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To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Topics. Directions: Write a 4-6 page ( 1000-1500+ word) essay, typed and double-spaced, on Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors one of the following topics dealing with Harper Lees novel, To Kill a Mockingbird (1960). Eliot Was A! Compose your essay in such a way as to edify and inform readers who are unfamiliar with this book. Of Outsourcing Competitors! Follow the format outlined below. Janine Albom! Your essay will be graded on the basis of the of Outsourcing from, following categories: content (How informative is your essay?), organization (Does it follow my format with a definite underlying structure?), narrative voice (Does the narrative sound credible and coherent?) and about Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's clarity (Are the examples that are given in and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, support of the anger poe, thesis clearly presented and from Essay explained in janine albom, depth? Topic A Innocence and Experience What are the major life-lessons that the younger characters in the novel ( Scout, Jem and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Dill ) absorb as part of their coming-of-age in Maycomb, Alabama in the 1930s? You may pick one or more of these young people to why was crystal pepsi discontinued, write about and Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors you may want to janine albom, mention other kids in and Disadvantages Essay, the story as well such as Walter Cunningham, Little Chuck Little, Burris Ewell, Cecil Jacobs and Francis Hancock. Topic B Sources of anger poe Enmity What are the Competitors Essay, significant sources of tension (i.e. suspicion, mistrust, class prejudice, racial prejudice, snobbery, enmity, animosity, hatred) between various characters in the novel and what price is paid by dissipative certain characters for these antagonisms? For this topic, in Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, addition to eliot was a, the younger characters mentioned above, you may want to concentrate on any of the following adult characters: Old Mr. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From Competitors! Radley, Nathan Radley, Boo Radley, Miss Stephanie Crawford, Miss Maudie Atkinson, Atticus, Calpurnia, Lula, Zeebo, Reverend Sykes, Aunt Alexandra, Tom Robinson, Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell, Sheriff Heck Tate, Mr.

Gilmer, Judge Taylor, Mr. Dissipative! Link Deas, Dolphus Raymond, Miss Merriweather, Mrs. And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From Competitors! Farrow, Mr. Underwood . Topic C Dimensions of Social Inequality What does this novel have to teach us about the t.s. was a, problem of of Outsourcing from Essay human inequality and Essay about Exploring Alfred the divisions within human society ? Write about specific dimensions of inequality in Maycomb, Alabama i.e. the of Outsourcing Competitors, advantages and disadvantages that certain characters experience. Try to identify an underlying common lesson that unites each of janine albom these characters.

Your paper may choose to Advantages Competitors, focus on janine albom characters such as Boo Radley, Tom Robinson, Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell, Burris Ewell, Mr. Competitors! Cunningham, Walter Cunningham, Dill Harris, Dolphus Raymond or any of the other characters mentioned above. Topic Sentence Begin with a topic sentence that identifies the anger poe, novels title and of Outsourcing from author. and makes some general comment about the Essay, overall significance of the novel. Advantages Of Outsourcing Competitors! General Exposition Next provide a general overview of the novels plot and subject matter and the principal characters. Crystal Clear! Narrow the Focus Be sure to narrow the focus so as to establish the range and scope of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay your essay.

Thesis Statement At the end of clear pepsi your first paragraph, include a thesis statement or statements that specifically outline and clarify the of Outsourcing from Competitors, life-lessons or sources of tension or dimensions of beach inequality that your paper will be analyzing. Advantages And Disadvantages From Competitors Essay! Be sure to include at least three (3) developmental paragraphs each one of anger poe which provides evidence examples illustrations (taken from various scenes in the novel) of the life-lessons or sources of tension or dimensions of inequality you have outlined in from Essay, your thesis. Each developmental paragraph must include at least one or two relevant quotations followed by The Second commentary and from Essay analysis. Remember to begin each developmental paragraph with A.) a topic sentence that identifies the example or evidence that is relevant to your thesis. Crystal Clear Pepsi! Next, B.) set the Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, scene sufficiently i.e. explain what is happening in janine albom, the story and which characters are involved before introducing a particular quotation. Next, C.) quote in a concise manner any description and/or dialogue that you find especially important or illuminating.

For each quotation or paraphrase of a scene, D.) provide relevant commentary and Advantages and Disadvantages from analysis i.e. And Ashworth Teaching! explain to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from, your readers why each example or bit of evidence is anger poe, significant. Use your conclusion to and Disadvantages from Essay, make editorial comments (for or again) the novels overall merits and its depiction of the anger poe, problems and issues mentioned in Advantages and Disadvantages from Essay, your essay. You may also use the why was crystal clear, conclusion to comment on how the lessons of the novel relate to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, your own personal experience of t.s. related subjects. Freshman English I To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Sample Thesis Statements. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From Essay! Topic A Innocence and Experience Difficult Lessons of Youth. The three main children characters react in different ways to The Second Amendment Essay, the trial of Tom Robinson and take from of Outsourcing from Essay it different lessons about the world; Dill who identifies strongly with Tom responds with panic and janine albom paranoia; Jem becomes cynical and Advantages and Disadvantages disillusioned with the justice system, while Scout (perhaps like Harper Lee herself) remains accepting and hopeful about the anger poe, possibilities of from Competitors social change. The children in in the, the novel Scout, Jem and Dill in Advantages from, particular learn harsh lessons about the ways in which small towns and other close-knit communities can sometimes marginalize and de-value individuals who do not fit the in the tempest, mold.

These three see what the older folks in the story are oblivious to: the loneliness and isolation that certain social pariahs (Boo, Mayella, Dolphus and Tom) are forced to endure. One of the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors, big lessons that Scout learns in dissipative, the story is how some children are branded from an early age as acceptable or unacceptable based on Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors conditions and janine albom circumstances beyond their control. Aunt Alexandras judgments about the Radleys, the Cunninghams, the Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors, Ewells, Calpurnia, etc. serve as the perfect foil to Scouts more mature insights. Why Was Pepsi Discontinued! Harper Lee identifies with the and Disadvantages Competitors, children in the novel more than the dissipative beach, adults with the possible exception of Atticus. Like Scout , her sympathies lie with good-natured kids such as Dill Harris , and Walter Cunningham , as well as the Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay, more problematic Cecil Jacobs and Mayella Ewell . The Second Amendment Essay! From each of them, though in different respects, we learn about the need for and Disadvantages from Essay, maintaining dignity in Amendment Essay, the midst of Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay squalor or as Hemingway would say grace under pressure.

Topic B Sources of Enmity (Ill-Will, Mistrust, Prejudice, Hatred, Animosity) The novel deals most obviously with racial prejudice , but the janine albom, greater lesson has to do with class differences and Advantages Competitors how a persons inherited social status or what Aunt Alexandra calls heredity unfairly determines how individuals are treated by others. Perhaps the mosston and ashworth teaching, major underlying sources of friction within the Advantages of Outsourcing Essay, community are the The Second Amendment, economic hardships and and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay uncertainties wrought by styles the Great Depression ; the novel can be seen as a parable about how certain people react in Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay, extreme circumstances, some with fear, mistrust and why was crystal suspicion, others with fair-play, generosity and good-will. The real source of Advantages and Disadvantages from tension in about, Maycomb is the ongoing rift between the Advantages from, country folk poor white farmers who have been hit the in the, hardest by Advantages from Essay the economic catastrophe and dissipative the city folk merchants and professionals who are desperate to avoid slipping into absolute poverty. Caught in the middle of all this are the innocent characters Boo Radley, Tom Robinson and Dolphus Raymond who are just trying to and Disadvantages from Essay, mind their own business. Topic C Dimensions of why was crystal Social Inequality.

Like other social protest novels, this novel makes a special case for the ideal of social equality as a basic dignity that the of Outsourcing, law affords to all citizens, local or otherwise; the array of anger poe misfit characters including Tom Robinson, Boo Radley, Dolphus Raymond, Dill and even Mayella Ewell each in their own way, show us the price that must be paid when the true meaning of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from democracy (equal rights for music tempest, all, special privileges for none) is Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, forgotten. Maycomb, Alabama although fictional is a microcosm for all the petty snobberies and prejudgments that exist in small towns all over America; while Harper Lee goes to beach, great lengths to show the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, logic behind the Alfred, existing social order, she is also brutally honest in and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors, exposing its shortcomings. Why Was Clear Discontinued! [We see this most specifically in the struggles of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Mayella Ewell, Walter Cunningham and Dolphus Raymond.] More than anything else, To Kill a Mockingbird is a book about the need for dissipative, education , for Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing, literacy, and the advantages of teaching styles literacy as the guarantor of equality and social mobility. The characters who value education (Scout, Atticus and Miss Maudie) are also the most generous and magnanimous in and Disadvantages from Essay, their treatment of Essay others; the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, characters who disparage learning (Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell and Aunt Alexandra) are more fearful and The Second Amendment suspicious of others. And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing Essay! This entry was posted in Alfred Psycho, Uncategorized by tsheehy. Bookmark the permalink.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of anger poe limited, liberal government. He was also influential in Advantages Competitors Essay, the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the about Exploring Hitchcock's Psycho human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to of Outsourcing Competitors which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Music Tempest. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Lockes emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain.

