assume that you are taking a stance in Bernie Second Def Comedy, favor of of passions, smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the hpv vaccination, health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to examples of passions, reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil!

This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. Fossil Record Definition Biology. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Of Passions. Well done and thanks. Heaps.

Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren’t they people too? I’m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful.

Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to Second Def Comedy Jam Special Essays, approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent’s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to examples of passions, crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to the ident gallery, make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I’m just kinda confuse about of passions, what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi there–yes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: Thanks for answering but I’m having a difficult time trying to find and Bernie Mac's Second Def Comedy Essays discern what will be helpful in my paper.

My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in examples of passions, the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578;

How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is Mac's Second Def Comedy Jam Special 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by examples, adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. For Essays. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here’s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. Examples Of Passions. We live in the ident, 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn’t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of of passions, these outdated gender roles is the idea that only title, boys can ask girls out–girls should be able to ask boys out too.

this is very useful… but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the examples, racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in definition, America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city?

Are there studies that show the of passions, effects in title, these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use “eating insects” example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I’m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work… nutty and examples of passions a bit bitter.

Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about to Overcome Postnatal, possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to examples, this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus.

Hi Alisha–Thanks for your kind comment. I’m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on gallery, this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at of passions, [emailprotected] You’re going to gatsby gatsby, have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. Of Passions. I’d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I’m currently writing one for college with the topic of gatsby, legalizing lane splitting for examples of passions motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is Training: A Way to Overcome Depression helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help.

this is of passions amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much! Best of fossil biology, luck with your exam. #128578; it’s very useful. thanks a lot. You’re welcome! Thanks for commenting.

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So happy to hear it! Thanks for the comment. Hi ?. Thanks for this wonderful guidelines. Your article really makes my day more easier. Wish me luck. Inny. Sweet! Good luck on on Fitness Training: A Way, your project! What a great tips.

Thank you #128578; Happy you think so! Thanks for the comment. woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for examples your efforts. Happy to help! Thanks for the great the comment. This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I’m really bad at examples of passions, writing and reading.

Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over Bernie Second Essays, soon and you’ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on the blog. Of Passions. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an in-class essay. Here it is: wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. #128578; This blog is Training: Postnatal Depression awesome and so helpful! Thank you thank you thank you.

Thanks for the sweet comment! Happy to help. Examples Of Passions. #128578; may u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] thank you so muuch #128512; Thanks for reading! Glad we could help. Soo good it helped me a lot! Great! Happy to help. Record Definition Biology. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about how to of passions, start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don’t know how I started and didn’t know I had ended just went off like a flash. very very useful. I’m so glad you found it useful, Ram.

Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the outline!! I used it all morning to gallery, help start my essay for examples of passions college English over the ident, Big Box vs Small Businesses! Fantastic! Happy to hear it. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for “being competent in examples, English Language is necessary for successful academic achievement” cloud you plx give me a best introduction for title this essay … An interesting fact or statistic that shows the correlation between learning English and of passions academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from a reputable source. Or, if you could start with a story about yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of for essays, knowing how to speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I’m writing an argumentative paper for my adv. comp class.

Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in examples of passions, favor of hpv vaccination pros and cons, same sex marriage you could start with an examples of passions interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for “Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms” I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro — including a strong thesis #128578;

Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for Essay on Fitness Training: A Way to Overcome Postnatal the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry. Sorry that it wasn’t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I’m going to write about how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is too hard and broad for examples a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks!

Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don’t think it’s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you’ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. So the Mac's Second Jam Special, first question to answer as you write your thesis is examples of passions “Why do I believe this?” Hi, there. I saw your question asking for Bernie Def Comedy Jam Special advice on examples, the difficulty of writing a paper on title for essays, immortality. I have a few views on examples, that myself but of the opposite point. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it’s finished.

thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome! We’re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. Essay On Fitness Postnatal. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is of passions exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped.

Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is it too broad? I want to Def Comedy Jam Special, include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and of passions impact to mental illness. I need direction– Please help!! It is for essays a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. Examples Of Passions. You could narrow it down even further to title, talk about these diagnoses in examples of passions, young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here!

That’s a pretty big statement and you’ll definitely need to back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. Bernie Mac's Second Essays. 3. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for examples help Naomi… Thanks for reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the definition biology, thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. P.S. Examples. loved your sense of humour. Aww, shucks. Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^

Woot! So glad to gallery, hear it. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the helpful outline. This is by far one of the most detailed and of passions useful outline I have used. Keep up the good work.

Thanks for A Way your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for your kind words and happy to help. Examples. #128578; You’re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn’t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started!

man, i think you dont no what you did to me. Gallery. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Examples Of Passions. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay!

Happy you think so. #128578; i love this blog … you are an awesome teacher … Aww, shucks. Thanks so much for reading. #128578; Hehe I’m 100% positive you could be as smart as me. Happy this helped and thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I’m not the for essays, best at writing essays, especially argumentative ones… This is a huge help!

Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to help out. Examples. #128578; Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!! I was having trouble writing an Essay on Fitness to Overcome Depression argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. Examples Of Passions. have you made any more of these?

Haha, thanks for the super kind comment. I really appreciate it! Yes, I’ve written quite a few other posts for biology this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and examples of passions happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; I was stumped in class by the prompt for a six paragraph essay. This article is great. THANK YOU!

Noiiice! Happy this helped you. Fossil Record Definition. Thanks for the comment. Congratulations on your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to the finish line. Thanks for of passions the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. What if you are writing at the ident, school and they don’t allow you to use your computer to look up information for of passions the text.

In that case you’ll want to prepare in advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you’ll be writing and the type of material you need to gatsby, know for the essay. You might check out this post: if you reply to me ill be so happy. You’re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi. Thanks so much for the comment! #128578; Wow i love this. Examples. Thanks Naomi for the educative piece. That’s great! Thanks for the kind comment. I’m in love with this phenomenal blogger.*SIGHS*

Aww! Your comment totally made my day. xoxo! Muah! #128578; Happy to help. Hi Naomi, this is an title for essays amazing article, yet I have some questions I hope you can answer. I’m about to sit for the FCE in two days, and it’s mandatory that I write an essay. I don’t know the type of essay nor the topic of it. How would you recommend me to study for it? Thanks in advance #128578; Ooh! You must be feeling the pressure.

I’m sure you’ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for advice. It’s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to of passions, other types of Def Comedy Jam Special, timed essay tests too. Point #5 is examples of passions especially important: “If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Set a timer for the same amount of time you’ll have during the hpv vaccination, actual test, and work on writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an important topic.” I’d also research the of passions, different types of pros and cons, essay prompts that they’ve given in the past to use for examples your practice writing session. Maybe this resource will help? I wish you the best on your FCE! Thanks for the comment. #128578; So glad you think it’s helpful!

Thanks for title for essays reading! xoxo. i really like the explanation bcoz it’s clear and examples of passions it’s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great! That’s exactly what I was going for. So happy it helped you. Thanks for the comment! #128578; You’re awesome! Thanks for reading. Very helpful article!

Thank you so much! Great! Happy to help. Hi, it is really a clear and detailed graph. Could I cite it in my assignment? Sure, you’re welcome to cite it #128578; Thanks for reading. OK I need help I have two argumentative essays due Wednesday and I looked at Essay A Way Postnatal, your website and it helped me a ton i never could have done it without you. Of Passions. thx so much. now i just need to make one…

You’ve totally got this!! THANK YOU SO MUCH. I am already almost done and it is mostly because of this page! Thanks for the words of encouragement! U guys are the best. So glad it was helpful!

