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Robber Barons or Captains of Industry? On February 9, 1859, Henry J. Raymond, editor of the does confucius mean New York Times , said something strange about Cornelius Vanderbilt. Raymond didnt like Vanderbilt, a steamship tycoon with such a vast fleet that he was known as the The Use of Stylistic Devices Baldwin’s Cathedral Commodore, then the highest rank in the US Navy. In an editorial titled Your Money or Your Line, Raymond blasted him for taking a large monthly payment from the Pacific Mail Steamship Company in return for Vanderbilts foregoing competition on does mean, the sea lanes to California. Like those old German barons who, from their eyries along the Rhine, swooped down upon the commerce of the of Stylistic Devices in James Baldwin’s Blues Carver’s Cathedral noble river and wrung tribute from every passenger that floated by, Raymond wrote, Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt . . . has insisted that the Pacific Company should pay him toll, taken of all America that had business with California. Though Raymond never used the exact phrase robber baron, his editorial is the first known use of the does metaphor in American journalism. It has become an Hamlet's of Emotions Essay enduring description of the what does mean industrial moguls of the nineteenth century. It conjures up visions of titanic monopolists who crushed competitors, rigged markets, and corrupted government. In their greed and power, legend has it, they held sway over a helpless democracy.

But heres the strange part: Thats not what Raymond meant. He compared Vanderbilt to medieval robber barons because he preyed upon monopolists. Pacific Mail had total market control of the human stages sea lanes to California, and what does, it bought off Vanderbilt in order to Obligation Animals preserve its monopoly. Raymond attacked the Commodore for pursuing competition for competitions sake; competition which crowds out legitimate enterprises. To the confucius mean editor of the New York Times in 1859, Vanderbilt was a robber baron because he was a challenger, a spoileralmost the opposite Essay, of the current meaning of the term. So how did the definition of robber baron change from Raymonds to our own? The simple answer is scale . Starting in what does confucius mean the middle of the nineteenth centuryeven as Raymond wrote Your Money or Your Linethe first truly large enterprises began to developmental emerge. The rise of big business reshaped not only the economy, but politics and culture as well. A few key individuals played a leading role in this process.

Condemned as robber barons or praised as captains of industry, they helped to invent the giant corporation and became the focus of the modern debate over opportunity and equality, over the power of private enterprise and the role of government regulation. The life of what does mean, Cornelius Vanderbilt offers a convenient guide to both the impact of these titans and the controversy that surrounded them. For one thing, his career lasted through most of the nineteenth century. Born on a farm on Staten Island in 1794, during the presidency of my philosophy of teaching, George Washington, he lived long enough to make deals personally with John D. Rockefeller and leave Andrew Carnegie and what confucius, J. P. Morgan hungering for his business. For another, he himself was at the forefront in creating the first large enterprises, which first appeared in his industry, transportation.

Vanderbilts early decades as a regional steamboat manager and entrepreneur help explain Raymonds curious use of the robber-baron metaphor (curious to our ears, that is). Thomas Gibbons hired Vanderbilt to captain a steamboat in 1817, when such vessels were barely a decade old. Is A Dangerous Reach Of Children Examples. With relatively few banks and only infant financial markets, the what confucius mean economy was ruled by unspecialized general merchants. In keeping with the eighteenth-century belief in Essay a natural social hierarchy, a few patrician, land-owning families provided leadership in all areas of public lifepolitics, business, and society. In fact, New Yorks state constitution, which went into effect in 1777, established a three-tiered system of citizenship, with escalating property requirements for voting; only those in the top bracket of wealth could cast ballots for governor and the state senate. Gibbons challenged that system through a business and what confucius mean, legal battle against a New York state monopoly on steamboats. In 1798, the legislature had granted the monopoly to Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, head of one of the most prestigious patrician families; though he had shared it with inventor Robert Fulton, he passed it down to his descendants as a hereditary right. The logic behind the monopoly reflected that eighteenth-century hierarchical outlook, what historians call the culture of deference. The orderly development of the economy, the state legislators believed, should be directed by the patrician class; New York needed steamboats, so it turned to one of its leading families to provide them, in return for a monopoly. Gibbons attacked the monopoly because of a personal vendetta against Aaron Ogden, a former governor of New Jersey who was licensed to run a steam ferry between New York and New Jersey. New Business. With Vanderbilt in charge of the boat, Gibbons punished Ogden in business, even as he brought a legal challenge to the US Supreme Court. Gibbons runs an elegant steamboat for half price . . . purposely to what confucius mean ruin Ogden, wrote one aristocratic observer. Ogden has lowered his price and The Use of Stylistic Devices Baldwin’s Blues Carver’s, now Gibbons says he will go for what does mean, nothing.

Did you ever hear of such malice in this enlightened age? Though malice seems like an odd word for New Business, offering better service at lower prices, it speaks to what confucius mean the patrician mindset. Wave Of Emotions. Competition was a new thing on the American scene, and confucius mean, the old landed elite did not welcome it. They saw it as a destructive force, plain and simple. Gibbons won the court battle in 1824 when Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that states could not erect barriers to interstate commerce, in Gibbons v. Ogden . My Philosophy Of Teaching. Ogden went to debtors prison, and what confucius mean, Gibbons himself died in Fame Dangerous Drug out of Reach examples 1826. Vanderbilt soon emerged as a steamboat proprietor in his own right.

He concentrated on the main artery of trade as it shifted across the landscapealways with one end in New York. When the Erie Canal opened, he competed between New York and Albany; when textile mills began to sprout in New England during the industrial revolution, he switched to Long Island Sound, on the route to Boston. Everywhere he went, he was feared as the most effective competitor, one who either destroyed his enemies or extracted a ransom in return for confucius mean, leaving a market. Obligation To Protect Essay. As one businessman wrote to a partner about Vanderbilt, in does mean contemplating who might prove to to Protect Essay be an ally or a rival, I confess if we are to what mean be opposed Id sooner have him with us, than against us. Conservative members of the Whig Party sometimes condemned such competition, just as the old patricians had. They desired rapid economic development, but believed that it should be guided and assisted by the government. Jacksonian Democrats, on the other hand, praised competition, upholding aggressive self-interest in the marketplace as a matter of individual liberty. This was an era of increasing democratization, as suffrage was being granted to all men (though usually only white men), regardless of human developmental, their wealth. The principle of individual equalityof competitive individualisminfused the Jacksonians view of what confucius, everything. In their eyes, government involvement in my philosophy of teaching the economy only served to grant special privileges to favored (usually wealthy) men, which created an artificial aristocracy, the does mean antithesis of democracy.

When Henry J. Raymond of the New York Times condemned Vanderbilt in 1859 for competing against legitimate enterprises, he wrote as an old Whig (though the Whig party had disappeared by The Use of Stylistic Baldwin’s Sonny’s and Raymond Carver’s Cathedral then). He saw Pacific Mail as a virtuous example of Whig values: Though privately owned, it had been organized to fulfill a federal plan to guarantee regular communications between California and the rest of the United States and what does confucius mean, received a federal subsidy in New Business return for carrying the mail. The irony is what does confucius mean, that the California steamship business itself helped change the American economy in is a Dangerous and Should examples ways that would make Raymonds views seem obsolete within just a few years. When the California Gold Rush began, Vanderbilt abruptly left the what does confucius regional transportation market around New York and competed in this oceangoing steamship business. The Use Of Stylistic In James Baldwin’s Sonny’s And Raymond. Even though the federal government subsidized his competitors (Pacific Mail and mean, its partner, the Fame be Kept examples US Mail Steamship Company), he built steamships to run on both the does confucius mean Atlantic and Pacific, which connected via a transit route across Nicaragua, farther north than the established crossing in Panama.

In 1851 he inaugurated the Fame is a Dangerous and Should Reach Essay examples line, offering lower fares and a faster passage. He again proved himself a consummate competitor, and swiftly earned a fortune. When the Nicaragua route was closed by a war in 1856, Pacific Mail and US Mail paid him the what large monthly fee discussed by Raymond to prevent him from human, competing by way of Panama. These California steamship lines gave Americans a glimpse of the mean future of big business. They stretched for thousands of miles, with stations in distant countries. When they fought each other, the repercussions were felt by hundreds of The Use of Stylistic Devices Baldwin’s and Raymond Cathedral, thousands of travelers, California residents, and businesses. What Confucius. The demands of human developmental, these enterprises also fed other industries.

For example, Vanderbilt purchased (and expanded) a major shipyard and steam-engine works in New York. Vanderbilt and the other organizers of these steamship lines, such as George Law, William H. What Mean. Aspinwall, and Marshall O. Obligation Animals Essay. Roberts, became household names in the 1850s. And yet, with the exception of Vanderbilt, none are remembered today. For one thing, the steamship lines were soon eclipsed by the transcontinental railroadsthe first being completed in 1869. And the railroads, broadly speaking, far surpassed shipping as true examples of does, big business. Except in geographical extent, the The Use Baldwin’s Blues Cathedral California steamship lines could not match the largest railways in terms of numbers of employees, volume of business, capital requirements, or almost any other measure. And it was the railroads that, directly or indirectly, gave rise to the most famous captains of industry (or, if you prefer, robber barons). Vanderbilt was foremost among themand he fought or did business with many of the rest. In 1863, amid the turmoil of the Civil War, Vanderbilt began to sell off his steamship interests in order to buy large amounts of what does, railroad stock.

The younger brokers on Wall Street mocked him, refusing to believe that the old Commodore knew anything about the nations most dynamic industry. In fact, he had been actively involved in railroads almost since their inception in America. His steamboats had connected with New Englands early railways, and in 1847 he had seized the presidency of the Stonington Railroad, a strategic line in Rhode Island and Connecticut. My Philosophy. During the 1850s, he helped to save the endangered Erie Railway and what confucius, New York Harlem Railroad (better known as the Harlem), lending them money and helping to restructure their debt. When he took the Wave of Emotions presidency of the what mean Harlem in 1863, then, he drew upon deep experience with the stock exchange, corporate finance, the railroad industry, and this particular line. In some respects, Vanderbilt became the greatest railroad tycoon of his era almost by New Business Essay accident. At the age of 69, he simply wished to show that he could turn a nearly bankrupt railroad into confucius a thriving company.

But the fragmented nature of the railroad systema vast net of be Kept out of examples, small lines, each built to serve a local community rather than a national networkled to one conflict after another. In each case, he would pursue diplomacy with a connecting line, seeking an amicable agreement; the attempt would fail, a business conflict would ensue, and Vanderbilt would triumph, ending the war by purchasing control of the neighboring railway. After he assumed the presidency of the Harlem in what confucius 1863, he ran into trouble with the Essay neighboring Hudson River Railroad. He took control of it in 1864, which gave him a monopoly on what does mean, the railways that entered Manhattan. In January 1867, concluding a long struggle, he seized the New York Central after stopping all trains over New Business the Hudson River at confucius Albany, an act that largely severed New York Citys connection to New Business Essay the rest of the does country (albeit only briefly). In 1869 he gained control of the freshly consolidated Lake Shore Michigan Southern, which extended to Chicago, thanks to a cunning shortselling campaign that bankrupted his primary rival, LeGrand Lockwood. Only one major campaign failed: his attempt to my philosophy corner stock in does confucius the Erie Railway in 1868. Vanderbilt wanted to punish his old friend and developmental, rival Daniel Drew, who had betrayed the does confucius Commodore and his allies on the stock market. The resulting conflict came to be known as the Erie War. Drew, the treasurer of the Erie Railway, allied himself with new members of the board of directors, particularly Jay Gould and Jim Fisk.

As Vanderbilt bought Erie stock, Drew sold it short. Then the Erie board flooded Wall Street with fresh share certificates of developmental stages, dubious legality. A famously corrupt judge, George Barnard, issued arrest warrants for the directors, prompting them to pack up the Erie corporate files (and funds) and does, flee to New Jersey. Gould visited Albany, New Yorks capital, with a suitcase full of greenbacks and checkbookswhich convinced the suddenly enriched state legislators to legalize the new shares. But Barnard kept his arrest warrants out, so the Erie board had to compromise with Vanderbilt. The company restored his losses on the stock exchange; in return, Vanderbilt asked the judge to lift the warrants and allow the Erie directors to return to New York. This was a critical episode in the making of the New Business Essay modern notion of the robber baron. For very good reason, the confucius mean Erie War came to symbolize the rampant corruption wrought by New Business the enormous new railroad corporations. Yet closer inspection reveals the nuance behind the what historical stereotype. Corruption was indeed rampant, and often did involve railroads and wealthy men bribing public officials. Yet it also came in the form of extortion by officeholders, who threatened to pass harmful laws unless corporations paid off the my philosophy legislators. What Mean. For all the graft that surrounded Vanderbilts career, no evidence has convincingly demonstrated that he corrupted government officials.

The Erie War also suggests why robber barons (or, if you prefer, captains of industry) loom so large in the popular imagination: Through such dramatic episodes, they personalized the Hamlet's Essay very process of depersonalization. Does Confucius Mean. The Erie War was waged by outsized individuals, fighting for vast stakes. Yet the weapons, the battlefield, and the prize itself reflected the rising institutionalization of the emerging corporate economy. Vanderbilt, Drew, Gould, and Fisk fought with securitiesstocks and bondstraded on Devices Blues Cathedral, a formal exchange, financed by large banks, in what confucius mean order to gain control of a massive, bureaucratically managed enterprise. The Use Of Stylistic Devices In James Sonny’s And Raymond Carver’s Cathedral. They made dehumanization human. Of course, these individuals were indeed important. They made decisions that affected the lives of millions.

Vanderbilt in particular spanned a long period of economic history, from an age of individual proprietors and small partnerships, to a corporate world of anonymous investors and multi-tiered professional management. What Confucius. As one of the most successful businessmen during this transformation, he attained disproportionate wealth and influence. To paraphrase an old cliche, he was in on the ground floorand as the building rose, he stood atop the roof all the way, giving directions as it was built. Ironically, this new corporate structure was not dependent upon my philosophy, individuals, as the old society had been. Yet the nature of the corporation allowed Vanderbilt and others to extend their control far beyond their actual holdings. As the Railroad King (to use the newspapers nickname for Vanderbilt), he took a series of dramatic steps that reshaped the railroad industry. He consolidated smaller lines into some of the first giant corporations in American historycapitalized at levels that dwarfed entire industries at the time. Confucius Mean. With his son William Henry Vanderbilt as his operational chief, he rationalized the organization of his companies, and brought in professional managers. Animals. He introduced new efficiency into the nations transportation system, lowering costs and building key new infrastructure. The New York Central Hudson River Railroad paid steady, healthy dividends to investors, even during the depression that began with the Panic of 1873. As the what confucius Railroad Gazette wrote of New Business Essay, him after his death in 1877, His early career as a railroad manager was distinguished by a series of bold, startlingly revolutionary measures which attracted universal attention and had an effect reaching far beyond the lines and companies with which he dealt directly.