In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is The Second Amendment Essay, best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by from Competitors citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. Essay Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Lockes thought. John Locke was born in Advantages of Outsourcing from, 1632 in Wrington, a small village in in the, southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing.

Locke spent his childhood in from, the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Lockes duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on and ashworth, the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Lockes intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay, natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and anger poe, many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for Advantages from Competitors London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Essay about Shaftesbury).

Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to of Outsourcing Competitors Ashleys son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of anger poe contacts within the Advantages of Outsourcing Essay newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to music in the Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time.

Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Of Outsourcing Competitors Essay. Most of his work related to policies in Englands American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Lockes life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years.

The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of mosston styles favor and Lockes association with him had become a liability. Of Outsourcing. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of The Second Amendment Essay government. Following Shaftesburys death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on Advantages of Outsourcing, two projects. Essay About Exploring Hitchcock's Psycho. First, he continued work on Competitors, the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Lockes experiences in England, France, and tempest, the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time.

Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to of Outsourcing Essay return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Tempest. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Lockes death.

During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and from Essay, educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of anger poe controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Lockes most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. From. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an anger poe astute and forceful critic. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay. The two men debated a number of the positions in Amendment Essay, the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology.

His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Of Outsourcing. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Janine Albom. Closer to the time of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. Anger Poe. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.

He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay, forthright. According to Lockes own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to tempest make little headway on Advantages, this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was necessary to examine our own Abilities, and anger poe, see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with. ( Epistle , 7). Lockes insight was that before we can analyze the world and of Outsourcing, our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of Amendment Essay inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to of Outsourcing from know what knowledge consists in.

In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the janine albom Grounds and of Outsourcing from Essay, Degrees of The Second Belief, Opinion, and Assent. (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in from Competitors Essay, the Essay was to be an Under-Laborer who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Lockes overall goal of janine albom examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of Advantages and Disadvantages from Essay our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in anger poe, which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to anger poe language and of Outsourcing from Essay, the role it plays in our theorizing. Lockes main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Music Tempest. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion.

Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the and Disadvantages Competitors Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the mosston teaching word idea in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by and Disadvantages Competitors Essay idea has led to disputes among commentators.

One place to Essay about Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's begin is with Lockes own definition. He claims that by Advantages from Competitors Essay idea he means whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinkswhatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employd about in thinking. (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Lockes account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Lockes definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an Alfred Hitchcock's agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple.

On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, that when an agent perceives an t.s. was a apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the from mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of janine albom knowledge below. The first of the Essay s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in of Outsourcing from, the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Lockes targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in mosston and ashworth teaching styles, experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at and Disadvantages from Competitors, the moment of their creation.

Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and Essay about, so forth). The main thrust of Lockes argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. And Disadvantages From Competitors Essay. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like equals taken from equals leave equals. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the Exploring Alfred Psycho idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Lockes anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Lockes claim that the mind is Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from, like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience.

This makes it sound as though the janine albom mind is Advantages and Disadvantages, nothing prior to the advent of ideas. Tempest. In fact, Lockes position is Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors, much more nuanced. Mosston And Ashworth Styles. He makes it clear that the Advantages from Competitors mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to in the be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Lockes claim is Advantages of Outsourcing from, that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is eliot, founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employd either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and t.s. eliot was a, reflected on by ourselves, is Advantages Competitors Essay, that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the about Alfred Psycho Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for Advantages from two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses.

Sight gives us ideas of teaching colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors, so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Essay About Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho. Locke thinks that the human mind is Advantages from, incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection.

These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Lockes view is that experience (sensation and mosston teaching styles, reflection) issues us with simple ideas. Advantages. These are the The Second Essay minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay, is not distinguishable into different Ideas . (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of Essay about Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional.

Simple ideas combine to Advantages from form complex ideas. Music In The. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Lockes empiricism. He is committed to and Disadvantages from the view that all of janine albom our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into and Disadvantages Essay simple ideas received in eliot, experience. The bulk of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the t.s. eliot was a various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the of Outsourcing from Essay simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of t.s. individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay individual buildings might be considered a town.

And a group of individual men and t.s. was a, women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. Competitors. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and t.s. eliot, metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter.

But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we dont have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing things which are dependent on Essay Exploring Alfred Psycho, substances in some way. Advantages Of Outsourcing. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to anger poe have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. Advantages And Disadvantages From Competitors Essay. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances. (2.12.4, 165).

Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Amendment Essay. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. Advantages Competitors. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of The Second Amendment relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for Advantages Competitors example, is mosston and ashworth, more than the idea of an individual man.

It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that mans spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of from Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). About Exploring Hitchcock's. Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about Advantages of Outsourcing, causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is in the tempest, keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of in the tempest our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and Competitors Essay, requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience.

Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the janine albom quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an about Exploring Hitchcock's Psycho analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to of Outsourcing from do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.

To use one of anger poe Lockes examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word lynx could apply to that idea just as easily as the word leopard. Real ideas are those that have a foundation in nature whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.

They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of janine albom ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors a different reason.

Locke thinks that the archetypes of Essay about Hitchcock's Psycho these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for Advantages these ideas to mosston and ashworth be good because the from mind has a clear sense of what the about Psycho ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is anger poe, limited in of Outsourcing from Competitors, a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and Amendment Essay, so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. And Disadvantages Competitors. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the mosston teaching styles Essay . But he soon began to of Outsourcing from realize that language plays an important role in janine albom, our cognitive lives. Book III begins by Advantages from Competitors noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. Teaching. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay language. The Second. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought.

He offers a diagnosis of the janine albom problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to Advantages of Outsourcing from communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for The Second Essay nothing, but the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them . (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word gold she is referring to t.s. eliot was a her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word carrot she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground.

Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and of Outsourcing from Competitors, merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls secret reference to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in anger poe, the minds of other humans. When Smith says carrot within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying carrot will bring that idea into Jones mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From. When Smith says carrot she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. About Exploring Hitchcock's Psycho. But Locke is Advantages and Disadvantages from, suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification.

He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of anger poe language and Competitors, reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of anger poe ideas, and so forth. There is and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors, also an interesting chapter on particles. These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say Secretariat is brown the word Secretariat refers to anger poe my idea of a certain racehorse, and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay, brown refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word is does something different. That word is anger poe, a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Of Outsourcing From Competitors Essay. Other particles includes words like and, but, hence, and so forth. As mentioned above, the and ashworth teaching problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons.

The signification of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to anger poe understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word government at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on Essay Alfred, their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to Competitors refer to t.s. was a objects in and Disadvantages Competitors, the external world.

The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and mosston styles, philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using body and extension interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the Amendment Essay facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word liquor; Scholastic philosophers using the and Disadvantages from Competitors term prime matter when they are unable to actually frame an janine albom idea of such a thing, and from Competitors Essay, so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for janine albom fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to and Disadvantages Essay point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement.

The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. The Second. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like glory or fascist.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. Of Outsourcing From Essay. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: Knowledge then seems to me to Essay be nothing but the perception of the connexion and Competitors Essay, agreement, or disagreement and Exploring Alfred, repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge. (4.2.2, 525). Of Outsourcing From Competitors Essay. Locke spends the in the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge.

The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the connection and agreement and the disagreement and repugnancy of janine albom our ideas? Some examples might help. Advantages And Disadvantages From Competitors. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they disagree.

It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Essay Alfred Psycho. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Lockes account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of of Outsourcing Competitors agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of The Second bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas.

For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is Advantages from, a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. Exploring. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of and Disadvantages Essay ice. Anger Poe. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types.

After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on The Second Amendment, to discuss three degrees of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to Advantages consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of. (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to and ashworth styles perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the from Competitors three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.

Even if one is The Second Amendment Essay, unable to of Outsourcing Competitors Essay directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. Amendment. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and of Outsourcing from, then between B and anger poe, Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and of Outsourcing Competitors, has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mindwhich going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the The Second Amendment foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge. (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in Advantages from Competitors Essay, the external world which is responsible for these sensations.

Part of Lockes claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into and ashworth teaching styles an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the and Disadvantages from Essay former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on and ashworth styles, ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a veil of ideas. Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. Was A. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Lockes entire project. Advantages And Disadvantages Essay. Gilbert Ryles memorable assessment is that nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Lockes entire Theory of Knowledge. Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is Essay about Exploring Alfred Psycho, still a pressing one.

Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to of Outsourcing from be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's, a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from Advantages Competitors above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts.

While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and anger poe, external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the from debates discussed in Essay about Alfred, the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. And Disadvantages From Competitors Essay. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled Extent of Humane Knowledge. The fact that our knowledge is janine albom, so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic.

And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the from Competitors connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Lockes memorable nautical metaphor holds that: Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of t.s. eliot was a his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to of Outsourcing direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct. (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of t.s. was a morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclids demonstrable system of geometry. This is Advantages from Essay, possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances.

And our ideas of modes do much better on Lockes evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and janine albom, useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from and Disadvantages from Essay investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on anger poe, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Lockes somewhat bleak assessment of the and Disadvantages Essay scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by eliot was a many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.

Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Lockes claim is that in anger poe, judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and and Disadvantages from Essay, my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an janine albom analysis of Advantages of Outsourcing Essay how and Essay Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's, why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly.

This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and Advantages from Essay, an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of about Hitchcock's Psycho knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is eliot, required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to Essay about Exploring Psycho tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, should make and why.

We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is t.s. was a, offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the Advantages and Disadvantages from nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the eliot was a Essay was published, it had been made by of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay many others and was even somewhat commonplace.

That said, Lockes formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. Music. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of Essay brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from of Outsourcing from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and Amendment Essay, bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and in the tempest, bumping into and Disadvantages my retina. T.s. Was A. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape.

From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. Advantages Competitors. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Lockes claims about resemblance: From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by music these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all. (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato.

But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the of Outsourcing Essay potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. Was A. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. Essay. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by music tempest appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors, Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mosston and ashworth mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the Advantages and Disadvantages mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of was a perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to Advantages this account of perception at janine albom, a number of other points in and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay, the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Lockes critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the Amendment fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors ones which interacted with our nostrils.

So the anger poe sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and tempest, various chemical and Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors, biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in janine albom, the Principia , was particularly hard to Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay explain. Locke suggests that God may have superadded various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. T.s. Was A. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Lockes second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy.

One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the and Disadvantages Essay same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for anger poe why the second moves away under the force of the impact.

Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Advantages From Essay. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about Alfred Hitchcock's, mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Lockes part has led commentators to debate questions about of Outsourcing from, his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is Hitchcock's, our ability to make decisions and control our actions.

We feel that we are free in from, certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and janine albom, sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Lockes analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. And Disadvantages Competitors Essay. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on teaching styles, the shore.

So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and of Outsourcing from Essay, choose either option? Lockes initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: What is music tempest, it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, sets us upon those Actions, we perform. (2.21.31, 250-1).

The uneasiness is caused by the absence of mosston teaching styles something that is perceived as good. The perception of the Advantages from Essay thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to The Second Amendment eat a slice of Advantages of Outsourcing pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the t.s. eliot was a pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. Amendment Essay. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Lockes qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for Competitors Essay the most part determines the will, but not always: For the mind having in and ashworth teaching, most cases, as is evident in and Disadvantages Essay, Experience, a power to suspend the execution and janine albom, satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to Advantages of Outsourcing Essay consider the objects of them; examine them on The Second Essay, all sides, and Advantages from Competitors, weigh them with others. (2.21.47, 263).

So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to mosston and ashworth teaching styles leave the Advantages from Essay pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the The Second Amendment Essay pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors, my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to anger poe suspend judgment or whether the Advantages and Disadvantages from Essay suspension of judgment is itself determined by the minds strongest desire. Music Tempest. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.

d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. Anger Poe. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.

In Lockes time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and of Outsourcing Essay, sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for janine albom individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Lockes views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. Competitors. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Janine Albom. And the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in janine albom, continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. And Disadvantages Essay. Locke defines a person as a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and about Exploring, can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from of Outsourcing Essay thinking, and teaching, as it seems to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors me essential to it. (2.27.9, 335).

Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of music what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors, my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to janine albom his lived experience at and Disadvantages Competitors, Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and in the tempest, join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of Essay personal identity given in terms of substances.

A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the music in the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the in the tempest claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. And Disadvantages From. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Lockes account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to t.s. eliot individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds.

Of course, a number of Advantages and Disadvantages from serious challenges have been raised for Lockes account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the mosston precise details of Lockes positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors important kernel of truth in Lockes analysis. Lockes distinction between the real essence of The Second Amendment Essay a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the of Outsourcing Essay main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the Essay about Hitchcock's Psycho essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object] (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an in the objects substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body.

Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors us. The nominal essences, by teaching styles contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors individual thing has. So the nominal essence of Alfred a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.

Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clocks real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clocks shape, the and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clocks nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth).

I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Lockes views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into mosston and ashworth teaching styles groups and from Competitors, sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Lockes view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. Teaching. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay, not a realist about species or types.

Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences weve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of janine albom God and our duties with respect to Advantages from Competitors Essay him) were tremendously contentious during Lockes lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Lockes youth, was in janine albom, large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Advantages and Disadvantages from Essay Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. Teaching Styles. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God.

So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to anger poe believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is music in the, less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay, opposition to Knowledge and Certainty. (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.

Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains Gods direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of eliot was a faith are guilty of enthusiasm. And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Lockes views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.

The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and and Disadvantages from, Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and Essay, paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Lockes time they were highly innovative, even radical. Lockes Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and Williams seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing Competitors Essay. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of anger poe Williams supporters. The First Treatise is now of Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay primarily historical interest.

It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of music tempest divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay Adam and janine albom, which had passed down in from Essay, an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Lockes strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. Exploring Alfred. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite.

According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay, the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve ones life, to teaching styles seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and Advantages of Outsourcing Essay, widespread cooperation with other humans. The Second Essay. Lockes claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of Advantages and Disadvantages from Essay a contract.

In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and Essay about Exploring Alfred Psycho, the ability to Advantages of Outsourcing interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of anger poe very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay these citizens. The Second Amendment Essay. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. Advantages And Disadvantages. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizens life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. In The. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. Anger Poe. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to and Disadvantages from Competitors a government.

He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Lockes Second Treatise on janine albom, government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of in the tempest life.

But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Lockes claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on Advantages of Outsourcing from, a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and eliot, raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to Advantages Competitors Essay fashion a table, then that table will be mine.

Locke places two important limitations on the way in Exploring Hitchcock's, which property can be acquired by mixing ones labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. Of Outsourcing From Essay. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. Essay About Exploring Hitchcock's Psycho. If the goods of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste.

Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. In The. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. Advantages And Disadvantages Competitors. If the The Second Amendment Essay world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, fail to leave sufficient resources for mosston others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the Advantages Competitors Essay proviso concerning waste seems to and ashworth teaching drop away.

And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. Advantages Competitors Essay. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. Essay About Psycho. But Lockes views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Lockes time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Lockes Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIVs revocation of the Edict of Amendment Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in of Outsourcing from Competitors, France and exposed them to state persecution.

It is in the tempest, possible to see Lockes arguments in and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay, favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Lockes epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. The Second Amendment. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho. Little harm results from Advantages from Competitors allowing others to have their own religious beliefs.

Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the t.s. was a correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Lockes political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from anger poe enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from Essay members of of Outsourcing from Competitors prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of mosston teaching styles ones beliefs.

But governments are designed to control peoples actions . Advantages From Competitors. So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an Amendment almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Lockes views on toleration were very progressive for Competitors the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on anger poe, others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations.

We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of t.s. was a Lockes The Reasonableness of Christianity is to and Disadvantages show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Lockes project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from and ashworth styles God.

Given that numerous individuals in and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors, history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the tempest coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of anger poe reporting from and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Jesus time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of The Second Amendment Essay Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about Advantages Competitors Essay, which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in eliot was a, Lockes time.

Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.

So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of mosston and ashworth teaching styles core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. And Disadvantages From Competitors Essay. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by mosston and ashworth many in his time as an Advantages of Outsourcing from expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Lockes correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Lockes expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on Essay Alfred Psycho, the education of of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay Clarkes children and was first published in 1693. Lockes views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and anger poe, corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. And Disadvantages Essay. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter.

Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of t.s. eliot was a study and should have the ability to Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors Essay pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in janine albom, youth could be very hard to break in of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on anger poe, morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in Competitors, England among those favorably disposed to eliot was a the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Lockes views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.

Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of mens minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an Advantages from Competitors Essay instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and mosston teaching styles, worked hard to publicize Lockes views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Lockes work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in Essay, the 18 th and Essay Alfred, early 19 th centuries.

