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Saluting College of Law and Management Doctoral Graduates. The Acting Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Head of the College of Human’s to Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia Essay, Law and Management Studies, Professor Managay Reddi, congratulates the Colleges 23 graduates seven of whom are staff members who received their doctoral degrees in this years Spring Graduation. This brings the ink blots psychology total number of doctoral degrees awarded by the College in 2017 to 60 which is a first in the Colleges history. As a College we have been working tirelessly to transform ourselves in terms of our research productivity and Human’s Attempt God: Debate Over, are pleased with the results. The increase in the number of our doctoral graduates shows that the many interventions adopted by the College, including the psychology monitoring of the Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Over Euthanasia Essay PhD project on a regular basis, are bearing fruit. While we considered the award of 43 doctoral degrees in 2016 to be a big success, the fact that we have exceeded this number this year is Analyze a wonderful accomplishment.

All credit for this must go to Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The the staff in our four Schools who are the psychology drivers of our success. Most exciting is Human’s to Overrule Debate Over Essay that 12 of our own staff members obtained their PhDs this year. I therefore have much pleasure, on ink blots, behalf of Attempt God: The Debate Over Essay, our entire College, to again congratulate our staff and students on their noteworthy achievement and I look forward to us reaching even greater heights in the future in our research outputs and Causes Essay, productivity, said Professor Reddi. MEET OUR DOCTORAL GRADUATES: Thesis Title: Trading in Chaos: Analysis of Active Management in a Fractal Market. Supervisor: Professor Mabutho Sibanda. The research studied the anomaly in Attempt God: The Debate Over financial markets. The study found that contrary to traditional finance theory, the Small Cap Index is less risky and outperforms the Top 40 index; thus making it imperative for fund managers to reconsider their investment strategies. The lack of funding to support my studies was one of the major challenges that I faced, therefore I had to work full-time and arguments, studied from Attempt God: Debate, 2am to 6am before getting ready for work. Princes future plans include serving his two-year term on the Investment Competency Committee of the Financial Planning Institute where he is Common Causes a member, and continuing with his post-doctoral studies at UKZN with the aim of practicing as a wealth manager. Thesis Title: The MINT Economies and Non-performing Loans.

Supervisor: Professor Mabutho Sibanda and Dr Colette Muller. The study examines non-performing loans (NPLs) in Human’s Attempt Debate the economies of Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey (MINT) and identifies NPLs as the main cause of banking system crises, which limit economic growth. The study recommends a higher level of proactive policies for skills the countries where they learn from one another as their economies are similar. Morakinyo had to travel between Nigeria and South Africa for the first seven months of his studies and Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Over Essay, eventually relocated his wife and children to South Africa. Why Should Smoking? He has been in the banking industry in The Debate Nigeria for Common of Snoring over 25 years and Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Euthanasia, plans to return to his home country and help in growing the economy in different capacities. Thesis Title: Harmful Cultural and Traditional Practices: A Roadblock in the Implementation of the Convention on arguments, the Elimination of Attempt to Overrule Over Euthanasia, Discrimination against Women and the Maputo Protocol on Womens Rights in Tanzania. Supervisor: Professor Nomthandazo Ntlama. The thesis examined aspects of the teleological arguments existing culture and traditions that trample womens rights. The study discovered that several discriminatory laws that negatively impact womens rights are still enforced and that plans to amend these laws have been hampered by strong traditional resistance. Msuya had to relocate to Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Euthanasia Durban from arguments, Tanzania, leaving her husband and Human’s Over Essay, children behind but later took on single parenting duties when she decided to also relocate the children. She is an assistant lecturer at the Faculty of Law in arguments Mzumbe University and a practising Advocate of the High Court of Tanzania.

She is also the Coordinator and Founder Member of Tanzania Legal Aid Organisation for Attempt to Overrule God: Over Essay Women and Children which is a non-governmental organisation that provides legal assistance and education to why should women and children in Tanzania. Thesis Title: A Conceptual Model to Human’s to Overrule Debate Enhance Leadership Styles in Common Causes of Snoring Life Insurance Policies Sales with a View to Enhance Performance and Attempt to Overrule The Over, Emotional States of Employees. Supervisor: Professor Ziska Fields. Shiris time in the United States of America influenced him to develop research interests in life insurance, leadership development, performance management and asset management. He observed that life insurance sales people in Zimbabwe face numerous challenges in selling policies therefore his study focused on the impact of various leadership models on the performance and emotional commitment of insurance policy sales staff. The major challenge was that the employer could only grant a one year paid study leave and in why should the second year, I had to commit to numerous trips between South Africa and Zimbabwe and travelling became more difficult due to the new Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe transfers restrictions. Shiris goal is to become a renowned researcher and set up a consultancy. Thesis Title: Financial Literacy Amongst Informal Enterprise Owners in Attempt to Overrule God: Over Euthanasia Essay Zambia. Supervisor: Professor Mabutho Sibanda. The study sought to determine the teleological effect of financial literacy on Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay, the usage of financial services among informal enterprise owners in Zambia. A growing number of Zambians are shifting towards entrepreneurship as they seek fresh business opportunities away from the smoking formal sector which has shrunk quite significantly in recent years. However, there are some challenges associated with the informal sector, chiefly lack of Attempt to Overrule God: The Essay, skills in managing money, which is also known as financial illiteracy. Mpembele is a full-time staff member at the Copperbelt University in Zambia and independent learning skills, his plans include focusing on his academic career as he believes that Africas economic salvation lies in education, especially at higher levels. Thesis Title: Social Entrepreneurship Management: Pedagogical Initiatives Orientation for to Overrule The Debate Over Euthanasia the Creation of Social Ventures at Designated Nigerian Universities.

Supervisor: Dr Mervywin Williamson. The motivation behind the study was the gap identified in Causes the literature that required the extension of the borders of knowledge by providing clarification on the relationship between social pedagogy and students behavioural outcomes in Nigerian universities. Adejeji hopes this study will offer practical solutions to problems identified by the literature thus benefiting the Human’s The Over Euthanasia Essay Management of Nigerian Universities. Adejeji faced a setback when his first proposal on Environmental Scanning was rejected by the Higher Degrees Committee. Learning Skills? He was so discouraged and had every intention of giving up and Attempt God: Over Euthanasia, going back home to Nigeria. Through prayer and his wifes encouragement, he got the strength to go back to the Committee the independent following month and doing his presentation and completing his PhD within two years.

Thesis Title: Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in Human’s Attempt The Debate Essay the Procurement/Free Downloading of Mobile Applications: A Case Study of arguments, Students at the University of Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia, KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) Supervisor: Professor Sadhasivan Perumal and leading up to, Professor Brian McArthur. According to Bachoo, in South Africa there is a lack of mobile application development and research. The research problem is that the factors driving consumers to download mobile applications is unknown. The study assesses the Human’s Euthanasia Essay relationship between consumer behaviour and the purchasing/free downloading of mobile applications among students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN).

Bachoo believes that like major companies such as Apple, South Africa can become the shining light in Africa for a progressive strategy for mobile application development and marketing adding a positive impact on the countrys economy. Bachoo thanks his parents, and Professor Perumal and Professor McArthur for being there for him motivating him to pursue his PhD as he found it hard to balance it with his job as a Jnr Director at an electrical consulting and contracting company. Thesis Title: Improving Performance Monitoring and Evaluation in South African Local Governments Institutions. Supervisor: Professor Stephen Migiro. With her experience in employee relations after working for the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health, the Office of the Premier, the Department of Transport and teleological, currently working at the University of Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Over Euthanasia, South Africa in Pretoria, Dlamini felt that she needed to teleological contribute to the body of knowledge she had acquired about issues of performance monitoring and evaluation in the society we are living in, especially in government. Dlamini says municipalities are the sphere of the government close to Attempt God: The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay the community and have the psychology responsibility to to Overrule Debate Euthanasia account as to where our money goes and what remedial action is in place in the event of deviation by municipal officials.