The Vanderbilt era was the first great era of consolidations. As the nations first big business, railroads occupied the center of the economy, a driver of demand and shaper of strategic interests of other enterprises that gave rise to the classic captains of industry. In Cleveland in what confucius the 1860s, a pious young bookkeeper named John D. Rockefeller Sr. formed a petroleum-refining business with partner Henry Flagler. They called it Standard Oil. Using some of Vanderbilts own competitive tacticsdriving down prices and buying out competitorsthey began to dominate the stages young oil industry. Relations with railroads, which shipped oil, were a primary concern. Rockefeller worked closely with the Commodore and his son to maintain healthy relations and what does, obtain preferential rates. Railroads were even more central to Andrew Carnegies career. A famously penniless immigrant from Hamlet's Wave of Emotions Essay, Scotland, Carnegie rose through the ranks of the mighty Pennsylvania Railroad as the what does confucius protege of Thomas A. Scott, first superintendent and then vice-president of the company.

Scott and J. Edgar Thomson, the Pennsylvanias president, were professional managers, rather than dominant stockholders, as Vanderbilt and Jay Gould were in the companies they ran. Though they were excellent executives, they also developed a variety of methods to skim money out of the Pennsylvanias transactions. They often demanded stock in companies that contracted with the railroad, and sometimes routed business through shell companies that they personally controlled. Carnegie got his start as an entrepreneur with a series of to Protect, enterprises that fed the Pennsylvanias voracious demands, from sleeping cars to bridges to iron, obtaining contracts through such pay-offs and mean, his personal relationship with Scott and Obligation to Protect Animals Essay, Thomson. What Confucius. When he constructed his first steel mill in 1873, he went so far as to name the plant after Thomson. Yet he had learned his lessons well: He made sure that the steel company was a private partnership, and Our Moral to Protect Essay, kept a close eye on the various managers. He did not want anyone to what does mean profit off his own firm as his mentors had from the Pennsylvania. J. P. Morgan, too, rose with the railroads.

Born into a banking family, he spent much of Obligation Animals, his career as a banker to the railways, serving as advisor, organizer, and financial agent. Throughout the does nineteenth century, railroads continued to New Business Essay be the most capital-intensive (and thus most capital-hungry) companies in America, so the great financial houses were largely devoted to serving their needs. Morgan helped to reorganize and rationalize burgeoning industries, restructuring railroads to end destructive competition and what, fostering such giants as General Electric and US Steel. He helped to move big business out of the age of the pioneering titans and into an era of my philosophy of teaching, institutionalization. Ironically, Morgan helped inspire the single most important, and lasting, federal intervention in the economy. When a panic started in New York in 1907, wrote biographer Jean Strouse, he led teams of confucius, bankers to stop it. And stop it he did. But his very success made Congress painfully aware of the level of influence held by this private individual, and of the vulnerability of the financial system. The result was the creation of the Federal Reserve, Americas central bank.

Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Rockefeller, and others are often remembered as monopolists, yet they radically lowered prices. As early entrants into their markets, they fought their way through chaotic competition by strictly controlling costs and to Protect, increasing efficiency at every step. By making transportation, steel, and oil far cheaper and more widely available, they contributed to the rapid growth the does American economy, and the creation of tremendous wealth. Not everyone was happy with these developments. The rise of large companies also gave rise to a new class of lifelong wage workers (by contrast with earlier generations, which had anticipated owning their farms or shops). Hamlet's Wave Essay. Unionization and strikes increased rapidly after the Civil War. Starting in the 1870s, workers demanded laws to limit the workday to eight hours. Farmers, too, felt helpless before the railroadsthe greatest and what does mean, most powerful monopoly on the face of the earth, in the words of one orator. They let the is a Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept Reach of Children public feel their power in what does confucius the fuel of their kitchens, the bread of their bodies, the material for their houses. Cheaper transportation integrated the national marketplace, putting farmers in distant regions into direct competition with each other.

And railroads gave discounts to large, long-distance shippers; farmers who sent their harvest and New Business, livestock over short distances to local markets resented paying a higher rate per mile. As with workers demands for what, eight-hour laws, agrarian radicals wanted government action. Our Moral Essay. One council of Grangers declared, We hold that a state cannot create a corporation that it cannot thereafter control. Another speaker said, The time would come when the does confucius mean management of the of teaching roads must fall into the hands of the public. This call for public regulation, even ownership, marks a major shift in politics. Gone were the days when Jacksonian radicals wanted the government to stay out of the economy, to allow individuals to rise on their merits. Now those on the left embraced government intervention as a means of countering the new power of large corporations, which towered over does the economy as no businesses had before the Civil War. It took decades for this kind of regulationespecially federal regulationto emerge. Yet even before the death of Cornelius Vanderbilt in January 1877, the modern argument over private enterprise and the role of government had clearly emerged.

In a sense, it does not matter whether one sees Vanderbilt and his peers as robber barons or captains of industry; it is the fact that we argue about them as one or the other that matters most. They not only changed the is a Dangerous Drug examples way we livethey changed the does mean way we think. T. J. Stiles is the human stages author of The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt (2009), winner of the 2009 National Book Award for Nonfiction and the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for Biography, and Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War (2002). Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to login and does mean, access this page. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to have free access to Hamlet's of Emotions Essay the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features. Click here to start your Affiliate School application today!

You will have free access while your application is being processed. Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by what does making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. My Philosophy. Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Your subscription grants you access to what does mean archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to read more about the Institute's educational programs. Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History.

We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to Baldwin’s Blues and Raymond Carver’s the full Gilder Lehrman site. All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Not a educator or student? Click here for what confucius, more information on my philosophy, purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Teaching Resource: Essential Questions in Teaching American History Essay: Getting Ready to does mean Lead a World Economy: Enterprise in Nineteenth-Century America Essay: The Square Deal: Theodore Roosevelt and the Themes of Progressive Reform Video Series: Essential Questions in American History Video Series: Inside the Vault Video Series: Lifetimes Essay: San Francisco and the Great Earthquake of 1906 Essay: The Filibuster King: The Strange Career of William Walker, the Hamlet's Essay Most Dangerous International Criminal of the Nineteenth Century Essay: Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Progressive Reformer Essay: Born Modern: An Overview of the West.

This essay would be a good follow-up to Lincoln#039;s concept of improvement found in THE REPUBLIC OF NATURE ch. What Confucius Mean. 4.

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The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic: Summary Highlights, April 2009-April 2010. Updated: June 16, 2010. This document summarizes key events of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and CDCs response activities for historical purposes. This document is a summary; it is not a comprehensive account of all CDC actions and activities nor is it intended to represent response efforts by other agencies and partners. The 2009 H1N1 influenza (flu) pandemic occurred against a backdrop of pandemic response planning at all levels of government including years of developing, refining and regularly exercising response plans at the international, federal, state, local, and confucius mean community levels.

At the time, experts believed that avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses posed the greatest pandemic threat. H5N1 viruses were endemic in poultry in parts of the world and were infecting people sporadically, often with deadly results. Given that reality, pandemic preparedness efforts were largely based on a scenario of severe human illness caused by an H5N1 virus. Despite differences in planning scenarios and the actual 2009 H1N1 pandemic, many of the systems established through pandemic planning were used and useful for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response. CDCs response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response was complex, multi-faceted and long-term, lasting more than a year. This document seeks to document for the public the key events of the pandemic as they unfolded and CDCs response.

The following is a summary narrative of highlighted CDC-related events from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. 2009 H1N1 was first detected in the United States in April 2009. This virus was a unique combination of human stages influenza virus genes never previously identified in either animals or people. The virus genes were a combination of mean genes most closely related to North American swine-lineage H1N1 and Eurasian lineage swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses. Because of human developmental this, initial reports referred to what mean the virus as a swine origin influenza virus. Is A Drug Out Of Of Children Essay. However, investigations of initial human cases did not identify exposures to pigs and what mean quickly it became apparent that this new virus was circulating among humans and not among U.S. pig herds. Infection with this new influenza A virus (then referred to as swine origin influenza A virus) was first detected in a 10-year-old patient in California on April 15, 2009, who was tested for Drug and Should out of Reach examples, influenza as part of what confucius mean a clinical study. Laboratory testing at The Use of Stylistic in James Sonny’s Blues Carver’s, CDC confirmed that this virus was new to humans. Two days later, CDC laboratory testing confirmed a second infection with this virus in another patient, an 8-year-old living in California about mean 130 miles away from the first patient who was tested as part of an influenza surveillance project. There was no known connection between the two patients. Laboratory analysis at CDC determined that the viruses obtained from these two patients were very similar to each other, and different from human stages, any other influenza viruses previously seen either in humans or animals.

Testing showed that these two viruses were resistant to the two antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, but susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. CDC began an immediate investigation into what does confucius, the situation in Hamlet's of Emotions Essay coordination with state and local animal and what confucius mean human health officials in California. The cases of 2009 H1N1 flu in Obligation California occurred in the context of sporadic reports of human infection with North American-lineage swine influenza viruses in what does confucius mean the United States, most often associated with close contact with infected pigs. Of Stylistic Baldwin’s Blues And Raymond Carver’s Cathedral. (During December 2005 January 2009, 12 cases of human infection with swine influenza were reported; five of these 12 cases occurred in patients who had direct exposure to pigs, six patients reported being near pigs, and the source of infection in one case was unknown). Human-to-human spread swine influenza viruses had been rarely documented and had not been known to result in widespread community outbreaks among people. In mid-April of what does 2009, however, the detection of two patients infected with swine origin flu viruses 130 miles apart, raised concern that a novel swine-origin influenza virus had made its way into the human population and was spreading among people. CDC remained in stages close contact with the international health community as the outbreak unfolded and on April 18, 2009, under the International Health Regulations (IHR) the United States International Health Regulations Program reported the 2009 H1N1 influenza cases to the World Health Organization (WHO). The cases also were reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Canada and Mexico, as part of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America. CDC worked closely with state and local animal and human health officials on epidemiological investigations by tracing contacts of both patients to try to what does confucius mean determine the source of their infection and by examining whether there was any link between the patients and pigs. Surveillance also was enhanced to Devices Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues and Raymond Cathedral try to detect additional cases of human illness with this virus. What Does. Based on the geographic location of the first cases, lack of contact between these cases and swine, and data collected through contact tracing and laboratory testing, CDC epidemiologists suspected that human-to-human transmission of developmental this virus had taken place. In an article entitled Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March-April 2009 published on April 21, 2009 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), CDC described the cases and requested that state public health laboratories send to what mean CDC all influenza A specimens that could not be subtyped.

That same day CDC responded to media inquiries related to the MMWR from medical reporters. Within a day, three additional samples of Our Moral Obligation Animals this new virus were identified in San Diego County and Imperial County California hospitals and confucius sent to CDC for further testing. CDC laboratory testing confirmed that these samples also were positive for the virus that would come to be called 2009 H1N1.. By April 21, 2009, CDC had begun working to develop a virus that could be used to make vaccine to protect against this new virus (called a candidate vaccine virus). There are many steps involved with producing a vaccine the first step is getting a good high yield vaccine virus. A high-yield vaccine virus is The Use Devices Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues Carver’s Cathedral, a sample of the virus that is used to grow the virus in does confucius mass quantities in chicken eggs. Once the virus is grown in mass quantities, the virus particles are then purified to make vaccine. Recognizing that 2009 H1N1 was a new flu virus and, like all flu viruses, unpredictable - CDC simultaneously pursued multiple scientific methods to create a high-yield virus.

A virus isolated at CDC, (called A/California/07/2009) was eventually chosen to Hamlet's Essay be the vaccine virus used to make vaccine. CDC sent the vaccine virus to vaccine manufacturing companies so that they could begin vaccine production, in the event that the U.S. What Confucius Mean. government should decide a vaccine was necessary. CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on April 22, 2009, to coordinate the response to this emerging public health threat. Response activities were organized into a team structure according to Our Moral Animals Essay the National Incident Management System (NIMS)These teams had different areas of what confucius mean focus including but not limited to: surveillance, laboratory issues, communications, at-risk populations, antiviral medications, vaccine, and travelers health issues. As the outbreak unfolded, team structures and staffing were periodically assessed for functionality and utility. On April 23, 2009, samples submitted by Texas revealed two additional cases of of teaching human infections with 2009 H1N1, transforming the investigation into a multistate outbreak and response. At the same time, CDC was testing 14 samples from Mexico, some of which had been collected from patients who were ill before the first 2 U.S. (California) patients. Results from seven of the samples were positive for 2009 H1N1 and similar findings were reported for specimens submitted by Mexico to Canada. What. It had now become clear that cases were occurring in human developmental stages multiple countries and does confucius mean human to human spread of the virus appeared to be ongoing. That same day CDC held the first formal full press briefing to inform the my philosophy of teaching media and what does guide the public and health care response to the rapidly evolving situation. CDC held nearly 60 press briefings during the 2009 H1N1 response.

On April 24, 2009, CDC uploaded complete gene sequences of the 2009 H1N1 virus to of Stylistic Devices Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues Carver’s a publicly-accessible international influenza database, which enabled scientists around the world to use the sequences for public health research and for does confucius mean, comparison against Our Moral Obligation influenza viruses collected elsewhere, and an updated report on the outbreak was published online in the MMWR. World Braces for Possible Pandemic. On Saturday, April 25, 2009, under the rules of the International Health Regulations, the Director-General of WHO declared the 2009 H1N1 outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and recommended that countries intensify surveillance for unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and does confucius severe pneumonia. Also on April 25, 2009, New York City officials reported an investigation into a cluster of influenza-like illness in a high school, and CDC testing confirmed two cases of Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept 2009 H1N1 influenza infection in Kansas, and confucius another case in Ohio shortly after. On April 26, 2009, the United States Government determined that a public health emergency existed nationwide; CDCs Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) began releasing 25% of the supplies in the stockpile that could be used to protect and treat influenza. New Business. This included 11 million regimens of mean antiviral drugs, and personal protective equipment including over 39 million respiratory protection devices (masks and respirators), gowns, gloves and face shields, to states (allocations were based on each states population).

As part of the nations pre-pandemic planning efforts, by April 2009 the Federal Government had purchased 50 million treatment courses of antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir for the SNS, and states had purchased 23 million antiviral regimens. After the determination of the Hamlet's Essay public health emergency, FDA also took action to expand possible usage of antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir by issuing Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs). The EUAs allowed for use of the products in a manner different from what they were FDA-approved for. Does Mean. This included allowing for off-label use of: oseltamivir to treat children younger than 1 year of age and to help prevent influenza in children 3 months to 1 year of age, and; oseltamivir and zanamivir to treat patients who are symptomatic for more than two days before initiation of treatment, or who had complicated illness requiring hospitalization. On April 27, the WHO Director-General raised the level of influenza pandemic alert from phase 3 to phase 4, based primarily on epidemiological data demonstrating human-to-human transmission and the ability of the Dangerous Drug be Kept out of Reach of Children Essay examples virus to cause community-level outbreaks.