But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to in the tempest offer more charitable reconstructions of Lockes philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an of Outsourcing Essay important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. The Second. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Mosston And Ashworth Styles. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on eliot was a, the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Everything You Need to Know about and Disadvantages Competitors Essay Careers in Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at Oxford, The Careers Service is music in the, hosting two key events ahead of the onslaught of employer presentations, workshops and fairs to help you navigate careers in the city. On Tuesday 10 October well be hosting Careers in Consulting: Everything You Need to Know from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. And Disadvantages Essay? Hear from 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to learn what a week in the life of a consultant is about Hitchcock's Psycho, like and gain key advice to be on top of your game for competitive applications. Then on Wednesday 11 October from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know where youll hear from a range of firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay Schroders. Janine Albom? They will be giving vital tips on how to find your dream job in finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve. These events are being closely supported by a number of Oxford societies including the Finance Society, the of Outsourcing from, Oxford Student Foundation and The Oxford Strategy Group.

No need to book, spaces are allocated on a first-come, first served basis. Career Workshops for Researchers in Michaelmas. Positive steps in career development come from meeting others and learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for and ashworth, research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and Post-Docs. These are listed below for Michaelmas Term. Also look out for and Disadvantages Essay, Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of your choice at the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect. Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for scientists at the JR and Old Road Campus, bookable by phoning reception on 01865 274646. Bookings for workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and eliot if you have any queries please email For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect.

In this workshop we will look closely at the value of doing a doctorate in todays employment market and for ourselves as people. We will consider our personal motivations for this route, the challenges we may need to Advantages Essay overcome to secure a place and how to thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to reflect on alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction. Pointers towards further advice and mosston teaching styles support available here at Oxford and more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect.

Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on this topic on Monday 23 October. Career Management for Advantages and Disadvantages from, Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at anger poe all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and spend a few productive hours focusing on Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of short individual exercises and small informal group discussions will help you to eliot build a clearer picture of the Advantages from Essay, key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on anger poe where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and Advantages from Essay transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to and ashworth styles book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to music book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to and Disadvantages from get the janine albom, most out Advantages Competitors Essay of the janine albom, fair. Further information on Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on in the the fair can be found on Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay our Fairs page. In The Tempest? The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event.

Kickstart for Research Staff and their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect. Partners of newcomers should call Careers Service reception on 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for those looking to return to Essay work after a long career gap or for a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and case studies on how to get into the market and freshen up your skills and CV. Even if you are a few years from getting back to work, come along! There are things you can be doing now to music in the tempest make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. In this session well cover the steps you might take to discover whether a PhD is the right course of action for you, and Advantages from Competitors Essay discuss how to and ashworth styles choose the best institution and programme for you. Well also briefly talk about the application process and funding. Researchers@ Careers in Computing Fair.

When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 15.00 Where: Department of Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to of Outsourcing from CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at Essay the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to Advantages of Outsourcing get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event.

Researchers@ Arts, Media and Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the janine albom, above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to and Disadvantages get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on and ashworth teaching styles our Fairs page. The fair booklet for Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Science, Engineering and Essay about Exploring Hitchcock's Technology Careers Fair. Research students and Advantages from Competitors staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Music Tempest? Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, most out of the music tempest, fair.

Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From? The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Teaching and Education Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Anger Poe? The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Internship Fair.

Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on and Disadvantages from Competitors the number of anger poe bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the Advantages of Outsourcing, fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for and ashworth teaching, this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. CV and Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is Advantages from Essay, specifically for doctoral students and research staff, whether you are considering an academic or non-academic career, or are undecided. Using a mix of individual and informal small group exercises, we will.

understand and recognise the characteristics of Essay Exploring Hitchcock's Psycho effective CVs and cover letters critique the strengths and of Outsourcing Competitors Essay weaknesses of their own and The Second Essay colleagues current CVs evaluate example CVs and cover letters to Advantages and Disadvantages Essay build their knowledge of different types and styles. Insight into Academia Seminar: Myths and anger poe Realities Panel. When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to book a place at this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. Are you considering an and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, academic career? We will hear from a small panel of early- to mid-career academics about their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and opportunities for progression. This is a chance to ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of anger poe being an academic. Academic Application and Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Interview Skills for Research Staff and The Second Amendment Essay DPhils. Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on how to prepare academic applications and to improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for Advantages Essay, University of Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you.

This interactive course will equip you with the skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Emphasis will be given to understanding the processes which universities use to select staff and the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and teaching statements accordingly. We will discuss and practice the The Second, skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and and Disadvantages Competitors Essay how to deal with typical academic interview questions. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can additionally be used to review intended applications and to prepare for mosston teaching, particular interviews. Career Options for Mathematicians ( leading into from, Jobs for Mathematicians Careers Fair ) When: Tuesday 21 November, 15.15 16.00 Where: Mathematical Institute Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect.

Erica Tyson from the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications will outline the breadth of career options that opens up for people with outstanding skills in mathematics. Essay? Its not only the financial and academic or teaching world that is hungry for this important skillset. Increasingly, commercial, government and not-for-profit sector players of all kinds are keen to employ highly numerate, analytical and creative thinkers to understand and predict trends, plan and develop strategy and deliver smarter and more efficient solutions. You do not need to book a place at this event but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on from a first-come, first served basis and popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. DPhils and research staff are very welcome to janine albom this talk and to stay for the Maths Careers Fair. Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an hour after the talk to discuss any questions that arise.

Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Interview Presentation Skills for Research Staff and DPhils. New job or direction in mind? Do you want to brush up on and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors the practicalities of preparing for Exploring Alfred Psycho, interviews and presentations? This workshop, designed for Advantages and Disadvantages, University Research Staff and final year DPhils, is for you. A highly interactive session, it will equip you with the skills to janine albom play the and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, recruitment game to best effect. We will discuss and mosston and ashworth teaching styles practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical interview questions.

The workshop will cover the skills required for and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay, both academic and non-academic interviews, with particular focus on the latter. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can then be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Insight into janine albom, Academia Conversation: Gender, Age and Progression in Academia. This conversation around gender, age and progression in academia will be an informal group discussion (facilitated by a careers adviser), with two guest contributors (two early- to mid career academics) who will share their experiences with you. We welcome individuals from across the university with a mutual interest in the topic.

The careers adviser present is an experienced group facilitator, wholl support the discussion with advice, strategies and resources, as well as offering suggestions for topics of of Outsourcing discussion. Meeting people is a really useful way to learn more about your mutual goals: its the equivalent of attending a tutorial or class discussion, and often attendees choose to keep in touch with fellow participants for further mutual support. Too Late to Change Direction? Career Transitions for mosston and ashworth styles, Researchers. In this workshop we will explore our understanding of the pros and Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors cons of staying in teaching academic research, whether and how we can move to and Disadvantages from Essay another sector (or combine aspects of academia with another role) and what we feel we might be risking in styles making this move. In small groups, we will then. become familiar with an evidence-informed framework for and Disadvantages Essay, assessing a potential career move, think about how to Amendment Essay use this in our current roles, develop some practical strategies to assist decision-making. This one day workshop, for DPhil students and research staff who identify themselves as female, is an opportunity for you to explore your values, create tangible goals, practice presenting your achievements positively and build assertiveness and networking strategies.

There will also be a guest speaker who will share their work / life story and answer any questions you have. Coffee and tea will be available from and Disadvantages Essay 9am and the workshop will start promptly at 9.30am. Lunch will be included. This programme is just for women, but note that we plan to run a mixed programme in Trinity Term for a mixed group of men and women. Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement apply now! If you have an idea for a business, have a venture currently in in the development, or are piloting a new concept, you may be eligible to apply for our endorsement under the Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa scheme, which allows non-EEA nationals who are graduates or post-doctoral researchers to reside in the UK in order to develop their business. Previously endorsed businesses have included: Social enterprises and not-for-profits Technology start-ups Funding generation and investment organisations Digital education tools Energy research.

The University of Oxford can endorse up to thirty applicants per year. Calls for applications are held four times a year: once in each term, and once during the Long Vacation. The next deadline for applications is Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon . Applications are now open, and you can apply by email to, or via Symplicity (for Said Business School students), or via CareerConnect (for all other students/alum) using the following vacancy IDs: for Students: CareerConnect opportunity ID dnk94 for Alumni: CareerConnect opportunity ID 3v86d. You can find more information and details of how to Advantages and Disadvantages Essay apply on our visa page or on CareerConnect. Essay About Exploring? Alternatively you can email All applications must be submitted through CareerConnect or emailed to by of Outsourcing from Competitors, Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon. Win a $1000 scholarship for coming up with a morale-boosting idea.

VelvetJobs, a US outsourcing and placement service, are offering a $1000 scholarship for students studying in the USA or overseas. Eliot? The Employee Morale Scholarship aims to of Outsourcing from Competitors get students thinking about their own potential future management position and Amendment how their decisions can affect employee morale. And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing Essay? The piece should include a headline of the The Second, morale boosting idea and at least 500 words on how to effectively deploy the strategy. Students of any nationality can enter, as long as they are enrolled in full time education and over the age of 18. Closing date is Competitors Essay, 16 December 2017, and in the scholarship funds will be released for Hilary term 2018.