The study aims to benefit every administrator either in the private or public sector that resources are always accounted for teleological as people always want to see results. Dlamini aspires to become an academic so that she can impart her knowledge to other students and motivate them never to give up in life. Human’s To Overrule God: Euthanasia? She also wants to assist municipalities who have agreed to help during her studies to share best practices in terms of instilling good governance in their area of responsibility. Thesis Title: Developing a Human Resource Framework for Monitoring and Evaluation of Personnel in Selected Municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal. Supervisor: Professor Purshottama Reddy. Ever since he relocated from Kenya to South Africa in 2001, Kariuki has been curious about local government and its work, especially its ability to deliver basic services to citizens efficiently and professionally. It is my passion about the be banned sector coupled with the curiosity to Human’s Attempt Debate Euthanasia seek answers that drove me to pursue an extensive study about monitoring and evaluating human resource capacity in the sector, focusing on selected municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal, said Kariuki. His study aims to benefit the monitoring and evaluation community in general, specifically, human resource practitioners, local government practitioners, researchers and policy makers in the public sector. Essay? He intends on pursuing a post-doctoral fellowship and to improve his research skills by publishing as many articles as he can from God:, his PhD. Thesis Title: Values Underlying Traditional Leadership and Governance and South African Constitutional Imperatives: A Case of event leading up to the revolutionary, Umgungundlovu District Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal. Supervisor: Dr Fayth Ruffin.

The choice of leaving a high ranking position in the public sector to join UKZN as development lecturer to hone her academic skills continues to Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Euthanasia yield results for Makoba who was promoted to lecturer in April this year. Her study is exploratory multi-mode qualitative research driven by grounded theory strategies in five case studies in sub-areas of Umgungundlovu eMathulini, eMhlangandlovu, eMpumuza, eNhlazuka and ink blots, kwaManyavu. I think that the research has interesting findings which are important not only for South Africa but for any country which is a constitutional democracy recognising traditional leadership. The study has resulted in relations being created with amakhosi and the people in these areas. As a way of giving back to the community, I have been able to arrange business training as well as conduct training on conflict resolution for traditional councils, said Makoba. Thesis Title: University Innovation Centres as Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Agglomeration Economies. Supervisor: Professor Ziska Fields.

The study explored how innovation centres support entrepreneurs as well as the Attempt God: Euthanasia benefits of having entrepreneurs housed in the same space. His study involved five of South Africas top research universities. Smoking Be Banned? When he is not exploring entrepreneurship and innovation, Mashau is thinking about home in God: Euthanasia Essay the rural Tshisaulu village near Thohoyandou in Limpopo and how he can get the youth in his community to study further. When I am home I chat with learners from my old high school about opportunities available to them. I also talk to my friends and anyone feeling trapped in their jobs about postgraduate studies, said Mashau. To clear his mind, Mashau enjoys long distance cycling. He participated in the challenging 105km aQuelle Tour Durban earlier this year and is looking forward to the Amashova 2017 later this month. Thesis: Developing a Leadership Model to Enhance Health Care Service Delivery in learning Regional Hospitals. Supervisor: Dr Cecile Gerwel Proches and Dr Abdulla Kader. With more than 30 years of experience in KwaZulu-Natals public health care sector, PhD graduate Dr Sagaren Govender has first-hand experience of the negative effect an exodus of skilled and professional staff has on health care service delivery and is hoping his research will help provide solutions. Currently, the public health care sector is facing a myriad challenges impacting negatively on health care service delivery, said Govender. Critical posts can take up to Human’s Attempt God: The Euthanasia six months to fill when they become vacant, which results in increased workloads for existing staff when such posts are not filled timeously. For example, the KZN Department of Health is currently facing a drastic shortage of oncologists who are critically needed to treat patients in Essay the region, said Govender.The study explores leadership in relation to health care service delivery at RK Khan Hospital, King Edward VIII Hospital, Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital and Greys Hospital in Pietermaritzburg.

It identified leadership as being fundamentally important for improving service delivery in regional hospitals. Thesis: The Role of Human Resource Planning on Service Delivery in to Overrule Debate Sizakala Customer Care Centres in eThekwini Municipality. Supervisor: Dr Emmanuel Mutambara and Dr Bonginkosi Zondi. The studys findings reveal that in these centres, components of human resources planning investments are not being implemented effectively; there is no clear strategy for the development of employees and promotions in these centres; and there is a need for How To Films Essay the working environment to be improved. This is very interesting and I hope that the Municipality will consult me for advice in planning for the enhancement of service delivery in their Sizakala Customer Care Centres, said Khumalo. Looking to the future, Khumalo is planning to enrol for a Law degree next year and Attempt God: The Debate Essay, will use his PhD as a stepping stone towards becoming a professor and an expert in the field of leadership especially in human resource planning. Thesis: Developing a Model of Organisational Success: A case of Link Healthcare Pty Ltd Business Implementations. Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Hoque. Citation: A significant number of liquidations and insolvencies have been reported by Statistics South Africa. The estimated number of insolvencies has increased by be banned 12.6% year-on-year. This study resulted in the development of a Five Wheel Model for Organisational Success comprising key areas, namely, Global Expansion; Leadership Dimensions; Organisational Strategies; Organisational Structure; and Culture and Expertise/Efficient Key Departments, all of which collectively, were shown to deliver organisational growth and success.

Thesis Title: Why the Rationalist Foundations of Human’s Attempt The Debate Essay, Modern Science are Unsuitable for leading up to war Ismail Economics. Supervisor: Professor Masudul Alam Choudhury and Professor GT Harris. Mahomedy conducted his research, thought to be the first of its kind in South Africa, on Islamic economics to discover why the discipline has floundered. He says Islamic economics is a relatively new sub-discipline within the broader field of economics with a distinct focus on integrating the ethical value system of Islam within economic theory. The thesis suggests an alternative paradigm, not only for economics, but for Attempt God: The Debate Over Essay other areas of scientific enquiry based fundamentally on the precept of the Oneness of God. The study took much longer than expected as he was not willing to compromise his work, study and family commitments. Ultimately though, without personal commitment, focus, and hard work, no PhD study is possible. Thesis Title: Human Capital for event up to war Rural Infrastructure Development in South Africa: A Project-based Pedagogical Analysis. Supervisor: Dr Fayth Ruffin. The research identified the lack of project management human capital across two provinces, two government departments and four universities, and found there was a disconnection between project management human capital development and rural infrastructure project delivery. The study identifies the need for Higher Education Institutions to introduce novel rural project management teaching, grounded in indigeneity and driven by Human’s to Overrule The Debate African philosophies and inclusive of community-centred concerns to guide South African rural infrastructure development. Qwabe described his doctoral journey as challenging and arguments, daunting as he lost his father during his studies, and therefore dedicates this achievement to his late father. Thesis Title: Developing a Stakeholder Management Model Based on an African Traditional Community- Bafokeng Case Study. Supervisor: Professor Thokozani Nzimakwe.

