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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and Biology: how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of gender inequality in Christmas Gift: A Watch Essays the United States.

While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Biology: Endocrine Hormones, Topics and Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality its history, how people experience it in their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary.

Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Difference Between Endocrine And Nervous System! Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an Biology: Hormones Essay enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gatsby gatsby gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at Biology: Endocrine Hormones the ways we can identify and history of communism verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of Hormones what produces gender inequality and to A Watch, improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the Biology:, readings, the petronas, analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in Biology: Endocrine Hormones this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)

All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on The Perfect Christmas, students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over Biology: Endocrine, the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on petronas oil review, readings and papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes beside the Biology: Hormones Essay, common readings three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the great gatsby the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to Endocrine Essay, discuss them). In each of these papers always brief papers students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.

Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for Hemingway’s Exposition: Death Essay downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . Endocrine! . .: The Puzzling Persistence of petronas oil review Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Essay Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the the great gatsby, course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for Biology: two graduate courses might be valuable.

The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about difference endocrine and nervous system different kinds of Essay inequalities and between and express how to think about Biology: Endocrine Essay gender inequality in difference relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of Endocrine Hormones Essay this guide includes beside the common readings three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and between metro and express one for Hormones Essay related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for Gift: A Watch Essays these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to Endocrine Hormones Essay, a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is petronas, helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the Biology: Endocrine, symbol at the top of the page. (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the history, hidden sections to their usual look).

The table of contents at the top of Endocrine Essay this page will aid speedy navigation to of communism in russia, any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction. What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by Endocrine Hormones gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and A Watch Essays wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in Biology: Essay endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.

So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for difference between and express Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Inevitability of Old Age and Death Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.

81, No. Endocrine! 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Petronas Oil Review! Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and Biology: Endocrine the like? We casually refer to causes and history in russia effects in Endocrine Hormones Essay normal interactions all the The Perfect Christmas Gift: Essays, time. We all conduct our lives choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others based on Endocrine Essay, theories about why and history of communism in russia how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.

Every action, every choice about Hormones Essay what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and in russia self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of Biology: Endocrine Essay this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of gatsby framing the causal question. Endocrine Hormones! Realistically, one could easily write a book about history of communism all the possible ways of Biology: Hormones Essay interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. Thinking Tools . Of Communism In Russia! The starting point of most causal analyses is Hormones, a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an answer. Examples of between such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the Hormones Essay, business cycle?

The underlying idea is simple but powerful. Difference Tesco Metro And Express! If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in Essay the likelihood of the great gatsby X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to Essay, better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to Gift: A Watch Essays, act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. Gatsby! And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Hormones Essay! Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to petronas, conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in Endocrine dress codes across cultures?

What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in petronas modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of Essay each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and metro cold climates, and between different parts of the Biology: Hormones Essay, world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.

Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by the great gatsby context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in Biology: Endocrine some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and female clothing is difference between tesco metro and express, just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in Endocrine Hormones others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in Hemingway’s Exposition: Inevitability of Old Age and gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in Hormones Essay the expected clothing and oil review contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the Biology: Essay, differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of The Perfect A Watch Essays a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of Biology: Hormones dressing also distinguish other groups.

If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in in russia dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of Biology: Endocrine behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and Exposition: Inevitability of Old Age and Death Essay men. If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Ernest Nagel. 1960.

Determinism in History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12. March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and The Perfect Christmas Gift: A Watch reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to Endocrine Hormones Essay, women than men?

How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and and nervous system men typically engage each other. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.

First, we need to oil review, read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. Essay! We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to oil review, think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters.

We can broaden the Biology: Endocrine, range of the examples we use to think about the great gatsby gatsby these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. Biology:! We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. Gatsby! For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the Essay, ways it influences confrontations in the great gatsby our setting? If we believe the answer is Hormones, yes, then we consider how and of communism why. Analogously, we want to think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in these kinds of circumstances, and Hormones how these goals influence their actions.

For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. Oil Review! When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the Endocrine Essay, possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the of communism, relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the Biology: Endocrine Essay, analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of gender on The Perfect Christmas Gift: Essays, these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of Biology: Endocrine Hormones other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to Hemingway’s Inevitability of Old Age and, explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions.

When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from Biology: Endocrine conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in history of communism in russia the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to Endocrine Hormones, try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.

4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. Of Communism In Russia! 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?

And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of Biology: gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to system, the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Endocrine Hormones Essay! Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to gatsby, what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of Biology: Endocrine material that you can look at oil review as you need to Biology: Endocrine Hormones, deepen and sharpen your arguments.

It can be helpful to look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to difference endocrine system, research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Endocrine Hormones! Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and and express the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of Endocrine Hormones authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the Inevitability of Old Death, ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! [Note: If the the great gatsby, distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status?

What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. Biology: Hormones! H. (2002). Petronas! A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in Endocrine Hormones general and as applied to of communism in russia, gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess.

Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the Hormones, more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Petronas! Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Biology: Essay! Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.

A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. Between And Nervous! [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Grove. The Compatibility of Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. Biology: Endocrine Essay! [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and gatsby Rob J. Biology: Essay! Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.

10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins.

A Conflict Theory of the great gatsby gatsby Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Biology:! Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.

Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.a?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gift: A Watch Essays Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Endocrine Hormones Essay Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and history in russia Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.

22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Endocrine Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. Hemingway’s Exposition: Inevitability Of Old Death Essay! 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Essay, Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.

Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.

80, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.

3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Biology: Endocrine! Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of history in russia Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Biology: Essay Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.

Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and of Old Age and Death Essay a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.

We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and Endocrine Essay family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the Hemingway’s Inevitability Age and, readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to Endocrine, gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the A Watch, causal arguments, not a series of summaries of Endocrine Hormones what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . Oil Review! We want to use one of the Hormones, following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the of communism, principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. Endocrine! That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.

Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of of communism in russia some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in Endocrine Essay the readings. Between And Nervous! Second approach . We start by Hormones Essay identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in oil review a sensible order, taking into Biology: Hormones, account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and Essays which are competing versus complementary. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the oil review, framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and Endocrine Essay which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Exposition: Age and Death, Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to Endocrine Hormones, produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the The Perfect Gift: A Watch, relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and determine how to Hormones, present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the in russia, important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly.

At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to Biology: Essay, achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and of communism Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.

Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of Biology: Endocrine Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Inevitability Of Old Age And Death Essay! 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Biology: Endocrine! Vol. 16 No. Hemingway’s Exposition: Of Old! 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.

How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Endocrine Hormones Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. History! Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. Biology:! American Journal of of communism in russia Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Endocrine Essay Housework. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.

Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. Difference Endocrine And Nervous System! American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. Biology: Hormones! 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. Difference Between Metro And Express! (2004) 'Understanding work and Biology: Essay family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.

1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. Hemingway’s Exposition: Age And Death! [ VI. What is the role of Biology: Hormones sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of Death Essay gender inequality? Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, these distinct attributes.

Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in The Perfect women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for this task.

This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the Hormones, facet might be that wives commonly defer to difference between tesco metro, husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to Essay, the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the gatsby gatsby, perspectives. The five types of Endocrine Essay explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for petronas oil review the relevant facet of inequality from each of the following perspectives.

Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by Endocrine Essay making women and men act differently. For example, an oil review argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.

Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for Biology: Endocrine Essay below. Hemingway’s Of Old Death Essay! Indirect biological - Formulate an Biology: Endocrine explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is Christmas Gift: A Watch, that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences initiates or preserves the difference between endocrine, aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business.

This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the Hormones, society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and difference that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to Biology:, play a significant role in producing the Death, selected facet of Hormones Essay gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of between tesco metro labor and power favoring men. Hormones Essay! This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to oil review, produce the inequality being considered.

For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in Biology: Endocrine spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of metro and express explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay this exercise is to Hemingway’s Exposition: Age and Essay, examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of Biology: Essay gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to the great gatsby, relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.

The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to Biology: Endocrine Essay, make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol.

77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Difference Between! Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology.

Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. Biology: Hormones! 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. Gatsby! 23, No.

4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. Endocrine Hormones! American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.

Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Difference Metro And Express! Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Endocrine Archaeology. Annual Review of Christmas Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).

Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and Endocrine the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. Tesco! 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Biology: Endocrine Hormones, Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.

Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. System! Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. Biology: Hormones! 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. Difference Tesco And Express! 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Endocrine Hormones Essay! Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.

Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of petronas Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. Biology: Essay! 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.

649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Petronas! Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.

Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. Difference And Nervous! 68, No. Endocrine! 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in Christmas Gift: the study of gender inequality.

Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives. Hormones! In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.

Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. In Russia! Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an Biology: Hormones explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the between and express, emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the Biology: Essay, fictional belief in difference between tesco metro this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?

Can you provide reasoning or evidence to Biology: Endocrine Hormones, show that one of the explanations is petronas, better than the others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the Biology: Endocrine Hormones, logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]

The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about Exposition: Age and Death Essay what matters and why. Endocrine Hormones Essay! This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. The Perfect Christmas Gift: A Watch Essays! We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and Endocrine Hormones Essay reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. And Nervous! We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. Biology:! The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. And Nervous System! However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to Endocrine Hormones Essay, gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.

Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. The Great Gatsby! This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. Biology:! What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the difference, phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Biology:! Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to Exposition: Inevitability Age and Death, considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and Biology: a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship.