Based on reports of what mean widespread influenza-like-illness and many severe illnesses and deaths in Mexico, CDC issued a travel health warning recommending that United States travelers postpone all non-essential travel to The Use of Stylistic in James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Mexico. Does Confucius Mean. As in past influenza seasons, CDC urged the public and especially those people at New Business Essay, highest risk of influenza-related complications, to protect themselves by taking antiviral drugs early in their illness when recommended by their doctor; CDC also advised that everyone take every day preventive actions like covering coughs and sneezes and staying home from work and school when ill to help reduce the spread of illness. On April 29, 2009 WHO raised the influenza pandemic alert from phase 4 to phase 5, signaling that a pandemic was imminent, and requested that all countries immediately activate their pandemic preparedness plans and be on high alert for unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and severe pneumonia. The U.S. Government was already implementing its pandemic response plan. What Confucius Mean. CDC continued to post and update guidance for states, clinicians, laboratories, schools, partners and the public on topics ranging from the non-pharmaceutical measures communities could take to is a Dangerous Drug and Should Reach of Children limit spread of disease, to how to evaluate a patient for possible infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza, to how to care for children who might be sick with 2009 H1N1 influenza. On April 30, 2009, CDC issued an MMWR Dispatch describing the initial outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza in Mexico. Findings in Mexico indicated that transmission in Mexico involved person-to-person spread with multiple generations of transmission. CDC also issued an MMWR Dispatch on the outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza infection in a high school in what New York City, that was, at the time, the largest reported cluster of is a Dangerous Drug and Should of Children Essay 2009 H1N1 cases in does confucius the United States.

The Dispatch suggested that the high school age students had respiratory and Fame is a Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept out of examples fever symptoms similar to those caused by a seasonal flu, but in addition, about half had diarrhea, which is more than expected with seasonal flu. As the details of the outbreak unfolded, the Federal response continued in high gear. Does. Also on April 30, 2009, HHS announced that the Federal government would purchase an additional 13 million treatment courses of antiviral drugs to help fight influenza. The additional treatment courses would be added to the SNS. As the outbreak spread, CDC began receiving reports of school closures and Wave Essay implementation of community-level social distancing measures meant to slow the spread of what does mean disease. School administrators and public health officials were following their pandemic plans and doing everything they could to slow the spread of illness. (Social distancing measures are meant to increase distance between people. Measures include staying home when ill unless to seek medical care, avoiding large gatherings, telecommuting, and implementing school closures). CDC Laboratories Bolster Nations Testing Capacity. While initial efforts were underway to develop a safe and effective vaccine to is a Drug and Should out of Essay protect people against 2009 H1N1, work also was being done at CDC to help laboratories supporting health care professionals to more quickly identify the 2009 H1N1 virus in samples from patients. The real-time PCR test developed by CDC was cleared for use by diagnostic laboratories by FDA under an what does, Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on April 28, 2009, less than two weeks after identification of the new pandemic virus.

Prior to the availability of Hamlet's Wave Essay this EUA, public health laboratories had been able to identify whether influenza A viruses were seasonal influenza viruses or were a novel strain, but the new diagnostic kits allowed labs to confucius mean confirm a virus as 2009 H1N1. On May 1, 2009, CDC test kits began shipping to domestic and Essay international public health laboratories. (Each test kit contained reagents to does confucius test 1,000 clinical specimens). From May 1 through September 1, 2009, more than 1,000 kits were shipped to 120 domestic and 250 international laboratories in 140 countries. Once labs had the Essay test kits and verified that their testing was running properly, they were able to identify new cases more quickly than before and no longer needed to does confucius mean send samples to CDC for lab confirmation. The transition away from CDC lab confirmation testing didnt happen overnight though - between April 23 and May 31, 2009, CDC influenza laboratory analyzed about 5,000 influenza virus samples, five times the number that were processed in a similar timeframe in 2008, and more than during any previous influenza season. By May 18, 2009, 40 states had been validated to conduct their own 2009 H1N1 testing, with eight states having multiple laboratories able to do their own testing. To Protect Essay. CDC alerted the public that the confucius mean expansion in testing capacity would likely result in a jump in Wave of Emotions the number of 2009 H1N1 cases, but that this would actually present a more accurate picture of the what does confucius mean true scope of New Business Essay 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States. By May 1, 2009, CDC had identified some interesting things about the 2009 H1N1 virus. Researchers had confirmed earlier testing that the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus was a quadruple-reassortant virus, meaning that it contained virus genes that originated from four different influenza virus sources. Some of the gene segments originated from does mean, North American swine influenza viruses, some gene segments originated from Fame is a Dangerous be Kept Essay examples, North American avian influenza viruses, one gene segment originated from a human influenza virus, and two gene segments were normally found in swine influenza viruses from Asia and in Europe. Does Confucius Mean. Testing of a number of the Fame be Kept virus samples submitted to CDC showed that they were very similar, which means they likely originated from the same source.

Laboratory testing showed that the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus did not have any 1918-like markers that had been associated with increased risk of severe disease. Testing also did not find genetic markers that were previously associated with high death rates in people infected with the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in other countries.. On May 4, 2009, CDC shifted from reporting confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1 to what does mean reporting both confirmed and probable cases of 2009 H1N1. Human. At that point, more than 98% of probable flu virus samples were testing positive for 2009 H1N1, indicating the ever-growing scale of the what does confucius outbreak. Fame Drug Reach Of Children Essay Examples. Probable cases were reported to CDC by state health departments and occurred in people who tested positive for influenza A and negative for seasonal influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes at their state health department laboratory, but whose samples had not had confirmatory testing for the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. CDC Shares Personnel, Guidance, Early Results of Studies. CDC deployed a large number of staff to the field to support the does confucius outbreak response; by Obligation to Protect Animals Essay May 1, 2009, 50 staff people were deployed, and what does confucius mean that number climbed to my philosophy more than 100 by May 11, 2009, before gradually declining as field teams returned from deployment to complete studies, analyze collected data, and help inform policy decisions for the prevention and control of 2009 H1N1 influenza. Over the confucius mean course of the outbreak, more than 3,300 people from throughout CDC would support the Hamlet's Essay response. On May 6, 2009, CDC distributed recommendations for the use of influenza antiviral medicines to provide guidance for what does mean, clinicians in prescribing antiviral medicines for treatment and prevention (chemoprophylaxis) of 2009 H1N1 influenza. CDC recommended that testing and antiviral treatment be prioritized for people with severe respiratory illness and people at high risk of complications from seasonal influenza.

This included children younger than 5 years old, pregnant women, people with chronic medical conditions, and people 65 years and older. On May 8, 2009, CDC issued an MMWR updating the Fame is a Dangerous Reach situations in Mexico, the United States, and worldwide, and on May 15, 2009, CDCs Travel Health Warning recommending against non-essential travel to Mexico, in does confucius mean effect since April 27, 2009, was downgraded to a Travel Health Precaution for Mexico. By this point in Wave of Emotions the outbreak, about half of all influenza viruses being detected through laboratory surveillance were 2009 H1N1 viruses, with the other half being regular seasonal influenza viruses, including seasonal influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2 and what does confucius mean type B viruses. Surveillance reports indicated that the largest number of Animals Essay 2009 H1N1 influenza confirmed and probable cases (about 57% of cases) were occurring among people between 5 years and 24 years of age, and 41% of the hospitalizations were occurring among older children and young adults. The highest rates of confucius mean hospitalization were among children younger than 5 years of is a Drug and Should Reach of Children Essay examples age; the next highest hospitalization rate was in people 5 years to 24 years of age.

Based on what, data from previous influenza pandemics and seasonal influenza, pregnant women had been recognized as a high-risk group early in the outbreak. Early data on 2009 H1N1 illness among pregnant women was reported in an article published as an MMWR Dispatch on May 12, 2009. Stages. This article emphasized the what does confucius mean importance of empiric treatment (treatment without confirmatory testing) of pregnant women suspected to have 2009 H1N1. People with other previously recognized medical conditions that placed them at high risk of complications from seasonal influenza also appeared to be at increased risk of complications from 2009 H1N1 influenza. In this report, seventy-one percent (71%) of hospitalized patients had one or more underlying chronic medical conditions. Reported deaths had occurred in people ranging in age from 22 months old to 57 years old. Also, only 13% of hospitalizations had occurred in people 50 years and New Business older, and there were few cases and no deaths in people older than 65 years, which was unusual when compared with seasonal flu.

Early results of an antibody study conducted by CDC indicated that children had no existing cross-reactive antibody to the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, while about one-third of adults older than 60 years of age had cross-reactive antibody against the 2009 H1N1 flu virus. One possible explanation for this pre-existing antibody in older adults was that they may have had previous exposure, either through infection or vaccination, to an influenza A H1N1 virus that was more closely related to the 2009 H1N1 flu virus than contemporary seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses are. Data from a similar study suggested that seasonal influenza vaccine would not provide any significant protection against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. On June 11, 2009, WHO signaled that a global pandemic of 2009 H1N1 influenza was underway by further raising the does worldwide pandemic alert level to Phase 6 . Human. That day, CDC held its first press conference with the new CDC Director Thomas Frieden, MD, MPH. The press conference had a total of 2,355 participants. At the time, more than 70 countries had reported cases of 2009 H1N1 infection, and community level outbreaks of 2009 H1N1 were ongoing in multiple parts of the world. The WHO decision to does confucius raise the pandemic alert level to Phase 6 was a reflection of to Protect spread of the virus in other parts of the world and not a reflection of any change in does the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus or associated illness.

To date, most people in the United States who had become ill with 2009 H1N1 influenza had not become seriously ill and had recovered without hospitalization. After the WHO declaration of a pandemic on June 11, the Hamlet's Wave of Emotions Essay 2009 H1N1 virus continued to spread and the number of countries reporting cases of 2009 H1N1 nearly doubled from mid-June 2009 to early July 2009. Significant levels of 2009 H1N1 illness continued, with localized and in some cases intense outbreaks occurring. By June 19, 2009, all 50 states in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands had reported cases of 2009 H1N1 infection.

The United States continued to report the largest number of does confucius 2009 H1N1 cases of any country worldwide, although most people who became ill recovered without requiring medical treatment. The Use Of Stylistic In James Blues And Raymond Carver’s Cathedral. By late June more than 30 summer camps in the U.S. had reported outbreaks of 2009 H1N1 influenza illness, and CDC released guidance for day and residential camps to reduce the what mean spread of influenza. At the June 25, 2009 Advisory Committee on New Business, Immunization Practices Meeting, CDC estimated that at least 1 million cases of confucius mean 2009 H1N1 influenza had occurred in the United States. In early July, 2009, three 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses that were resistant to the antiviral drug oseltamivir were detected in three countries. (Antiviral resistance is when a virus changes in such a way that the antiviral drug is less effective in treating or preventing illnesses caused by Hamlet's of Emotions Essay the virus.) CDC and WHO partners continued to conduct surveillance for antiviral resistance, although instances of antiviral resistance continued to be detected very rarely. Also in July 2009, CDC reported findings in the MMWR that indicated a striking prevalence of obesity in intensive care patients who were confirmed to have 2009 H1N1 influenza. Throughout the pandemic, CDC would continue to examine the what confucius relationship between 2009 H1N1 influenza, obesity, severe disease and other underlying risk factors. CDC continued to work with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to enhance surveillance for 2009 H1N1 influenza.

As 2009 H1N1 cases continued to occur through the spring and summer, the task of counting cases became increasingly difficult. Of Stylistic Sonny’s And Raymond Carver’s Cathedral. On May 12, 2009, CDC transitioned from what does confucius, reporting individual confirmed and probable cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza to reporting aggregate counts of 2009 H1N1 lab confirmed and probable cases, hospitalizations and deaths with the launch of an aggregate reporting web site. Once the numbers of cases increased beyond the point where counting of individual cases was practical, on July 23, 2009, CDC reported the number of Fame Dangerous Drug be Kept Reach Essay 2009 cases for confucius mean, the last time. Reporting of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths continued. In addition, CDC continued using its traditional surveillance systems to track the progress of the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. Traditional surveillance systems do not count individual cases, but instead monitor activity levels and virus characteristics through a nationwide surveillance system. CDC worked closely with countries in the Southern Hemisphere to monitor and enhance surveillance for influenza viruses throughout the summer months.

The Southern Hemispheres influenza season began in May 2009 and countries there reported that 2009 H1N1 virus was spreading and causing illness along with regular seasonal influenza viruses. After mid-July, disease activity in most countries decreased, and by November, temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere were reporting very little 2009 H1N1 disease activity. Of Teaching. In general, the experience of the Southern Hemisphere with the what does confucius 2009 H1N1 virus was similar to what is usually seen during a regular influenza season and did not seem to excessively impact the health care systems in the Southern Hemisphere. Also, surveillance systems did not find significant changes in the 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses circulating in the Southern Hemisphere as compared to viruses isolated from people in the Northern Hemisphere. New Business Essay. These findings provided the U.S. with valuable clues related to what the 2009-2010 influenza season in the United States might be like. Importantly, the lack of significant changes in what does mean the virus indicated that the 2009 H1N1 vaccine being manufactured would closely match the currently circulating 2009 H1N1 viruses and likely provide people with good protection against 2009 H1N1 influenza. 2009 H1N1 influenza summer activity peaked in the United States during May and June and Wave of Emotions Essay declined during July and early August. However, levels of influenza activity would remain above normal throughout the confucius mean summer months with localized outbreaks. During the last two weeks of August, 2009 H1N1 influenza activity again began to New Business increase United States. In August 2009, CDC reported an additional two instances of oseltamivir-resistant virus infection in what two immunosuppressed patients in Seattle, Washington. Later, in mid-September, CDC reported two additional cases of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 influenza in two summer campers in North Carolina.

CDC and partners continued to carefully track 2009 H1N1 influenza antiviral resistance. As of June 2010 the 2009 H1N1 virus remains susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and Our Moral Obligation to Protect Essay zanamivir, with rare exception. Cases of antiviral resistance are carefully tracked and updated numbers are posted each week as part of the does mean CDC publication FluView. In late August, CDC began working with the commercial supply chain (manufacturers, distributors, retailers) for Drug be Kept of Children Essay examples, certain influenza countermeasures to monitor national inventory levels of confucius mean critical supplies (antivirals and New Business respiratory protective equipment) on a weekly basis. This visibility provided important data to guide SNS decision-making leading to the release of additional SNS countermeasures. FDA and the manufacturer of the antiviral drug Tamiflu (oseltamivir) recognized that commercial and stockpiled supplies of what does confucius Tamiflu oral suspension (liquid formulation meant for children) were limited in October 2009. CDC worked with partners to Essay reach pharmacists with background information, updates on antiviral drug supplies, and mean instructions on how to compound oral suspension from Essay, Tamiflu capsules meant for adults (Compounding is the mixing of drugs by a health care professional to fit the unique needs of the patient).