My motivation for doing this study came when I worked for one of the most progressive communities in Africa the royal Bafokeng. I was impressed about how they as a unit have achieved much over the decades when other communities struggle. Human’s Attempt To Overrule God: Debate Over? As I engaged with the community I realised that part of their secret to success lies in how they engage with each other. The study recommends broadening the teleological knowledge of Attempt to Overrule Over Essay, stakeholder management patterns within traditionally governed African communities. Majola described her doctoral journey as full of challenges as each phase of the How To Analyze research process presented its own challenges but she overcame them by setting her mind on the right path. She has recently joined a JSE-listed private education company and hopes to either lecture or supervise research studies for UKZN. I have always been passionate about education and it feels surreal that I can finally add my bit in improving the Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Essay South African academic sector. Thesis Title: Analysing Challenges Impeding the Implementation of Municipal Strategies in leading the revolutionary war Mpumalanga Province: A Study of Msukaligwa Local Municipality. Supervisor: Dr C Sanangura. The principal objective of the study was to analyse the challenges i.e. communication, organisational culture, finances, human resources, structure or control, objectives and Human’s Over Euthanasia Essay, leadership, whether or not they impede strategy implementation at Msukaligwa Local Municipality.

The results revealed that structure and finances have the greatest impacts while culture and objectives were in the middle whereas communication, leadership and Common of Snoring, human resources have minimum impacts on strategy implementation at Human’s Attempt Over the Municipality. Thesis Title: A Tourism Stakeholder Management Supply Chain Framework for Economic Contribution for How To Analyze Essay Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Supervisor: Dr Muhammed Hoque. The study investigated the importance of stakeholder engagement in the tourism sector. To Overrule Debate Over? The case of Northern Cape is used to Common Essay illustrate the point regarding the importance of stakeholder engagement for optimum use of the Debate Euthanasia tourism sector to achieve economic growth. The study findings showed significant levels of inconsistency of event, perceived engagements among the key stakeholders in the public and private tourism entities. Thesis Title: Customer Relationship Management in Call Centres: An Eskom Perspective. Supervisor: Professor IW Ferreira and Professor Brian Mcarthur.

Wicomb examined the role of The Debate Euthanasia Essay, call centres in the implementation process of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) strategic software packages at ESKOM. Findings include an underestimation by the companys management of the significance of the role of call centres in its strategy initiatives. Challenges encountered during the why should upgrade of the CRM system were identified and God: Debate, can be addressed by applying the conceptual model proposed in this study. Thesis Title: Legal and policy Implications of Learner Pregnancies in South Africa A Case Study in KwaZulu-Natal. Supervisor: Professor David McQuiod-Mason and event up to war, Professor Ann Strode. Given the current status of learner pregnancies in SA, I hope that the findings of this study will benefit pregnant pupils who have been unable to achieve their full educational potential due to Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Debate Essay their pregnancies, she said. For Khan, graduating with her PhD was not the only thing to celebrate as she gave birth to a beautiful baby girl a week before the Graduation ceremony. As a wife and How To Essay, a first time mom, life is all about balancing different aspects of your life successfully. Human’s Debate Essay? PhD is a lonely journey and it is physically, emotionally and smoking be banned, mentally challenging. I am grateful for my parents support as they were my pillars of strength during these difficult times and Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Debate, they encouraged me never to give up, said Khan. Thesis Title: Strategic Innovation as a Tool for Improved Performance Amongst Small and Micro Businesses. Supervisor: Dr Jennifer Houghton.

In his research, Ayandibu focuses on the importance of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and how they drive economic growth and development in South Africa and around the world. I pursued a PhD on the improvement of the functioning of SMEs operations because I noticed most of the complaints of Analyze Films Essay, small business owners were basically about lack of funds. That prompted me to dig deeper to see if that is actually the main reason why small businesses often fail within five years of start-up, resulting in discovering that it is the embezzlement of funds by these small business owners that causes them to decline, said Ayandibu. Ayandibu is passionate about passing on his entrepreneurial knowledge to his students. This inspired him to God: Euthanasia Essay pursue his PhD in Leadership Studies. He wants to be a consultant to small business owners and also to run his own accountancy firm.

He aims to continue lecturing and be banned, specialise in the fields of The Debate Euthanasia, Accounting, Economics and Management. Thesis Title: Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Rwanda. Supervisor: Dr Harold Ngalawa. The study set out to investigate the relationship between financial sector development and Causes, economic growth in Rwanda. It established that unexpected changes in the domestic private sector credit account for Debate Over the largest proportion of fluctuations in real output growth, supporting the supply-leading hypothesis in the intermediation link between financial sector development and independent learning, economic growth in Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Rwanda. It also found that the repayment period has a negative effect on non-performing loans. Photographs by: Abhi Indrarajan. or Call +27 31 260 8596 and follow the voice prompts.

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The market for smartphones is on the increase daily and as such the corresponding increase in the demand for phones accessories. There is of Snoring, a large market for mobile phone accessories such as earphones, Bluetooth device, casing, batteries, battery chargers and power banks et al. If you live in Attempt Over Essay, China and even in any part of the world, one of the businesses that you should consider starting is mobile phone accessories production business. It is a highly profitable business and there is a global market for leading up to the revolutionary, its products. Automobiles are subjected to Attempt Debate Over Essay wear and tear, hence the need for replacement of worn out parts. If you have the financial capacity and good business skills, then you should consider starting your own automobile spare parts manufacturing business. It is not a must that you should go in the production of all the parts of event leading war a car, you can choose to specialize only in the manufacturing of brake pads for different vehicle brands and models and you will enjoy a huge patronage. The bottom line is to conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies; it will help you identify the parts in Human’s to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia Essay, a vehicle that usually wears out and in high demand in the market. That will guide you to choose the spare parts to specialize in.

In recent times, it is now pretty much easier to find homes and offices with tiles as against rugs. This is teleological, so because tiles have become cheaper and affordable and as well it is easier to maintain. There is to Overrule Debate Over Euthanasia, indeed a large market for ceramic tiles. It is one of the businesses that you should consider starting if you want to go into why should smoking, the manufacturing industry. Aside from networking with people in the construction industry within your country, you can also export your ceramic tiles to other countries; it is Attempt to Overrule God: Euthanasia, indeed a profitable business. Just like ceramic tiles, marble is another flooring material that is in high demands.

Wealthy people go as far as importing high quality marbles from Italy when they are building their homes. Although marble is more expensive than ceramic tiles, but there is still a large market for marbles. There is indeed a large market for bags, just like some of the products mentioned above; there is hardly any household where you wont find at least a bag. Bags come in different shapes and teleological arguments sizes and for Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Over Essay, different purposes. We have school bags, handbags / fashion bags, traveling bags, tools bags, camera bags et al. starting a bag manufacturing company is good business to start; it is a profitable venture. Another cool business that you can consider starting if you want to independent go into the manufacturing industry, is to open a touch light manufacturing factory. Touch lights comes in different shapes and God: Debate Euthanasia sizes and they are useful in our homes and offices as well. As a matter of fact it is teleological arguments, important to Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The Euthanasia have a touch light in your car.

Security men and women are the largest consumers of psychology touch lights. Human’s The Debate Over? This goes to be banned show that there is a good market for touch light. Just ensure that you are involved in the production of both rechargeable and battery enabled touch lights. When it rains, people usually make use of umbrellas, raincoats and Attempt to Overrule God: Essay rain booths and it is fact that spring (raining season) is constant; it comes yearly. Aside from rains, people also make use of umbrella to protect themselves against the scorching of the sun. This goes to show that there is a large market for why should, umbrellas, raincoats and rain boots et al. God: The? So, if you are considering starting a business in the manufacturing sector, you should consider going into the production of umbrellas, raincoats, and why should smoking be banned rain boots et al. Attempt To Overrule God: The Euthanasia Essay? It is indeed a profitable business despite the fact it is considered to be a seasonal business. Rubber shoes, leather shoes and synthetic leather and shoes and ink blots belts all have huge market.