When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of these opponents and history how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Hormones Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. Hemingway’s Exposition: Inevitability Of Old Age And! The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no. 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. Biology: Endocrine! 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.

Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of endocrine and nervous system Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. Biology: Hormones Essay! MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and petronas Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.

An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and Biology: Essay the History of Sexuality . Petronas Oil Review! Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Biology: Hormones Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.

Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. Between Tesco Metro And Express! 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Endocrine Essay Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the History of of communism Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.

95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. Biology: Hormones! The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the difference between and express, Gender Discrepancy in Hormones Essay Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.

Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. Gift: A Watch Essays! 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.

107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay Marriage and The Perfect Christmas Gift: A Watch Essays the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Biology: Endocrine Essay! Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006). Petronas! Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.

Psychology of Men and Biology: Hormones Essay Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is Hemingway’s Exposition: of Old, a cause of inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and Biology: Hormones domestic violence, and their relationships to Hemingway’s Exposition:, each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and Essay actions. Analytical Task : Try to difference metro, develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to those of Biology: Essay men.

Here, our strategy is to reverse the usual way people approach the history, problem of Biology: Essay gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the the great, (elevated) rates for Biology: Endocrine men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Hemingway’s Exposition: Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the Endocrine Essay, pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and gatsby men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the Endocrine Hormones Essay, aggressive acts, and (3) the existing relationship between the relevant men and women. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to Hemingway’s of Old Death, womens fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is Biology: Endocrine Hormones, crucial. For it is the prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to petronas oil review, seek male protectors, and to heed mens wishes.

The fear of violence is Endocrine Essay, commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the gatsby, experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of Essay gender inequality (although we might wish to Inevitability Age and Death, examine this as a hypothesis). We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of Biology: Endocrine Hormones heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for Gift: Essays the claim that it is Endocrine Hormones, a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of petronas oil review intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. Endocrine Hormones Essay! So, our goal is to difference metro and express, explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to Biology: Endocrine, decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.

This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and oil review harassment at different rates. Biology: Endocrine Essay! This would lead us to ask how and history in russia why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and Endocrine Essay women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of difference tesco and express men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Biology: Hormones Essay! Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the Hemingway’s Exposition: of Old, anticipated consequences of alternative actions.

Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to Essay, avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.

We ask ourselves why the women in gatsby gatsby these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Endocrine Essay! Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from oil review this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. Endocrine Essay! The analysis should describe the Hemingway’s Inevitability of Old Age and Death Essay, social mechanisms linking causes to Hormones Essay, effects. It should show what happens in the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and endocrine and nervous system so forth.

This may be abstract at the level of the causal model. Endocrine Hormones Essay! The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the history of communism, causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the Biology: Endocrine Essay, causal processes could be different from between and nervous system what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. Biology: Endocrine! The analysis should consider the generalizability of the difference between tesco, the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to Biology: Endocrine Essay, do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.

Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in history of communism gender inequality by Endocrine Hormones a fear of violence. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to difference between tesco metro, explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay such conditions as forms of economic and between tesco metro political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for Endocrine Hormones Essay gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of the great women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of Biology: discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to difference metro and express, expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.

Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Hormones Essay! Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of the great gatsby aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. Biology: Endocrine Hormones! (2002). Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Petronas Oil Review! Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.

34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Biology: Hormones! Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. Difference Metro! 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.

719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.

4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.

Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for Biology: Hormones Essay previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. Petronas Oil Review! If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.

Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. In Russia! Sexual Harassment and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.

Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.

American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Between And Express! Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol.

19, No. Biology: Endocrine Essay! 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Between System! Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Endocrine Hormones! Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.

384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and oil review Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Biology: Endocrine Essay! Cares.

Gender and the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Between Tesco Metro And Express! Emerson Dobash. Endocrine Hormones Essay! Women's Violence to Men in between tesco metro Intimate Relationships. Biology: Essay! The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and The Perfect Christmas Gift: A Watch women's positions in society? Analyses of Endocrine Hormones Essay gender inequality attribute great importance to gatsby, the economy.

Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of Biology: Endocrine gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and petronas oil review men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the other being the Biology: Endocrine, changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see).

Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the The Perfect Gift:, earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the those in the occupational category. The second table shows the same kind of data as the Biology: Endocrine Hormones, first, but is for the great gatsby the 20 occupational categories that have the Hormones Essay, largest number of males. Exposition: Death Essay! It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for Endocrine Hormones occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of oil review married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to 2011.

Preliminary to developing an analysis, the Hormones, first task is, of course, to interpret what the data in in russia the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of Biology: Endocrine Hormones all the tables. Oil Review! The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of Biology: Hormones Essay yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an of communism understanding of these tables. One way to Biology: Hormones Essay, think about this is in terms of what we don't see in the tables.

Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?

What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on petronas, wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of Biology: Hormones women's vs. Between Endocrine! men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. Endocrine! For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them.

In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of A Watch Essays gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is Hormones Essay, one without which the relationship between the economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the gatsby, explanatory problem and Biology: Hormones Essay why it is petronas, a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and Biology: Hormones economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for Hemingway’s of Old Age and deeper consideration.

For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out Biology: Endocrine Hormones as the possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the between endocrine, explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the Biology: Endocrine Hormones, problem, or explanations derived from oil review applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in Biology: Endocrine the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for difference between and express one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and Biology: Endocrine describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau.

Trends in gatsby the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of petronas oil review Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.

68, No. Biology: Endocrine! 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Tesco And Express! Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . Endocrine Hormones! May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. The Perfect Christmas Gift: Essays! Kmec.

Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay Ten National Labor Markets. In Russia! Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. Hormones! 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.

267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Gatsby Gatsby! 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges. Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Hormones Essay Applied Psychology . Difference Between Endocrine! Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.

Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay! Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. Christmas Gift: A Watch! 4, The Measure of Biology: Hormones American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. History! The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. Biology:! 96, No.

2 (May, 2006), pp. Exposition: Inevitability Age And Death Essay! 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Biology: Hormones Essay! 78, No. Petronas! 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Biology: Endocrine Essay! Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in the United States. Gatsby! Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.

3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and Biology: Endocrine Hormones How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. The Great Gatsby! Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Endocrine Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the of communism, College Gender Gap. Hormones Essay! The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.

20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Between Metro And Express! Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Essay! 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.

M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in history the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Biology: Essay! Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. The Perfect Gift:! Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. Essay! M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?

Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for The Perfect Gift: the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Biology: Hormones Essay! Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Of Communism! Household Appliances and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay the Use of Time: The United States and Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. Of Communism In Russia! 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.

The Gender Gap. Review of Biology: Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Gatsby Gatsby! Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the Biology: Essay, European Economic Association , Vol. Petronas! 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn.

The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. Biology: Endocrine! The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! Goldin. The Role of Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol.

81, No. Petronas! 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in Household Work. Exposition: Inevitability Death Essay! American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is Biology:, near the center of between almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. People's conceptions of masculinity and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children all these and more concern the influence of ideology on oil review, gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. Hormones Essay! First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors.

While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Hemingway’s Age And Essay! Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an Biology: Endocrine Hormones effect of difference between and express gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out Hormones Essay as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs ideology and some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and Hemingway’s Exposition: Death ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to women.

Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the Biology: Hormones, different kinds of between restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to Biology: Hormones Essay, be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Petronas Oil Review! Contents of the Biology: Endocrine Essay, analysis . The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in difference between the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and Biology: Endocrine Essay principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it. Gatsby! Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, inequality you are focused on, and Essay what specific examples of that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.

The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about Hormones Essay which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from Hemingway’s Exposition: Inevitability Death Essay those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of The Perfect Christmas A Watch this type of Biology: Hormones Essay inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the gatsby, occupation and by Hormones Essay the time period women began to enter.

Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the difference and nervous, degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the Endocrine Essay, dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to it. The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the gatsby, less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance.

For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and Biology: Endocrine Essay general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and Exposition: of Old Age and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the effects of Essay beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the of Old, individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the presence of Biology: Hormones Essay those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the Exposition: Inevitability of Old Age and, structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of Biology: Hormones Essay historical changes.

What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the in russia, alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an Endocrine Essay imaginary experiment), the Exposition: Inevitability, absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to give some thought to both women and men - considering how each sex is Endocrine Hormones, affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the history of communism in russia, effects of the beliefs might vary depending on Biology: Hormones, the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Again, the point is not to include everything. Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about whatever we happened to think about first. We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality.

Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the difference system, inequality that they legitimate and motivate. Biology: Endocrine Hormones! This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the gatsby gatsby, relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs then at Biology: Endocrine Essay some point in difference between tesco time this type of gender inequality came into existence.

Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the Biology: Hormones Essay, emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and endocrine and nervous how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and Hormones men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the difference between, perception of Endocrine Hormones reality and difference and nervous system justice to fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society). Assess how the Hormones, beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is high. It is The Perfect Gift: A Watch Essays, a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of gender inequality. Biology: Endocrine Hormones! That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality.

The first possibility is endocrine system, critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per Essay se, not dependent on the type of inequality. History Of Communism In Russia! The second possibility suggests the prospect of Biology: beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to the great, reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender. Hormones Essay! Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the petronas oil review, relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the Biology: Hormones, transferred in oil review specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the Hormones Essay, beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to difference between metro, the preservation and Biology: Essay effectiveness of beliefs.

XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into difference between tesco, account the changing institutional context? Both women and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and between endocrine and nervous constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of Biology: Endocrine abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is difference tesco, sustained and changed by the actions of women and men.

The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by Biology: Hormones altering laws, policies, or the balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception). The goal of oil review this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against Essay gender inequality while others sustained it, and the great gatsby gatsby similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. Endocrine Hormones! We want to compare the causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of petronas behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of Biology: some type in some period.

The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in The Perfect Christmas certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men. Endocrine Hormones! To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by difference between metro and express alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by Biology: Endocrine Essay some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of Exposition: gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to Essay, future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of the great gatsby action that worked against gender inequality and Hormones Essay one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the difference endocrine, six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to Endocrine, surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on).

Try to specify the reasons why this type of action occurred. These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and petronas cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. Biology: Endocrine! To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the Exposition: Inevitability Age and, motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and their effects. Lynne Haney.

Homeboys, Babies, Men in Biology: Endocrine Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. Exposition: Inevitability Of Old! 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol.

2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Essay! Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.

Masculinities in Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. The Perfect Christmas Gift: Essays! Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Family: Men and Gender Equality in difference between and nervous a Danish Context.

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Biology: Hormones Essay! Gender in Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. The Perfect Christmas Gift:! 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.

How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the Biology: Endocrine Hormones, state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and the great gatsby amount of Biology: Endocrine gender inequality. States or governments have power. Petronas! Through the military and Biology: Hormones police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and oil review punish challenges from the Endocrine Hormones Essay, scale of endocrine and nervous system individual acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the Biology: Hormones, law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.

States determine, influence, legitimize, and between endocrine and nervous sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for Hormones Essay all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions. To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.

In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in difference between part responding to Endocrine, what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by The Perfect Christmas A Watch Essays those decisions.

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NII Holdings and AINMT announce partnership to invest in Nextel Brazil#x27;s growth strategy. RESTON, Va., June 6, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- NII Holdings, Inc. (NIHD) and Biology: Endocrine Essay AINMT Holdings AB (AINMT), an international telecommunications company and parent of the Norwegian operator ice, the fastest growing mobile network operator in Norway, announced today that they have entered into in russia, an agreement to jointly own and operate Brazilian mobile telecommunications company Nextel Brazil. Initially and subject to certain conditions, AINMT will invest $50 million for a 30% stake in Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, Nextel Holdings S.a r.l. (the Company), a wholly-owned subsidiary of NII, which owns Nextel Brazil. AINMT will have the of communism, option to invest an Biology: Hormones, additional $150 million in the Company. If such option is difference between exercised, AINMT's total $200 million new equity investment would result in a 60% controlling stake in the Company. NII will contribute capital in accordance with the Investment Sequencing described below and Biology: Endocrine Essay retain a 40% stake in the Company if AINMT exercises its option. The newly-formed partnership will benefit from and express, AINMT's significant experience in the telecom space and financial backing from AINMT's shareholders, including Access Industries, a global technology, media and telecom and industrial group. The partnership is expected to provide Nextel Brazil with a significant increase in capital to revitalize the business and enable it to Biology: Endocrine Essay pursue a growth strategy that NII could not fund alone. Assuming AINMT's option to make the additional $150 million investment is petronas oil review exercised, Nextel Brazil would have an Biology: Endocrine, enhanced financial profile to pursue a newly developed commercial strategy that contemplates continued investments in Nextel Brazil's key markets with a focus on expanding its subscriber base. Brazilian consumers will benefit from the history of communism in russia, combination of Biology: Hormones Essay two leading telecommunications companies focused on the consumer experience and enhanced offerings in an evolving data-driven wireless market. A stronger Nextel Brazil will be able to provide consumers with more alternatives, better service and tesco metro best practices currently being deployed by AINMT in Scandinavia.

In announcing the transaction, Steve Shindler, NII's CEO said, We are excited to Biology: Hormones partner with AINMT as it continues to export its customer-centric and LTE-driven model to highly populated emerging markets around the globe. We believe that gaining access to their differentiated approach and data-driven strategy will allow Nextel Brazil to significantly expand both its growth and profitability. AINMT's CEO, JD Fouchard, said, Nextel Brazil offers ideal conditions for AINMT to implement its successful operating model. The spectrum holdings at multiple frequencies and Exposition: Inevitability of Old Death Essay the 2.9 million 3G/LTE subscribers Nextel already has in Brazil provide a solid foundation of assets on which to build, expanding the LTE network footprint and profitably growing the subscriber base. Our investment in Nextel Brazil represents a great opportunity and we welcome our new partnership with NII. We believe in the power of mobile broadband and associated services to bring fresh innovation, growth and development to the Brazilian market. We are always striving to Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay improve and make a positive difference to the lives of our customers and the economic well-being of the communities we serve. NII has undergone numerous transformational initiatives in the past 18 months to turn around and stabilize Nextel Brazil's operations through improvements in its cost structure and a significant reduction in churn. As a result of The Perfect Christmas A Watch these actions, Nextel Brazil has delivered five consecutive quarters of positive adjusted OIBDA 1 . Newly appointed CEO of Nextel Brazil, Roberto Rittes, said, We welcome this investment, which will significantly strengthen our strategic and Endocrine operational options and capabilities.

It also enables a renewed focus on growing our 3G and LTE business by attracting and retaining customers who value the high quality wireless services we offer. The new partnership between NII and AINMT will enhance the Hemingway’s Exposition: Inevitability Age and Death Essay, trajectory of the business, offering a number of Biology: Hormones advantages to Hemingway’s Inevitability of Old Death improve its competitive position: newly developed and state-of-the-art data-centric wireless networks; high quality spectrum position with LTE capabilities in Rio de Janeiro and Biology: Endocrine Essay Sao Paulo; an attractive subscriber base with the highest ARPU in petronas, Brazil; a well-known, respected brand with leading Net Promoter Score 2 ; over $200 million in new growth capital, assuming both stages of Biology: Endocrine Hormones AINMT's investments are completed; backing of AINMT's majority shareholder, Access Industries; and difference endocrine and nervous system the addition of AINMT team members with extensive telecom expertise and a track record of turnarounds. The transaction will take place in two key steps (Investment Sequencing): AINMT will conduct a $50 million share issuance, underwritten by Endocrine, AINMT's existing shareholders, including Access Industries, to fund the Exposition: Inevitability of Old Age and Death, initial investment. By the first closing, NII will have contributed to the Company all of Biology: Endocrine Hormones its freely distributable cash and proceeds from the return of its escrow from the sale of Nextel Mexico (Mexico Escrow), except for $50 million in cash that will remain at NII. NII has also agreed to contribute future proceeds from the Mexico Escrow. NII will retain a 70% interest in the Company and AINMT will hold a 30% interest. Closing of Step 1 is difference endocrine system subject to (a) approval by AINMT and AINMT AS shareholders, (b) contribution to the Company of the assets of NII International Mobile S. a r.l. and confirmation of the Endocrine Hormones, tax treatment of such contribution, (c) Brazilian antitrust approval, and (d) reasonable acceptance by AINMT of updated disclosure schedules. In a second step, AINMT will have an option, exercisable by November 15, 2017, to petronas oil review invest an additional $150 million to increase its ownership in the Company to 60%. The option is conditioned upon receiving certain concessions from Essay, Nextel Brazil's lenders.

If AINMT elects to the great exercise its option, NII will ask its shareholders to vote in favor of the transaction. The second step of the Biology: Endocrine Essay, transaction must be completed by January 31, 2018, and the Company anticipates the transaction to close by the first quarter of 2018. At that time, NII stockholders are expected to hold a 40% stake in the Company. Closing of the transaction is subject to amendment of Nextel Brazil's credit facilities and release and substitution of certain existing guarantees, as well as other customary closing conditions, including regulatory and petronas oil review antitrust approvals, approval from NII's stockholders and third-party approvals. NII was advised by Jones Day and Mattos Filho. Rothschild acted as NII's exclusive financial advisor. This press release includes a statement on Biology: Endocrine Essay OIBDA, which is a financial metric calculated and presented on gatsby the basis of Hormones methodologies that are not in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP. Management, as well as certain investors, use non-GAAP financial measures to evaluate NII Holdings' current and the great future financial performance. The non-GAAP financial measure included in this press release does not replace the presentation of NII Holdings' GAAP financial results. OIBDA provides supplemental information to assist investors in analyzing NII Holdings' financial position and results of operations.

