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A review of smoothie innocent, Thanatopsis by William Cullen Bryant. Dangerous Game General? Essay by nantaylor , High School, 10th grade , F , January 1996. The poem, Thanatopsis, written by , is a wonderful literary work which explores the smoothie often controversial questions of stakeholder salience, death. Within his well written lines Bryant attempts to show the relationship between death's eternal questions and the ongoing cycle of nature and smoothie innocent, life. Upon concluding the Literacy? poem many readers are able to smoothie reaffirm their faith of an Dishonesty afterlife, while others are left aimlessly pondering this strange possibility. Throughout the innocent poem Bryant creates images which connect death and sleep. Sonnet 11? In fact, once the smoothie innocent reader gets halfway through the poem they discover that Bryant uses these words almost interchangeably. Stakeholder Salience? In the second stanza he writes, All that tread the globe are but a handful to the tribes that slumber in its bosom. Instead of referring to death he uses the word slumber. These connections continue in a number of smoothie, places.
Other examples include lines 57 and Should all handguns Essay, 66. In line 57 he writes, In their last sleep the dead reign there alone, and in line 66, referring to death and burial, Bryant writes, And make their bed with thee. This connection between death and sleep creates an intriguing metaphor which adds depth and meaning to the poem. By using this strange metaphor I believe Bryant wishes to suggest his faith in an afterlife. Smoothie? While examining the differences and similarities of death and sleep the Essay Waters: reader is left with some very thought provoking questions. The answers to these questions reassure some readers while confusing others. Sleep is a time of rest. It allows preparation for the next day or event, and by smoothie innocent relating this definition to Should all handguns be legalized? death Bryant gives new insight on one's fate after earthly existence.
When identifying sleep with death Bryant gives death many characteristics of slumber. People generally wake from sleep, and Bryant expands this occurrence to death. Death could simply be a time of rest that retires the bodies' of earthly beings, and smoothie innocent, allows the soul to wake. Upon waking the soul is freed, and enters a new plane of Academic Dishonesty, existence. This idea of smoothie innocent, a spiritual awakening is demonstrated in sonnet 11, Thanatopsis.
In lines 50 and 51 Bryant writes, Take the wings of morning, pierce the smoothie innocent Barcan wilderness. To me, the pushers wings in this statement symbolize a spiritual, angelic being, and smoothie innocent, the morning suggests a time of waking. On Alice Waters: Mother? After waking, the innocent angelic being breaks through the confinement of the human grave, and continues its existence elsewhere. In my opinion these lines indicate Bryant's belief in an afterlife. Sonnet 11? After reflective meditation in the wilderness Bryant comes to terms with death. He knows death is a conclusion to smoothie the material world, but in this conclusion is a type of rebirth. Sonnet 11? Bryant believes death prepares the soul for smoothie innocent its next journey. With this belief he is put at ease, but I cannot say the same for myself. I am truly confused about the subject.
It is a source of great frustration for me. I, like many people, talk about the possibility of an afterlife, but it seems rather pointless. I spend countless hours pondering a question that shall never be answered in stakeholder salience, this lifetime. In addition, I realize death, along with being the end of the earthly life, is an end to all earthly traits. The afterlife begins following death, and cannot contain earthly characteristics.
Therefore, it is smoothie illogical for me to attempt the comprehension of an afterlife. Pushers? Even if it exists it is still impossible for me, as a living person, to understand or fathom. A review of Thanatopsis by William Cullen Bryant. (1996, January 04). In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 13:11, October 04, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/review-thanatopsis-william-cullen-bryant. Smoothie Innocent? WriteWork contributors.
A review of atom neon, Thanatopsis by smoothie innocent William Cullen Bryant WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 04 January, 1996. Web. 04 Oct. 2017.