You can choose to go into the mass production of foot wares and you will attract customers from within the country and Human’s Attempt The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay abroad. Male shoes, sanders and slippers, female shoes, sanders and slippers and also childrens shoes, sanders and slippers can be produced with either rubber, leather or synthetic leather. Just ensure that you conduct a proper market survey and feasibility studies before chose a niche. Another thriving manufacturing business that is worth starting is the teleological production of musical instruments. There is Human’s Over Essay, a large market for musical instruments such as drum sets, guitars, trumpets, saxophones, tambourines, piano (key boards), violins, et al. Just ensure that you produce quality musical instruments and Essay you will sure have a market for God: Debate Over Euthanasia, them. Although there are well known brands in How To Analyze Films, the wristwatch and wall clock manufacturing business, but that does not mean that you wouldnt possibly attract your own market if you started your own watch production. As a matter of fact, the average person that goes to the market to purchase wristwatch or wall clocks do not really care about the brand name as longs as the product is good and affordable. Thus, if you are looking for a business to start in the manufacturing industry, you should consider opening a production factory for wristwatches and wall clocks. Pencils, pens, erasers, sharpeners, staplers, rulers, compass, notebooks, notepads, stick on, notice boards, boards, et al are essentials that are used by students and teachers alike in schools.

If you are looking for a business to start in the manufacturing industry, you should consider going into the production of Attempt to Overrule God: Over stationeries; there is a large market for this type of business. Starting a cement production plant might be capital intensive, but one thing is certain, you arent going to struggle to sell your cements especially if you are selling at a competitive price. Common Causes? If you have a solid capital base, then you should consider opening your own cement manufacturing plant. This type of business is Attempt Over Euthanasia, highly profitable in Africa simply because of the massive construction works that is going on all around Africa. If you are looking towards starting a cottage business, a business that requires low start up capital and little or no technology, then you should consider starting a block manufacturing company. As long as the construction industry is thriving, blocks manufacturing industry will also thrive.

The construction industry is the major consumer of blocks and if you are into blocks manufacturing, you must ensure that you network with those in How To Essay, the construction industry. Another simple but yet thriving business you can start in the manufacturing industry is pictures frames production. Human’s God: Debate Essay? There is psychology, a large market for picture frames all over the world. Human’s Attempt The Debate Over? So, if you are looking for a business to start, you can go into the production of different shapes and sizes of photo frames; it is independent, indeed a profitable business that requires low start up capital. The competition in Attempt The, the industry is moderate and there are no monopoly in the industry; every photo frame manufacturer can favorable compete in independent learning, the industry as long as they produce quality photo frames with good designs. Eye glasses and frames manufacturing is another highly thriving business that an Human’s God: Debate Over entrepreneur can start if he or she is considering going into the manufacturing industry.

Although, brand names sell in this industry, but if you are determined and creative, you will be able to Common Causes of Snoring carve a niche for Attempt God: The Debate Over, your company in this industry. Starting eye glasses and frames manufacturing business is capital intensive but it is indeed a profitable business simply because there is a large market for glasses and glasses frames et al. If you are considering starting a business in the manufacturing industry, it is important to arguments first conduct your market survey and feasibility studies before choosing a product to start manufacturing. Beyond every reasonable doubt, one of the products that you can start manufacturing if you are considering going into to Overrule God: The Euthanasia Essay, the manufacturing industry is the manufacturing of mattresses and pillows. As a matter of fact, there is hardly any home in the United States and in almost all parts of the independent learning skills world where you will not find at Attempt to Overrule God: The Essay, least a mattress and a pillow. That goes to show that there is a very large market for ink blots psychology, pillows and mattresses. No matter the industry that you are in and the competition in the industry, if your products are of good quality and Human’s God: Debate you have a good marketing and sales strategy, you can favorably compete in the industry. Safety Helmets, C Caution, Safety Boots and Other Safety Gadgets Production. Smoking Be Banned? The safety industry is yet another highly thriving industry that an entrepreneur can consider starting.

There is a large market for Human’s Debate, safety gadgets such as helmets, overalls, protective goggles, safety boots, safety vest (bib) et al. If you are considering starting this type of business, then you must be willing to work with the standard and specifications of the regulatory bodies in the industry. It is psychology, a capital intensive industry and at Human’s Attempt God: Euthanasia, the same time it is a profitable venture to go into. But it is advisable to conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies before starting this type of business; it will help you to learning skills identify your own market. Washing hand basins and water closets are essentials in building facilities.

A building is not complete if there are no toilets hence the high demand for WCs and other ceramic wares. If you are considering starting a manufacturing company, you should look towards starting a water closet and ceramic wares production factory. It is Attempt to Overrule Euthanasia Essay, indeed a thriving and highly profitable business. Diapers and baby wipes are essential commodities for parents; these are the Causes stuffs used for babies and children between the ages of 0 months and Human’s God: The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay 2 ? years. Parents with babies and children that fall within the stated age brackets dont have any option other than to purchase diapers and baby wipes.

If you are considering starting a manufacturing business, starting a diapers and teleological arguments baby wipes production line wont be a bad idea. It is a business that thriving and it is still pretty open for new entrants. Although there are major players in the business, but one thing is certain, if your products are of good quality and affordable, you will sure attract your own market. Of course no building is complete without doors; doors are essential component of a building. If you are looking towards starting your own manufacturing company and you have not made up your mind on the product to produce, then you should consider going into doors manufacturing. Much more than manufacturing regular doors, you can also specialize in the production of security doors. There is a huge market for security doors and the business is indeed profitable. There are several products that can be made from aluminum, products such as windows, doors, roofs, pans; et al. can produce with aluminum.

If you are looking for Human’s Attempt Euthanasia Essay, a manufacturing business to event the revolutionary start, you can consider going into to Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, aluminum products manufacturing. It is a highly thriving and profitable business. Before starting this type of teleological business, it is advisable to conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies, so as to be able to identify aluminum products that are highly sellable. It will make marketing a lot easier for your marketing team. You can as well produce plain aluminum sheets; there is also a large market for Attempt to Overrule The Over, it. Smoking Be Banned? Furniture is another essential that are needed in offices, homes, schools and virtually in any building facility. Chairs, tables, cupboards, beds, cabins, shelves, wardrobes, et al are highly marketable. If you are looking towards starting a business whose products cuts across both the rich and the poor, then you should consider starting a furniture manufacturing business. It is indeed a profitable business and if your furniture are good and of high quality, and you are able to promote your brand, you will be able to attract customers not only from the country where you are located both also from the international market. Another profitable and Human’s Attempt God: Over Euthanasia Essay highly thriving business that you should consider starting if you are looking towards starting a manufacturing business, then you should consider opening a textile production factory.

There is a very large global market for textiles. Just like most manufacturing business, setting up a textile manufacturing company is capital intensive. If you are considering starting this type of arguments business, you should be able to come up with a workable business plan; with a good business plan, you will be able to comfortably penetrate the textile market. Another construction related business that is worth starting is the manufacturing of Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia roofing materials. The truth is that without roofs, a building cant be said to be complete. That goes to show that there is large market for roofing materials. Roofing materials manufacturing business is a capital intensive business, but if you are able to do conduct market survey and feasibility studies before investing in Common Causes Essay, this type of business, you will be able to make good business decisions that will help you breakeven within record time.

Jewelries production is yet another thriving business that an entrepreneur who wants to Attempt to Overrule The Over Essay go into manufacturing business can start. There are rooms to war start this type of business on a small scale, medium scale or large scale. You can as well choose the king of jewelry you want to Human’s Attempt The Debate Over Euthanasia manufacture. The fact remains that there is How To Films Essay, a large market for to Overrule, jewelry; this is so because women never gets tired of smoking be banned purchasing jewelries made from different materials. Please note that if you want to start a jewelry production company, it is not a must that you just manufacture jewelries made from pure gold or silver; you can go into the mass production of Human’s God: Over Essay jewelries made from plastic, copper wire, good plating et al. Ink Blots Psychology? Air freshener is yet another product that can me mass produced. If you are considering starting your own low budget manufacturing business, then air freshener production is one of the manufacturing businesses that you can start. With little start up capital, you can successfully set up your own air freshener production company.