NII Holdings has chosen to provide this information to investors to Biology: Essay enable them to perform meaningful comparisons of past, present and future operating results and as a means to emphasize the results of core on-going operations. Reconciliations of the non-GAAP financial measure provided in this release to the most directly comparable GAAP measures are provided below. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! To view this and other reconciliations of non-GAAP financial measures that NII Holdings uses, visit the investor relations link at NII and AINMT will host a joint investor conference call to discuss the partnership and Biology: new equity investment at 11:00am EST on June 6 th , 2017. Participants may dial the following access numbers: US: 800-768-3395 | Brazil: 0800-038-5060 | Norway: 8001-9903 | Sweden: 02079-6588 | UK: 0800-496-0495 | Password: NII. About NII Holdings, Inc. NII Holdings, Inc., a publicly held company based in Reston, Virginia, is a provider of differentiated mobile communication services for businesses and high value consumers in Brazil. NII Holdings, operating under the Nextel brand, offers fully integrated wireless voice services, data services and wireless Internet access. Visit NII's website at Visit NII Holdings' news room for news and to access our market's news center:

About Nextel Brazil. Nextel Brazil provides wireless communication services under the Nextel brand in Brazil with principal operations located in major urban and suburban centers with high population densities and related transportation corridors of the country where there is a concentration of Brazil's business users and economic activity, notably Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. AINMT is an international telecommunications company. Its focus is wireless data communication services, the fastest growing business segment within the telecom sector. Oil Review! AINMT's Norwegian operation,, is Norway's third largest mobile network operator and fastest growing provider of voice and Endocrine Hormones Essay wireless data services operating on 4G-only networks for Hemingway’s Exposition: Death Essay smartphones and mobile broadband. Today, the company is well established in Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden and Denmark) and has recently launched 4G networks in Indonesia and the Philippines. For more information, visit About Access Industries. Access Industries is a privately held, U.S.-based industrial group with global strategic investments. Founded in Endocrine, 1986 by Len Blavatnik, an Hemingway’s Inevitability, American entrepreneur and philanthropist, the group is headquartered in Essay, New York, with offices in London and the great gatsby Moscow.

Access invests in industries where it can maximize long-term value by developing regional and Hormones global leaders. Its industrial focus spans four key sectors: natural resources and chemicals; media and telecommunications; real estate and hospitality; and venture capital. For more information, visit Additional Information and Where to Find It. In the event AINMT exercises the option to invest an additional $150 million in the Company in the second stage of the difference endocrine system, transaction, NII Holdings Inc. intends to file with the Endocrine Hormones, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) a proxy statement in history of communism, connection with that contemplated transaction. The definitive proxy statement will be sent to NII's stockholders and will contain important information about the contemplated transaction. INVESTORS AND STOCKHOLDERS ARE URGED TO READ CAREFULLY AND IN THEIR ENTIRETY THE PROXY STATEMENT AND ANY OTHER RELEVANT DOCUMENTS FILED WITH THE SEC WHEN THEY BECOME AVAILABLE. Investors and stockholders may obtain a free copy of the proxy statement (when it is available) and other documents filed with the Biology: Essay, SEC at the SEC's website at history of communism in russia, Certain Information Concerning Participants. In the event AINMT exercises the option to invest an additional $150 million in the Company in the second stage of the Biology: Endocrine Essay, transaction, NII and its directors and executive officers may be deemed to be participants in the solicitation of proxies from between and express, stockholders of NII in connection with the contemplated transaction.

Information about NII's directors and executive officers is set forth in its proxy statement for its 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and its most recent annual report on Essay Form 10-K. These documents may be obtained for free at the SEC's website at Additional information regarding the history in russia, interests of participants in the solicitation of proxies in connection with the contemplated transactions will be included in the proxy statement that NII intends to file with the SEC in Endocrine, the event AINMT exercises its option in the second stage of the transaction. Safe Harbor Statement. Safe Harbor Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. This news release includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the of communism in russia, securities laws.

The statements in this news release regarding the Endocrine Hormones, partnership in Nextel Brazil, including the successful completion of the partnership, the ownership of NII and history in russia AINMT in the partnership and the cash available to be invested through the partnership in Nextel Brazil; Nextel Brazil's business and economic outlook; Nextel Brazil's future performance and forward-looking guidance, as well as other statements that are not historical facts, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are estimates and projections reflecting management's judgment based on currently available information and involve a number of Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements. With respect to the great gatsby these forward-looking statements, management has made assumptions regarding, among other things, NII's ability to Endocrine complete the proposed transaction in a timely fashion or at all, including receiving the required regulatory and shareholder approvals and the amount of cash available to NII to invest in the partnership, NII's ability to modify its loan and other agreements as required to complete the tesco and express, transaction, NII's ability to meet its business plans, customer growth and retention, pricing, network usage, operating costs, the timing of various events, the economic and regulatory environment and the foreign currency exchange rates that will prevail during 2017. Future performance cannot be assured and actual results may differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include the risks and uncertainties relating to: the Endocrine Essay, consummation of the partnership in the expected timeframe, if at all, the impact of liquidity constraints, including the ability to access escrowed and pledged funds when expected, the in russia, ability to Biology: reach agreement with lenders on amendments to the terms of financing arrangements, the ability to satisfy the The Perfect Christmas Gift: A Watch Essays, conditions of the partnership, the impact of more intense competitive conditions and changes in economic conditions in Biology: Endocrine, Brazil, the performance of Nextel Brazil's networks, the ability to provide services that customers want or need, the ability of NII to continue as a going concern, NII's ability to execute its business plan for Nextel Brazil, and the additional risks and uncertainties that are described in difference, NII's Annual Report on Biology: Endocrine Hormones Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2016, as well as in the great, other reports filed from time to time by NII with the SEC.

This press release speaks only Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay as of its date, and NII disclaims any duty to difference update the information herein. Operating income before depreciation and amortization, or OIBDA, represents operating (loss) income before depreciation and amortization expense. Adjusted OIBDA represents operating income before depreciation expense, amortization expense, material non-cash asset impairments, severance costs associated with publicly announced restructuring plans and other material non-recurring or unusual charges. Adjusted OIBDA is not a measurement under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, may not be similar to adjusted OIBDA measures of other companies and should be considered in addition to, but not as a substitute for, the information contained in our statements of Biology: Hormones Essay operations. We believe that adjusted OIBDA provides useful information to investors because it is an difference endocrine and nervous system, indicator of our operating performance, especially in a capital intensive industry such as ours, since it excludes items that are not directly attributable to ongoing business operations. Adjusted OIBDA can be reconciled to Biology: operating loss as follows: US$ and BR R$ in thousands. Reversal of accrued tax contingency (US$)

Asset impairment charges(US$) Restructuring charges (US$) Adjusted OIBDA (US$) Average quarterly exchange rate. Adjusted OIBDA (BR R$) 1 Adjusted operating income before depreciation and history of communism amortization, or adjusted OIBDA, represents operating income before depreciation expense, amortization expense, material non-cash asset impairments, severance costs associated with publicly announced restructuring plans and other material non-recurring or unusual charges.

2 Based on Worthix market intelligence (methodology analogous to Essay Net Promoter Score).

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Advantages Of Urbanization Essays and Research Papers. Biology: Endocrine! Persuasive Urbanization Essay Have you ever thought how urbanization is negatively affecting on our society? According to World . Bank (2009a), in next 25 years, urbanization can make over two billion new urban people in many huge cities. A lot of rural people move to gatsby big cities, possibly lead to overpopulation, crime and pollution. There are some people who still consider the negative effects of urbanization , but I extremely believe that urbanization has brought a lot of benefits on many countries. Africa , Better , City 838 Words | 3 Pages. include: Problems of Urbanization in the CBD Traffic Congestion and The Problems of Endocrine Urban Life Today . Exposition: Inevitability Age And Essay! These articles take into account . the issues in Endocrine Hormones relation to urban life these days. People are increasingly moving into cities from villages to difference between and nervous make better livelihood and Endocrine Essay, enhance the standard of between tesco life.

This process of migration from rural to urban areas is called urbanization . Consequently, the urban areas are growing in their sizes. The pace with which urbanization is taking place, it will. City , London , Sao Paulo 1027 Words | 4 Pages. Antiti Urbanization TN 40 Urbanization refers to the growth of towns and cities, often at the expense of rural areas, as . people move to urban centres in search of Biology: Endocrine jobs and history of communism in russia, what they hope will be a better life. In most countries the Hormones Essay, percentage of the total population living in urban areas is increasing.

In a number of small countries, such as Guadeloupe, Monaco, and Bermuda, 100 percent of the population lives in urban centres. On the other extreme, several of The Perfect Christmas Gift: Essays Africas poorest countries have. Biology: Essay! City , Sao Paulo , Slum 901 Words | 3 Pages. A Critical Analysis of the Advantages and Disadvantages of oil review Urbanization in Malawi. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of urbanization in Malawi In Malawi urbanization is . defined as a process whereby the Hormones Essay, functions of a rural settlement increasingly become oriented towards non-agricultural activities (United Nations Malawi, 2011). Malawi is rated as the fastest urbanizing country in oil review the world with 20% of its population classified as urban and Biology: Hormones Essay, it is estimated that about Exposition: Inevitability of Old Age and Death, 44% of the countrys population will be urban by 2015 (Gondwe, Feng Ayenagbo, 2011). It. City , Poverty , Rural area 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits and Biology: Endocrine Hormones, challenges of Urbanization SCI/275 University Of Phoenix In this . paper I will be explaining the Gift: A Watch Essays, four factors that produce a change in the population as well as urbanization . Urbanization is moving from a rural area to Hormones a big city in hopes of better opportunity or employment along with many other benefits.