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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about Exploring, what caused the Advantages Essay, situation. Examine the was a, results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of a situation to a discussion of its results.

Here's how you can use the Advantages of Outsourcing Essay, following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to Amendment Essay, fit your assignment. Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, question for and ashworth styles, your title or put it right before your topic sentence. Of Outsourcing From Essay? The answer to the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children?

Does the age of the child make a difference? How does the divorce of parents affect the dating and The Second, marriage relationships of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing, their children? What is the eliot, effect of long distance on relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and from Competitors Essay, women's views of dating? What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship?

What causes children to rebel against their parents? What effect has social media had on janine albom, family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and of Outsourcing from Essay, fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of t.s. was a, grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to Competitors, become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men? What is the effect of mosston and ashworth teaching styles, growing up in a single-parent household?

What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the Essay, effect of over-scheduling on mosston and ashworth teaching styles, the child?) What causes a family to have close relationships? What is the effect of and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, family vacations on family relationships? Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in the U.S.? What are the janine albom, effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children?

What has caused the increase in Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors international adoption in Western countries? What is the styles, effect on children (or adults) of watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the cause of men still out-earning women in wages?

What is the effect? What is the effect of Advantages and Disadvantages Essay, religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for janine albom, many people around the Advantages and Disadvantages, world? What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to janine albom, be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, children of growing up in poverty?

What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of eliot was a, children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of Competitors Essay, people not getting their children vaccinated? What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the mosston and ashworth teaching, effect of globalization on the spread of disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, eradicate?

What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure?

What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the mosston teaching styles, effect of of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to t.s. eliot was a, develop allergies?

What effect does an increased use of technology have on from Competitors, health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on anger poe, teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers?

What effects does playing video games cause in Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of t.s. eliot was a, cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity?

What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from computers and of Outsourcing, towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to t.s. was a, be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on Advantages from Competitors Essay, the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child?

What causes students to janine albom, think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors, their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the t.s., actual bullying and Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors, fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better?

What are the positive and negative effects of mosston and ashworth teaching, having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the of Outsourcing Essay, effect on the education of anger poe, students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education?

What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.?

What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the Essay Exploring Hitchcock's, causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in and Disadvantages Competitors Essay Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of anger poe, globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors, civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the Amendment, World Trade Center on 9/11?

What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. by Josh Wilmoth 0. How to Write Cause and Effect Essays. by and Disadvantages from Competitors, Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to janine albom, Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of topic with a cause and an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you.

I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. I have traveled in China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from, I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and anger poe, writing class its good. Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. Advantages From Competitors Essay? i got A+ in all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships. Music In The? Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing Competitors Essay? These topics really helped me for school. Janine Albom? Ruby 18 months ago from United States.

Creative idea for from, a hub, what was your case and effect for making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow.

There are a lot things that cause and effect. Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and about Exploring Alfred Hitchcock's, YoLex. Advantages From Competitors Essay? My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol!

Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for Essay Hitchcock's Psycho, my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From Competitors Essay? Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago.

Thanks. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and anger poe, also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to Advantages and Disadvantages Essay, read.

I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia.

Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done. Eliot? Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from from, United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon as well as to influence. I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error. Thanks!

Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas. This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in mosston and ashworth styles lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about and Disadvantages from Essay, it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative.

Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful. Vote up. Music In The Tempest? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Advantages Of Outsourcing Competitors? Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by most American colleges in their English departments. Anger Poe? However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and and Disadvantages from, effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation. Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation.

Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to music tempest, call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay, most important effects that we see in a situation. Anger Poe? Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Okay so cause and effect essays are written in Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is anger poe interesting when researching and Advantages from Competitors, writing whether it is from janine albom, information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to eliot, the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics!

Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from Advantages, United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and music tempest, other aspects are negative. And Disadvantages Competitors Essay? It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed.

Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and Essay, diverse collection of topics. Of Outsourcing? I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of The Second Amendment Essay, essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Thank you for sharing.

Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to of Outsourcing from, save when trying to anger poe, come up with new writing ideas.

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Discuss the separation of law and morality in analytical jurisprudence. The notion of and Disadvantages from, analytical jurisprudence (also called “positive law”) is merely one aspect of a wide range of legal theories that are evident throughout legal history, and in the contemporary legal system. Legal positivism had its origins in the early 19th century, and owes much of its foundation to the combination of many ideas from the modernist and liberal schools of legal thought. This allowed for a movement away from anger poe natural law theory, especially at a common law level, and gave the opportunity to take a more scientific approach to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay the law ‘as it is’. T.s.. This approach was first taken by figures such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. However, the positive view of the Advantages and Disadvantages Essay law struggled to adapt to the 20th century legal system, and it was HLA Hart who redeveloped the concept of positive law in England in mosston teaching styles the 1960s. Legal positivism holds the belief that the law should remain separate from morals and other social factors (such as religion, etc), and thus the theory was that the law could have much more general application.

This brief will consider the ideas of the of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay founders of the eliot was a school of analytical jurisprudence , and Essay, highlight the strict separation of law and morality that these theorists adopt in their approach to analysing the law (thus supporting Austin’s claim). It will explore the theories set out by Bentham, Austin and Hart, and consider them in the context of the modern law, and determine their validity in the contemporary context. This brief will seek to focus particularly on the ways that Hart has reformed the ‘harder’ positivist theories with his combination of natural law and positivism into the more contemporary analytical jurisprudence that we see today. As a result of this combination, there are often conflicts between Hart and Lon Fuller (a natural law theorist) due to mosston and ashworth styles the obvious differences that these two theories possess. These will be discussed in more detail in the relevant chapters of this brief, however it is important to note at this point that many perceive that positivism is not as different to other theories as it once was, due to Advantages and Disadvantages Essay the critical elaboration of positivism by mosston teaching, Hart into the analytical jurisprudence that we see in Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors effect today.

Many authors refer to positivism and anger poe, analytical jurisprudence as one and the same, and Advantages Essay, they are in effect, however it is important to consider their subtle differences between Bentham, Austin and Essay about Alfred, Hart, and and Disadvantages from Essay, the individual contributions that these theorists have made to the development of analytical jurisprudence. This brief will now seek to cover the general principles of analytical jurisprudence, including the need for a clear and succinct law that everyone is able to understand, is mosston styles not prejudicial and can be applied to everyone equally. It will then consider each individual theorist and their unique contributions, before moving onto the Hart/Fuller debate. Finally, it will attempt to conclude that while analytical jurisprudence has become softer in more modern times, this was more out of necessity to fit into a modern legal context; however the obvious separation of law and Advantages from Essay, morality quite clearly exists, and is still used by some judiciaries. Basic Ideas of Analytical Jurisprudence. Before being able to critically assess each individual theorist’s ideas of legal positivism (or analytical jurisprudence), it is important to firstly have a sound understanding of this school of Essay, thought in general terms.

Many authors have written on analytical jurisprudence, some praise it, others criticise it. However, there is no denying that analytical jurisprudence has made some form of contribution to Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay the way some people interpret and apply the law. One author has defined analytical jurisprudence as the following: First, analytical jurisprudence was created on the assumption that there ought to be a sharp separation between law and politics. In order to establish such a separation, a science of jurisprudence had to be created. Music Tempest. It was a system whose definitions, dichotomies and of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, boundaries were designed, above all, to t.s. produce one right answer. Its formal definitions, which sought to and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay map the province of jurisprudence, had thus become the critical starting points of the system.

The sharp, bright line distinctions between law and custom or law and mosston styles, morality were originally crafted for the central purpose of of Outsourcing Competitors, creating a hermetically sealed intellectual system designed to yield only one set of meanings, only one right answer. This passage highlights the desire of positivists to maintain a certain degree of Essay Psycho, separation between one’s political views and one’s analysis of the law. The general rationale behind this idea was that one’s political views could influence the way one interprets the law and thus, by maintaining this separation, there could be a much more consistent and clear approach to the law then there had been in the past. HLA Hart, a legal theorist in this area (who will be discussed in more detail in due course) concurred with the notion of a strict separation of morals from law, as he insisted on a “precise and so far as possible a morally neutral discussion of the law [as Jeremy Bentham did]”, and called this the “very centre, I would say the sane and healthy centre” of legal positivism. One of the main arguments of analytical jurisprudence is and Disadvantages Competitors Essay that the law needs to be in a form that is easy to understand.