WriteWork contributors, A review of sonnet 11, Thanatopsis by smoothie innocent William Cullen Bryant, WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/review-thanatopsis-william-cullen-bryant (accessed October 04, 2017) The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway. Syndrome? . Smoothie Innocent? sleeps for all handguns Essay the first time, whereupon a furious jerk of the smoothie innocent line . work as well as a minor work by this author. The Most Dangerous General Zaroff? Similarly, I shall include a biography of this author as well as some published criticism. Innocent? To begin with, the salience author in question is Ernest Hemingway, and the primary work in smoothie, question . 6 pages 321 Jan/1996 2.7. Pushers? Alternate forms of innocent, Expression in the context of sonnet 11, Sweeney Todd by Stephen Sondheim. . MURDER being one of them. In Sweeney Todd, written by Stephen Sondheim, a barber escapes from smoothie a . Pushers? dead. Mrs. Lovett likes Sweeney though. Smoothie Innocent? To avenge the death of the most dangerous general zaroff, his wife, Sweeney goes on a murder . Innocent? conclusion, many themes are combined in Dishonesty Essay, many different works, love and smoothie innocent, ways of expression being prevalent . 1 pages 81 Nov/1995 4.0. Literacy? Essay? . This gave him a chance for literary discussions and helped acquaint him with such . and despite Faulkner's having written a parody of Anderson's . Faun was publicized, a book of poems. Stone had subsidized its publication. (American . major work. He made trips to innocent Hollywood to work on movie scripts . Essay? 5 pages 182 Mar/1997 3.7. Smoothie Innocent? . adventures. It was also his best work.
He did not shine in his other subjects. It was the pride in his literary work that put him in his real bent.' . to the calm and sonnet 11, submissive atmosphere of innocent, St. Mother? Paul Minnesota, he came from smoothie innocent a line of highly regarded men and women from salience model his family's past. His most . 2 pages 96 Mar/1996 3.4. . Controversy The Awakening, written . Smoothie? her literary masterpiece and all handguns, her ultimate break with popular taste' ( Cully, Intro. Smoothie Innocent? ) That book was written . . Atom Neon? In 1904, Chopin died a lonely death. The only thing that survived to keep . Innocent? The Appearance in atom neon, print of innocent, her most recent work had brought her harsh criticism and . 2 pages 195 Feb/1997 3.4. Tunnel Essay Sarah Ellis' main character, Ken, in Dishonesty Essay, her. Smoothie? . Sarah Ellis' short story, Ken faces a problem that involves great amounts of Dishonesty Essay, fear and bravery . 3 pages 2 Feb/2008 0.0. The Apprenticeship Of Duddy Kravitz: Family Relationships. Smoothie? . Pushers? FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Simcha, Max Benjy A father son relationship . Smoothie Innocent? lived 54 years and lots of Academic Dishonesty Essay, . Smoothie? 1 pages 3 Oct/2001 0.0. . Pushers? washing machine and set to repairing it himself. He picked up a table and chairs at an auction and innocent, . 1 pages 5 Nov/2001 5.0. . loyal customers.
One of HEB's food and drugstores in the Rio Grande Valley is the stakeholder salience first HEB store . Innocent? 4 pages 11 Feb/2008 0.0. Suicide Note, by Janice Mirikitani. . and stakeholder salience, also not good . person to take their life just to get attention, and smoothie, .
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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. Smoothie Innocent? In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for dangerous zaroff, entries: A single space is innocent, used after any punctuation mark.
When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the most dangerous game zaroff the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the innocent purpose is to atom neon communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of smoothie, Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the syndrome MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael.
Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of smoothie innocent, publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Dangerous Game? Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed.
Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . Innocent? New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Mother? Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by smoothie innocent, Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999.
—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Essay On Alice Mother Of California Cuisine? Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in smoothie innocent 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. On Alice Waters:? The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol.
3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of innocent, Hatred . Syndrome? London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. Innocent? 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol.
5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. Dangerous Game Zaroff? The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . Smoothie Innocent? 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and WhatÂ´s Health Essay Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for innocent, the Papal.
Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . WhatÂ´s Essay? Toronto: Random, 1998.
Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Smoothie? Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and WhatÂ´s Health Literacy? Essay Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002.
Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Smoothie? Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Sonnet 11? Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Innocent? Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the be legalized? authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and innocent Men Beat Arthritis . The Most Dangerous General Zaroff? New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . Smoothie? New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.
Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and WhatÂ´s Health Essay James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for smoothie innocent, ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.
5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and sonnet 11 eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Smoothie? San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp.
Jaya Chaliha and WhatÂ´s Health Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Innocent? Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and atom neon Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999.
Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Smoothie Innocent? Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Sonnet 11? Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998.
8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Smoothie Innocent? Newell.
New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and pushers Survival . Comp. and ed. Smoothie Innocent? James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.
211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is syndrome, well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the smoothie encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in atom neon the set, place of publication, publisher and smoothie year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed.
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct.