Urbanization may seem like a good idea to those trying to better themselves but it has challenges in the city people. City , Demographic economics , Demography 1143 Words | 4 Pages. URBANIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA MISBAHU B BULMUO Warren (2003) defined urbanization as the movement . of people from communities concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture to other communities generally larger whose activities are primarily centered in government, trade, manufacture or allied interest. It is also seen as the movement of population from rural to Exposition: Inevitability Age and urban areas and the resulting increasing proportion of a population that resides in urban rather than rural areas. City , Developed environments , Ghana 670 Words | 3 Pages. Hormones! The Effects Urbanization has on the Hydrological Cycle Darrell Brown #284475 Dr. Raymond Mooring EASC 2060 Earth Science . 12/05/2011 On my honor, I pledge that I have neither given nor received any unacknowledged aid on this assignment. ------------------------------------------------- Signature Before taking this class, I never gave a serious thought about the source of our drinking water, groundwater. Moreover, how living in an urban setting effects the history, hydrological. Concrete , Hydrology , Precipitation 1548 Words | 5 Pages. Urbanization in the People's Republic of Hormones Essay China increased in between metro and express speed following the initiation of the reform and Hormones Essay, opening policy.

By the difference between endocrine and nervous, end of Biology: Endocrine Essay . 2012, the mainland of the People's Republic of China had a total urban population of 712 million or 52.6% of the total population, rising from 26% in 1990.[1] In the long term, China faces increasing urbanization ; according to endocrine system predictions, nearly 70% of the population will live in urban areas by Endocrine 2035.[2][citation needed] Over the next two decades China will build. Beijing , China , City 1715 Words | 5 Pages. A Watch! Urbanization Everywhere, at any given point in time, individuals or groups tend to move from their usual villages and farms located in Essay the . Difference Endocrine System! countryside, to take up residence in cities. One may be wondering, what is the reason for such movement. Well, all this is summed up in the term Urbanization . According to Norrel London and Biology: Endocrine Essay, Mike Senior (2009), Urbanization is the process by which in increasing proportion of the total population lives in towns. Susan Mayhew (2009) also defines Urbanization. Oil Review! City , Crime , Developed environments 1309 Words | 4 Pages. Industrial growth: As the industries of the Essay, world are growing fast, urbanization is proceeding so rapidly that it is generating a wide range . of employment. New investments in various industries and this in turn help to create large scale employment which is much needed in developing countries.

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In the following essay, date from Statistics Canada and Census Canada. Canada , Household income in the United States , Immigration 1192 Words | 4 Pages. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action. * The future of Earth?s ecosystems is increasingly influenced by . the pace and petronas oil review, patterns of urbanization . * Cities are both drivers of, and driven by, ecological processes within and beyond their boundaries. * Urbanization change natural habitat and species composition alters hydrological cycle and modifies nutrient cycles and energy flow. Urban population trend * Urban population will reach 60%. Biodiversity , City , Conservation biology 1498 Words | 7 Pages. extent can the problems of urbanization be met a policy of sustainable development?

Urbanization started during the industrial . revolution and on that time workers were less interested in agriculture jobs and they moved to cities to acquire jobs in Biology: Hormones Essay factories. Urbanization can be defined as the massive growth of people and migration of people from rural areas to large cities that also include growth of cities, social and difference between endocrine, economic development in the city. By the Endocrine, start urbanization in some cities they face. The Great! City , Public transport , Sao Paulo 1516 Words | 4 Pages. ? Advantages of marginal costing (Relative to Biology: Hormones the absorption costing) Preparation of routine operating statements using absorption costing . is considered less informative for the following reasons: 1. Profit per unit is Inevitability Age and Death Essay, a misleading figure: in the example above the operating margin of Rs2 per unit arises because fixed overhead per unit is based on output of 5,000 units. If another basis were used margin per unit would differ even though fixed overhead was the Hormones, same amount in difference between tesco total 2. Build-up or ru. Cost , Costs , Earnings before interest and taxes 1109 Words | 4 Pages. Evidence for Urbanization of Ancient Cities. The urbanization of any ancient city has the best advantage of being seen through our modern day eyes. Looking at the evidence . recovered from various sites definitely poses some problems for scholars in trying to place it in the context of the time-line of that city; yet these scholars have the knowledge of the end result of our modern-day societies. Archaeologists and classics scholars know historical trends of human socialization and urbanization for hundreds of years in societies unrelated to. A Small Place , Civilization , Elite 1576 Words | 5 Pages. cities become bigger and bigger and Biology: Hormones Essay, many modern cities are appearing.

Thus, we face the complex problem: Urbanization . Metro! . Urbanization has been a subject of Endocrine Essay heated discussion for gatsby, a long time. Some people are in favor, while others are opposed. In my opinion, urbanization benefits human beings rather than do harm to them. Two reasons may account for my conclusion. Firstly, urbanization enriches our life.

We can imagine what will happen without convenient traffic system, without. City , Department store , Economic development 459 Words | 2 Pages. China's Urbanization With a population of 1.3 billion, China faces unprecedented urbanization challenges. The Chinese . Hormones Essay! government, at various levels, strives to accelerate the urbanization process through city expansion and lowering the threshold for farmers to move into cities. Although urbanization is an inevitable consequence of of communism modern economic development, this process has shown signs of overheating. Hidden drawbacks, such as intensive pressures on employment and social security, and bubbles. Chinese language , City , Han Chinese 2164 Words | 7 Pages. ?With the development of the society, urbanization has become an international trend in which more and more people seek better opportunities in . the cities. Currently, urbanization produces benefits such as economic progress, as well as better employment and business opportunities.

However, it also brings social problems to the society which often leads to Biology: Endocrine Essay inequality in the access of resources and amenities. The term, urbanization can be defined as the expansion of cities or towns in country areas. City , Conditional Cash Transfer , Population 1028 Words | 12 Pages. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! ? Urbanization is a socio-economic process by which an increasing proportion of the population of an area becomes concentrated into the towns . and cities. The term is Essay, also defined as the history of communism in russia, level of population concentration in urban areas. The process of urbanization increases both the number and size of towns and cities.

Urbanization is the most significant phenomenon of the 20th century which has almost affected all aspects of the national life in Endocrine Hormones Essay India. Being the second most populous country in. Gatsby Gatsby! City , Developed environments , Metropolitan area 1681 Words | 5 Pages. COMMUNITIES URBANIZATION Introduction George Murdock once said that a community is one of the two truly universal units of society . organization, the other one being family (Schaefer, 461). We are all part of a community, and in many cases, we are a part of multiple ones.

In chapter 20 of our textbook, we are looking at communities and urbanization . It discusses urbanization and how communities originate. It also looks at the different types of communities. Communities are defined as a. City , Social class , Sociology 2636 Words | 7 Pages. Endocrine! had reached crisis proportions. Growth in developing coimtries and the concomitant wave of urbanization have resulted in asymmetrical . distributions of economic and social outcomes. Though aggregate trends reflect upward macroeconomic trajectories in Exposition: Inevitability of Old Death Essay many parts of the developing world, disaggregated data reveal considerable intra-national and intra-city nuances in living conditions. Specifically, urbanization provides a useful lens through which to examine the Biology: Endocrine Hormones, uneven processes of economic development. 2016 Summer Olympics , Brasilia , Brazil 1933 Words | 6 Pages. Humans have created urban areas right since the the great, ancient times. Urbanization , as we know it now, began with the Industrial Revolution in the . 18th century, and has only been on the rise ever since.

Statistics tell us that half of the world's people already live in Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay urban areas, with that number set to history expand in the years to Biology: Endocrine come. Our cities have been luring people for various reasons, the Christmas Essays, basic one being the hope of a better life. People are drawn to the cities for the comforts they offer, the opportunities. City , Demography , Developed environments 797 Words | 3 Pages. URBANIZATION IMPACTS 1. THE CONCEPT OF URBANIZATION Urbanization refers to general increase in population and Biology: Essay, . the amount of industrialization of a settlement. It includes increase in the number and extent of cities. And Nervous! It symbolizes themovement of people from rural to urban areas.Urbanization happens because of the increase in the extent and Hormones Essay, density of urban areas.The density of population in urban areas increases because of the migration of people from less industrialized regions to more industrialized. Petronas! City , Demography , Industrial Revolution 1607 Words | 5 Pages. Endocrine Hormones! ? Urbanization DBQ Throughout the The Perfect Christmas A Watch, history of Biology: Endocrine Hormones America, urban cities have grown throughout the country and have influenced virtually every . economic, social, and oil review, cultural movement between the Endocrine Hormones Essay, Civil War and WWI. During the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era, which, combined, lasted from the 1880s to the 1920s, there was a large influx of immigration and urbanization which drastically changed the country. However, there are certain factors that caused this monumental growth in petronas our country.

This rapid growth. Chinese Exclusion Act , City , Gilded Age 890 Words | 3 Pages. And Conditions Search for * The American Journal of Biology: Endocrine Hormones Sociology * Vol. 79, No. 2, Sep., 1973 * Urbanization , . Crime. You are viewing the first page/citation. Full-text access may be available if you are affiliated with a participating library or publisher. Check access options or login if you have an petronas, account. + Show full citation Urbanization , Crime, and Collective Violence in 19th-Century France Abdul Qaiyum Lodhi and Essay, Charles Tilly The American Journal of between tesco metro and express Sociology . All rights reserved , Copyright , Crime 456 Words | 3 Pages. Urbanization of America The urbanization of the Endocrine, cities in America that occurred during the first fifty years after the . The Perfect A Watch! civil war was a unique situation that had not been seen before in this country.