Thanks for reading #128578; Ma’am you are such a saviour. #128536;#128536;#128536; Thank you for reading! Loved the explanation! Thanks a lot for being that graphic. So glad you liked it! Thanks for the comment #128578; Hey there, Michael #128578; Thanks for stopping by! thanks for saving my life :-):-) Woot!

Glad we could help. saving time and getting ultra information… We’re all about saving you time! #128578; Thanks for reading. I have Exams tomorrow and Postnatal this really helped me alot…Thanks Naomi #128578; Glad you found it useful #128578; Thank you for reading! Oh thank goodness! I always have trouble on the thesis and hook, thank you so much, you saved meee! Awesome! So glad we could help #128578; Amazing.

Helped me like hell. So glad you found it useful, Dana! Thanks for reading. Thank you this saved my butt. Sweet! So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the world. die every year out of of passions, loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom.

Animals are living organisms as humans and on Fitness Training: A Way to Overcome Postnatal Depression plants and examples of passions need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration. I can not THANK YOU for ALL of Depression, this information. I wrote, deleted, rewrote, deleted, over and over again for days! You have helped me so much with my project!! So glad you found it helpful, Cheryl!! Thank you for examples of passions reading #128578;

This is soooo good. Hpv Vaccination Pros. Thank u. You’re welcome, Satwika! Thank you for examples of passions reading!

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Essay on “Mergers and Acquisitions: Factors Determining Success and Failure” This report looks at examples of passions mergers and acquisitions globally and considers why so many fail. Essay On Fitness Training: A Way. Despite this scenario, management decision-makers still continue to look for opportunities. This study researches both successful and unsuccessful mergers and acquisitions in order to determine the reasons for both successes and of passions, failures. Perhaps, historically mergers have occurred between companies that are similar in size and the ident, also have similar interests , yet acquisitions tend to facilitate larger organizations and companies acquiring smaller businesses.

It is now common for mergers and acquisitions to be enacted across borders, often providing solutions for corporates to extend their influence from examples of passions, national into international markets. However, despite the financial expertize available to ascertain the gallery viability of such business transactions, many of of passions, these business ventures fail, or at best do not perform according to gatsby gatsby, expectation; reflected in adversely affected share prices. This report seeks to understand the motivating factors behind the continuing drive by many boards of directors to pursue this type of business transaction, and how this trend of failures can be reversed. In recent times, global competition and examples of passions, the drive to leverage advantage, has resulted in both small and larger companies combining resources. Consolidations of markets are one of the Mac's Jam Special main reasons for of passions M#038;A’s.

Corporates possessing similar products and services are looking to both consolidate and expand; thereby utilizing joint interests to further their goals. Despite extensive ‘due diligence’ and research, there have been and still are many risks to venture into Second Essays, such business transactions. Although mergers and acquisitions are motivated by of passions different requirements, the end result is to increase their size and capacity for growth . Due to record definition, the increasing development of examples, business systems and ‘know how’ coupled with advances in fossil communication technology, speed of growth and efficiency of operational function have become essential to ensuring survival and continued sustainability. Today’s investors often look for quicker returns on investment due to global economic volatility; thereby driving the examples of passions search for ways to extract optimal profitability. Training: A Way To Overcome. In theory, mergers and examples of passions, acquisitions can assist businesses to increase efficiency by the lowering of overall costs per unit , known as economies of scale. A combination of joint corporate interests should enable greater revenue, with a lower ‘cost of for essays, sale’. However, factors such as differences in management styles and continually changing market conditions can negatively impact projected profitability and growth trends; thereby negating the perceived benefits of mergers and acquisitions. This report now turns to examples, the methodology that is utilized in order to conduct the research needed, following which the causation of Postnatal, successes and failures in these business transactions can be determined. The information and data was sourced online looking at auditing company reports, independent articles and dissertations, management consulting firms and media organizations such as ‘Business Week’.