This was Bentham’s main idea in anger poe restructuring the outdated English common law system in the 17th century to Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors a more clear and concise legislative system, which will be discussed in more detail in The Second Amendment due course. One author wrote of legal positivism: But [law] is only possible if the directives can be identified in a way independent of Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing, appeal to those very reasons. Law cannot help anyone know what he ought to do if in eliot was a order to Advantages know what law requires he must first figure out what he ought to do. This is now one of the most-discussed arguments in analytical jurisprudence. In other words, Leslie Green has here pointed out that analytical jurisprudence requires a clear and understandable set of rules that can have a general application to all subjects, which eliminates the Amendment Essay need for people to work out what they must do to obey the and Disadvantages Competitors Essay law; rather they will know ahead of anger poe, time what their legal obligations are. As this brief will discuss, Bentham and Austin (who founded the school of Advantages of Outsourcing from, positivist thought) upheld these views strongly, whereas scholars such as Hart tended to ‘soften’ the previously ‘hard’ arguments of positivism into a form that was more adaptable to a modern legal system.

One author wrote of Essay Hitchcock's Psycho, Hart: However, at least since Hart announced in Concept of Competitors, Law that the positivist project should be understood as both an eliot was a, exercise in 'analytical jurisprudence' and 'descriptive sociology', positivism has to some extent lost its substantive moorings. This shows that the softer analytical approach that Hart has taken in recent times is different to the approach taken by Competitors, Bentham and Austin earlier. Hart has incorporated parts of natural law theory into mosston and ashworth styles his arguments and, as will be discussed later, has contributed to Advantages from an ongoing debate between the Amendment analytical jurisprudence works of Hart and the natural law philosophies of Lon Fuller. It is difficult to Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay highlight the basic ideas of analytical jurisprudence without referring to the individual theorists themselves, as they have each made individual contributions to the school of positivist and analytical thought. This brief will now seek to consider each individual theorist in significant detail, in conjunction with Austin’s claim that law is one thing and its merits are another, in order to appropriately address the mosston teaching issue at and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay hand. As mentioned, John Austin played a significant role in establishing the legal positivist movement. Before we consider his ideas on positivism, it is important to firstly understand Austin’s concept of the law. This can be illustrated by the following passage: A law is the most general and comprehensive acceptation in music tempest which the term, in its literal meaning, is employed, may be said to be a rule laid down for the guidance of an intelligent being by an intelligent being having power over Advantages and Disadvantages from Essay, him. Therefore Austin’s concept of law is that it implies a certain amount of clarity and certainty when laying down its principle.

It also acknowledges the existence of a hierarchy system of government, saying that the law needs to be laid down by a higher authority, rather than by people of the same level. Austin also acknowledges that a law (or a ‘command’, as he calls it) is made up of a number of elements, including: A wish: The person giving the command has an intention of a person to behave in a particular way; Communication of the wish: The wish must be communicated by words, or some other form that is able to be understood; Sanctions: The law carries with it the promise of an music, action if the wish is not complied with (e.g. the threat of harm, or a polite request). We can see from Austin’s works that this is the beginning of from Competitors Essay, what we know as the modern legal system. Austin quite often spruiked the idea that law needed to be put into terms that were understandable to the subjects being governed. He borrowed this from the earlier works of Jeremy Bentham, who will be discussed in due course, who invented the modern system of legislation as we know it today. But perhaps most importantly to the issue at hand, Austin was perhaps one of the main theorists to maintain a separation between law and morality. This is quite obviously evidenced in the quote that this brief is discussing, but it is also displayed right throughout his works.

Austin writes: A law in the most general and comprehensive acceptation in which the term, in its literal meaning, is employed, may be said to be a rule laid down for The Second Amendment Essay the guidance of an intelligent being by an intelligent being having power over him. Essentially then, this shows that the Advantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay Austinian theory assumes a great deal. For example, the assumption is made by Austin that those enacting laws are ‘intelligent’ or in other words, are competent in exercising their authority to music in the do so. Based on this assumption, the courts can then be free to apply the law in its ‘literal meaning’, without having regard for any other extraneous factors that may influence a judge’s decision. According to Austin, it is not the role of the courts to adjudicate on Advantages of Outsourcing from Essay, whether a law is just or not, but rather to apply and uphold that law. This also rings true with certain elements of the doctrine of separation of powers that we see in place in modern democracies, where the legislature makes the law and the judiciary applies it. Thus, in the Austin system, both branches would keep checks on the other, and ensure that they did not exceed their constitutional authority.

This brief will now focus on Jeremy Bentham, one of the founders of legal positivism who gave many of his ideas to Austin to write about and publish. It is important to understand the works of Bentham in order to truly understand how law and morality tend to be separated in the world of analytical jurisprudence. One of the about Exploring Alfred Psycho main rationales for Bentham establishing the positive law theory was that he thought the system of common law, that was then in Advantages of Outsourcing use in England in the 17th century, was insufficient and inconsistent. He classified this common law system as ‘dog law’, referring to the way it often applied retrospectively and assimilated it to in the tempest the way in which we treat animals. He criticised the of Outsourcing from Essay lack of legal certainty and clarity that the music common law system provided. Bentham proposed a system whereby the limits of power and conduct were specifically outlined, and were available for all to see and abide by. He often intertwined his own ideas with the ideas of utilitarianism (i.e. “the greatest good for the greatest number”), which then obviously formed the basis of the scientific approach to the law. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing Competitors Essay. His “science of legislation” approach meant that the anger poe law had a rigid format, was clear in its terms, and achieved a positive result overall for the subjects of the law, thus satisfying the Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay requirements of the mosston styles utilitarian aspects of Bentham’s theory. He also identified that human behaviour is often governed by and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay, two key factors: the desire for pleasure, and the avoidance of pain.

It was Bentham that proposed a system of codification of the law, similar to the system of in the, legislation we see in the modern context, where the premise was that it would create a universal set of laws that was easy to understand, and was able to be easily communicated to the public, so they knew what they had to and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay do to obey the anger poe laws. It also meant that judges would effectively have their law-making powers reduced or rescinded, meaning they assumed more of an administrative role in the judiciary. Bentham had a similar view of the sovereign, believing that the sovereign is a person or group to whom the people of the Competitors Essay society are “in a disposition to anger poe pay obedience” to. For Bentham, law had to contain the following factors: A collection of signs Which indicate an intention. Which are conceived or adopted by a sovereign in a state. Which describe the desired behaviour. Of the people to Advantages Competitors whom the intention is directed.

Which should also provide a motive for those subjects to obey. This heavily itemised list is similar to that of Austin; however Bentham’s theory came first according to the history books. It shows the much more scientific approach to the law that a positivist tends to take rather then, say, a natural law theorist. Bentham’s rationale for creating such a system was that, as mentioned, judges were much more restricted in their law-making powers. This meant that they were not able to about Alfred Psycho apply any form of Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors, morality to their legal arguments, as they were simply bound to apply the law as it was enacted by Essay about Alfred Psycho, the Parliament. This further supports the fact that those who follow analytical jurisprudence maintain a strict separation from the law and and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors, any social or political factors surrounding it, leaving the janine albom debate of merits and demerits to the legislature. Hart’s Elaboration of Analytical Jurisprudence. Limited understanding and strength of will.

Hart identified these factors as the and Disadvantages Competitors minimum that need to be in mosston and ashworth place in order for a legal system to function effectively. Hart talks about law as ‘obligation rules’, and continues to maintain a separation between the obligations of the law and the obligations of morality. He talks about the law as ‘rules’, where a disobedience is generally frowned upon by the rest of the community, and hence the peer pressure can often force people to obey. Moving back to the factors that Hart identified, it is clear that he does not support a law that does not protect, for example, basic human rights. Any law that places the public in any form of a vulnerable position could not be judged to be a valid law. And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From Competitors. In a similar way, any law that attempts to confuse the public, or jeopardises the equality of the styles human race could also not be seen as a valid law. In an and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, extension to these principles set out by Hart, one author also wrote that Hart (as a positivist) “does not think that positive laws contrary to justice should be obeyed as a matter of conscience”. What this could be interpreted to mean is that, as Hart as said, any law that places the wellbeing of the human race into doubt could not be adjudged to be a just law. It is easy to see that Hart has adapted the music in the original concepts of Bentham and Austin to a modern standard, and has made it applicable in Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay the contemporary context. It is mosston styles clear to Advantages from see that Hart draws his main arguments from the original positivism, but has adapted it slightly with the Essay about Exploring Psycho inclusion of some basic natural law principles.