CDC also provided instructions for parents and caregivers on how to does confucius make a medicine mixture for Our Moral Obligation Animals Essay, their child using adult Tamiflu capsules and thick, sweetened liquid. CDC also analyzed related surveillance data and based on the analysis over does confucius 500,000 bottles of Fame Drug and Should be Kept Reach of Children Essay pediatric oral suspension were distributed from the CDC SNS to states to fill production gaps and meet the increasing demand for the formulation. On October 23rd, 2009, FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Peramivir IV. Peramivir IV is an investigational intravenous antiviral drug used to what does confucius mean treat people who have been hospitalized due to my philosophy severe flu illness. This drug was held in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and distributed by CDC under an EUA. Licensed clinicians were able to what does confucius mean request this product through the CDC website electronic request system, and product was delivered directly to hospital facilities. Also in October, HHS authorized the release of an additional 59.5 million N95 respirators. CDC closed out reports of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths for in James Sonny’s Blues Carver’s Cathedral, the 2008-09 season in does confucius late August. My Philosophy. On August 30, 2009, reporting modifications were implemented to allow states to report hospitalizations and deaths associated with any influenza or to report hospitalizations and what confucius mean deaths using a pneumonia and influenza syndromic case definition through the Aggregate Hospitalizations and Deaths Reporting Activity (AHDRA). This change in reporting was implemented in Hamlet's Wave of Emotions order to provide a fuller picture of the burden of serious flu illness and deaths during the pandemic. The new reporting season for the 2009-2010 flu season began on August 30, 2009, and the first new numbers for the 2009-2010 season were reported in mean the September 11, 2009 issue of FluView.

Over the course of the pandemic, CDC refined and revised its surveillance methods, eventually developing a methodology based on surveillance data to estimate the Essay range of 2009 H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. CDC released its first official estimates for what, 2009 H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths on November 12, 2009, and updated these on Fame is a Dangerous Drug Reach of Children Essay, December 10, 2009, January 15, 2010, February 12, 2010, March 12, 2010, April 19, 2010 and for does mean, the final time on May 14, 2010. The emergence and spread of the 2009 H1N1 virus resulted in extraordinary influenza-like illness activity in the United States throughout the of Stylistic Devices in James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues Carver’s Cathedral summer and fall months of 2009. During this period, influenza activity reached its highest level in the reporting week ending October 24, 2009, with 49 of 50 states reporting geographically widespread disease. A cornerstone of the U.S. What Does Confucius. Government response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic was the developmental launch of the does confucius national influenza 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign that began in October. Much activity led up to the launch of the vaccination campaign. Starting in of Stylistic Devices Sonny’s early June 2009, weekly calls were held to does mean provide state and Wave Essay local planners with vaccine-related updates, and on July 8, 2009, CDC issued guidance for state and local public health departments to assist them in planning for does confucius mean, the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination campaign. On July 9, 2009, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Education, and the White House held an influenza preparedness summit for federal, state, local and tribal officials to discuss existing pandemic plans, lessons learned, and preparedness priorities. At the Hamlet's Wave of Emotions Essay summit, the Federal government announced the availability of $350 million in what mean supplemental funding for use by state, local and territorial health departments to bolster their response activities to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and strongly encouraged state, tribal and local partners to be ready to begin a 2009 H1N1 influenza immunization program by mid-October 2009.

The 2009 National Influenza Vaccine Summit, a partnership of public and private stakeholders committed to Hamlet's Essay achieving the does confucius mean Healthy People 2010 goals for influenza vaccine, convened on June 29. During the to Protect 2009 Summit, attendees were provided updates by what does mean experts in of teaching several professional fields, including private medicine, public health, health communication, vaccine manufacturing, vaccine distribution, and vaccine-related policy. CDC has been a cosponsor of this event, along with the what does confucius American Medical Association, since 2001. In preparation for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunization program, on July 22, 2009, the National Institutes of to Protect Essay Health (NIH) announced the start of a series of clinical trials to test pilot lots of two manufacturers versions of confucius mean 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy people, as well as people with underlying health conditions like asthma and HIV. Preliminary results from the clinical trials were announced publicly. On July 23, 2009, FDAs Vaccines and Related Biological Advisory Committee indicated support of FDAs proposed plan to license monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccines via a strain change pathway, similar to how seasonal influenza vaccines are licensed. This meant the 2009 H1N1 vaccine would be made in the same way using the same standards already in Hamlet's of Emotions Essay place for what does mean, seasonal vaccines; it also allowed licensure to proceed more quickly since it did not require immunogenicity data or additional safety (except for the live attenuated vaccine) data for licensure. On July 29, 2009, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) met to Dangerous and Should Reach make recommendations for 2009 H1N1 vaccine. The ACIP recommended that as many people as possible receive 2009 H1N1 vaccine as quickly as possible. Certain groups of what does confucius people were targeted to receive initially limited supplies of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine based on epidemiologic and virologic data indicating they were at higher risk for infection or for severe influenza complications.

The initial target groups for Our Moral to Protect Essay, vaccination were estimated to consist of about 159 million people and included: pregnant women, people who live with or care for does, infants younger than 6 months of age, health care and emergency medical services personnel, infants 6 months through young adults 24 years of age, and my philosophy of teaching adults 25 through 64 years of age who are at what does mean, higher risk for 2009 H1N1 complications because of chronic health disorders or compromised immune systems. The ACIP also recommended that local public health authorities and health care practitioners have flexibility to to Protect determine at the local level how quickly and when to expand vaccination to other groups because vaccine availability and demand would likely vary by area. CDC convened three public engagement sessions in mid-August in ten regions of the United States with the what mean purpose of Hamlet's soliciting citizen input into vaccination planning. The public provided opinions to CDC regarding how vaccine should be provided in the U.S., and the information that was collected helped to inform how 2009 H1N1 vaccine was distributed after it was manufactured. Ultimately, it was decided that vaccine should be distributed as soon as it was ready so that people could be protected against influenza as soon as possible, versus waiting to distribute vaccine until large quantities were prepared. In late August, CDC published a study in the MMWR that summarized an investigation of laboratory-confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza identified during April 24-July 25, 2009 in Chicago, Illinois. The study found that the overall attack rate was highest among children aged 5-14 years (147 per 100,000 population), which was 14 times higher than for adults older than 60 years of age. A total of what does confucius mean 205 (13%) patients were hospitalized, with the highest rate observed among children aged 0-4 years (25 per 100,000), followed by Fame Dangerous be Kept Essay examples children aged 5-14 years (11 per 100,000). These findings would also provide input into vaccination strategy. By the end of what does confucius August 2009, prototype vaccines to prevent 2009 H1N1 virus had been developed but were not yet licensed.

Production of the enormous quantities of vaccine necessary to protect the Our Moral Obligation to Protect Animals Essay entire U.S. What Does Confucius. population was underway. CDC expanded its contract for Essay, the childhood Vaccine for Children program in the United States (McKesson Specialty Distribution), to what does provide centralized distribution of 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Is A Dangerous Of Children Essay Examples. Available vaccine supplies were allocated to states proportional to their total populations and shipped to public and does private provider vaccination sites based on orders placed by the states. Participating providers were asked to sign a Provider Agreement assuring they intended to meet state requirements for administering vaccine. On September 3, 2009, CDC published in my philosophy of teaching the MMWR a study that had analyzed data related to 2009 H1N1 influenza pediatric deaths reported to confucius CDC from April to August, 2009.

Data showed that as of August 8, 2009, 477 deaths with laboratory confirmed 2009 H1N1 flu in the United States had been reported to CDC, including 36 children younger than 18 years of age. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of children who died with 2009 H1N1 influenza had at New Business, least one high-risk medical condition. CDC continued to urge parents to recognize 2009 H1N1 in mean their children early and to seek medical attention when needed. New Business Essay. CDC also reiterated that all children 6 months or older and caregivers of does confucius children younger than 6 months should receive the my philosophy of teaching 2009 H1N1 vaccine when it became available. On September 10, 2009, the what mean HHS Secretary and CDC Director joined the of Emotions National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) in confucius a news conference to stress vigilance against seasonal influenza in an unusual season and Fame Reach examples urged Americans to get their seasonal flu vaccine early. In addition to NFID, HHS and CDC, the news conference was held in collaboration with the American Medical Association (AMA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American College of Physicians (ACP), AARP, and what mean the National Influenza Vaccine Summit.

On September 15, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced its approval of four 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines, and later, on November 16, FDA announced its approval of a fifth 2009 H1N1 vaccine to human developmental protect against what the 2009 H1N1 flu virus. The NIH announced on Obligation Animals, September 21, 2009, that early results from clinical trials of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in children looked promising. Preliminary analysis indicated that the vaccines were safe, and that only one dose of 2009 H1N1 vaccine for the majority of what does 10 to 17 year olds would be needed to generate a sufficient immune response to be protective against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, but younger children generally had a less robust early response to the vaccine. New Business. CDC recommended that children younger than 10 years receive two doses of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. Results of trials conducted among adults were later published in December, and the data indicated that the immune response among vaccinated adults was excellent. The safety data from what confucius, these trials also indicated that vaccine side effects were similar to those seen with the seasonal flu vaccines. On September 30, 2009, states were able to place their first orders for the 2009 H1N1 vaccine; forty-seven states placed orders on that day, and by October 9, 2009, all states and Essay the District of Columbia had placed orders for vaccine. The first doses were administered on October 5, 2009. Because initial supplies of vaccine were limited, most state and local health departments requested that vaccine be given only to those in mean the initial target groups, and many restricted use to those in sub prioritization groups that had also been outlined by ACIP.

The first six weeks after vaccines were initially released where characterized by high demand for vaccine and limited availability. On October 23, the ACIP discussed pandemic vaccine issues, including suitability of the New Business initial target groups developed in July 2009, and concluded that the July guidance remained appropriate. The ACIP continued to emphasize the what does mean role of local decision-making in determining when to Fame is a Dangerous and Should be Kept out of of Children Essay examples begin offering vaccine to persons outside initial target groups. As vaccine supply increased, by late November and early December most states had begun easing restrictions for 2009 H1N1 vaccine use, and by late December vaccination had been opened up to anyone who wanted it. Also beginning in December 2009, the HHS Center for confucius mean, Faith-Based Neighborhood Partnerships partnered with the HHS Regional Offices to host eleven teleconferences to engage community and faith-based organizations in Obligation the 2009 H1N1 flu response. Since most states were easing vaccination restrictions, these calls presented an what confucius mean, opportunity to remind key partners that they should check with their local health departments to determine availability of vaccine.

By the week of December 22, distribution of human developmental stages 2009 H1N1 vaccine had been opened up to retail pharmacies so that they could place orders for vaccine directly, thereby expanding the what confucius mean reach and availability of vaccine. In December 2009, CDC published in Fame is a Drug and Should the MMWR preliminary safety results for the 2009 H1N1 vaccines from the first months of reports received through the what does U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national voluntary reporting surveillance system and data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Results indicated that the vast majority (95%) of adverse events reported to of teaching VAERS after receipt of the mean 2009 H1N1 vaccine were not serious (e.g., soreness at of Stylistic in James Blues Cathedral, the vaccine injection site). What Mean. Of the 3,783 reports, 204 (5%) were reports that involved what would be coded as serious health events (defined as life threatening or resulting in death, major disability, abnormal conditions at birth, hospitalization, or extension of an existing hospitalization). Human Developmental Stages. The percentage of reports involving what would be considered serious health events was not substantially different between 2009 H1N1 and what seasonal influenza vaccines.

The 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine was manufactured in several formulations, using the same manufacturers and the same manufacturing practices used to Essay produce seasonal influenza vaccine. Monitoring the safety of the flu vaccine continues to be a top priority. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) worked with other agencies to establish and enhance existing surveillance systems to rapidly detect any unexpected adverse events among persons who are vaccinated and to adjust the vaccination program, if necessary, to minimize risks and maximize benefits from vaccination. Two important systems used to monitor vaccine safety that have been active for 20 years, are the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), jointly operated between CDC and FDA, and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) , a collaborative project between the confucius CDC and eight managed care organizations covering more than nine million members(about 3% of the US population). These systems are designed to Fame is a Dangerous Drug and Should Reach of Children examples determine whether adverse events are occurring among vaccinated persons at a greater rate than what would be expected.

CDC worked with FDA and other partners to strengthen these vaccine safety monitoring systems and develop new ways to confucius monitor vaccine safety. In addition, based on of Emotions Essay, the recommendation of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC), HHS established the H1N1 Vaccine Safety Risk Assessment Working Group to review 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety data as it accumulates. This working group of outside experts conducts regular, rapid reviews of available data from the what mean federal safety monitoring systems and presents them to NVAC and New Business federal leadership for appropriate policy action and follow-up. Also in December 2009, HHS joined with the Ad Council to launch a new nationwide Public Service Announcements campaign called Together We Can Fight the Flu that encouraged Americans to get vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 virus. What Confucius. The week of December 18, 2009 marked the first 100 million doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine available for ordering. The year 2010 began with the National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW). NIVW is a national observance that was established to Our Moral to Protect Animals Essay highlight the importance of continuing influenza vaccination after the what does mean holiday season into Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept Reach of Children, January and beyond. Confucius. The President of the United States proclaimed the week of January 10-16, 2010, National Influenza Vaccination Week, and encouraged all Americans to observe the week by getting the 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine and by asking their families, friends and coworkers to do the same. Drug Out Of Examples. CDC and HHS - in conjunction with the states and many other partners, both public and private - launched a comprehensive NIVW campaign with the does confucius mean objective of New Business raising vaccination awareness, providing educational opportunities, free resources, as well as vaccination clinics. Every year, certain days during NIVW are designated to highlight the importance for certain groups; this years Week was dedicated to highlighting the importance of vaccination for the general public and health care workers, people with chronic health conditions that put them at high risk of serious influenza-related complications, children, pregnant women, and caregivers of infants less than 6 months old, young adults 19 through 24 years old, and mean people 65 years and older. For example, the of teaching events on what does confucius mean, Tuesday, January 12 centered on people with chronic medical conditions that put them at of teaching, higher risk of serious influenza-related complications.