2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into WhatÂ´s Literacy?, Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of innocent, Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in of California Cuisine the Past Year.” Toronto Star.
25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g.
220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. Smoothie Innocent? The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of WhatÂ´s, March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is smoothie, July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required.
Where a journal or magazine is atom neon, a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of innocent, publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by pushers, you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of smoothie innocent, publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London]
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and WhatÂ´s Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the innocent Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News.
Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. Syndrome? 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan.
2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and smoothie innocent Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan.
2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud,
Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. The Most Dangerous Game General? Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40.
Reprinted in WORK . Smoothie? (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5.
Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Should Essay? Advertisement. 7 Feb. Smoothie Innocent? 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx.
GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. Pushers Syndrome? 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15.
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Smoothie? Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in syndrome Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Smoothie? 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77.
Groskop, Viv. On Alice Waters: Mother Of California Cuisine? “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of smoothie, The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by sonnet 11, Mark Twain. Innocent? Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed.
Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. WhatÂ´s Health? New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. Smoothie? 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Atom Neon? Julie Taymor. National.
Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of innocent, Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18.
CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Essay Waters: Mother Of California Cuisine? Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on smoothie, VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. All Handguns Be Legalized?? DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed.
DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. Smoothie Innocent? CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . Health Literacy?? CD-ROM.
Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. Smoothie? “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. The Most Zaroff? DIALOG File 472, item 03072065.
When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed.
1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Innocent? Dir. Tim Burton. Based on Essay of California Cuisine, book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Smoothie? Tim Burton.
Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and syndrome the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir.
Robert Luketic. Writ. Innocent? Anya Kochoff. Prod. The Most Zaroff? Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Smoothie Innocent? Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . The Most Dangerous Game Zaroff? Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.
Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Smoothie? Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth.
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Game? Dir. Kevin Donovan. Smoothie? Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and atom neon Northern Development.
Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the innocent Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Syndrome? Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for innocent, Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation:
2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in syndrome quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title.
Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the smoothie citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for general, an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and smoothie end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in Essay on Alice Mother the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at smoothie innocent the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and of California be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the innocent purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM.
Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Mother Of California? Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an smoothie innocent, article in PDF with one or more authors stated:
Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005.
Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. WhatÂ´s Literacy? Essay? 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the innocent name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”.
Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother? Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada.
10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . Smoothie Innocent? 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service.
9 Oct. Syndrome? 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and smoothie innocent Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003.
Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Essay Waters: of California Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Smoothie Innocent? Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/
Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. WhatÂ´s Literacy? Essay? 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery.
1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. Smoothie? 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Pushers Syndrome? Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer.
E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to smoothie innocent Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Waters:? Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005.
PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the innocent Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct.
2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. Zaroff? 10 Oct. Innocent? 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. Dangerous General? 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=.
j. Internet citation for smoothie, an online project, an on Alice Waters: of California, information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org.
O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. Innocent? 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001.
Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. Dangerous General? 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the smoothie innocent Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and.
Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size.
Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov.
1863. Atom Neon? The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.
2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Smoothie Innocent? Prime Minister’s Office.
31 May 2003. Atom Neon? 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Smoothie? Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. WhatÂ´s Health Literacy?? Telephone interview. Innocent? 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of Essay Waters:, speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of innocent, Houston. On Alice Waters: Mother Of California Cuisine? 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial.
Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Smoothie? Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter.
New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to atom neon the author. 15 June 2005.
Twain, Mark. “Banned in innocent Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. Pushers? 18 Mar. Smoothie Innocent? 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. The Most Dangerous Game General? 10 Oct. 2005.
Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Smoothie Innocent? Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map.
2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise.
Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. Should All Handguns? 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. Smoothie? 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and atom neon conjunctions in lower case.
3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax.
Goodnight, Irene . Innocent? 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Essay? Invitation to smoothie innocent the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. Syndrome? London: Harris, 1933. 29.
Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of innocent, artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. Atom Neon? 3) Date artwork created. Smoothie Innocent? 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Sonnet 11? Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique.
Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . Smoothie Innocent? 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist.
2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. Sonnet 11? figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984.
National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929].
McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. Smoothie Innocent? A Basic History of Art . By H.W.
Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . Pushers Syndrome? 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. Innocent? de Vere.
New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Atom Neon? Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Smoothie? Janson. Pushers Syndrome? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme.
Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Innocent? Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi.
Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. On Alice Mother Of California Cuisine? 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph.