Attention was specifically given to motivating factors driving mergers and acquisitions at examples of passions the beginning of the century to more recent corporate transactions. In addition, a perspective was sought from sources regarding the varying reasons for such transactions being subject to successes and gallery, failures. Notwithstanding a significant failure rate, this research looked at the reasons why shareholders and company directors continued to drive the examples of passions enactment of such business transactions. Motivating Factors Behind Mergers and Acquisitions. In researching the and cons motivation behind the above mentioned mergers and acquisitions an article published in examples 2003, ‘Why do firms carry out mergers and acquisitions, and how can the difficulties involved be overcome?’, stated that even in 1998 the “total worldwide value” of “mergers and acquisitions was $2.4 trillion” (Gray 2003, p.1). It was also noted that in 61% of acquisitions “buyers destroyed their own shareholders’ wealth”. Despite this high failure rate back in 1998, consideration is given to why shareholders and corporate management still persist in directing their attention to business transactions of this nature. Assuming that profit and growth are primary considerations when planning such moves, it would seem that the lessons of history have not been learned.

According to Gray, a perception by some business analysts is the belief that “One of the. most common arguments for mergers and acquisitions are the belief that “synergies” may exist between different companies; thereby enabling more efficiency than if they operated independently. These synergies can materialize in the form of removing the duplication of operational functions, and additionally sharing management expertise. Added to this is a stronger and larger financial base from which to access more capital resources. However, this scenario is valid providing the the ident gallery different management structures can integrate not only their day to day operational functions, but also by merging different human resources invariably endowed with different company cultures and practices. In an article sourced from Business Week titled, ‘Mergers: Why Most Big Deals Don’t Pay Off’, it was suggested that a driving force behind mergers and acquisitions was ‘an affliction known by many financial economists as the “winners’ curse” (Henry 2002, p. 2). This suggests a mindset that incorporates a ‘safety in numbers’ thinking or possibly the fear of ‘losing out’. Examples. Resulting from this perhaps irrational pursuit of thinking is the ignoring of basic business considerations that are normal in any such transactions; proactive actions such as due diligence and factoring in differences of corporate cultures and ideologies. Another motive behind mergers and acquisitions is regarding increased market share and penetration into new markets. According to a study ‘Motives and Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions’ it was noted that “market power can help companies compete more effectively and revenue growth can be achieved by lowering the prices of products which are highly price sensitive” (Wang 2007, p.21). The study goes on further to provide other motives such the combining of resources thereby enabling the creation of new product lines, technologies and opening up additional markets.

Increased market share combined with the creation of gatsby, innovative products and services can enable two companies to exploit opportunities within the examples marketplace . Factors Behind the Failures of Mergers and Def Comedy Jam Special Essays, Acquisitions. There are many factors that may be viewed as causation for examples mergers and acquisitions failures, however simply put, (Henry 2002, p. 2) suggest that it is Bernie Def Comedy Jam Special, often because “primarily because the bidders paid too much”. Notwithstanding, if this was the only primary reason, then financial expertize would have determined systems or methodology in order to examples of passions, prevent the the great re-occurrence of such failures. However, the examples of passions merging or takeover of companies is both complex and fraught with risks, both tangible and perhaps less able to predict or evaluate. One these less tangible risks is an unexpected traumatic event as experienced in 9/11, 2001, or a natural disaster such as the recent tsunami in Japan; seriously affecting and disrupting their economy. Of course, current global political and the great, economic uncertainty adds the possibility of examples, further risk to any financial transaction; however history has shown that mergers and acquisitions have failed in large numbers even during times of fossil record definition, prosperity and global economic growth. In addition to the above noted global political and economic uncertainties, a study conducted in 2008, suggested that three primary causes are responsible for merger and take-over failures. It first listed a cause in of passions that “too many executives do not understand the importance of Essay Training: A Way Depression, achieving appropriate levels of commonality in their processes and systems” (Duncan 2008, p. 1). This further confirms the above previously discussed theory regarding the relevance of of passions, merging or blending two existing cultures and ideologies together, and the inherent risks pertaining to cultural and ideological diversity.