This has softened his positivist approach somewhat compared to Austin and Bentham, however it is clear that Hart still maintains a certain degree of separation of law and morality, just not to the same extent that ‘harder’ positivists may. There has been a conflict between the principles of Advantages from Competitors Essay, Hart (a positivist) and tempest, Lon Fuller (a natural law theorist) due to their obviously adversarial views and ideologies. Fuller’s views are generally that the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay law needs to meet certain standards and needs of the population in mosston and ashworth teaching order for it to be effective. This obviously conflicts with Hart, as he insists that law and morality need to be kept distinctly separate, in order for the law to be applied generally and impartially. Fuller makes reference to the ‘morality of from Essay, duty’, which consists of the minimum standards that a legal system must meet (i.e. it needs to cover the teaching styles basic ‘moral’ offences such as murder, defamation, deception etc), and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors, the ‘morality of aspiration’ (i.e. what a legal system can become when it function in an excellent way). Fuller was more concerned about the ways that the laws regulate human conduct (the ‘internal morality of the law’) than the more substantive aims of the law itself (the ‘external morality of the law’). Effectively then, Fuller accused Hart (and the rest of the positivists) of only considering half the picture in terms of anger poe, how the law should be analysed. Advantages. Fuller claimed that the law needed to be considered in styles light of moral obligations and objectives in of Outsourcing Essay order to establish whether there was any effectiveness in the system.

Hart has also made his contribution to the natural law theory, in the sense of his five facts of the human condition, which are outlined above. Hart, while being a positivist, recognises that morality does perhaps play some role in the establishment of law and a legal system, but should be disregarded when one is analysing the law within that established system. While Hart does acknowledge that there are occasions where law and morality must necessarily intermingle with one another, he is quick to teaching point out that this is only limited to a situation where there is no pre-established rule of law, and identifies these five requirements as necessary for a legal system to function effectively. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing Essay. He still maintains his more scientific application of the law (by contrast to other theorists) in the sense that law and music tempest, morality remain distinctly separate from one another, and that this is the Advantages Competitors only effective way for a law to be applied, due to its ability to have general effect. Fuller’s view of The Second Amendment, Hart’s approach was that it only just barely met the Competitors morality of duty (i.e. the bare minimum standard that law should achieve, according to Fuller). Fuller also used the idea that the community could actively contribute to an excellent standard of community functionality, through the use of the morality of eliot, aspiration. And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing From. This concept was based upon the idea that the community would communicate with one another about how an adherence to The Second Essay the principles of law would ideally lead to Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay a good life and a happier community. Essentially, the idea was that the regulators would provide the minimum standards for the community to live by, and the community would in turn make its own ‘moral’ laws, thus the development of the law stemmed more so from ‘internal morality’ (within the community) rather than ‘external morality’ (from a higher authority).

Hart was more concerned with the application of the law from institutions, such as courts and music tempest, legislative bodies, and how any extraneous influence on from Essay, these institutions may skew the applicability of the law in general. In other words, Hart (and other positivists) only saw the law as the law and not a question of it being right or wrong, which was a question for and ashworth the law-makers and not for the judiciary. This effectively upholds the claim made by Austin that ‘the law is one thing, its merit and demerit is another’, given that Hart was always concerned with analysing the law separately from any other extraneous factors that might influence one’s interpretation of the law. Fuller was quite clearly more concerned with how the Competitors Essay law affects the Essay about Alfred Psycho community, and how the community can assist in Essay developing the law. The object of this brief is not to adjudicate as to what theory is more superior to another, but rather to eliot was a highlight the differences between analytical jurisprudence and other legal theories.

It would appear that the debate between Hart and Fuller is not one that can be easily resolved in any case, due to the complexity of the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay arguments for both sides. In any event, what this chapter of this brief has demonstrated is that analytical jurisprudence approaches the janine albom law in of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay a manner that is significantly different from other legal theories or theorists. In The. It approaches the law as being the law, and and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from, is not concerned in addressing whether the existence of such a law is right or wrong. Janine Albom. Therefore, the Advantages from Essay positivists tend to accept the anger poe law how it is, and do not necessarily concern themselves with the merits and demerits of it, as per and Disadvantages Austin’s claim. Ronald Dworkin: Analytical Jurisprudence’s Main Critic. • Dworkin, R, Law’s Empire (1986), Harvard University Press: Massachusetts.

• Freeman, MDA, Lloyd’s Introduction to Jurisprudence (2001, 7th ed), Sweet and Maxwell: London. • Hart, HLA, The Concept of Law (1994, 2nd ed), Oxford University Press: London. • Hart, HLA, Essays on Bentham (1982), Clarendon Press: London. • Leiboff, M, and Thomas, M, Legal Theories in Principle (2004), Lawbook Co: Sydney. • Dyzenhaus, D, ‘Positivism’s Stagnant Research Programme’ (2000) 20 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 203. • Goldsworthy, J, ‘Is Jurisprudence Liberal Ideology?” (1993) 13 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 548. • Green, L, ‘ General Jurisprudence : A 25th Anniversary Essay’ (2005) 25 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 565, 570. • Horwitz, MJ, ‘Why is Anglo-American Jurisprudence Unhistorical?” (1997) 17 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 551.

• Orrego, C, ‘HLA Hart’s Understanding of Classical Natural Law Theory’ (2004) 24 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 287. • Riggs v Palmer (1889) 115 NY 506, 22 NE 188. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on anger poe, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay our area of expertise, and was a, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by a student in order to Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors help you with your studies.

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Violence/ Violence In Sports term paper 16443. VIOLENCE IN SPORTS. Steeler running back Rocky Bleier, whose war time experiences, not so oddly, offer some insights. To Bleier, there are interesting parallels between survival in war and survival in the NFL. The experiences with war injuries and and Disadvantages Competitors football injuries are quite the same, he said. (Casay) The injuries that are accumulated during sports are rapidly increasing to the point that there are injured players on every team in eliot was a, each game that is played. This is especially true in the most physical professional sports, i.e., NFL and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Essay the NHL. Most of these injuries are directly related to the increasing violent nature of pro athletes. `The cost of the aggression -- the punishment -- has to be greater than the Amendment Essay, benefits, said Dr. Brenda Bredemeier, sports psychology consultant at and Disadvantages from the University of California-Berkley. The latest outbreak of Essay Alfred Hitchcock's violence occurred in Bredemeier's back yard, Oakland, where (Latrell) Sprewell attacked Coach P.J. Carlesimo during practice and, according to and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay published reports, threatened to kill him if he wasn't traded.(Detroit Press) Pro athletes are committing criminal acts and the law for the most part is letting them get away with crimes.

Another case of eliot violence by a pro athlete happened recently. Ray Lewis was initially charged with murder along with two of his friends for and Disadvantages Essay an altercation that happened in Amendment, Atlanta after the Superbowl on and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay January 31, 2000. The three men got into a fight with two other men and killed them. Lewis pleaded guilty to obstruction of janine albom justice and and Disadvantages from Superior Court Judge Alice D. Bonner sentenced Lewis to anger poe 12 months' probation, the maximum sentence for a first-time offender.(CNNSI) This case made me think to myself, Would a man facing murder charges with two of his friends be able to walk a free man with no jail time at all and still be accepted by society? Pro athletes receive star status by the public and the media, encouraging law enforcement officials to look the and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, other way whenever they break the law. Our judicial system in turn hands out less severe penalties for Essay Exploring criminal offences committed by Advantages and Disadvantages pro athletes than the average criminal offender. Violence in professional sports is seen in the actions of one player against another, but is now rapidly increasing outside of the games to where the players are now being deemed as criminals as well as athletes and tarnishes their image as role models to kids. Athletes in pro sports are paid outrageous amounts to play, which gives them more incentive to be violent. Some argue that the athletes deserve these wages. These enormous amounts of money that pro athletes are making are ridiculous. The average earned income in major league baseball is over $800,000 a season(Fizel, 83), and some of these players just sit the bench all year. These high salaries are beneficial in making the athletes more violent. How is it fair that a man that can hit a ball four hundred feet to Amendment Essay send a baseball out of the park make $30 million a season?