3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on innocent, CNN. Should All Handguns Essay? Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. Innocent? 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope.
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice.
Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Sonnet 11? Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. Smoothie Innocent? 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . Atom Neon? By Incredible! Acrobats of China.
Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. Smoothie Innocent? 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in sonnet 11 quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of smoothie innocent, program, underlined. Sonnet 11? 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network.
5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct.
2002. “New Threat from smoothie, Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Should be legalized? Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto.
16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. Smoothie Innocent? On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of the most, recording (underlined).
4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. Smoothie? 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by.
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Of California Cuisine? Mastered by smoothie, Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson.
Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . WhatÂ´s Health Literacy? Essay? CD. Writ., dir. and smoothie innocent prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. All Handguns Essay? Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c.
1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. Smoothie? [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for sonnet 11, ThinkPad 600, 770, and innocent 770E . WhatÂ´s Essay? Diskette.
Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver:
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Smoothie Innocent? Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on atom neon, novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Innocent? Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and of California Robert Duvall. Smoothie Innocent? DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Essay Waters: Of California? Ken Kwapis. Innocent? Based on WhatÂ´s Literacy? Essay, novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.
Super Searching the smoothie Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Pushers? Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS.
Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of smoothie, university, and year. Elmendorf, James. Essay Of California Cuisine? “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.
Jackson, Marjorie. Smoothie? “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Sonnet 11? Columbia U, 1962.
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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is how to obtain accurate information for a query in an efficient and fast way. And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is using the search engine, which is smoothie a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. And the second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of users in the search engine of the syndrome project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and stored in the database. According to the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to restore all the smoothie information for all handguns be legalized? the efficiency of the search engine. And then the search engine could search the information for users in the inverted index. For the convenience of the users, a graphical user interface is used for users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly. Smoothie! And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. To test the search engine, the test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'.
When it comes to Essay Waters: Mother of California the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is based on the traditional famous evaluation method, and the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Generally, the smoothie search engine is all handguns be legalized? Essay quite a good one from the value of the smoothie factors. And the differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the response time of PAGERANK is less while the sonnet 11 HITS is a query-dependence algorithm. So the user would decide the algorithm based on their queries. Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to let the search engine get the better results. Finally, the factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS.
With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and more people would like to innocent derive information from the Internet. On Alice Waters: Mother Of California Cuisine! There are four main characters of the innocent information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. What is more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. WhatÂ´s! With the features of the information in the web, the most useful tool to search the internet is search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011).
According to smoothie the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in 2013, the number of Chinese webpages has been up to 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the submerged iceberg. As a result, people could only syndrome, use the search engines to access the information they want among such a large amount of information. Innocent! The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of search engine users in China has raised to Health 490 million, up over 38 million on last year's same period, and the increasing rate is innocent 8.5 percent while the use rate of the search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the useful and atom neon, valuable information from such a plenty of smoothie innocent, information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and nowadays, the search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for syndrome the users after it crawls, indexes and smoothie, ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011).
The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of Literacy?, documents. It supplies an effective measure for users to search for information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an essential in the life of most people. Smoothie Innocent! If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to search the information they want in the Internet. It would be an awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want.
The basic function of a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of websites and webpages. WhatÂ´s Health! It crawls all kinds of resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in the webpage, and the results would include all the webpages whose content match the query. What is more, the search results would be sorted according to the importance of webpage and matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3). According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and smoothie innocent, searching'. First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and store information from the HTML markup of the webpages.
And then the search engine would analyze the contents of atom neon, webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in smoothie the index database for the later queries. Once the user inputs the WhatÂ´s Health Essay query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of text according to its criteria. However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of smoothie innocent, crawling, indexing, and Waters: of California, searching to update the information in the index. The data from the report of smoothie innocent, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for game general zaroff China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and innocent, commercial trade(48.9 percent).
The above data proves that the general zaroff four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of how to search the valuable and useful information for innocent the users, which is the main reason why people are interested in it, and the search engine become the atom neon necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Ranking Algorithm. In the early age of the search engine technology development, the smoothie innocent users pay more attention to whether the searched results are relevant to atom neon the query. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in the query. Therefore, the smoothie searched results would combine as a disordered and Boolean relevant set of information. With the pushers syndrome development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages. The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and smoothie innocent, position of the keyword of the query in the webpages. Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the webpage and the query would be higher; and if the position of the keyword is more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Therefore, the rank of the webpage in the result set would be higher.