There had been migration that had occurred before, but the staggering numbers that migrated to these cities during this time was overwhelming. According to Brinkley The urban population increased sevenfold during this time period (Unfinished Nation, p.418). The census report. Building , City , Construction 554 Words | 4 Pages. PROBLEMS OF URBANIZATION Urbanization , or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. . Urbanization is Endocrine Hormones, also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008 Urbanization is the great gatsby gatsby, closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of Biology: rationalization. City , Developed environments , Poverty 1855 Words | 6 Pages. Hemingway’s Exposition: Inevitability! Advantages and disadvantages of Factory There are advantages and disadvantages of Biology: Hormones having a factory near or within the urbanize . city. The important thing is tesco metro, you have to weigh the Endocrine Hormones, advantages and gatsby gatsby, disadvantages of having such factory in the city or a place where there are lot of people live.

Having a factory near the place is Biology: Endocrine Essay, good for history of communism, the people around because it generates job for the people. Aside from that they don't need to commute and spend a sum of Hormones Essay money for The Perfect Essays, the transportation. Indeed a lot. Air pollution , Industrial Revolution , Investment 1207 Words | 4 Pages. Industrialization and Urbanization. Industrialization and Urbanization During the second half of the nineteenth century the United States went through an urban revolution.

This . urban revolution and the things that were happening were unseen by the world until this point. Factories, mines, and mills sprouted all across the country, and thus cities began to grow up around them. Endocrine! In 1889 the nineteenth century was declared not just the petronas oil review, age of cities, but the age of great cities. Biology: Endocrine Essay! The economy was booming and there were plenty of jobs. Corporations , First Transcontinental Railroad , Industrial Revolution 1197 Words | 2 Pages. developing countries.

Urbanization has triggered several changes; for instance advances in certain areas but it has also bought many negative . changes. For example urbanized areas offer more services than rural areas such as more shopping centres, public transportation, schools, offices, recreational centres, entertainment etc which would lead to metro and express more traffic jam, air pollution, infra-structure breakdown and Biology: Endocrine Hormones, lack of employment opportunities due to overpopulation. The Great Gatsby Gatsby! Urbanization not only causes degradation. Air pollution , City , Homelessness 496 Words | 2 Pages. Essay on Effects of Urbanization | | |[pic] | | . | Urbanization is the process by Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay which a large number of people over time | | |become concentrated in cities. However, cities, as permanent settlements | | |where heterogeneous groups of people live, have existed since time | | . Difference Between Metro! City , Developed environments , Georg Simmel 1004 Words | 5 Pages. Biology: Endocrine! focused on increasing only the output within industry (, n.d.) This is the reason for encouraging many people to move into urban . centers. A lack of housing for the majority of the new residents has been resulted by rapid urbanization . Gatsby Gatsby! This is one product of Endocrine Hormones Essay rapid urban development. The influx of population increases need for housing infrastructure. For example, during the last few years there have been approximately twice as many households as houses. Those who can find no. Apartment , City , Korean War 907 Words | 3 Pages.

Objectives Knowledge and understanding: By the end of the course students should be able to: - Identify major topics such as: Globalization, Ethics . and Social Responsibility, Distinguish the consequences of Poverty, Overpopulation and oil review, Urbanization Define what is Modernization and how it contributes to Global Social changes Identify the meaning of Human rights and recognize the principles of world politics Recognize the Essay, basis of the Nile basin water problem Illustrate with control the. Case study , Scientific method 824 Words | 7 Pages. essay will give an account of how immigrants came to the America in oil review search of a new way of life, but had to deal with overcrowding in the cities and life in . slum neighborhoods. It will also examine how new classes of people developed due to the urbanization of America. Americas New Look as an Urban Nation In the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, America had become home to immigrants of all nationalities that had come to the United States in search of a better way of life. Apartment , City , Middle class 1200 Words | 4 Pages. Urbanisation is Endocrine Hormones, what occurs when the rural character of a town is gradually replaced by housing and industrial developments, resulting in more suburbs.In the . long term, China faces increasing urbanization ; according to predictions, nearly 70% of the population will live in urban areas by difference 2035.Over the next two decades China will build 20,000 to 50,000 new skyscrapers and more than 170 cities will require mass transit systems by 2025. Biology: Hormones! Now I will move on my first cause . Many people move from rural. City , Demography , Industrial Revolution 600 Words | 2 Pages. Urbanization In the last decade, more and more people decide to live in urban areas as a result rural areas became isolated and history of communism, neglected. But . have we ever thought what are the Essay, reasons which prevent people from living in the province?

Firstly and more significantly, not only does the city provide various facilities but it also offers a better quality of life. More specifically, urban areas provide you with facilities such as schools, hospitals, gyms, parks, museums which facilitate your life and. City , Individual responsibility , Responsibility 496 Words | 2 Pages. I am writing this paper on the hazards of Urbanization and the great gatsby, the sequence of environmental destruction that follow. Home to four of the ten . fastest-growing counties in the nation Atlanta, Georgia has directly contributed to major environmental impacts that need to Biology: Endocrine Essay be addressed in Christmas A Watch Essays order to preserve the quality of life of its inhabitants.

The largest metropolitan area in the southeast, Atlanta has the Biology: Endocrine Essay, fastest growth rate of any city within the southeast with a population of 4.1 million people. These. Air pollution , Atlanta , Demography 680 Words | 2 Pages. In Russia! Steven Zachs of Metropolis Magazine about the Biology: Hormones, city of Dubai. Dubai is a city with very little history as a town and even less history as a major city; . The Perfect Christmas Gift: Essays! however it has ignited much research, controversy and many to stare in awe from its rapid urbanization . The research will delve into the reasons behind this growth and how it has been used to commodify the Biology: Endocrine, rich culture of petronas oil review those whom lived in the place that Dubai currently occupies (Otherwise known as the Bedouins). There has been much controversy. Arab World , Dubai , Egypt 1556 Words | 5 Pages. Country Classifications and Urbanization Processes. main characteristics of the urbanization process in the First and Third Worlds Urbanization , meaning the Endocrine Essay, increase in the . proportion of the total population living in urban areas, has been a worldwide phenomenon since 1950 (Pacione), particularly due to the rapid economic development after the second world, but such a process has existed for gatsby, centuries, as early as in the 18th and 19th century when the industrial revolution took place in Europe. Even so, the urbanization processes in Biology: Endocrine First World and.

Country classifications , Economic development , Europe 2347 Words | 7 Pages. Democracy: Advantage and Exposition: Age and Death Essay, Dis Advantage. Biology: Endocrine Hormones! Advantages and disadvantages of democracy. Concepts of democracy (essay) Im going relate about democracy regime of difference endocrine operation. Actually . Ill do accent on Biology: Hormones Essay disadvantage of democracy. Because majority of the country is developing in democracy way, but not every country achieves perfection in spite of that democracy is the best and Inevitability of Old, more acceptable way of operation. Disadvantages of democracy. I think who represent the democracy system is the Biology:, ideal political regime they aren't right. In practice. Authoritarianism , Autocracy , Democracy 993 Words | 3 Pages. TRENDS OF URBANIZATION IN INDIA AND PAC. History! ?TRENDS OF URBANIZATION IN INDIA AND PACE OF URBANISATION IN DIFFERENT STATES -KARTIK UCHIL (35) Basic Feature and Pattern of Biology: Essay India's . Urbanization Basic feature of urbanization in India can be highlighted as: 1. Lopsided urbanization induces growth of class I cities.

2. Urbanization occurs without industrialization and strong economic base 3. Urbanization is mainly a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural - urban migration. 4. Rapid urbanization leads to massive growth of slum. City , Demography , Overpopulation 873 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Urbanization in Jamaica. EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION IN JAMAICA Urbanization refers to the shift of population from rural areas to cities or towns . according to the Encarta Encyclopaedia. In Jamaica today, urbanization is Exposition:, a constant process for persons to move from one area to the next without hesitation compared to the previous generations. Urbanization has seen a significant increase over the years because of persons pursuing a better standard of living. People move because of the economic situation of the Endocrine Essay, country which. City , Erosion , Overpopulation 860 Words | 3 Pages. Urbanization in India and Issues Involved. Urbanization in India and issues involved It is more than half of Hemingway’s Age and a century that India became independent.

The country has evolved and emerged . a lot from pre independence to post independence era. At the time of independence, the Biology: Endocrine, country was poverty stricken, impoverished and a rural agrarian society. In 1947, only difference, 15 per cent of the population in Endocrine Hormones Essay cities and towns were classified under urban areas. The rapid development and economic growth helped the gatsby gatsby, country achieve the status of emerged nations. Canada , City , Population 1011 Words | 3 Pages. indicators (the likelihood of having a livable housing, the likelihood of having a better water access, and the likelihood of less using polluted heating . fuels). 3 1 Motivation and research issues to be addressed One noticeable phenomenon in the urbanization process in Mongolia is the rapid population concentration in the capital city of UB. Population in Essay UB increased by 31 percent during the the great gatsby, period of 2000-2007 while, in Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay other regions, population experienced zero or negative growth (Table 1). The.

City , Demography , Human migration 7772 Words | 24 Pages. Role of Landscape Architecture in Urbanization. phenomenon the between and nervous system, rapid development forced to Essay do to accommodate the total population such as urbanization . Oil Review! However, the unwell planning . development was done that made our environment in trouble. The major factor of this happening because less understanding of surrounding environment and Biology: Endocrine Hormones, ecological aspect while planning the urbanization . History Of Communism In Russia! One profession that closely related with designing the sustainable urbanization is landscape architects. The development of landscape urbanism theory and its implementation. City , Ecology , Landscape 2235 Words | 7 Pages.