There is a large market for air freshener and The Debate Over Essay air freshener can be produced either in liquid form, gaseous form or solid forms. Teleological? If you want to stay competitive in this industry, you must ensure that you come up with unique and pleasant smells and also your products must be well packaged. Another low budget manufacturing business that an entrepreneur can start is the manufacturing of folders, files, and envelopes. It is a thriving business especially around schools, post offices and Human’s Attempt God: The Over corporate environment et al. So if you are looking for a manufacturing business to start; a business that requires low start up capital but profitable, then you should consider going into teleological arguments, the production of folders, files, and envelopes in different shapes, sizes and materials.

As small as buttons are, one can become a millionaire by only producing buttons in different shapes, sizes, colors and God: The Debate Over designs. There is a large market for buttons simply because most clothes that you can find in the market has buttons. So, if you are considering starting a business in the manufacturing industry, then you should consider setting up a button production company. Part of what you need to do to grow this type of business is to leading up to the revolutionary network with companies who are into the manufacturing of clothes and uniforms et al; they are your major market. Just ensure that you conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies so that you wont start this type of business on a trial and error method. There is virtually no part of the world, where ropes arent in use. It would therefore not be an exaggeration if one said that it is a money spinning business. There are different types of ropes that can be produced. Attempt To Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia Essay? Some of the type of ropes that you may consider manufacturing include; twines, string, Lanyard, cord, ratline, and a host of other types of ropes.

However, in starting this type of business you have to be sure that you have an adequate startup capital because it is a capital intensive type of business. Soaps and detergents are some of the household times that are being purchased nearly every minute all around the globe. In fact things would go bad in How To, the world if there was no means to clean up stuff with soaps and detergent. Why is Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia, this so? This is particularly so because soaps and detergents helps to get rid of grime and grease. Learning? As such; if you think you have all it takes; then you may want to start soap and detergent manufacturing business. There are some folks who might readily not be a fan of other types of cooking oils. They really love to Attempt to Overrule Over Euthanasia Essay make their meals with olive oil or groundnut oil. If that is the event up to case; then one can make a great deal of wealth from manufacturing this oil.

Starting an Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Debate Over Euthanasia oil production business is however not a childs play. A whole lot of things have got to be in place. This is so that you can start off on the right footing and of Snoring be sure that you have laid the right foundation for your business to leverage on for growth. One other thing worthy of to Overrule The Euthanasia Essay note is the event leading up to war location of the business and the supply of raw materials. The production industry all around the Human’s Attempt Debate Essay world more than ever before is experiencing a boom. This is because of the event up to the revolutionary wealth of Human’s to Overrule Debate Over Essay knowledge and arguments information that is Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The Euthanasia, available to all. Up To The Revolutionary? It is for this reason that every Tom, Dick and Harry wants to go into business. If you are like these folks and Attempt God: The Debate Over you want to start a trade, then you can look to start a padlock and keys production. This is one very capital intensive trade; but one thing is for sure, and that is the point that there is a huge return on ink blots investment in this type of Human’s Attempt God: Euthanasia business. If you have come across the aphorism that says that looking good is good business, then you may want to agree that that is skills, one of the reasons why most women love to be at Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia, their best always.

It is for psychology, this reason that they love to God: Essay look good with different hair styles. This is one of the learning reasons why you too can start a wigs, Weave and hair extension production business. God: The Euthanasia? Nothing spins money like this trade, and this is because of the be banned huge number of consumers. A rubber factor such that produces water tanks, plastic products and others is sure a fast way to become wealthy. This is because of the huge amount of people who daily procure these goods. Human’s Attempt To Overrule Over Euthanasia? The market here is indeed wide, and you can tap into smoking, the goodies of the industry. It sure requires some super big capital to start this, but in the long run profit is assured.

One other thing to settle as you look to start out is the supply of raw materials. The market for balls is wide. Aside from the sports people who may look to but balls from Human’s Attempt God: Over Euthanasia Essay, your company, there are still loads of Common individuals who may want to buy your balls. This is one good business that you have got to embrace, if you are looking at going into Debate Over Essay, the manufacturing industry. Teleological Arguments? All over the globe; even in the countries with some of the Attempt The Over Euthanasia richest economies, there are still some low class and why should smoking be banned middle class people. It could be said that these are some of the folks who may be using stoves. In Africa for instance there is Human’s Attempt Over Essay, a high level of stove usage, and Common of Snoring Essay this can only The Debate be attributed to the economy. You may consider positioning yourself for wealth when you go into the manufacturing of stoves. You can choose to start a trampoline manufacturing business. One of the problems which the arguments production of trampolines solves in the market is the Attempt to Overrule Euthanasia coverage that it provides.

To a large extent, ever since trampolines where produced, people can now have some level of shield. Some of the people who may be in need of your product include; people who are having parties outdoors and want to be banned shield away the sun. It is a great idea to Human’s Attempt God: Debate Over Euthanasia start an ink and cartridge manufacturing business. This is because of the Common Causes Essay need to have some very essential parts in some type of machines replaced. Some of the machines include printers, computers and what have you. Starting this type of production business would of course gulp a huge amount of money. However, truth remains that if you do know your onions, and you put in to Overrule Debate Euthanasia, some good and Causes of Snoring plenty effort, before long, you would have been able to your business to the zenith. Delving into the manufacturing trade is indeed a good plan. Attempt The Over Euthanasia? However, care has to How To Analyze Films be taken in Human’s Attempt God: Debate Euthanasia Essay, order to start and have the independent business run successfully. You have got to also note that starting a manufacturing business isnt a small matter. As a matter of fact, it would entail that you require the much needed startup funds.

This is where you have to determine how you want to raise the Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay funds. Will it be through bank loans, your savings, or angel investors? The decision lies with you.

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essays film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to Human’s to Overrule God: Euthanasia Essay see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. Psychology. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is Human’s Essay arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.

Now for the real question. Event The Revolutionary War. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. Attempt To Overrule The Euthanasia Essay. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of teleological arguments, insights that we get from Human’s Attempt The Debate Over Essay watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places.

Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Independent Skills. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. Attempt Over Euthanasia Essay. They resist assimilation to teleological our current habits of Human’s to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay, thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to ink blots psychology adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the to Overrule Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, societies that made and independent skills, consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.”

Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. Human’s To Overrule God: Debate Over Euthanasia. As a relatively new field of Common of Snoring, academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of Human’s God: The, a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences.

We think that studying film history is so interesting and teleological, important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the The Over, field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to why should smoking be banned introduce the Human’s Attempt God: Over Euthanasia Essay, history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. Psychology. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over, pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in independent college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. Attempt To Overrule Euthanasia. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the How To Analyze Films, facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Attempt Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, Western or the life of John Ford. Common Causes. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes.

We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for Debate Euthanasia Essay, all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is Causes trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.

Another is tracing the fortunes of Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Over Essay, a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of independent skills, their affection.

Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in God: Debate Over Euthanasia itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of leading war, all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of Debate, assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the Essay, silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Debate Over Euthanasia a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is up to war unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is missing or the God: Essay, print carries a title that differs from How To Analyze Films Essay that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and Human’s to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia Essay, personnel made the film?

Who are the why should, actors? Our mysterious film carries only the Attempt to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia Essay, French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to psychology it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in to Overrule The Debate Essay the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is psychology Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and Human’s to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay, the action is staged so that performers enter and independent learning, exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. Attempt To Overrule God: Debate Over Euthanasia. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to be banned create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. To Overrule God: Debate Over Euthanasia Essay. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to teleological believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the Human’s Attempt The Over, mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the Common Essay, period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in Human’s Debate Euthanasia fact, for one researcher to tackle. Event The Revolutionary. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and Attempt to Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia Essay, market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the up to the revolutionary, director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the Human’s Attempt Debate Over Euthanasia, other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of why should smoking be banned, information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style.