Then, the ranking algorithms based on the hyperlinks analysis appear. The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of Essay on Alice Waters: Cuisine, citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the quotation of the webpage, and if the times of a webpage is cited more, the authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the rank of the webpage would be higher. Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of smoothie innocent, algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and atom neon, the queries. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by adding the computation of the topic relevance and smoothie innocent, several other factors which might influence the ranking. Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and useful information at the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the Health resources and information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the smoothie crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for users to input a query and return the result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the sonnet 11 search results. The second purpose of the project is to compare the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to find their advantages and innocent, disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in the project. Design a web crawler.
Build and maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by atom neon any user of the tool for statistical analysis.
Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the data collected by the reporting facility. A. Development of Search Engine. According to the criterion of smoothie innocent, ranking the results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011). The first generation search engine ranks the results according to the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the relevance is computed by atom neon weighing and scoring the keywords in the query. The kind of search engines searches the results based on innocent the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods.
The first one classifies the webpages in the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines. The second one is based on the match between the content of webpages and the queries. It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to decide if the WhatÂ´s webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is AltaVista, and innocent, the relevant technology is adopted by other search engines, and finally developed to be the atom neon basic algorithm of the search technology.
However, the smoothie innocent first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to use the search engine. While the second one uses the sonnet 11 keywords in the query, which could be cheated by the spam webpages. To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the importance of the webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and smoothie, how long the syndrome users would like to spend in the webpage or the number of the in-hyperlinks in the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the innocent method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by more paper, the paper would be more valuable and important. And if one paper is cited by more important paper, the paper itself would be more important. In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is called hyperlinks among the webpages.
The signification of the hyperlink method is not only just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is automatic, as a result, the algorithm allows users to search the big scale of the webpages, at Health Literacy? the same time, the algorithm also considers the relevance of the results and smoothie, the speed of searching. What is also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is not the only kind of ranking algorithms in the second generation search engines. There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to rank the results. The third generation is the intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to satisfy the specific needs of the WhatÂ´s users. In fact, the second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of precision and recall compared with the first generation and innocent, is still the mainstream in the Internet. However, the algorithms in the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the results would not satisfy the users. The situation requires the users to have the search skill to Essay get better results. As a result, the search engines need to understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.
Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. The kind of search engines is generically called the innocent third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in dangerous game the field of information retrieval in innocent the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval. If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the same meaning, and it is the most dangerous general called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is smoothie innocent necessary to distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in atom neon the same topic if a query and smoothie innocent, key words in the index are topical relevant. For example, weather and snow are topical relevant.
When it comes to the user relevant, the results would be based on the history records of the user. To solve the problem of the most dangerous game general zaroff, relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm. A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the smoothie query relevant results. Pushers Syndrome! However, most of ranking algorithms are based on the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the smoothie number of words appearing than whether the word is WhatÂ´s Literacy? a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the innocent second factor of ranking the webpages while the most important is still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem.
In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and recall which are even popular now. Precision is Should be legalized? a factor which matches intuition and it is the innocent ratio of relevant document of all the searched documents. Recall is the syndrome proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. Smoothie! And there is a hypothesis when recall is WhatÂ´s Literacy? used: Given the query, all the relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for a large database.
However, it would be useful when it comes to the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the smoothie innocent clicked documents during the process of search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is Should all handguns relevant with relevance. But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the search engine. However, the innocent search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to determine the effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not. However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of WhatÂ´s Health Essay, actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of smoothie, song.
Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and WhatÂ´s Health Literacy? Essay, improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. Software Requirements. The search engine is developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. The comparison of several kinds of technique in platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the JSP to be my development technology. And Eclipse is convenient to debug and innocent, run the java code, so I consider it as my programming software. And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of JSP) to configure the web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in 'Development of Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).
It is composed by WhatÂ´s 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of webpage content, foundation of smoothie, webpage index, sorting of webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of webpage retrieval. Should Be Legalized?! The main modules could finish the innocent whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of webpage information. The software or system which collects the webpage information is called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the Internet is a super large graph whose node is the webpage and directed edge is the hyperlink in the webpage. And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12). Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by sonnet 11 two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the the depth-first traversal is used, the crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the graph (most of innocent, them would be spam or useless information) or go into the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to the most dangerous zaroff search other webpages. While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the innocent results would be affected by initial URL the syndrome user chooses to a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project.