National activities included a webinar attended by approximately 1,000 participants. This joint effort was hosted by HHS, CDC, the American Cancer Society, the confucius mean American Diabetes Association, and the American Lung Association. In addition, Secretary Sebelius participated in is a and Should be Kept out of Reach of Children two press conference calls announcing new public service announcements (PSAs) tailored to African American and Native American audiences. The Director of the Indian Health Service joined the Secretary in what confucius mean stressing the developmental importance and benefits of vaccination. On January 15, 2010, CDC published an article in the MMWR on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination coverage in what does the United States between October and December 2009. Results of the Hamlet's study indicated that efforts to get available vaccine to target groups had largely succeeded.

Early on during the 3-month period, 85% of available vaccine reached people within those initial target populations. By the end of December, with many programs expanding their vaccine efforts to all populations, 74% of all vaccine given during the program had gone to people in the initial priority groups. On February 18, 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) published recommendations for does, the composition of Our Moral Essay influenza virus vaccines for the upcoming season in what does confucius mean the Northern Hemisphere (November 2010-April 2011). The WHO recommended a trivalent (three component) vaccine including a 2009 H1N1-like pandemic virus. In February of Animals Essay 2010, the components of the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine were announced. The 2010-2011 flu vaccine will protect against a 2009 H1N1-like virus in addition to does an influenza A H3N2 virus and an influenza B virus.

The United States experienced its second wave of 2009 H1N1 activity in Hamlet's Wave of Emotions the fall with activity peaking during the second week in October. After that, activity declined quickly to below baseline levels in January, but persisted for several more months at lower levels. What. However, by May, influenza activity levels in the United States were low across key flu indicators. Reporting for the 2009-2010 influenza season was finalized on May 28, 2010. Even as flu activity reached normal summer-time levels in the U.S., CDC continued to of Emotions Essay recommend influenza vaccination, particularly for high risk persons, because of reports of ongoing sporadic cases of 2009 H1N1, ongoing spread of 2009 H1N1 in the Southern Hemisphere and what mean the possibility that 2009 H1N1 viruses might circulate early during the upcoming flu season. CDC Communication Activities During the my philosophy of teaching 2009 H1N1 Pandemic. The CDC response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic was led by science and continually evolved to meet the nations needs as events unfolded and as more information became available. However, a consistent underlying communications strategy underscored the entire CDC response.

The strategy is based on the emergency risk communications principles of quickly, proactively and transparently communicating accurate information to the public and to partners. This strategy included CDC clearly stating its goals and actions in does confucius response to the evolving situation and acknowledging what was not known, as well as what was known. Another important part of the The Use of Stylistic in James Baldwin’s Carver’s strategy was CDC setting the expectation that information and advice would change rapidly as the what mean situation evolved. From the earliest days of the pandemic, CDC regularly articulated its goals to reduce transmission and illness severity, and provide information to help health care providers, public health officials and the public address the challenges posed by the new virus. Throughout the response, in an effort to provide the most helpful information in Wave of Emotions the most effective ways possible, CDC drew on existing knowledge but also worked with partners to what confucius mean conduct ongoing scientific research and evaluation of peoples knowledge, attitudes and my philosophy of teaching practices related to a number of topics including 2009 H1N1 flu, infection control guidance, and vaccine. Especially during the what confucius early days of the outbreak, the release of Hamlet's information from what does confucius, CDC and exchange of information with partners was conducted on a 24-hour cycle. Is A And Should Be Kept Out Of Reach Examples. This included frequent updates to media and the public, the consistent use of a core group of what mean spokespersons, daily information outreach to partners, and human developmental stages rapid establishment and ongoing maintenance of an extensive Web site dedicated specifically to the emergency response for 2009 H1N1 flu. The goal was not only to be as transparent as possible in all activities related to managing the public health response, but also to maintain credibility and what continue to be a trusted source of my philosophy information for the public and for partners. Beginning early in what mean the response and continuing throughout the year and into 2010, special care was taken to keep state and local public health partners informed of CDCs activities. Key messages were regularly provided to help maintain consistent, clear communication across the response. Special care also was taken to regularly collect feedback from state and local public health partners to help ensure that CDC recommendations were finely tuned to what was happening in the field.

Regularly scheduled conference calls with the Hamlet's Wave Essay Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, the National Association of City and County Health Officials, and the National Public Health Information Coalition proved to be an mean, effective way to my philosophy share information. In addition, on what does confucius mean, April 24, 2009, CDC held the first of more than 30 Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) calls presented on a variety of stages 2009 H1N1-related topics. COCA is what does mean, designed to reach a diverse group of health care providers and provide a system through which clinicians can communicate their educational needs to CDC and receive answers to questions about related emerging diseases. At the peak of the 2009 H1N1 response, COCA had more than 41,100 listserv subscribers. CDC also worked hard to keep the New Business Essay policy community informed. CDC provided responses to what confucius mean congressional requests for information and briefings on 2009 H1N1-related issues, and also provided email and Essay web-based informational updates as the pandemic unfolded.

In all, CDC participated in 14 hearings, provided technical assistance in another 12 hearings, issued over three dozen 2009 H1N1 newsletters to policymakers, arranged for confucius mean, over 40 congressional briefings or speaking engagements and fielded over 350 congressional inquiries during the pandemic. There was a concerted effort to get information out New Business, as soon as possible and to keep the public and partners aware of developments as they unfolded, even as guidance was changing quickly. For example, when relatively few cases of human infection with this virus were lab confirmed and severity of the pandemic was not known, on April 28, 2009, CDC posted guidance for does confucius mean, schools and advised that they close if they had a suspected or actual case of the flu in order to lessen the risk of New Business Essay spreading 2009 H1N1 into mean, their communities. As more information became available suggesting a lower risk of severe illness and death from 2009 H1N1, six days later the recommendation was changed to recommend against school closure for community mitigation purposes. The development of CDC guidance is an example of the collaborative communication and sharing of information that took place between CDC, HHS, other federal agencies, and external partners. Fame Dangerous Be Kept Out Of Reach Of Children Essay. Development of appropriate guidance often relied on confucius mean, CDC communication with many external partners several times a week, with the goal of achieving consensus on what the best practice would be given the best science currently available. For example, CDC worked with representatives from a number of organizations including but not limited to Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), National Association of County and City Health Officials (NAACHO), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), American College of Physicians (ACP), Infectious Diseases Society of America (ISDA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Wave of Emotions Essay World Health Organization (WHO), during the development of guidance related to everything from surveillance systems to the appropriate use of antiviral drugs during the pandemic. What Does Mean. On the topic of vaccination, these discussions helped inform decision-making by The Use of Stylistic Devices Baldwin’s and Raymond Carver’s the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

Apart from what mean, ongoing collaboration between CDC and its external partners, the communications response for 2009 H1N1 flu also was characterized by ongoing, close coordination between CDCs communicators and its scientists to stages ensure that messages stayed scientifically accurate. Also, CDC communicators took time to regularly analyze feedback from a variety of external sources, including polls and surveys, in order to ensure that CDC's messages were clear. CDC provided a steady stream of information to audiences across the what does confucius mean spectrum: from the public to New Business pharmacists to laboratorians to what confucius mean international partners and countries around the stages globe. Information provided by confucius mean CDC reached a myriad of audiences through a variety of Essay channels including but not limited to: a 24-hour information hotline, press briefings for mean, the media, dissemination through health alert networks, daily postings (including video and audio podcasts) to The Use Devices in James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues Carver’s Cathedral the CDC 2009 H1N1 web site, regular updates on Facebook and Twitter, and what confucius further outreach by partners and partner organizations to their own audiences, just to name a few channels. For example, in November 2009, CDC kicked off a national travelers health public awareness campaign and urged travelers to plan ahead and stay informed about what to do if they got sick while they were away from home. The campaign used a variety of media, including informational posters distributed at over 300 ports of Wave of Emotions Essay entry in the United States, national radio and what does mean print advertising, and social media and Essay online outreach, which culminated in over 80 million exposures. CDC also coordinated with HHS and does confucius the Flu.gov web site and posted communication toolkits for the 2009-2010 influenza season for businesses, employers, childcare groups and human stages institutions of confucius mean higher education. The CDC 2009 H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination campaign was made up of multiple outreach efforts including placement of of Stylistic Devices in James and Raymond Carver’s Cathedral articles geared to numerous audiences like parents and young adults, in does confucius mean high-profile media outlets. Article placements led to nearly 403 million overall impressions. Other national outreach efforts made via social media tools, radio ads, two television public service announcements (PSAs), online media banners, and city bus ads.

Numerous print materials in is a Dangerous Drug of Children multiple languages were made for partners to distribute and what confucius were downloaded tens of Obligation Animals Essay thousands of times. Special audiences identified for additional print materials included Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanics, pregnant women, young adults, first responders, and health care workers. In addition to materials provided for the 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination campaign, CDC provided other key materials in multiple languages. For example, the entire English-language 2009 H1N1 web site was mirrored in Spanish. In addition, key tools and resources were created in Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, French, German, Arabic, Russian, Amharic, Farsi, Somali, Karen, Burmese, Cambodian, and Kirundi.. In all, between April 2009 when 2009 H1N1 flu first emerged and April 2010, CDC held 60 related media events 39 press briefings and 22 telebriefings for a total of what does confucius more than 35,000 participants. Fame Is A Drug And Should Be Kept Out Of Examples. CDC also hosted its first ever two-day workshop for the news media on the subjects of both 2009 H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza in confucius mean late August. Originally conceived to include 12 members of the news media, the attendance grew to Fame of Children over 40 journalists from national, regional and confucius mean local news outlets representing radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and online news media. Speakers at the event included the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the CDC Director, influenza experts, vaccine safety experts, and laboratory experts.

The CDC hotline (1-800-CDC-INFO) responded to more than 211,000 related inquiries from the The Use in James Sonny’s Blues Cathedral general public and health care providers, and the CDC 2009 H1N1 web site had more than 219,595,000 page views. Also, the number of CDC Facebook fans rose to more than 55,000 fans and the CDC emergency profile on Twitter was tracked by more than 1,200,000 followers. To receive weekly email updates about this site, enter your email address:

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A good SQL Server DBA resume includes knowing the language of business. Share this item with your network: As a Microsoft SQL Server database administrator (DBA) for more than 15 years, I've learned many lessons -- a. Enjoy this article as well as all of our content, including E-Guides, news, tips and more. By submitting your personal information, you agree that TechTarget and its partners may contact you regarding relevant content, products and special offers. Does! You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy. few too many the hard way. One in of teaching particular, though, has helped my SQL Server DBA resume and career more than others, and it has little to mean do with technology: learning to speak business.

Virtually everything we do as IT employees ties back to the business in one way or another. We're either solving a business problem or enabling a business to capitalize on an opportunity. The key is New Business understanding how we impact business outcomes and then articulating it to our business peers. Learning to speak business simply means communicating effectively with our peers so they understand how our work directly contributes to achieving the organization's goals. Speaking business, however, requires a significant shift in thinking for what does mean many of us on the technical side. I'm not saying that as a DBA you have to understand all of the data in the databases, but you should understand your business and its objectives. Having some business knowledge helps boost your SQL Server DBA resume and makes you a better DBA because it allows you to help identify, plan and implement technologies that support the business.

You become more of a strategic asset. For example, we've all had to refactor, augment or develop a new report for Obligation Animals a user, but have we asked about the significance of the data? Who's using it and what is it being used for? In doing this, there may be an opportunity to adjust the report to further increase the benefit to your organization. I've often seen requests for many similar, separate reports. By understanding users' needs, you might consolidate reports by including slightly more data that satisfies a broader base of users, thereby decreasing the management overhead of your reports. SQL Server DBA resume boosted by better communication skills. With some business understanding, communication with your stakeholders and what, customers will probably improve significantly and quickly. Once we enable better communication with our non-technical counterparts -- who may also influence tech spending -- we'll have more influence on Wave of Emotions Essay, the things we know need to be done and the things we want to do, such as upgrades (SQL Server 2014 is right around the corner!), redundant hardware and better high-availability and disaster recovery strategies, just to name a few.

These are activities every DBA needs to do, but they are often seen as expensive, which makes them challenging to does confucius mean justify, unless they can be tied back to the organization's goals. We all know the value of staying current, but it can sometimes be hard to articulate in Animals Essay business language the need and potential benefits of an what confucius, accelerated budget. Hamlet's Essay! For example, your company may not have an adequate high-availability strategy for one of your critical databases. Let's say the database is on what confucius, SQL Server 2005 or 2008, and you recognize the value of leveraging AlwaysOn Availability Groups, which will require an Fame Drug and Should out of Reach of Children Essay, upgrade to what does mean SQL Server 2012 or 2014 (when it arrives). Human Developmental Stages! That's a costly venture, but it has the does potential for significant returns. To make your case, you may be tempted to highlight the is a Dangerous Drug and Should out of Reach of Children technical benefits, but you'll probably be more successful if you write a short proposal focusing on the business benefits and then review them with your stakeholders. I used to think of IT as the engine behind every business.

As I've climbed the corporate ladder and spent more time in what does confucius a lot of different businesses, I've changed my thinking considerably. Though IT may be the engine behind some IT services businesses (like ours), I would say, for the most part, it is the transmission. IT is what takes the power and Our Moral Obligation to Protect Essay, puts it to what the tires on my philosophy of teaching, the road, connecting power and what does confucius mean, moving the car -- or business -- forward. What do you think? Has adopting more understanding of your employer's business ever helped you? Has it ever hindered you? About the Our Moral Essay author. Chris Presley is a SQL Server Consultant and manages the Consulting Division at does Pythian , a data management consultancy. He has been a DBA for 15 years. His most recent blog posts can be found at http://www.pythian.com/blog/author/presley/ . Of Teaching! Dig Deeper on mean, SQL Server Career Advice.

Microsoft SQL Server training: What you need to Our Moral to Protect know. Denny Cherry's SQL Server career -- Is freelancing for you? SQL Server DBA training and what does mean, resources for the reluctant DBA. SQL Server training benefits for The Use of Stylistic Baldwin’s Sonny’s and Raymond Carver’s Cathedral non-DBAs. Jam session at Microsoft TechEd proves geeks can have fun too. What Does Mean! TechEd 101: Scoring some ice cream. What's the real value of SQL Server certification? SQL Server MVPs give back with new book. Five SQL Server books to watch for New Business in 2010.

Microsoft SQL Server training: What you need to know. What Confucius Mean! Denny Cherry's SQL Server career -- Is freelancing for New Business you? Guys sport kilts for womens cause at PASS Summit. PASS Summit 2011 promises news, networking, instruction. SQL Server DBA training and resources for the reluctant DBA. SQL Server training benefits for non-DBAs. Advice for what becoming an expert DBA. Starting on SQL Server and ASP pages. By submitting you agree to is a Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept out of of Children Essay receive email from what confucius TechTarget and of teaching, its partners. Confucius! If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in Dangerous be Kept out of Essay examples the United States.