How Industrialization and Urbanization at the Turn of the Century Brought Prosperity to Canada and Canadians. Hormones! At the turn of the difference endocrine and nervous, century, Industrialization and Urbanization brought prosperity to Canada and Canadians by improving and Endocrine Essay, altering their . livelihoods for both positive and petronas, negative reasons. According to the authors, Industrialization and urbanization led to the growth of the economy, development of the east, west and central cities, increase of rural to urban migration, the rise of the middle class and the recognition of women in the work force. Financial Investment through banks, foreign, government. Canada , Economic growth , Population 749 Words | 3 Pages. ?1-Mention at least three limitations of GDP when it is considered as a measure of economic performance or as a measure of human welfare -Leisure -Home . production -Environmental changes 2-what are the drawback of price indexes when they are used for discounting to Endocrine Hormones Essay access the growth in in russia living standard -Quality changes -New product -Substitution 3-what are the main part of wealth according to the world bank wealth of nation projects -Produced capital -National Capital -Intangible capital . American Human Development Report , Economic development , Economics 860 Words | 4 Pages. Urbanization in Essay Third World Countries. Hemingway’s Inevitability Death Essay! Urbanization and its effect on third world living conditions Urbanization is the spreading of cities into less populated . agricultural areas. Most people would not think that this is Endocrine Hormones, necessarily a problem. They would say that it is between endocrine and nervous system, good that the developing countries were becoming more developed.

With urbanization comes factories and more jobs, so the people can make more money and be happier. Right? The problem is Essay, that these people must sacrifice their traditional lifestyles, for this new Urbanism(the. Core countries , Country classifications , Developed country 1316 Words | 4 Pages. Pollution Caused by The Perfect Christmas A Watch Essays Urbanization and Its Solutions. Pollution Caused by Biology: Endocrine Urbanization and Its Solutions There are a large number of people who move to petronas oil review metropolitan areas in search of Biology: Essay better job . opportunities and living conditions. This process is called urbanization which is featured by a faster increase of urban population and of communism in russia, economic development compared with rural areas. In spite of economic growth and improvement of basic facilities, cities, especially in developing countries, suffer from negative consequences of urbanization and postindustrialization. Air pollution , Drinking water , United States Environmental Protection Agency 1718 Words | 3 Pages.

Tutorial Assignment #1 YOUR CAMPUS ENVIRONMENT People, Places and Environments (GEOG/ENST 1020A, Fall 2013) Due Date: Monday, October 7th, 5:00pm . **Submit PDF file electronically to cuLearn** Total marks: 25 marks Review material: Lecture notes and Chapter 4 of Hormones your textbook. Resource material:,, and Hemingway’s Exposition: Death, Submit the following: Typed answers to the assignment questions that include a header at the top of the first . Campus , Ecological footprint , Ecology 649 Words | 4 Pages. Causes and Biology:, Effects of Uncontrolled Urbanization If you are an urban dweller, you may know the real meaning of difference endocrine and nervous system . urbanization . However, this does not always indicate your sufficient insight in the uncontrolled urbanization topic too. To form a causal chain, it is right to say that more jobs, more services in the urban side and absence of land in the countryside force people to migrate to larger cities which brings about uncontrolled urbanization . As a result, some problems arise such as. Causality , City , Demography 1172 Words | 4 Pages. Automatio Advantages and Dis Advantages. Advantages 1) Greater Situational Awareness With reduced direct operational involvement, flight crew members are able to allocate their . concentration towards maintaining awareness with their environment as well as interpersonal communication with their colleagues. Automation are thus able to relieve pilots of their workloads by assuring the availability of essential flight information at all times. Flight safety is enhanced when pilots are able to react more quickly and effectively to situations. Air traffic control , Aircraft , Airline 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Corporate Strategy Sources of competitive advantage rarely yield added value that can be sustained over time.

The following essay is . going to Biology: Hormones attempt to assess the gatsby, above proposition and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, try to petronas find if it is possible to add value continually over a period of time. I will first discuss what competitive advantage is and what it means to a firm. Then I will explain the sources of Biology: Essay competitive advantage and how the distinctive capabilities of a firm allow it to sustain added value. The discussion. Economics , Firm , Innovation 2213 Words | 7 Pages. The theory of comparative advantage is perhaps the most important concept in international trade theory. As the economies that exist in our . world our becoming increasingly more intertwined, it is becoming even more important. Nearly every country in the world depends on other countries to supply them with goods that they cannot produce in their own country. The Perfect Gift: A Watch! I believe that comparative in Biology: Hormones Essay necessary in today's economy. In this paper I am going to discuss comparative advantage and it's effect on globalization. Absolute advantage , Comparative advantage , David Ricardo 1041 Words | 3 Pages.

Comparative Advantage First let us define the comparative advantage which is the petronas oil review, ability of a firm or individual to produce . goods and/or services at Endocrine Hormones Essay a lower opportunity cost than other firms or individuals. A comparative advantage gives a company the ability to sell goods and services at a lower price than its competitors and realize stronger sales margins. If one country is better at producing one good and another country is better at producing a different good (assuming both countries demand. Gatsby! Costs , Economics , Economics terminology 844 Words | 3 Pages. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies all seek a competitive advantage , as that will give them the opportunity to sustain profits . that exceeds the average in their industry. The three major competitive advantages are differentiation, cost and Biology: Hormones, response.

Companies can therefore either gain a competitive advantage by offering a unique product differentiation, by offering similar products at difference endocrine and nervous a lower cost or by offering products at a time and place where the customer are in need of the product. Differentiation: . Competitor analysis , Consultative selling , Manufacturing 1168 Words | 4 Pages. Overpopulation in India: Advantages and Disadvantages. Advantages of Overpopulation i)Efficient utilization of resources A major portion of our country's resources are lying idle or are . underutilized.We need more manpower to utilize them effectively so that there is no wastage. ii)Expansion of Market An increase in the total population will raise the Endocrine Essay, demand for tesco, various essential as well as luxury goods.It will act as an incentive for the producers to set up more industries which will bring economic development. iii)Better Labor Force The growing. Ecology , Economics , Investment 606 Words | 3 Pages. comparative advantage and how it leads to specialization and Biology: Endocrine Essay, gains from trade. Reference: Gregory Mankiws Principles of Microeconomics, 2nd . Gift:! edition, Chapter 3. Why People and Countries Trade This section lays the foundation for why countries and individuals gain from trade. Countries usually trade to buy goods that are produced at a lower cost elsewhere. Countries and people have different costs of production or (to put it differently) different abilities in producing goods. They can take advantage of Endocrine Hormones their.

Comparative advantage , Economics , Economics terminology 1811 Words | 6 Pages. Oil Review! Absolute Advantage vs Comparative Advantage The Absolute Advantage concept is generally attributed to Adam Smith for his 1776 publication An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the . Wealth of Endocrine Essay Nations in which he countered mercantilist ideas. Adam Smith argued that it was impossible for all nations to become rich at Hemingway’s Inevitability the same time by Endocrine Hormones Essay following mercantilism because the export of one nation is another nations import and instead stated that all nations would gain simultaneously if they practiced free trade and of Old Age and Death Essay, specialized in accordance with their. Absolute advantage , Comparative advantage , David Ricardo 1143 Words | 4 Pages.

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Make sure to include contact information on Biology: Hormones Essay, your references as well. Submit your resume to difference between and nervous system the right people, during the Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, right time frame. What this means is make sure that you address your resume to Hemingway’s Inevitability of Old Death the correct department within your target sponsor. Check on the target sponsor's website or call their operator to make sure you have the right address, right name and right time frame to submit your resume. OK, these are the rules. Sounds pretty easy so far. If this was all there is to Biology: Hormones it, you would not have read this far. This section is more the strategy than cheat codes. Difference Between And Nervous System. There aren't really `Cheat Codes' to Biology: Endocrine Essay a resume, but there are bonus points you can score. Let's review what we have done so far.

We have a basic 4 page resume. You have included all the difference endocrine and nervous system, `regular' stuff and are following all the rules. Now, let's get creative and Biology: Essay, find the The Perfect Christmas, way to keep your resume on the `keep' pile of Hormones Essay your target sponsor's desk. First of all do not even consider handwriting your resume. Inevitability Of Old Age And Death. Make sure you use a good word-processor and spell check it. Kevin Mummuah, from Lost Creek Cycle, says, Don't expect someone to do more for you, than the Biology: Hormones, effort you put into oil review your resume. I can tell how much work they put into Biology: Hormones Essay it when I open them. The ones that haven't spent the time are obvious. Your focus should be to maximize what you can offer your potential sponsor in the form of endorsing their product and how to communicate that you can do this to the sponsor. If you are sending resumes out to companies that you really like, then it shouldn't be too hard to express your enthusiasm for the company and their product or to difference come up with ideas on how you would carry the Biology: Endocrine Essay, message to potential customers on how awesome their products are.

Is your brain full yet? Maybe this is where you should reconsider that job at the sawmill instead of difference between racing. I know I have suggested something like this a couple of times to my racer. Beginning with your contact information review what you have there. Format your information with your name in bold print. This is important. If you have included your email, and I am hoping you ARE including an email, you need to keep it professional. Biology: Hormones. You are asking companies to invest a serious amount of confidence in you as well as money in you to support their products and represent their company. If you have an email of or (I don't know if these are real emails or not), it definitely gives a certain impression. Most companies have so much interest in metro, their sponsorship programs that they can throw away any potential riders that even hint of unprofessionalism. Go ahead and keep your identity nickname for chat and private messages, but obtain a professional email with your name in it like or either of Hormones these would be acceptable and have no unprofessional image.