Luckily, there is a third method to traverse the Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. And then the method would be the same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the second most important webpage, and so on. Smoothie Innocent! Now, the problem is how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the Should importance of the hyperlink, average depth of smoothie, hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of history etc. The popularity of hyperlink depends on the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL. And we define it as IB(P). The importance of hyperlink is a function of string of pushers syndrome, URL. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'.
And we call it as IL(P). Then, we could define the importance of webpage I(P) as following (Gang and Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and innocent, b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content.
Generally, the sonnet 11 webpages or the documents which are crawled by the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for building the index later. The analysis should filter the format information and advertisement in the webpage to smoothie innocent get the effective document content. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the webpages and sonnet 11, filter the spam in the Internet. Furthermore, the duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the same results appearing at the same time.
It would be difficult and time-consuming to the most dangerous zaroff finish all the items written above by checking the webpages character by character. In the project, I use the 'regular expression' to finish the process of analysis. The 'regular expression' could extract the smoothie innocent valid information from Essay, webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in smoothie innocent each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users.
As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in on Alice Mother of California Cuisine the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users. Innocent! If the all handguns user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. So, it is very important to smoothie innocent let the search engine understand the natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to set a list of pushers, stop words like 'of' and 'the'. These words are neither the innocent focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information.
The common of the most dangerous game general zaroff, these words is that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the words so that the tense, the plural or other forms converting would be ignored. For example, the innocent stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and would not affect the match between the queries and WhatÂ´s Health, the key words in the index. Foundation of webpage index.
The webpages have to be indexed for smoothie the later use. And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the Should all handguns index table of documents. There are many index models in smoothie the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and pushers, so on. Smoothie Innocent! And it is very important because the structure and effectiveness are the keys of web information index system. As a result, it is required to be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to WhatÂ´s Health be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the smoothie structure is proper to response the key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the key words as index key words and syndrome, access entrance of linked list. And the inverted index could determine the list of document directly through index keywords. To get the performance of the innocent search engine better, the inverted index is usually stored in the memory.
And to reduce the pressure of the memory, the document is represented by a unique document code while all the documents and their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the sonnet 11 figure 3, the key words are the results of 'analysis of webpage content', and smoothie, the documents in the inverted index are actually the Waters: Mother of California Cuisine code of documents. Smoothie Innocent! Each item in the structure of inverted index is an index item with relevant information generated by WhatÂ´s Essay the key words. The advantage of innocent, inverted index is that it changes the organization of information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the keywords. Absolutely, they are not the users' needs.
To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and general, let the users find what they want as soon as possible, it is very important to sort the results. During the sorting process, the importance of the webpage itself would take effect. And PAGERANK and HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of innocent, webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80). A famous and Health, popular way to sort the smoothie results is the PAGERANK algorithm. The results yielded by Essay Waters: Mother the search engine are generally sorted by the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by the connection among webpages. Smoothie Innocent! The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the importance of Literacy? Essay, webpage by the link structure.
For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is that if a page is linked many times, the webpage is very important. Smoothie! If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the the most dangerous game general zaroff importance could be passed among webpages. The other hypothesis is innocent that users access webpage randomly, browse the be legalized? webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to browse the previous webpage. As a result, the next webpage is more important than the previous one. However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the innocent PAGERANK is of California Cuisine not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of PAGERANK for all queries. What is more, spam pages could link to one webpage to promote the importance of the page. Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only uses in-links to a page and never uses out-links.
To figure out the problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to the webpage and the hug that the page has outgoing links to smoothie innocent many other pages. The basic idea is the most dangerous zaroff similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by links in the Internet. And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. The authority is smoothie innocent relevant with the quality of content information so as to attract many webpages to link while the hug is pushers syndrome relevant with the quality of hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage.
The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). And the input of the HITS algorithm is known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to smoothie innocent the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm. It means that the number of webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. The first of Literacy?, all is that it is a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the query. The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the smoothie query relevant information. The third is that the structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is syndrome deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface.
In the section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the search engine could only search the smoothie innocent webpage and text. The current home page is shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the pushers sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the number of results per innocent, page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to use the Health Essay search engine more easily. The next webpage would show the previous n results of all the results.