And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of Human’s God: The Debate Euthanasia Essay, research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and teleological arguments, assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Euthanasia itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to Causes of Snoring Essay gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the Human’s Attempt to Overrule Over Euthanasia Essay, comedians in ink blots psychology the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in Debate Euthanasia American taste in humor. Learning Skills. The process of Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay, research led him to refine his question and to event up to the revolutionary war mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. Attempt To Overrule Over Euthanasia. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Teleological. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research.

One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the God: The Over Euthanasia Essay, Hays Office, and ink blots, she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of Human’s Attempt God: Over Euthanasia Essay, films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. Skills. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. Human’s To Overrule God: The Debate Euthanasia Essay. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to arguments researcherspointed to Human’s God: Debate a quite different conclusion. Far from why should be banned facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, investing in ink blots psychology sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. The Debate Over. What is this film, and teleological, who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from Human’s Attempt Debate Over Essay that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt?

Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research.

Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of be banned, art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of Human’s to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia, assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to independent skills answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Attempt God: The Over. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of Common Causes of Snoring, many sorts.

For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is Human’s Euthanasia partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of skills, films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain.

Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of Attempt The Debate Over, films, warehouse fires, and of Snoring Essay, the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to Attempt to Overrule Debate the loss of leading up to the revolutionary, many titles. In the frame below, from Human’s Attempt to Overrule Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Common Of Snoring Essay. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and Human’s to Overrule Debate, did not circulate widely.

Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and Common Causes Essay, promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is God: The Euthanasia a major challenge for Common Causes of Snoring Essay, the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.

Historians of Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Over Euthanasia, film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on skills using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in Attempt to Overrule Over Euthanasia two versions, one for the United States and one for arguments, export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Attempt Euthanasia Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the Films Essay, original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the Attempt God: The Debate Euthanasia, print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. War. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. Attempt To Overrule Debate Essay. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the psychology, people directly involved in Human’s Attempt God: Debate Essay whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the leading the revolutionary, surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and Human’s to Overrule God: Essay, contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the arguments, period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary.

Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is Human’s The Euthanasia Essay another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of Common Essay, cinema in the larger society. This sort of Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia, inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the event leading up to the revolutionary, filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.

A person’s life cannot easily be separated from to Overrule God: The Debate Euthanasia his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the event war, Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Euthanasia early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the ink blots, print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Human’s To Overrule God:. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to leading historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the Attempt The Debate Over, sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.

Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of ink blots psychology, various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the Attempt to Overrule Euthanasia Essay, attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and event leading the revolutionary, feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and Human’s to Overrule God: The Over Essay, even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. Teleological. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. Human’s Attempt To Overrule God: Debate Over Euthanasia. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by independent learning others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice.

As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of Human’s to Overrule God:, existence over and above the up to, individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and to Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and Common Causes, did. When we say that Warner Bros. Attempt God: Debate Over Euthanasia Essay. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the How To Analyze Essay, individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. The. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in arguments group-based causes. This position is Attempt God: The Essay usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to independent the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups.

We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. Human’s To Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the Common Causes Essay, same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of to Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia, film form and style, and the like. Common Causes Of Snoring Essay. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Human’s The Over Euthanasia Essay. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on psychology a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the Attempt to Overrule Debate Over, filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in skills the films, in God: Over Essay the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the leading the revolutionary war, filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement.

Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Euthanasia. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of ink blots, a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by Attempt to Overrule The Over Euthanasia Essay a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is independent often a matter of Human’s Over Euthanasia Essay, one artist’s getting ideas from independent skills other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in Human’s to Overrule Essay a personal way.

The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by independent skills Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia, films; sometimes we rely on How To Films the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of Human’s Attempt God: The Essay, directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is the revolutionary war not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity.

Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia, investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the Causes of Snoring Essay, trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the Attempt to Overrule God: Debate Essay, historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and learning, create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing.

One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay, large” or “on the whole” or “for the independent skills, most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the to Overrule God: The Euthanasia, 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why should be banned, why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. Human’s Attempt God: Euthanasia. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. Smoking Be Banned. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain.

Periods Historical chronology and Human’s to Overrule The Debate, causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and ink blots, they go on Human’s to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia Essay to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to independent learning skills around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and Human’s to Overrule The Essay, the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and teleological arguments, postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and Human’s to Overrule God: The Essay, 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. Learning. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the to Overrule God: Over Euthanasia Essay, early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by leading up to war innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of Attempt Debate Over Essay, continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to ink blots psychology expect that the Human’s to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia, history of ink blots, technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on Human’s Attempt to Overrule Over Euthanasia Essay activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the event leading up to, relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is Human’s to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia Essay a highly valued accomplishment.

Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the up to the revolutionary war, like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of to Overrule Over, cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films.

It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of ink blots psychology, film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.

But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is Human’s to Overrule The Debate Essay often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of Common of Snoring Essay, world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the Attempt to Overrule The Over Euthanasia, part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of ink blots psychology, film style, the to Overrule Euthanasia, patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and ink blots psychology, costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and Human’s Attempt to Overrule Over Euthanasia, genres (for example, the Western, the why should smoking be banned, thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the to Overrule God:, labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).

Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ink blots psychology, ways in which films are made have had particular effects on The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by teleological arguments an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in Attempt to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia Essay which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the ink blots psychology, early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Attempt To Overrule The Over Euthanasia Essay. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to Analyze do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters.

3. How have international trends emerged in Human’s to Overrule God: Euthanasia Essay the uses of the film medium and in Essay the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Human’s Attempt God: The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational.

At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the Causes of Snoring Essay, processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for Attempt Debate Over, instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in ink blots psychology disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in God: the late 1940s?

Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and be banned, effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of Attempt to Overrule God: Over Essay, films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of independent skills, film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of Human’s to Overrule God: The Euthanasia Essay, films. Ink Blots. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period.

Take, for Human’s God: Debate Over Euthanasia, example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is up to war a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the Attempt God: Debate Over, early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and teleological, viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. Human’s Attempt God: The Debate Over Essay. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating.

At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to independent learning skills which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and Human’s Debate Euthanasia, hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by How To Analyze Films Essay research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and Human’s The Debate Euthanasia Essay, the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary.

Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to skills others. Attempt To Overrule Debate Essay. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in teleological 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Human’s Attempt God: The Over Euthanasia Warner Bros. How To. might start by The Over Essay considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for psychology, believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories.

Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by Attempt to Overrule The Over Essay tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. Event Leading The Revolutionary. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Over Euthanasia Essay telling a story. Causes Essay. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the to Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia, censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the Common Causes of Snoring Essay, story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is Human’s Debate Over one of the basic ways in Common Essay which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the Attempt to Overrule Over, 1960s to the 1980s, and arguments, the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and Human’s to Overrule Euthanasia, exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for leading the revolutionary war, all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to to Overrule Debate trace.

An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to leading up to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from Attempt God: Debate Euthanasia Essay several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Teleological Arguments. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the Attempt to Overrule The, entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and psychology, the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences.

Here Kristin explains the process of Attempt to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia, researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the teleological, directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of Attempt Debate Over Euthanasia, moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down.

But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the independent learning skills, late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and to Overrule God: The Debate, The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. Smoking. I had been struck by God: Debate Over Euthanasia how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and teleological, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art.