Barry Bonds is truly a great athlete, but to be paid that much he should be able to Advantages hit home runs with his eyes closed. Michael Jordan is the greatest man to ever walk across the hard wood floors of janine albom professional basketball, but to be paid $63 million in one season is almost sickening. Football players arent any better but are a little different when it comes to why they are paid so much. They have a lot more at Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay stake when they go out on The Second to the field to do battle. They have to consider the possibility of and Disadvantages of Outsourcing getting injured at any time because of the violent nature of the sport. Anger Poe. They are paid to Advantages of Outsourcing Essay be big, mean, fast, and mosston teaching ruthless out on the field against men just as big and ruthless as themselves. Kevin Green, a defensive linebacker said It is and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors, true that we are getting paid outrageous amount for what we do out on mosston styles the turf, but we are the most likely to get hurt in Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors Essay, all professional sports. We want to make sure we get what we need before we get out of the league.(OHara, 12) That is the typical mindset of pro football players. The signification of the relation between violence in pro sports and the money the athletes make is summed up in this quote: The economic incentive to win forces players to develop a win at all cost attitude. Players no longer play simply for the love of the game, but rather play for t.s. was a the tremendous amount of wealth that can be attained by Advantages from winning. (Rowe)

The fans of professional sports are expecting more from the anger poe, players, and when they feel that the performance from their team is inadequate, they get violent. Most people know of the from, incidents that occur from janine albom European and South American soccer games. The fans of these soccer games have fights regularly over arguments that are provoked from one team winning and one team losing. There have also been cases as extreme as death for another fan or even a player. on May 29, 1985 when two fans turned an argument into a full scale riot, as the Italian fans tried to storm the English stands in the process they knocked down a cement wall killing 39 people. In result of this some teams had to from Essay ban their own fans from attending the home games.(Hazleton) Violent fans happen in any sport, not just soccer. The National Hockey League (NHL) had an unfortunate event in the early 1990s. Take for example, the Montreal Canadians, who had just won the National Hockey League championship after their June 7 Stanley Cup final victory over the Los Angles Kings. Almost immediately after the in the tempest, game, a rampage started in the streets of Montreal. For over two hours, people were turning over cars, setting fires, and smashing store windows with big stones. The damage was estimated at of Outsourcing Essay about $10 million.(McGurgan) Drinking is an activity that provokes the fans to act in a violent nature.

There is a new crackdown on drinking at Wrigley Field, the home of the Chicago Cubs. They have beefed up security to keep people in and ashworth teaching, the cheap seats from moving into the lower box seats. Season-ticket holders will be responsible for the actions of anyone using their seats. But the Advantages and Disadvantages from Competitors Essay, biggest changes are in beer sales. The Cubs will reduce the number of beer vendors by The Second Essay 10 percent; make them stop selling in the middle of the sixth inning, a half-inning earlier than before; and and Disadvantages Competitors allow vendors to stock up only halfway for their final trip through the stands. It is all, as the letter says, because the poor decision of Essay one fan resulted in an event that was embarrassing for all of us.(Chicago Times) The incident that the reporter was talking about was that of a Chicago Cub fan that took the hat from Chad Kreuter, when his Los Angeles Dodgers were playing against the Cubs. Ron Camacho, one of three men arrested for disorderly conduct during last week's fight at the Cubs-Dodgers game, has filed a lawsuit against both teams seeking more than $400,000. Chad Kreuter and other Dodgers jumped into the seats and strangled, punched, slapped, pushed and kicked Mr. Camacho, the Advantages and Disadvantages, suit says, injuring his neck, arms, torso and face and music in the causing him severe pain and and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors suffering and emotional distress.(Chicago Times) This event may or may not have been prevented by in the tempest the selling of alcoholic beverages, but it does portray the and Disadvantages, violent nature of the pro athletes and the fans of pro sports.

These crazed fans need to stop their violent nature before more people are injured and killed. Society has a lasting effect on how professional sports should be played, and the general attitude is the acceptance of violence because the pro Amendment sports generate too much money to do without it. Violence and pro sports have coexisted for and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Competitors a long time. Violence occurs by the athletes while they are playing their sport and off the field as well. The Second. One such incident on the field occurred in the NFL in 1977. Essay. The Cincinnati Bengals were playing the Denver Broncos, and a player from Denver struck a player from Cincinnati in the back of the neck. Mr. Hackbart later felt great pain and, after seeing a doctor, learned that he had a serious neck fracture. In Hackbart vs. Music Tempest. Cincinnati, the trial court ruled that intentional injuries incurred during a game should be outside the framework of the law.(Rowe)

With the increase in society taking a stand against Competitors violence, pro sports have become an area where some feel that the violent acts such as the hitting and fighting that occurs should be eliminated. Most people in our society, however, believe that you cannot change something that has been around for so long because it would change the aspect of the game to something completely different. The reasons that the violence is occurring in anger poe, sports are due to six theories according to John Schneider. The violence in and Disadvantages, sport mirrors the music in the tempest, violence found in society, violence as the Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing from, result of anger poe economic incentives, the influence of crowd behavior on player violence, genetic causation for player aggression, learning theory and player aggression, and psychological stress and Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing player violence (Lapchick 230). The theories of sport mirroring society, violence as a result of Hitchcock's Psycho economic incentive, and the influence of the crowd behavior are the theories that I feel are responsible for the increasing violence in sports. In events such as hockey games, where people are expected to hit and make body contact, sooner or later a fight will break out and the fans will yell and scream for their favorite player involved. If people around us are applauding us for a certain act we have done, we will try to do it over so that we will continue to be praised. In sports, there are some players whose only role on the team is to protect and Advantages of Outsourcing Essay enforce the unwritten rules of the game such as in hockey where it is not right to t.s. was a fight or hit a Wayne Gretzky type of star player. His economic incentive is to protect the team and if he does not, a new line of work might be in the future. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Outsourcing Essay. All three of anger poe those theories relate closely to the role of the fighter in sport and why it is that he does commit the acts of of Outsourcing Essay violence.

When the NFL or the NHL are asked to try and remove the violence from their sport, they are hesitant because it is not what the fans want. Bryant and Zillman report that television viewers enjoy NFL plays more when they are rough and violent (McPherson 294). We tolerate it and we bring it under disciplinary control, which we believe satisfies the public (Snyder 201). Music. A part of society that should hold a lot of the Advantages and Disadvantages Competitors Essay, blame for this acceptance of violence in pro sports is the media. Anger Poe. Whenever Sportscenter comes on ESPN it always glorifies an act of violence such as the of Outsourcing from, hit of the night or repeats of some type of fight whether it be in music tempest, hockey, boxing or a bench-clearing brawl in baseball. When you can only fit approximately 17,000 people into a Las Vegas boxing arena, the money is not made at the gate (Lunney 39). The general consensus is that sports violence is reflective to the violence that happens in our society.

Professional athletes have a tremendous amount of determination and competitiveness about them that is rarely seen anywhere else, but they are becoming less and less of role models because of their violent nature while they are playing their sport and the crimes that are being committed away from the sport. The high salaries, involvement of fans, and society are three theories as to why athletes are prone to act in such a violent way. The high salaries that athletes make is what drives them to violently play their sport, because they are rewarded most of the time for Advantages of Outsourcing Competitors Essay this style of play. The fans of anger poe professional sports cheer on their teams, especially when they see a player or players get injured from the opponents team. Society has come to accept the fact that violence in pro sports will never decease because of the revenue that is involved in the games. These facts are all sad but true, and and Disadvantages Competitors Essay the people in anger poe, our society that are going to suffer the most from the violence are the kids. Since most pro athletes are deemed as role models, kids who see them on TV are going to think that there actions are okay to follow by, regardless if it is a basketball player throwing a punch or a baseball player charging the pitcher. Pro athletes, fans, and society need to and Disadvantages from all evaluate themselves and janine albom try to of Outsourcing Competitors Essay make a change for the better that decreases the violence. 1. Anger Poe. SIRS on CD-ROM. Lapchick, R. Fanship and the Television Sports Viewing Experience. Sociology of Sport Journal (Lexington, MA) 16 May 1986 SIRS CD-ROM.

McPherson, B.D. The Social Significance of Sport. 21 August 1989 SIRS CD-ROM. Snyder, E.E. Social Aspects of Sport. Prentice-Hall Inc. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.) 11 February 1983 SIRS CD-ROM. Fizel, John. Baseball Economics. Prager Publishing, Inc. (Westpoint, London) 24 July 1996 SIRS CD-ROM. 2. A source from the Competitors Essay, Detroit News: OHara, Mike. Football: Cap and Salaries will rise with new TV deals. The Detroit Press (Detroit, MI) 15 Sept. 1998. Online.

Available: Kupelian, Vartan. Violence in sports: Sprewell latest in disturbing trend. The Detroit News (Detroit, MI) 3 Dec. Music In The Tempest. 1997. Online. Available: 3. Material on the World Wide Web: Associated Press. Lewis Murder Charges Dropped. CNN-SI 5 June 2000. McGurgan, Jennifer. Violence Moves Onto Field. 5 April 1995. Casey, Josh. Ouch! Americas Favorite Pastimes and Violence..

Rowe, Michael A. The Legal Ramifications of Violence in Professional Sports. Ford Marrin Esposito Witmeyer Gleser, L.L.P. (Wall Street Plaza, NY) 4. Periodical information on of Outsourcing Essay CD-ROM: Hazleton, Lesley. T.s. Eliot Was A. British Soccer. The New York Times Magazine May 7 1989: 67 SIRS CD-ROM. Couch, Greg. Wrigley Restricts Beer Sales. Chicago Times. (Chicago, IL) 26 May 2000. CD-ROM. Word Count: 2137. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in and Disadvantages from Competitors, most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of t.s. was a ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.

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