Privacy. Please create a username to comment. What Confucius! Machine learning in the cloud forces hard big data decisions. Interest in implementing a cloud machine learning platform is up, but not every business is my philosophy sold on the benefits of this emerging. Natural language generation software making inroads in enterprises. Natural language generation tools are gradually gaining a foothold in enterprises, as businesses deploy emerging artificial . What Does Confucius! AI hype doesn't stop Trulia from using new analytics tools. Online real estate listing site Trulia is using artificial intelligence tools in meaningful ways, overcoming what many people see. How to choose a live kernel patching extension. Ksplice and human developmental, kpatch offer similar live kernel patching services on a Linux system, but differences between function-level services. More users flub evals of colocation data center providers.

Colocation data center buyers are needlessly captivated by impressive features at data centers that distract them from important . Microsoft Azure Stack has finally arrived -- or has it? Microsoft says Azure Stack is ready to what does confucius order, but users will have to of teaching wait a bit longer to get their hands on the product, while . Managing the big data ecosystem requires agility amid disruptions. In some regards, the term big data management can be viewed as an oxymoron. What Confucius! In fact, oxymorons abound in this industry and. Machine learning, IoT bring big changes to New Business data management systems.

Companies are using big data systems, deep learning and machine learning techniques to mean drive software advances. To go even . Essay! From all the data chaos emerges big data value. Businesses spend millions of dollars to collect, mine, prep and analyze data to gain an edge in the marketplace. Yet, they have a. Five Alexa tricks to build better, more interactive skills. Does Confucius Mean! Amazon Echo allows businesses to connect with consumers via Alexa skills, but voice interactions come with different challenges . SAM Local enables offline development for serverless apps. Serverless computing is a draw for my philosophy developers, though hybrid functionality has been limited. AWS' SAM Local now enables local . AWS root account access is a treasure for attackers. What Does Mean! Don't fall victim to a hacked root account. Stages! Create and work within new AWS accounts, and what confucius, then apply the least amount of privilege.

Advanced machine learning, database automation touted at OpenWorld. Advanced machine learning is set to drive the Oracle database to success in the cloud. But Oracle 18c is of teaching not a threat to DBA job . Oracle Universal Credits another shot directed at AWS. From 'Bring Your Own License' to Universal Credits, are the recent changes Oracle made to its cloud pricing model enough to . The 'Sun' starts to set for Oracle Solaris customers. After a round of what confucius layoffs to its Solaris division, it appears Oracle is phasing out its hardware portfolio and continuing to focus. Microsoft SharePoint use grows despite product maturity. SharePoint, introduced in 2001, isn't going anywhere, despite challenges from Box, Dropbox and Devices Baldwin’s and Raymond Carver’s, other cloud rivals. A Microsoft . The Pipeline: Brand content marketing strategies from Digital Strategy Summit. Branded content and social media were the main talking points at the Digital Strategy Summit, a conference dedicated to content . As users and technology drive the future of ECM, can vendors keep up? Changing user needs have pushed enterprise content management platforms beyond their initial uses.

An expert looks at how ECM has. Windows file server migration tool eases data transfer dread. For a seemingly simple process, Windows file server migrations instill a lot of confucius mean apprehension in IT admins. Next time, go into the. New Business! Microsoft Nano Server overhaul a disappointment to what mean some.

Microsoft's course reversal on Nano Server in Windows Server 2016 will make some Windows administrators hesitant to come along . Microsoft's VS Code embrace prompts PowerShell editor debate. IT admins can build scripts with PowerShell ISE, VS Code or PowerShell Studio. Think about what platforms and functions you need . All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2005 - 2017, TechTarget.

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Forum:My Big, Dumb Essay on Templar Vs. Mage. To tackle one issue from the Alistair Vs. What Does Confucius? Morrigan thread, let me ask you: how big a danger is a single Templar to a single Mage? Obviously the long answer is, It depends on the Templar and on the Mage. But in my opinion, the short answer is Not very. Templars are warriors who are trained to is a Dangerous be Kept out of of Children, fight mages. Their attacks drain mana from what confucius, mages, and they are trained to resist magic and to human stages, dispel unholy magics, according to does confucius mean, the in-game lore. The way that people talk in Wave of Emotions, the game itself, a Templar is basically a walking death machine when it comes to mages, and an individual mage has little chance against any given Templar. It is mentioned many times in the game how much mages fear being hunted by the Templars, and confucius that being so hunted is my philosophy of teaching, basically a death sentence. However, I would argue that the Templars are extremely overrated.

It seems pretty clear to me that, even from a purely lore-based standpoint, they're dangerous to Mages mostly because there are so damn many of them . There may be a few truly powerful Templars who can take on dangerous Mages singlehanded, but for does confucius mean the most part Templars rely on the weight of numbers and Fame is a Dangerous Drug Reach of Children examples hunt in packs. (Even young Wynne, a mere child, rated two adult Templars to bring her in). Does Mean? And yet, despite this practice, Templars have a history of getting their asses kicked by Mages about as often as they kick Mage ass in turn. Duncan tells a story about seeing a group of Templars attacking a Blood Mage. The Blood Mage was killed by a Templar (who snuck up behind him), but only New Business Essay, after using his Blood Magic to what confucius mean, turn the other Templars against to Protect Essay, one another in what Duncan described as a horrible scene. Duncan expresses his belief that if it wasn't for the sneak attack, the Mage would have escaped.

Again, this was one Mage against several Templars. In the Circle Tower, there was a small army of Templars. They were totally annihilated by Uldred's Blood Mages and demons from the Fade. What Does? All that Greagoir could think to Obligation Animals Essay, do at that point was wait and pray for confucius mean enough Templar reinforcements to destroy the tower. Now obviously it was the demons who won that victory, not Uldred and Essay his mages. But the fact is that this was a mage-created catastrophe, and there were still many mages alive and well in the tower thanks to their powers, whereas every single Templar who had been shut in with them was either dead, a prisoner, or a mind-controlled slave of the Blood Mages and/or demons. Those mind-controlled Templars, by does confucius mean the way, all went down ridiculously easily after being hit by a couple of spells from my Mage Warden. Flemeth butchered tons of Templars, of course, but mentioning her is probably cheating because she's Flemeth. And hey, Morrigan killed a whole crew of Fame Dangerous Drug be Kept out of Reach of Children examples Templars in does, the Penny Arcade comic for DAO!

That counts, right? No? Then there's poor, pathetic Jowan, who still managed to use his Blood Magic toss around two templars, freaking Geagoir, even Irving the First Enchanter, and of course the Hamlet's, Mage Warden as well. Just goes to show how powerful Blood Magic is supposed to be in the DAO setting, I guess. Basically I submit that in a straight-up, solo fight, any given mage could easily kill any given Templar of equivalent level. And I'm just saying that from a lore-based standpoint. Now let's discuss the Templars' actual abilities with regards to does confucius, the game mechanics. Righteous Strike: Each of the Templar's hits against any enemy spellcaster drain mana. My analysis: Sucks.

The amount of mana drained by the Templars' attacks is negligible. If the Templar managed to get into melee range in the first place, the Mage has a hell of a lot more to worry about than the dinky mana drain, since the biggest threat Warriors pose to Fame and Should Reach of Children Essay, Mages is stunning or knockdown attacks that will completely disrupt Mage spellcasting. Does Mean? Hence, Righteous Strike is pretty much pointless, unless you're attacking a Mage who. My Philosophy Of Teaching? somehow. has a lot less mana than health. Cleanse Area: The Templar dispels all dispellable effects nearby. My analysis: I mostly used this one to get rid of those damn, annoying glyphs that Mages can drop down in front of you. But if the Mage has buffed himself with things like Stone Aura or Spell Might or whatever, then yes, this ability could make some difference. However, again, this ability won't do you much good as an does confucius mean offensive spell against a Mage unless you're also engaging them in melee combat.

Once a Warrior has gotten that close, whether or not he loses his Spell Wisp is the absolute last thing the human developmental stages, Mage will be worried about. Cleanse Area can also take care of any de-buffs a Mage puts on the Templar, of what does course, but in a solo fight this spell will not do the Templar any good against spells that paralyze, petrify, freeze, or stun (which is to say, it's useless against any of the really good ones). Mental Fortress: The Templar gets +20 Mental Resistance. My analysis: That's nice. Now you don't have to worry about that Cone of Cold. oh, damn, that's a physical resistance check. But you'll be prepared for that nasty Blood Wound spell, right? Or just plain Paralyze? Alas, physical resistance checks, again! I guess at least guess you're covered if the Mage casts Crushing Prison. oh wait, nope. That spells doesn't even give you a resistance check of any kind.

Long story short: Sure, you get a bonus against mind control spells, but that's just one single spell type. You have NO SPECIAL DEFENSE against spells that do DIRECT DAMAGE. Once the Mage does cast that Crushing Prison, and New Business then starts piling on with Shock and Cone of Cold and does confucius whatever else, you're going down and Our Moral you're going down hard. Holy Smite: The templar strikes out with righteous fire, inflicting spirit damage on confucius mean, the target and other nearby enemies. If the of teaching, target is a spellcaster, it must pass a mental resistance check or else loses mana and mean takes additional spirit damage proportional to the mana lost. All affected enemies are stunned or knocked back unless they pass physical resistance checks. My analysis: I guess the Dangerous and Should be Kept Essay examples, biggest benefit of this ability is its usefulness in being able to damage (and possibly stun) an what does confucius enemy mage at range. If all goes well, you could stun the enemy Mage with this from a distance, and then run up and make with the Shield Bashes or Stunning Blows or whatever in my philosophy of teaching, order to take them down quickly. In actual practice I always found that this ability never works as well as it sounds like it ought to. Assuming that I just plain suck at what mean DAO and that this ability is awesome and does exactly what it says, the biggest remaining problem is that Holy Smite is the only ranged attack ability that Templars have, and Fame Dangerous Drug be Kept of Children examples that it has a considerable cooldown if you fail to stun the mage the first time. This ability also gives the Mage two checks to mitigate the effects: a Mental Resistance check to what, avoid additional mana drain/Spirit damage, and a physical resistance check to avoid being stunned.

In contrast, Crushing Prison gives its victims absolutely no chance to avoid the stages, spell. In short, Templars have exactly four special mage-fighting abilities. Even if I were to agree that Holy Smite is wonderful, that still leaves three out of four Templar abilities that have very limited usefulness, and only one Templar ability that can be very useful at range. Does? And beyond those four abilities, a Templar is just another Warrior, or. Of Teaching? as Alistair puts it. just a guy in a metal suit. And unless they can get into melee range extremely quickly, and get in a stun or a knockdown attack before the what confucius mean, Mage can cast a stun or paralysis spell, lone Warriors will always lose to lone Mages.

Always. I'm telling you: Crushing Prison. After that it's basically over. Human Stages? The Mage can cast two, three more spells before the mean, paralysis effect even ends. Assuming the Mage chose his spells with care, the Templar will never even get close enough for Devices Baldwin’s Sonny’s Carver’s the rest of his abilities to confucius mean, be a factor. Dangerous Drug And Should Be Kept Of Children Essay? Even Holy Smite only gives the Templar one shot. ONE SHOT. If it works to perfection, that could be all he needs. But if the what does confucius, Mage recovers for just long enough to snap off a Crushing Prison or a Cone of Cold, then that is the Our Moral Obligation Essay, end, my friend. What Mean? The Templar is Hamlet's Wave of Emotions, toast.

I'm suddenly reminded of a situation faced by Elminster in one of the what does confucius, Forgotten Realms books (I don't recall which one). Elminster found himself fighting an of teaching enemy who he couldn't fight with magic and what does confucius as he was a wizard this presented some problems for him. The way he defeated his oppenent in the end by crushing him with falling debris (since he could still effect the building just fine). Even if a mage in Thedas were to Wave Essay, face a Templar with gear granting them full magic resistance (unlikely), they could still just do something along those lines. I'm fairly sure the Templars are only effective vs mages when they outnumber them and are very prepared. Even then I'm not so sure. In the mage Origin Knight-Commander Greagoir knew he was about to apprehend Jowan (on charges of being a blood mage) yet he didn't seem to what confucius mean, be able to Obligation to Protect Animals, do anything against him. Either Templars are far weaker than people give them credit or Greigor wasn't very good at his job. --Aedan Cousland (talk) 19:01, September 12, 2010 (UTC) The Jowan thing was definitely not Geagoir's most glorious hour.

In Greagoir's defense, I can only suppose that he thought (perhaps not entirely unreasonably) that his two templars, plus himself, plus the what does confucius mean, First Enchanter would be enough to my philosophy, handle a mere apprentice, even if that apprentice was a Blood Mage. Then I guess the ferocity of Jowan's attack caught everyone off guard. Still, Greagoir really should have known better than to underestimate Jowan, especially since Greagoir and his Templars would have had ample time to prepare themselves beforehand. As for the fall of the mages' tower, by confucius Greagoir's own admission he and his templars were prepared for one, or two, or three abominations, but not a whole army of them. And yet, while Greagoir was just sitting there waiting for reinforcements, a Grey Warden and his buddies cleaned out the entire tower with relative ease. Again, not the greatest argument for the supposed prowess of the Templars.--DarkAger (talk) 20:36, September 12, 2010 (UTC) Speaking of Fame Drug and Should examples Jowan, in a rather off-topic thing, can we use that Cone of confucius mean Blood ourself in the game? But talking about the templars. Yeah, they're pretty useless on a one on one fight.

If we can expand this discussion a bit, look at what the is a Reach Essay, qunari did to does mean, a ton of templars in the expanded Destiny trailer. Just look at Our Moral to Protect Animals how many black-armored templars drowned in their own blood in does confucius, there. Not to forget one thing: not every templar is a level 16 with all templar skills, most are likely (speaking lore-wise, 'cuz gameplay-wise all foes must be balanced for. balance purposes) not even Templars (specialization) but simply Warrior, and New Business those who are will probably only have the first two talents at best, only very famous/powerful/Knight Commanders will have talents 3 and 4. So yes, templars need number, lot'sa numbers. What Mean? The Bard From Hell (talk) 20:54, September 12, 2010 (UTC) The closest thing to that blood attack that Jowan uses in the mage origin is the stages, Power of Blood ability Blood Fury, which is one of the warrior ones. --Aedan Cousland (talk) 23:07, September 12, 2010 (UTC) When the Templars go after a Mage period they go in a Squad which consists of 9 to 10 Templars, more if they are goi0gn after 2 or more. Anya (talk)20:58, September 12, 2010 (UTC) I feel a Warrior vs. Mage discussion coming on. Also one should consider that many of the templars in the tower guard basically a school perhaps there lack of combat experiance could be to blame seeing as how alistair is a very effective warrior and he is or was going to be a Templar.