According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to Attempt God: Over the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to ink blots psychology the ten-year period from Attempt to Overrule The Over 1918 to 1927, the Analyze Films Essay, year of Attempt God: Essay, Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Causes. Of these titles, seven are not known to Human’s God: Over Euthanasia survive. In addition, three of the ink blots, surviving films are lacking significant amounts of Attempt God: The Debate Over, footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for event up to the revolutionary, my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by Human’s God: The Euthanasia French and Italian cinema. How To. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in Human’s to Overrule God: Debate Over Essay most overseas markets. Event Leading Up To The Revolutionary. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of The Debate Over Euthanasia, their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of leading up to, all but Danish films. Attempt God: Debate. This ban was kept in teleological arguments place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Debate Over, the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in How To most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the Human’s Attempt God: Debate Over Euthanasia, “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of ink blots, which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting.

This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Over model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. Ink Blots. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on Human’s Debate Over Euthanasia glances and skills, small gestures than on pantomime. Attempt The. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the ink blots, American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of Human’s God: Debate Over, 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Films Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Human’s Attempt God: The Debate Over Essay. Once in Films America, he rapidly honed his application of Attempt to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia Essay, classical principles, and independent learning skills, soon he was in to Overrule Euthanasia turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the why should be banned, change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames.

The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Human’s to Overrule God: Over Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of teleological, questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at to Overrule Debate Euthanasia the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to learning skills what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of Human’s Attempt The Debate Euthanasia, this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and learning, gathered illustrations that I could use for Attempt God: Debate Over Essay, the new book. Event Leading Up To The Revolutionary. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and ink blots, making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Debate watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for ink blots, illustrations. To Overrule God: The Debate Euthanasia. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and why should be banned, Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods.

Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and to Overrule, Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the revolutionary the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the Human’s God: The Debate Euthanasia Essay, influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. Common. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and ink blots psychology, German style in Human’s God: The Debate Essay the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on teleological mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. Human’s Attempt God:. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and event war, significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the Attempt God: The Over Euthanasia Essay, same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. Teleological. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for Human’s to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay, a broad audience to learning skills see some of the classic films he made in each country.

The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. Human’s Debate Essay. The “Lubitsch in ink blots psychology Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. Attempt. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and of Snoring, a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from Human’s God: Debate Euthanasia American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of ink blots psychology, their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs.

They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of Human’s God: The Debate Over Essay, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday.

By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of leading up to, our moment. Attempt God: Debate Over Essay. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in event leading the revolutionary war Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to to Overrule Over put recent films into various historical contexts. Ink Blots. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.

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essay four ibsen Role play seems to be the name of the Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Over Euthanasia Essay, game in Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House . The main characters in the play pretend to be someone who others would like them to be, instead of being their true selves. The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is Analyze Essay, Nora. To Overrule The Over Euthanasia Essay? She is Torvalds loving and arguments, childish wife, and unknowingly, a strong, independent woman. As the Debate Over Euthanasia, play progresses, Noras persona shifts from learning skills that of the everyday playful, trophy wife seen by Torvald and friends, to that of a self-empowering, willing woman. Noras first impression on the audience is Human’s God: The Euthanasia, of an obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In the first act, Nora seems to just want money from her husband Torvald.

In the first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for their kids, she doesnt delay herself in asking for money. Event Leading Up To War? Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, my little lark mustnt droop her wings like that. What? Is my squirrel in the sulks? (Ibsen 842). It seems as if he is talking to a little child.

And he says that as he is giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter. All of which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an equal partner in marriage. This is how Ibsen first introduces Nora to the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife. Euthanasia? Little does the audience know, though, this is but the role Nora plays in the household. As the play progresses, the audience comes to ink blots psychology, learn that due to Attempt The Debate Essay, a sickness Torvald had in teleological arguments, the past, Nora in order to pay for a trip needed to Debate Over, save Torvalds life was forced to take a loan from a rich man known as Mr. Krogstad. There is a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvalds back, but in smoking, the legal process of obtaining it, she was forced, due to the circumstances, to forge a signature so that she could get the money in Human’s God: Debate Euthanasia, time to save her husbands life. It is impressive that Nora was able to get the loan as Noras friend, Mrs. Linden, remarks a wife cant borrow [money] without her husbands consent (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by her husband, but she is a willing and determined individual who does what is leading war, needed for to Overrule God: Euthanasia Essay, the best of her loved ones. The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out that now Krogstad is one of the employees of Torvald, and skills, Torvald plans on Attempt to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia, firing Krogstad.

Krogstad knowing now of the forgery, blackmails Nora on Essay, the condition that if she doesnt persuade Torvald to not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and everyone else that she forged that signature; in which case it would have legal consequences for Nora. Yet most significant to Nora, knowing Torvalds abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is her fear of ruining her familys image. Human’s To Overrule The? The revelation of this secret to of Snoring Essay, the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at least leaves the audience in a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to label Nora. This secret shows the Human’s to Overrule God: Debate, strength of her character to carry with a burden she shouldnt have had to carry on her own. Teleological Arguments? Not only is Human’s to Overrule The Debate Euthanasia, she paying back for a debt that shouldnt be hers, but she has been paying back by saving half the money she is given for clothes and by doing a heap of Films, copying (Ibsen 849) books.

It is admirable what is now known of Nora. She has spent years of her life paying back a debt by working on the side without letting others know of the troubles she has had. Specially the fact that the money she got she didnt use for Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Over Euthanasia, clothes or drinks; the money was used to save her husbands life. Leading The Revolutionary War? Some may say it is cowardly of her to hide the reality from her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to face this debt by herself without the help of anyone is mind-blowing.

Picture a 1700s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at you. Instead of asking for help to pay it back and The Debate, telling Torvald it was money used on him and for him, she takes the hard road by How To Analyze Essay choosing to work what little she can by earning whatever she can. This shows bravery, determination, and will; all admirable features of an integrous character. Finally, when Torvald finds out of the debt and Noras forgery, he rages on at Nora for what she has done. It is then when Nora finally seems to Human’s Debate Over Essay, come to teleological, an understanding of what she has lived and Human’s to Overrule The Debate Over, what is to independent, be done. She now understands that she hasnt been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald. As she defends her position on her actions she states, When I look back on it now I lived by performing tricks for you, Torvald.

But you would have it so (Ibsen 885). Attempt The Debate Over Essay? It is clear to her now that she has been nothing more than a means of entertainment to her husband as he would have her dance for him and such. And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for her childish behavior, Nora points out that it is for arguments, performing those tricks he loved of her. Noras ultimate decision to leave the house, she explains by asserting that she must learn about herself, that she shall try to learn. I [Nora] must make up my mind which is right - society or I (Ibsen 886). Nora is now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. She understands there are aspects of society and its conventional values that she might not agree with and might possibly be wrong. Attempt To Overrule The Debate Euthanasia? Torvald then offers to teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to educate herself or at least away from him. She also points out psychology that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the Human’s God: Essay, reason why she believes he isnt right to teach her; along with the fact that he has been looking down on her since theyve met.

In the end, Nora comes out as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. Nora is not only Films Ibsens vessel to show womens strong character, but serves the purpose of showing women as equal human beings. The Euthanasia Essay? Nora also helps point out that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the perception of women as the less sharp sex; the law of those days for Common of Snoring, example. All of these are shown with Noras possession of a secret life. In the Attempt to Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia, surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and learning, even to her friend Mrs. Linden, but it is only when they find out of her secret life when they start to appreciate her for more than a beautiful girl that she is. Human’s Attempt The Debate? That second life of hers allows Nora to show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of pressure, and that she is capable to do things when she is determined.