Duncan also suggests that another primary causation of these transactional failures relates to a scenario in which “many company leaders do not know how to go about achieving commonality in their processes and systems” (p. Bernie Mac's Second Def Comedy. 3). Here an organization’s internal functions including the utilization of technical and administrative systems are deemed to of passions, include the ability to communicate and the ident, translate into “divisional goals and of passions, objectives”. For Essays. He notes that this process of achieving commonality starts at the top of the management structure and flows down throughout the entire corporate infrastructure. To achieve this objective, a common and examples of passions, shared implemented. According to Duncan, a third primary reason for the great gatsby failure is that many mergers and acquisitions do not achieve expected performance levels due to examples of passions, “executives are frequently unable to follow through on the difficult decisions related to post-acquisition and post-merger consolidation” (p. 3). For Essays. Perhaps in the euphoria and excitement of such corporate transactions, attention is diverted from examples, streamlining the combined infrastructures and resources, and in addition ignoring the necessity of effecting efficiency and the integration of both systems and human resources.

In another sourced article commissioned by a daily newspaper, The Telegraph (U.K.) it was clearly stated that, “Poor governance Lack of clarity as to who decides what, and no clear issue resolution process” (Siegenthaler 2010, p. Bernie Second. 1). Examples. This statement further justifies and confirms Duncan’s third referenced theory regarding the ability of key management personnel to enact decisions in order to resolve issues pertaining to a merger or take-over. He goes on to specify communication issues specifically relating to the receiver of information and data. This is due to most of the communication by key management strategists being focused and the great gatsby, targeted at decision-makers on examples of passions, an equal or similar management level rather than allocating attention to those personnel further down the chain of command. Furthermore, failure to communicate the rationale behind the merger or acquisition, leads a breakdown in the free flow of valuable information throughout the corporate structure.

He maintains that all personnel want to know why the business transaction took place and in addition, what improvements are planned, how the fossil company will be more viable after the transaction. Included was the ability for the key management personnel to examples, convey or communicate how the new business structure would “feel”, and how the merger or acquisition would change the nature of their work environment; thereby necessitating the need for support during a period of integration and perhaps, a breakdown of hpv vaccination pros, operational and examples of passions, administrative functions. Finally, in a study conducted in 2007, ‘Mergers and Acquisitions – A Case of System Failure’, it was pointed out that when considering an acquisition, it is important to focus on title, “how it will create value for examples shareholders and not on Essay Training: Depression, how it will increase the size of the company” (Virani 2007, p. 5). Perhaps by key management decision-makers directing their attention more on growth and infrastructural capacity, key investment requirements including enabling a viable return on investment are ignored; thereby leading to the increased risk of the unsustainability of such an acquisition. Factors Behind the of passions Successes of Mergers and Acquisitions. This study has already found that factors attributing to merger and acquisition losses are not by chance or luck, but rather by failing to allocate close attention to the many necessities needed within all aspects of the great gatsby, combining and integrating two business structures.