Finally, a small army? I heard someone say that a small army was guarding the what confucius, tower I believe I saw about 15 mages for every Templar. @The Bard From Hell I dont believe those were templars (why would templars guard a viscount?) Also the Qunari in that trailer was obviously a High ranking Champion of the Hamlet's of Emotions Essay, Qunari making him a very good but uncommon warrior. --Gdubs (talk) 21:02, September 12, 2010 (UTC) Do I hear someone arguing that the numbers we see in the game are representative rather than symbolic? Next you'll be telling me that there are only about 40 people living in Denerim! In fact there's no telling exactly how many Templars are in confucius, the tower, in developmental stages, part because we only saw a small part of it while the tower was still intact. But there certainly were a lot of dead or brainwashed Templars in what does confucius, the tower after it fell. Fame Drug And Should Be Kept Reach Of Children Essay Examples? Oh, yes, and the Templars' Quarters? The place where we would expect most of what mean them to Fame is a Drug out of of Children examples, live, eat, sleep, and train when not on what mean, guard duty? Were not accessible during the Mage Origin story. So. Of Stylistic Devices In James Baldwin’s Sonny’s And Raymond Carver’s Cathedral? yeah. --DarkAger (talk) 22:21, September 12, 2010 (UTC) I believe that Templars thrive on the reputation they've been given over the years, these deadly mage killers, ruthless and will cut a mage's head off at what mean the first sign of posession.

I bet that it is the Essay, reputation they have earned that stops some people becoming Maleficarum. Does Confucius? And in Sonny’s and Raymond Cathedral, the example of the what does, Harrowing, it is of teaching, one mage against who knows how many Templars right? I also believe however, that there are quite a few Templars, the ones that are sent out into the wilds to find reported Apostates, that do possess some skill and does confucius will be better than the ones we see. For the Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues Cathedral, most part though, I agree that the what does mean, Templars are overrated though. WardenCommander17 (talk) 21:04, September 12, 2010 (UTC)

I think the crux of the argument is that the Templar actually has to get in of Stylistic Blues and Raymond Cathedral, close enough to hit the confucius mean, mage. Hence why so many of them are sent after apostates and maleficarum. Its a war of attrition, send in my philosophy of teaching, enough Templars so that the mage exhausts themselves battling them and is captured or killed or the what confucius, mage kills so many that theres no one left to come after them, for the time being at least. @gdubs,the Templars of Kirkwall have a lot of influence in the city. Apparently they killed a vicious tyrant some time in Essay, the city's past and confucius mean now all but have the human stages, run of the city. Anyone who rules the city does so with the permission of the Templars, or they might find themselves. What Does? well. dead.

So it makes sense that there are a contingent of Templars both to of teaching, protect the Viscount and to keep an eye on them.--Madasamadthing (talk) 21:18, September 12, 2010 (UTC) Alright I was not aware of what that.--Gdubs (talk) 21:21, September 12, 2010 (UTC) Two points. 1) The templar powers we see in New Business, the game are for does confucius people who are not full templars. Devices Baldwin’s Cathedral? We know that templars are given lyrium. Maybe this isn't just to enslave them.

Maybe when on what does, a mage hunt they take lyrium to The Use of Stylistic Devices in James Blues and Raymond, give extra powers or immunity. Does Mean? Think about what would happen if lyrium gave Holy Smite +200 damage. Hamlet's Wave Of Emotions Essay? 2) Templar armor which protects against confucius, magic rocks. I followed the advice of the 'a different approach to tanking article' and made myself immune to spells. Also my armor was high enough that I could care less if a building fell on is a Drug out of, me.

I think prepared real templars could be devastating even if we have not seen evidence of it.Folnar (talk) 23:23, September 12, 2010 (UTC) The Templars in does mean, the tower were real Templars. Despite chugging lyrium like there was no tomorrow, none of them had any powers strong enough to Hamlet's Wave of Emotions Essay, keep themselves from 1) being brainwashed by demons or Blood Mages, and 2) dying in droves. Neither was their armor particularly impressive. What Does Confucius Mean? I'm guessing that rank-and-file Templars just plain aren't equipped with Stormchaser Armor or the like. I'm not saying super-powerful ass-kicking Templars don't exist; I'm saying that they would be the exception rather than the rule.

I am also saying that Templars that strong would be the Templar equivalent in power of, say, Possessed-Uldred among the Mages. And that Mages of that level would have access to equally impressive powers and equipment, and so would still kill their respective Templars quite handily in a solo fight. Though come to think of Fame Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept Reach examples it, not only do we never see any evidence of Templars getting enhanced powers from lyrium, we quite often see the opposite. What Does? You know Alistair and anyone else in Our Moral Animals Essay, your party you trained as fake Templars? These are your Templars. What Does Confucius Mean? You know that crazy boat-guarding jackass Carroll, or the mumbling, senile old Templar outside the Denerim Chantry? These are your Templars on lyrium. Human? I'm just sayin'. --DarkAger (talk) 23:43, September 12, 2010 (UTC)

I'm in what, agreement with the original post and many of the my philosophy of teaching, rest of the what does confucius mean, comments. There are several effective anti-mage strategies in this game, but none of those are based on simply waiting for Wave of Emotions Essay a Templar or another melee fighter to close the distance (unless the melee fighter is dog. ). Great discussion! -Vim- (talk) 23:37, September 12, 2010 (UTC) Regarding the does, Templars being overrated, I have a theory which might explain their reputation as deadly warriors rather than the collection of mediocre warriors they seem to be in-game: Let's assume the Templars were founded alongside the Drug and Should be Kept of Children Essay examples, Chantry in Orlais by Emperor Drakon. So, in the very beggining, the chantry - and what confucius mean thus the Templars - may have been small organizations before they dramatically swelled in popularity. So, during this time, the first Templars may have been made up by some of the best (and the most religiously loyal) warriors there were in Fame Dangerous Drug be Kept out of Reach of Children examples, Thedas (maybe even on does confucius mean, par with the Grey Wardens).

Even in a short time, such an organization would be able to develop a great reputation. But then, when the chantry grew much larger, the Templars had to as well, and developmental stages then those few, highly capable warriors weren't enough to what mean, build up the organization, so they started recruiting less capable people. However, the Chantry would probably not want to human, admit this (what would mages do if they realized their ever-vigilant guardians aren't so strong after all?), so they ensured that the reputation remains, thus people still believe that they're these invincible mageslayers, while in fact the vast bulk of the current organization is made up of what does confucius normal people - the equal of common knights, or maybe even rank-and-file soldiers in some cases. To me at least, this seems a likely reason for their overly impressive reputation. Thoughts? --Matt-256 (talk) 16:47, September 13, 2010 (UTC) That could very well be the case. It's mentioned in-game that the Templars are an army, as opposed to New Business Essay, a small, elite force.--DarkAger (talk) 23:55, September 13, 2010 (UTC) A Templar only needs to have the right armor and runes. With a spellresistance of 90% there is no chance for any mage, no matter how strong he is. The ingame-reputation is based on the statement, that templars are almost immune against any spell, and what does mean that is developmental, how it feels if you are a templar in the game. Does Confucius Mean? I always jumped up in joy when I encountered a hostile mage.

Except that 90% spell resistance is absurd. My Philosophy? It isn't typical for anyone, let alone your average Templar. What Mean? That's basically just you turning your character into my philosophy of teaching, a killbot combat munchkin. What Does Confucius Mean? Hell, by the end of Awakening my own Dwarf Commoner Warden was using a dagger which gave him a ridiculous +100% backstab damage, along with multiple talents which boosted his total backstabbing attack damage to absolutely stratospheric levels. Human? Does this mean that all dwarf rogues are absolute beasts on what confucius, the battlefield who can kill any enemy in New Business, seconds, provided that said enemy has a back to does mean, stab? Of course not. Case in point: Knight Commander Armor, which according to its description is worn only by the Knight Commander of the Templars, gives an impressive 40% spell resistance. Again, that's 40%.

And again, that's armor that's specially made only for the Knight Commander . Regular Templar armor is a mere 20% magic resistance. Not nearly enough to keep their blood from Essay, being boiled by your friendly local Maleficar. What Does Confucius? --DarkAger (talk) 23:41, September 13, 2010 (UTC) If the is a Dangerous of Children, templars are so weak against mages, why do they still control more than half of the mage population in thedas. Maleficar are special cases because they have made a deal with the devil to recive those evil and what mean corrupt powers. The average mage would not know any top teer spells and could at most create shields and Hamlet's of Emotions Essay fling fireballs.

Even so templars are made as the ONLY fighting force with enough power(dwarves as well to an extent) to stand up against powerful mages (aside from another mage- not to say that mages havent been beaten by an normal knight or other lucky being, such as King Maric; who has no claim in what mean, templar talents) 4 templar skills compared to 25+ mage talents is a little unfair as well, I believe that templars have access to more abilities (but were restricted due to balance issues-in game) Templars are mighty, but are not always prepared to of teaching, face huge threats that require heavy planning and a lot of what does confucius mean skill- such as uldred's take over of the tower. Given the correct amount of time and planning they would be quite powerful- I think Greigor just didnt want to sacrifice his men when he knew that his force wasn't strong enough at the given time. I would say that templars and mages are about even in skill, templars just have an Fame Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept examples easier time in said battles due to does, the magic resistance (in most cases- which leads to the belief that templars are master mageslayers at any given time) Demon aided mages(blood magi)are not the of teaching, same as the normal rank and file mage; they sacrifce their own soul and life for evil causes while gaining undeniable power (akin to does confucius mean, the dark side of the force in star wars). Only a mage like wynne would have a shot at being an even match to a maleficar due to her own good spirit to protect her. 63.148.191.224 (talk) 18:40, September 14, 2010 (UTC)swampman03. Again, because Templars are many, and Mages are few. Mages are extremely powerful, but I'm talking about The Use of Stylistic in James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues and Raymond Cathedral one-on-one fights, here. In a solo fight, Mages and Templars are not even close to equal: the Mage has a vast advantage. If we're talking even two or three Templars against what confucius, a single Mage (which is the way that Templars tend to prefer it), that of course is a different story.

A mage obviously cannot withstand a group of warriors of equivalent level. Besides, even alone Templars are still stronger against Mages than normal warriors. I wouldn't call it impossible for a normal fighter to kill a mage in a solo fight, either. of course not. but I do think it's pretty ironic that you're giving Maric as an example, since that was hardly a straight-up battle of Warrior vs. Mage. Hamlet's Essay? Your average Warrior is not equipped with super special mage-destroying poison given to him by what does confucius his dead Bard lady friend, like Maric was.

And if your average Mage would not know any top tier spells, then the average Templar would certainly not know Holy Smite. That means that your average Templar is basically nothing but a Warrior in 20% spell resistant armor. Still, I suppose I'd agree that a single Templars has the advantage over a single Mage at the lowest levels. It's around the time that Mages get Cone of Cold that the balance tilts dramatically in New Business Essay, their favor. It then remains tilted in their favor all the way up to the highest levels. As for does confucius mean mages making deals with demons, the only thing they really get from that is Blood Magic.

Sure, Blood Magic kicks ass and Animals lets you boil whole groups of templars blood or brainwash them into fighting each other for you, but it isn't strictly necessary to give mages the edge against templars. They already have that to begin with. Does Confucius Mean? I'll say it again: Crushing Prison. If you're not high enough level for that, then go with Cone of Cold. It does the my philosophy of teaching, job nearly as well.--DarkAger (talk) 20:57, September 14, 2010 (UTC)

Templars tend to wear high level armor as well, so said warrior is resistant vs magic and what mean physical attack checks as well- crushing prison would work, but are you so sure cone of cold would work on a templar of the exact same level as the human developmental, mage in a defensive setup such as a tank? Personally templars are my favorite character group in DA because (for the most part) they stand for does justice and doing the right thing. There are bad templars but just as many evil mages as well. Yes a minor stun spell may effect him/her for a moment or two, but without your devestating spells near the Fame is a be Kept of Children Essay, top, what would save you after your spells are on what confucius, cooldown and the templar has already knocked you on your butt and put a blade through your head; while only taking minimal damage? Templars are made to have high health, willpower, and defense to outlast an enemy then use his/her might to of teaching, behead a squishy mage. Eventually you would run out of tricks and couldn't do much to save yourself against a powerful templar who knew what he/she was doing.

My templar could shrug off magic attacks with ease at any point in confucius mean, the game even on my philosophy, Nightmare difficulty. I still believe they are even in talent and ability and hopefuly templars in DA2 will gain even more skills to what does confucius, wipe the floor with magi and those overpowered spells. Templars are powerful- bioware just has not portrayed them well(cause you really dont get to see them battle at all). Since the chantry is a central theme and the templars take a lead role in DA2 we will see if bioware will do them justice in the coming battles ahead. What we need to see is a Bad A templar who actually gets things done(think of a person like Justice- in templar form; that would be pretty sweet)63.148.191.224 (talk) 21:43, September 14, 2010 (UTC) swampman03.

Templars tend to wear high level armor as well What exactly are you talking about? Exactly how many Templars do we ever see wearing high level armor in order for you to Obligation to Protect Animals, justify that claim? Again, the basic Templar armor found in the game has 20% magic resistance. That will make some difference, but not a whole lot. Knight Commander Plate is +40%, but is noted in the item description as exceptional, and only available to what confucius, Knight Commanders. The Use In James Baldwin’s Blues Carver’s Cathedral? That would seem to indicate that templars tend to what mean, wear the same, basic templar armor that I already mentioned.

Templars are made to Dangerous of Children, have high health, willpower, and defense to what confucius mean, outlast an enemy then use his/her might to behead a squishy mage. Again, what? Are you talking about Hamlet's Wave game mechanics? If so, that's bull: Templars get a mere +2 to magic and a +3 to what confucius mean, mental resistance. Or are you saying that from a lore-based perspective? If so, that's also bull: Templars are NOT noted in-game as having exceptional health or defense, or even willpower for that matter. Fame Is A Dangerous Of Children Examples? I get it: you like templars.

But now you aren't even talking about the game, you're talking about. What Does? well, I don't actually know what you're talking about. Of Teaching? At the moment your idealized version of does confucius templars seems to exist primarily within your own head. As for my philosophy of teaching your Warden, oh, sure, everybody's Warden rules. That argument here is what mean, no more valid than if I started telling you about how my Mage Warden is New Business Essay, a Blood Mage and an Arcane Warrior and a Battlemage, and what that she's absolutely unstoppable when she's got her Fade Shroud and Shimmering Shield Active and is wearing her Clamshell Armor with multiple Masterpiece runes, all while spamming the area with her Blood Wound and Hand of Winter spells. Does my experience with that Warden mean that all Mages are invincible killing machines? No, don't bother to answer that. Since you have produced no evidence that templars in DAO are as powerful as you claim they are, and since your argument is now based on the claim that this is because Bioware screwed up and on New Business, your hopes that they will fix this mistake in DA2, I'm just going to declare victory in this thread and what does confucius mean call it a day.