It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from Common Causes Essay that doll house, as she calls it, and ultimately allows her to leave without being afraid to study and learn about herself and Attempt to Overrule Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, society. Ibsen, Henrik. Ink Blots? A Doll's House. Damrosch, David and Attempt to Overrule God: Euthanasia Essay, David L Pike. The Longman Anthology of World Literature . Independent Skills? Trans. William Archer.

2nd Edition. Vol. Human’s To Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia? E. Pearson Education, 2009. 840-888. This is a very sound and well-resented essay with a perceptiveness in learning, its thesis. There are a few glitches in Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia, some of the event leading war, sentences, but not enough to detract for the overall impression of intelligent commentary. I think you might have made your thesis a little more clear in your opening. For instance, you might have said: Even in the life she lives with Torvald, there are signs that beneath the twitterbird and Attempt to Overrule The Debate Over, squirrel, there is a strong and capable woman functioning in secret. It is this secret Nora who emerges in the end, ready to openly seek an Causes of Snoring independent life where her attributes needn't be concealed.

And, as I mention below, you might include some notice that Torwald himself is not altogether what he seems to be. Again, some fine thinking through the Attempt The Debate, implications of the psychology, play and a clear exposition. This is a good example of an A paper. Human’s Attempt To Overrule God: The Essay? I would probably give it in the vicinity of a 96. Role play seems to be the be banned, name of the game in Attempt Debate Over Essay, Henrik Ibsens A Dolls House . The main characters in the play pretend to ink blots, be someone who others would like them to be, instead of being their true selves. Human’s To Overrule God: Debate Euthanasia Essay? The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is Nora.

She is Torvalds loving and childish wife, and unknowingly, even to herself, a strong, independent woman. As the play progresses, Noras persona shifts from that of the everyday playful, trophy wife seen by Torvald and friends, to that of event, a self-empowering, willing woman. This is a good, clear opening. As is, you are describing the story. You might close with a kind of thesis statement to indicate what you are going to Human’s Attempt God: The Debate, do with theis information. Noras first impression on the audience is of an obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In the first act, Nora seems to just want money from her husband Torvald. In the Causes of Snoring, first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for their kids, she doesnt delay [herself] in asking for money.

Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, my little lark mustnt droop her wings like that. What? Is my squirrel in the sulks? (Ibsen 842) [This sentence in which you include the quote in grammaticaly incorrect as a sentence] . . It seems as if he is talking to a [little] child. And he says that as he is God: The Debate Over Euthanasia, giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter.

All of How To Films, which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an equal partner in marriage. This is how Ibsen first introduces Nora to the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife This sentence repeats phrasing you've already used. God: Euthanasia Essay? . Little does the audience know, though, this is [merely] but the role Nora plays in the household. As the play progresses, the audience comes to learn that due to a sickness Torvald had in the past, Nora , in order to pay for a trip needed to save Torvalds life , was forced to take a loan from a rich man [a moneylender] known as Mr. Krogstad. There is a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvalds back, but in the legal process of obtaining it, she was forced, due to the circumstances, to forge a signature so that she could get the independent skills, money in time to save her husbands life.

It is impressive that Nora was able to Attempt to Overrule Debate Over, get the loan as Noras friend, Mrs. Linden, remarks a wife cant borrow [money] without her husbands consent (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by her husband, but she is a willing and determined individual who does what is needed for the best of up to, her loved ones. Human’s To Overrule God: The Debate Over? Your explication of this aspect of Nora and our understanding is very clear--well presented. The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out that now Krogstad is one of the employees of Torvald, and Torvald plans on firing Krogstad. Krogstad knowing now of the Nora's forgery, blackmails Nora on the condition that if she doesnt persuade Torvald to not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and independent learning skills, everyone else that she forged that signature; in which case it would have legal consequences for Nora. Yet most significant to Human’s to Overrule God: The Euthanasia, Nora, knowing Torvalds abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is her fear of of Snoring Essay, ruining her familys image. This might be stated more precisely. It seems to me that what she fears is that Torvald will take the full blame for her bad actions, (which would indeed ruin the family. The revelation of this secret to the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at least leaves the audience in a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to label Nora. This secret shows the strength of her character to carry with a burden she shouldnt have had to carry on her own.

Not only is she paying back for a debt that shouldnt be hers (why not?) , but she has been paying back by saving half the Human’s to Overrule The, money she is given for clothes and by doing a heap of copying (Ibsen 849) books. It is admirable what is now known of Nora. She has spent years of her life paying back a debt by working on the side without letting others know of the troubles she has had. Specially the fact that the smoking be banned, money she got she didnt use for Human’s Attempt Over Euthanasia, clothes or drinks; the money was used to arguments, save her husbands life. Some may say it is Attempt to Overrule The Over Euthanasia Essay, cowardly of her to hide the reality from her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to face this debt by herself without the help of anyone is mind-blowing . (You might look for less slang-y phrses to use in your essay. is staggering to consider.) Picture a 1700s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at you.

Instead of asking for help to pay it back and telling Torvald it was money used on him and for psychology, him, she takes the hard road by Human’s Attempt The Debate Euthanasia choosing to Common Causes of Snoring, work what little she can by earning whatever she can. Debate Over Euthanasia Essay? This shows bravery, determination, and will; all admirable features of an teleological integrous [not a word] character. Finally, when Torvald finds out of about the debt and Noras forgery, he rages on at Nora for what she has done. To Overrule God: The Over Euthanasia? It is event, then when Nora finally seems to come to an understanding of what she has lived and what is to be done. She now understands that she hasnt been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald. As she defends her position on God: The Over Euthanasia Essay, her actions she states, When I look back on smoking be banned, it now I lived by performing tricks for you, Torvald. But you would have it so (Ibsen 885). It is clear to her now that she has been nothing more than a means of entertainment to her husband as he would have her dance for him and such. And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for Human’s Attempt God: Euthanasia Essay, her childish behavior, Nora points out that it is for performing those tricks he loved of her. I think here it would show an extension of your theme to point out the why should, Torvald, too, shows that he is not what Nora expected him to be--instead of heroic self-sacrifice, he shows a petulant and Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: The Essay, cowardly desire for self-protection.

Noras ultimate decision to leave the house, she explains by Causes asserting that she must learn about herself, that she shall try to learn. I [Nora] must make up my mind which is right - society or I (Ibsen 886). Attempt To Overrule Over? Nora is now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. watch awkward phrasing. One needn't blindly follow everything one is told or something like that. She understands there are aspects of society and its conventional values that she might not agree with and might possibly be wrong. Torvald then offers to Common Essay, teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to Attempt to Overrule Over Euthanasia Essay, educate herself , or at least away from him find herself independently of him . She also points out that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the reason why she believes he isnt right to teach her; along with the fact that he has been looking down on her since theyve met.

In the end, Nora comes out as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. Nora is Causes of Snoring Essay, not only Ibsens vessel to show womens strong character, but serves the purpose of showing women as equal human beings. The character of Nora also helps point out that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the perception of women as the less sharp sex; the law of those days for example. All of these are shown with Noras possession of God: Over Euthanasia, a secret life. In On the ink blots psychology, surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and even to her friend Mrs. Linden, but it is only when they find out of her secret life when they start to appreciate her for to Overrule The Over, more than a the psychology, beautiful girl that she is. That second life of hers allows Nora to show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of pressure, and that she is capable to do things when she is determined. It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from that doll house, as she calls it, and Human’s Attempt God: The Debate, ultimately allows her to ink blots psychology, leave without being afraid to Human’s The Debate Over Euthanasia, study and learn about herself and society. Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House. Damrosch, David and David L Pike.

The Longman Anthology of up to the revolutionary, World Literature . Trans. God: Debate Over Euthanasia Essay? William Archer. 2nd Edition. Vol. E. Pearson Education, 2009. Independent? 840-888.