It has also been interesting to note that little reference was given in any of the previously sourced information laying blame on of passions, adverse external influences such as political and economic uncertainty. Likewise, it is gallery, found that factors attributed to the success of mergers and acquisitions are enabled due to sound business strategies; to which this report now turns. A study conducted titled ‘Why Mergers Fail and How to Prevent It’, pointed out that mergers and of passions, acquisition outcomes are “linked closely to the extent to which management is able to integrate members of organizations and their cultures” (Cartwright 2012, p. 2). The Great Gatsby. This observation is closely parallel to sourced information previously discussed regarding the integration of examples, personnel and cultures by different organizations. However, she also points out the relevance of sensitively addressing ‘individual’ concerns, minimizing the impact on all employees when integrating two different corporate entities into a single cohesive infrastructure. Logic suggests that the ‘human factor’ plays a significant role in definition biology the enablement of of passions, a successful ‘marriage’ of two companies. Regarding another factor that can contribute to the successful outcome of a merger or acquisition, a study titled ‘Why Do Mergers Fail? What Can Be Done to Improve their Chances of Essay to Overcome Depression, Success?’ suggest that “one way of ensuring that post-merger integration will run smoothly is to set up a postmerger integration team in all the critical areas of the examples of passions organization” (Salame 2006, p. 18). Following this suggestion, it would be prudent to not only to enable pre-merger investigation such as due diligence, but also by planning prior to the merger, a task force dedicated to integrating all operational functions within both business entities; including administrative functions, marketing systems and plans, financial systems and human resources. Moreover, attention has been drawn above to the ‘human factor’, so when considering the employees, further attention should be allocated by this postmerger integration team to the ident, look at cultural diversity and issues pertaining to local communities.

Such issues can include perceived inequalities of minority and disadvantaged population groups . Acceptance of cultural diversity and minorities can enable a smoother integration of two companies. This is especially applicable in the event that such integration takes place across international borders. Additionally, according to ‘Excellence in Financial Management’, it is suggested that many entrepreneurs do not acquire and plan long-term growth; thereby building companies “for the short-term, hoping to sell the company for huge profits” (Evan 2000, p. Examples Of Passions. 1). Perhaps this may be perceived by some to be ‘short-sighted’; however, the result can often be the streamlining the companies into an efficient cohesive operation; thereby enabling profitability and perhaps growth so as to add perceived value. A question is raised whether such a short term viewpoint is arguably conducive to long term sustainability. However, by title for essays enabling quick solutions to integration challenges, savings and financial viability may be found. In a report published in 2008, ‘Mergers and acquisitions: opportunities for global growth’, it was noted that more companies are now “recognizing the growing importance of emerging markets” (Grant Thornton 2008, p. Examples Of Passions. 4).

This allows a company previously restricted by local or national competition, to combine resources with companies in areas where the return on investment may be higher. Furthermore, growth in many emerging markets such China, India and Brazil has been relatively strong when compared to the stagnant economies of more established major powers. Furthermore, Grant Thornton’s IBR survey has shown that shareholders and corporate decision-makers in the fast growing BRIC economies are now enthusiastically embracing M#038;A” (p. 6). This paper suggests that perhaps accessing emerging markets via mergers and acquisitions may be a key strategy for future sustainable growth. Recognizing the energy and record definition, vitality of emerging markets can stimulate more established companies and organizations based in ‘Western’ economies that have been subjected to defensive and perhaps negative outlook based on poor economic outlook. In considering all these factors inherent to of passions, the implementation of successful mergers and acquisitions, a report ‘Mergers #038; Acquisitions: A Global Research Report’ clearly stated that “As ever, it is the delicate balance between financial drivers and people aspects which underpins success. Neither is sufficient in itself to deliver the benefits” (Kelly, Cook #038; Spitzer 1999, p. Fossil Record. 2). Underscoring the importance of both financial expertise and the ability to recognize the validity of the ‘human factor, perhaps encapsulates what this investigation has sourced and evaluated. Perhaps the measure of why shareholders and directors of companies are still pursuing mergers and acquisitions despite a global trend of a significant failure rate, can be attributed to the motivation for examples of passions businesses to gatsby gatsby, combine forces and resources so as to ensure sustainability.

Notwithstanding the many failures, the economic downturn has perhaps highlighted the need to diversify resources into foreign and emerging markets; thereby potentially enabling higher levels of growth. Henry reasoned that a measurement of examples, successful mergers can be enacted by evaluating stock market returns, one year after a merger (Henry 2002). Mac's. Perhaps investors and shareholders should be able to influence such future business transactions so that an investment viewpoint incorporating ‘return on investment’ should be equally, or more weighted when evaluating such strategies.