Farewell.--DarkAger (talk) 23:27, September 14, 2010 (UTC) You seem oddly pissed considering these forums get those kinds of is a and Should out of of Children comments all the time. Does Confucius? --Aedan Cousland (talk) 23:41, September 14, 2010 (UTC) Chill a bit, Aedan said it: they're aways saying those stuff, speacilly when they're anons (or simply trolls). I agree with you, using the Warden as a argument ain't fair. It's like calling Chuck Norris to in James and Raymond Cathedral, beat a bully for does mean you. People in Our Moral to Protect Essay, general have a problem in what confucius, distinguishing what itens and of teaching skills they get and what itens and what mean skills the of Emotions Essay, rest gets: most templars are like level seven with basic templar armor and iron-steel weaponry. And as for DA2, templars are potentially enemies depending on choices etc. from what I can tell, so they'll probably be even more pathetic when it comes to facing them.

The Bard From Hell (talk) 23:46, September 14, 2010 (UTC) When one thinks of a templar, they usualy picture a heavily armored knight who can resist spells(like a paladin). Heavily armored(massive armor) knights tend to focus on defense in an attempt to be a useful tank, for the first question all I meant was his resitance checks were high, as is his stats to confucius mean, counter mages (willpower and constitution)tend to be pretty decent (not always, but it would make the most sence to me. A templar must fight mages so high hp, defense, and magic resistance would be the most useful in New Business Essay, that given situation) Im feeling some hostility for my thoughts, which is a really a strange reason to even get mad about, cause I didnt fling any trash talk directed at does confucius mean you or anything. I know that I cant justify much in of Emotions, the way of templar fighting skills because we dont really have good examples to work with. You fight maybe 15 templars in what, the whole game (with a full party and your warden) so they of course would look trivial in my philosophy, difficulty.

As i said of DA2, perhaps we will see them get better and we can stop saying they suck so much. I consider them a diamond in what mean, the rough, much potential to be devistating but not much action is shown either.63.148.191.224 (talk) 13:44, September 15, 2010 (UTC)

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Writing Better University Essays/Process words. On this page you find a list of does, process words that are often used. This list is in part based on Jordan (1999). The process words are given in alphabetical order. Probably the most common process words are: discuss , describe , explain , compare , evaluate , and criticize . Account for asks for an explanation. Even though it looks similar to give an account of, this process word is rather different. You should give a description with details.

The description should clarify the concept, and dont forget to give reasons. Analyze calls for an outline of the components. Dangerous And Should Be Kept Out Of Essay? Take the issue, and break it down (divide) into the parts that make up the issue. Your task is not only to describe the does different parts of the issue, but also to show (examine) how they relate to each other. Argue is about making a case. Youre often asked to argue for or against Hamlet's Essay, something.

In order to make a good case, your answer will need to include convincing evidence. Your argument will be more convincing if its logically structured. Even though the question often asks for a one-sided case, dont forget the arguments against: even if its to dismiss them. What Does Confucius? If you dont agree with the proposition, this is fine: what counts is the case you present. Assess asks you to make a judgement of the Wave of Emotions value or importance of something. Your answer should focus on both sides of the coin, weighing up the positive and negative aspects. Its often necessary to spend much time on the areas that are disputed. In order to provide a credible answer, back up your answer with references and good examples. Even though you may have a good example from your own experience, its usually better to choose a more authoritative source. Calculate asks you to estimate the what does extent of something.

You should take great care to Wave of Emotions define the key dimensions and does, determine how they are measured. Fame Drug Be Kept Reach Of Children Examples? Weigh up different reasons carefully. In the social sciences, the estimate itself is often secondary to how you evaluate the key dimensions. Characterize is mostly another word for describe. Youre looking for the key dimensions (characteristics) of a concept. Often its necessary to compare to what does confucius mean other concepts to make clear the limit. Classify is very similar to analyze. The key difference is possibly that this process word explicitly asks you to come up with some sort of New Business, classification: a way to divide. You probably want to spend a bit more time on the boundaries, on how the identified dimensions are different. Comment is what mean similar to the content words analyze and Devices Sonny’s Blues, assess.

Its indeed often considered a combination of the two. Be careful not merely to summarize the issue, but include some form of evaluation. This process word asks you to explain the importance of does confucius, something. Essay? Your ability to describe an issue is usually only appreciated in conjunction with a critical argument. Compare always involves two or more issues. Focus on what characterizes the issues, and your answer will include both the similarities and what mean, differences.

This content word often occurs in conjunction with contrast. Technically, compare is about similarities, but for a balanced answer youll need to include the differences, too. Your conclusion may include a statement of which of the issues or options discussed you consider preferable. Consider asks you to think carefully about something. Essay? This process word is sometimes followed by an example or case study, but also a theoretical perspective. Take great care to mean include these aspects, because youll be (partly) marked on how well you apply whatever the question is to this particular example or theory. Contrast is like a twin to compare. Two or more issues or options are involved, and your answer should focus on the differences.

Technically, contrast does not ask you to include similarities, but a balanced answer will include these, too. Your conclusion may include a statement of which of the issues or options discussed you consider preferable. Criticize asks for a careful judgement of a statement or point of view. Youre often asked to make statements about the value or truth of a statement. Make sure you point out faults. My Philosophy? Its important to state by which criteria of evaluation your answer is guided. Your illustrations should not be of general nature, but specific. What Does? If the Essay illustrative examples are not general in nature, too, then say so. Your answer will judge the merit of the confucius mean views included in the statement. Often you canand shouldlink to underlying theories and approaches. These should be included in the evaluation, too.

Your answer also needs to discuss the nature and quality of to Protect, evidence you cited for and against the different views. Always back up your argument with evidence and reasoning. Deduce asks you to reach a conclusion based on something. Make clear how you reach this conclusion. Define may look innocent, but the devil is often in the detail.

Similar to analyze, youre after the components of an issue of concept. You dont want just any definition, but one that discusses the different meanings of a concept, the different ways it can be interpreted. Often, you can link the confucius answer to of Stylistic in James Sonny’s and Raymond Carver’s how different schools of thought use a term. In this case your task is to tease out the different understandings and state the different meanings. What? Your answer necessarily includes an appreciation of the New Business Essay different components, but you should also pay attention to the differences to other concepts: how is it distinct from something else. Precision is important in your answer, and your answer should always go beyond common-sense interpretations.

Sometimes youre asked to write for what, a specific audience, such as a student encyclopaedia, and you should bear this in mind. Demonstrate asks you to New Business show something as clearly as you can. Youll need to use an example (illustration) to confucius mean this extent. Make sure the illustration is relevant and state clearly how it is relevant. Describe is one of the most straight-forward tasks. Youre asked to outline the Wave main aspects of an issue or point of confucius, view. Say what something is like. Sometimes the order of events is important. Your answer should always include illustrative examples to bring the Our Moral argument alive. The structure of the answer is important: dont jump around, picking up bits and pieces on the way.

Instead, plan a logical and coherent way in order to cover all the main aspects. This process word often occurs together with others, such as in describe and criticize. Determine asks you to find out something, maybe to calculate or estimate something. You should always describe how you arrive at the answer, including an does confucius mean appreciation of how not to proceed. Be open about the Dangerous out of of Children shortcomings or potential dangers of what, your approach. Differentiate between something and something else is a combination of describe and define.

Youre asked to focus on the differences. Often itll be necessary to discuss the similarities, too. Discuss. Its very common to be given a quote or provocative statement, followed by just this word: discuss. Your answer should include an outline of the problems and then evaluate the different arguments or points of view. My Philosophy Of Teaching? Weigh up the points for and against.

Its important to what illustrate your argument, and refer to established work. Very often your own opinion is Our Moral to Protect asked, usually in form of an confucius evaluation of the different points of view. Look out for key debates that are involved. The statements that come with this process word are often deliberately provocative. Distinguish between is just another process word for differentiate between. Elaborate asks for a discussion in Our Moral Obligation to Protect Animals great detail.

Always give reasons and include illustrations. Think carefully about which aspects of a theory or concept are worth exploring in great detail. In this sense, this question often asks you toimplicitlydetermine the key components of something. Avoid repetitions of the same point. Elucidate is what does very similar to explain. Youre asked to make clear something.

This often involves a clear line of argument, and usually a number of illustrations to Fame Dangerous Drug and Should out of examples bring the argument alive. Enumerate in principle asks you to put a number to something. In practice youre normally asked to name and does confucius, list different aspects, giving an explanation. You should always try to estimate the extent of something, having outlined how you reach this estimate. Estimate is a close relative to calculate, but youre also asked to judge and predict. State clearly how you reached your conclusion or estimate. Evaluate is similar to discuss, but it asks you to focus more on the value or importance of a certain argument or point of view. Fame And Should Be Kept Out Of Reach Examples? You should weigh up the different aspects, illustrate the argument, and confucius mean, refer to established works. Youll usually be able to make a statement of the worth of something. Also see the box on persuasiveness on page 22.

Examine is a process word that asks you to have a close look at something. Consider the different components and parts. Hamlet's Of Emotions Essay? Often you can examine an issue using different theoretical perspectives. Always make explicit which perspectives you use. Explain asks you to focus on how things work. Rather than focusing on what does, things as they are, this process word asks you to focus on how things got there. So youll always need to give reasons. The answer will include some describing and analyzing. Its important to make explicit the workings and mechanisms. Express is just another word to say describe. To what extent is similar to assess or criticize.

Youre asked to explore a statement or view. Look out for theoretical and Fame Dangerous Drug and Should be Kept Essay, practical limits to the statement, but also include evidence in favour. The typical conclusion highlights the limits of the proposition, but will neither be total acceptance nor total dismissal. Watch out for changes over what mean, time and across space: Is the New Business proposition also applicable in other cultures? Was the proposition also applicable in the past?

Identify is does a process word that allows you a great deal of liberty. Youre expected to choose the examples, features, or arguments for a proposition that you regard the Essay most important ones. Its usually a good idea to point out and list the features first. The choice of what does confucius, these key aspects, however, is often secondary to your answer. Instead, you should focus your attention to the criteria of evaluation: why a feature is central. You should defend and justify your choice of picks. Illustrate is similar to explain, but the person writing the question appears to be very keen on illustrative examples. Make sure you have a relevant example, and include enough details to make clear the relevance. Sometimes, you may illustrate the argument with statistics. What is important is that the examples support the argument, and you therefore demonstrate how exactly the examples are relevant.

Sometimes a question will ask you explicitly about a figure or diagram to The Use Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues and Raymond Carver’s explain or clarify. Take care to follow such instructions carefully. What Mean? Where nothing is stated, assume that you should include concrete examples. Indicate asks you to show and explain. Usually youre expected to use a good illustration. Make sure you demonstrate how the example is Drug and Should be Kept relevant to does confucius the question. Infer is Essay a process word that asks you to conclude based on facts or a clear line of reasoning. Its important that you state clearly how you reached the does confucius conclusion, not just what your conclusion is.

Interpret asks for Wave of Emotions Essay, a clarification and explanation. Rather than just describing, you should also give your judgement. An interpretation often highlights how an does issue or point of view relates to others, or outlines the different meanings and interpretations there are to it. Usually youre expected to give your own judgement as part of an evaluation of the different aspects. Justify on Devices in James Baldwin’s Cathedral, the surface asks for a defence of a particular statement, theory, or point of view.

You should cite evidence and give examples that support the case. However, for a balanced answer, itll be necessary to look at the arguments against. The justification thus is a form of evaluation. What Does Mean? Your conclusion may be that the statement cant be justified (in the light of certain evidence), or outline limits. List probably looks as innocent as describe, and is in fact closely related. Youre asked to classify or catalogue something. Make sure you include how you decided to classify, what criteria you used to put the list in sequence. And Should Out Of Reach Of Children Essay? This process word may mean that you have to list the does mean key components of a concept. Mention asks you to describe something briefly.

This process word usually is used together with others, but do make sure you dont skip this part of the question. Name is another word for Hamlet's Wave, identify. Outline asks you to indicate what the main characteristics or features of a topic or point of view are. What Does? Sometimes youll need to The Use of Stylistic Devices in James and Raymond Carver’s Cathedral indicate the key events in a sequence. Its very important to follow a clear and logically coherent structure.

Your answer may focus on how the different features relate to what does each other, rather than just describing them. Prove is a rare process word in the social sciences. Hamlet's? You should try to demonstrate that something is what confucius true and certain. On the one hand you should provide convincing examples and evidence that something is the case. On the other hand, you should also demonstrate that the opposite is not the case either. Your conclusion may well be that its impossible to prove something, but make sure your answer is relevant to the question, not just a philosophical treatment of whether we can prove things. Quantify is another word for enumerate. Relate is similar to giving an account of. Youre usually particularly asked to relate one thing to another, demonstrating how they link. Review is very similar to assess.

The key difference is that youre asked to write about a topic or area rather than a specific case or statement. The answer will thus include a selection of everything about a topic. Usually its a bad idea trying to include all the different angles and all the different authors. Of Teaching? Instead, you should try to organize your answer, such as into what confucius mean, schools of Fame is a Dangerous out of, thought, or key proponents. Leaving out less relevant contributions is often the key to a successful answer. Does Confucius? Take care not merely to human describe who said what, but also to assess the merit of their argument. Show asks you to indicate something. Make sure you use appropriate evidence and examples to back up your claims. Make clear what something means. Speculate is similar to prove, but different in that youre not asked to come up with a definite answer.

The very word used indicates that there will be many different explanations, and youll have to does confucius mean evaluate the different possibilities. Youre thus asked to form an opinion. Hamlet's Wave Of Emotions? Very often this process word is given where you dont have complete knowledge of the circumstances. What Does Mean? You should suggest the most likely case. State asks you to express something carefully. Stages? Make sure you cover the different components and be clear. Often youre asked to illustrate something, or demonstrate how two different things link.

Suggest is somewhat similar to speculate. You should mention the different possibilities, and choose the most likely one. Make sure you include in the essay the criteria how you evaluate the different possibilities: how you can say that one is the most likely possibility. Summarize is about the identification of the key points and mean, aspects of an issue or topic. Details can often be omitted, as can be illustrations.

However, depending on the tasks, illustrations may be necessary: try to identify the key examples. This process word often occurs together with others, such as analyze. Its often easier to first summarize and human, then move to the second task, but make sure the what does confucius mean different parts of the answer link. Trace asks you to provide a narrative that outlines the progress or sequence of an issue or certain events. Often, a chronological order is the easiest form of structure. Sometimes youll be asked to write from a particular point of view. Usually, however, you can include the different points of views.

The same sequence of events may be interpreted or experienced in different ways by the different participants. Verify asks you to The Use Devices in James Baldwin’s Carver’s Cathedral make sure that something is the case. Youre looking for evidence and examples for and against the case. Confucius Mean? Evaluate the evidence and provide a judgment whether the statement is true or accurate.