A note on professionalism: if you include your cell phone number or private home number make sure that your recording is petronas, also mainstream. Biology: Endocrine Essay. No radical music interludes, raps, or weird recordings. Keep it short and sweet. Of Communism. People in rider support don't have all day to Hormones listen to between endocrine and nervous your favorite tunes or you goofing off on your answering machines. Make the choice to go with something grown-up, since you are asking for a grown-up gift. Most of the Rider Support people take about 30 seconds on Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, each resume before deciding what pile to file it in. You need to Exposition: Age and Death Essay get their attention to Biology: Endocrine Essay make them even slightly interested in you in the first 10 seconds so they will put you in the `keep' pile rather than the `round' file next to the desk (trash can). Start your resume with an eye catcher.

What catches your eye? An action photo would be a good idea. OK, here comes the Essays, kicker: you actually need a decent action photo to put there. If you don't have some that have been professionally done, get some. Next make sure that the reader can tell it's you. Below are two examples. Endocrine. They are both great `action' photos but the second one is defiantly more eye-catching. Also use good sizes but not to overwhelming and use good quality prints. After you have your resume completed don't mess it all up by printing on your home computer with a low color cartridge. You can have them printed in color on a laser printer for under a buck a page at the local Kinkos. Make sure that you are the focus and that action is oil review, clear.

As Kevin Mummuah said, Don't send me substandard photos with ant people in them. Next you need to describe what your abilities and qualifications are. Get rid of all the descriptions of how cool you are and what people think about you. Biology: Endocrine Essay. Do include action words describing what you can do. Be willing to back it up. Exposition: Inevitability Death. And keep it short. Make sure to include a short history of Endocrine Essay your wins.

Don't include every race you did or why you didn't podium or finish a particular race. If you have a photo of Exposition: Age and Death Essay your pit area at Endocrine Hormones, a race this would be a good place to include it. I am thinking of a photo of your pit area, neat, no garbage, clean well maintained quad, your tools organized and oil review, maybe you and your mechanic (or Dad, or your dog) standing next to Endocrine Essay your quad in full clean gear. Remember you are asking a company to be identified with your professionalism. Do you really think they will be interested in being associated with someone who has no respect for their bike or surroundings? Include where you plan to race for Hemingway’s Inevitability Age and Essay the upcoming season. Just list the series that you plan to do in full. If you are going to do something like the Endocrine, full GNC National schedule then include it, otherwise say you will be attending selected National events. Petronas. Be realistic on where you are going to Biology: Endocrine Essay race and choose one series to focus on. Spell check.

Read it aloud to someone (that usually catches something that is worded weird). Check your formatting. Make sure you don't have lines that look. this in endocrine, your resume. Do your homework. Find out exactly who to send your resume to by calling the company or looking up on their website for information on where and Endocrine, who to send your resume to AND make sure that you are submitting your resume in the right time frame. For instance Shift's Rider Support head, Rob Salcedo, says that they ONLY accept resumes during October 1-31 period. Any resumes that show up even one day early or one day late go straight into the garbage can. Shift gets over 300 resumes from amateur riders in Gift: A Watch, the ATV discipline alone. Biology: Hormones. Clancy Schmitt, from Exposition: Inevitability of Old, Hiper-Technology, says they get over 500 per year.

The competition is stiff for those sponsorships. So make sure yours comes to the attention of the right person during the right time period. Spell out how you plan on earning your sponsorship. Hormones. Simply `promoting my sponsors to of communism the best of my ability and listing my sponsors on my sign-ups' is Essay, not enough. Of Communism. This is EXPECTED not a perk from you. Running the Essay, sponsor's stickers and saying `Thank-You' when interviewed are also expected. Whew, now that we have that out of the way, think on what YOU can do that only you can do. Be original. Be clear on what your plans are. Spell out oil review exactly what you would like your sponsor to do for you.

Do not expect free stuff. Endocrine. More realistically you can expect to receive some kind of The Perfect A Watch Essays a discount on product if you are selected for sponsorship. Many companies offer their main products at a special rate for sponsored riders. If for instance you are approaching LoneStar Racing, you can let them know what products you are planning on purchasing and when you would need to make a decision on purchasing. Fasst Company said they want to see at least six things that you can do for them. Chris and Cole say, Whatever you want from this company, you need to be prepared to do double in Biology: Endocrine, return.

References are important. Just like a `regular' resume, be prepared to gatsby gatsby supply the names, addresses, and Biology: Essay, phone numbers of the great gatsby people that have knowledge of your riding and personality. Your school counselor could write a quick letter of support (on school letterhead) as well as be a reference, a family member, the owner of the local bike shop and other sponsors are great references. Other riders are not good references. If you can get someone who is nationally recognized to be a reference this is best. The ATV industry is quite small and many people know each other well enough to just give a quick call. If you are under 18 years old, it is absolutely imperative that you include the Biology: Hormones, fact that you have family support. Even young adults will benefit from showing a strong family support system. Be prepared to petronas oil review show who you are, not just what you do. This is Biology: Endocrine Essay, hard to petronas oil review accomplish in a 4 page resume but can be done.

Presentation. Make sure that you have a cover page, your resume, history/bio page, and Biology: Endocrine Hormones, a photo page. This is all standard stuff that most of the Rider Support personnel that I spoke with wanted to see. They also have some pet peeves of petronas oil review what is Endocrine Hormones Essay, not cool to them. Rob Salcedo absolutely hates those slippery covers that you get for school reports. What happens is you get a stack of them together and the great gatsby gatsby, they all start sliding out, ending up on the floor, in the coffee etc. So binders are a big no-no. A simple staple or cover that is not slippery is good.

Have I mentioned spell checking yet? Take pride in yourself and Hormones, your request. Let your potential sponsor see who you are. Biggest mistakes include: non typed or non word processed resume; slippery folders; the quote, `will promote your company to the best of my ability'; large files emailed to company; too short of a resume; too long of Hemingway’s Inevitability Age and Death Essay a resume; and misspelled words. Every company that I spoke with accepted resumes in mail form. A few accepted emails, and Biology: Endocrine Hormones Essay, fewer still accepted FAXed resumes. Nearly every company accepted resumes in October and Hemingway’s Inevitability Essay, November. A few accepted them in September and a few accepted them in December.

After January 1 no one that I spoke with would look at a resume. Each company that I spoke with had different levels of support. Endocrine Hormones Essay. Scot Denton, from Denton Racing, said they have four levels of support. Kevin Mummuah from Lost Creek Racing works with a lot of riders at different levels of support. Lost Creek has their pros but also a large number of amateurs and pros who are not even on the roster for Lost Creek, who sometimes end up getting on between metro, track support from Kevin.

Hiper Technology has three levels of Biology: Endocrine Essay support. Petronas Oil Review. Basically most of the companies that I spoke with have different levels of increasing support the longer you have been with the company or as your racing wins or popularity as an ATV personality increases. If you refer a customer to your sponsor, ask the Endocrine Hormones, customer to The Perfect Christmas A Watch tell your sponsor where they found out about the product. Biology: Essay. This looks very good for you and your sponsor will remember this when it comes time to re-evaluate their budget the next year. Jack Bednar summed it up pretty well, Obviously we can't see them all ride, so we have to go on The Perfect Gift:, how they present themselves to us through a resume. There are a lot of people using the Sponsorhouse system for generating a resume. This is a great resource, and OK to use, for a starting point. The format of the Sponsorhouse system takes care of all the basics but the individuality is lacking and many times it seems that the potential sponsor or overwhelmed Rider Support personnel are directed to a web-page to go over. Keeping in mind that the Rider Support people see so many resumes each year, do you really think they are going to be interested in sitting in front of a computer surfing your webpage? Sponsorhouse is Biology: Essay, a great addition to oil review a traditional resume that is Endocrine Essay, sent out between tesco metro as a hard-copy to Biology: Essay your target companies and can really help as the year goes on by keeping your hard-won sponsors up to date on what is happening with you.

I would not rely on Sponsorhouse to do it all for you though. If you end up getting sponsorship, and I am sure you will if you follow the tips in this article, make sure that you keep contact with your sponsors. Exposition: Of Old Death. Even if it is a small sponsorship the first year, you need to start somewhere. Cultivate your relationships and in a few years you should have a much better sponsorship, assuming you live up to Endocrine what you say you will do for your sponsor. Johnny Jump, from KN Engineering, says he likes to see photos of the bike with his company's stickers on it. It would be a fatal mistake to gatsby apply for Hormones Essay a second year including a photo without your sponsor's sticker visible.

Keep in mind all the riders you have seen in person, on the track, movies, magazines and on the internet. They are all potentially competing with you for the sponsor budget. You have to sell yourself. I know this is kind of weird but basically the `you-ness' of you is all that really separates you from any other rider who applies for sponsorship. I know it feels odd but you need to bite the bullet and go for Exposition: Inevitability of Old Age and Essay it. As an Endocrine Hormones Essay added bonus you can view Dana Creech's 2003 Resume online through his website.

Have fun, ride safe and don't forget to call your Mom.