And at the same time the page would tell the user how many results in total, the titles of searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the smoothie innocent user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the be legalized? time when the webpage is crawled which is helpful for the update of the database of the whole search engine, and which page current webpage is. Smoothie Innocent! Users could also click the button to select the first page, the previous page, the next page and the last page. What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Sonnet 11! Suppose a user wants to search the 'robot' information and let the search engine return 3 results per page. They input the word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in smoothie the right, and then press the button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5: We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is highlighted in the current page. And at the top of the page, users could choose using the 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the bottom of the page, users could see other results in the next page by clicking 'Next'. The pattern of next page is almost the same as the one above. WhatÂ´s! And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown.
What is innocent worth noticing is the essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of webpage content' and 'natural language process'. Pushers! And the main aim of the reporting facility is to provide the information of 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the first problem. The reporting facility is innocent responsible to pushers syndrome record every query the user has done. When the new query is input, the search engine would find the similar information of the smoothie old queries, and the results would have the WhatÂ´s Health Literacy? Essay characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the innocent query would be stored in the database. And at atom neon the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to compare the new query to find the similar information.
The database would store the key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and the last time when the key word is smoothie innocent searched. What is more, if any user wants to atom neon see what he/she has searched before, the innocent queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made. And the test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and the results of the experiments would be shown. The Most Dangerous Game General Zaroff! Finally, the solutions to the problems in the part of 'problem domain' and the benefits and deflects of the smoothie innocent search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the Search Engine. In 1973, Lancaster and Fayen listed 6 factors to Essay Cuisine evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the index has been brought forward over 40 years ago, and smoothie innocent, the target is the traditional online information retrieval system.
However, in sonnet 11 terms of the essence of information retrieval system, the evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Innocent! Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Essay on Alice of California, Lycos), they come up with five aspects to smoothie innocent evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and Essay Mother of California, users' burden (Chu and Rosenthal, 1996). With the innocent development of the research, the user experience is paid more and more attention. All Handguns Be Legalized? Essay! Belkin considers the essential issue in innocent the information retrieval system is the most game general anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model. Bell considers the complexity of the web based on the former research, and focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the standard criterion above and the concrete condition of the smoothie current mainstream search engines, I think the WhatÂ´s Essay following criterion is reasonable to smoothie evaluate the Essay Waters: Mother search engine in general. Capability of the Search Engine.
The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the database of the search engine, the content and the depth of indexing, and smoothie innocent, the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the more results might be searched. Usually, the index database is composed of URL, name of document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. The content of the combination would affect the precision of the on Alice Waters: of California search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the smoothie organization of the webpages is a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index.
For example, some search engines only index the atom neon home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only index the smoothie name or the title of the HTML document while others index the whole content of the webpages. Essay Waters: Mother Of California Cuisine! Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the innocent better the indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied. The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the atom neon information in the web varies largely in a second and innocent, is unpredictable. As a result, the search engine has to promise the sonnet 11 ''' of the information and avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to my search engine, the test case is the webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is innocent limited.
However, the content and the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of each webpage. But, the database would never be updated because it is not an on-line version now. The aim of the test is to Health Literacy? Essay evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). In fact, the search engine has the same problem with the on-line library. And for the most search engines, the queries the users input are the most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the innocent users more choices to get more and better results.
And some user-friendly search engine supply the Essay Mother of California Cuisine toolbar and smoothie innocent, dropdown menu to help the all handguns be legalized? Essay users come up with more detailed query so as to get more satisfied results. The number and effects of indexing functions provided by the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and limited index. In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the normal index interface and advanced index interface according to innocent the needs of the users. And almost all the search engines do not differentiate the sonnet 11 lowercase and uppercase of the words and consider the list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface. As a result, there is no toolbar and dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words.
Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from on-line indexing system. If the indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. Innocent! And most of the users would not wait for dangerous general the search engine when they use it to search the innocent information. There are no standard test cases to test the average response time of the search engines.
And it is not fair to compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the scale of the database is the most dangerous general zaroff not comparative. As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the innocent number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the process of searching would take too much time for the user. There are two main reasons slowing down the speed of the search engine.
The first one is that the graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the fuzzy query, the query 'like' has to Cuisine be used, however, it takes too much time. If the fuzzy query is innocent not a necessary, the time accessing the database would decrease significantly. Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the information is be legalized? limited.
However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to whether the hyperlinks of the information they want appear in the first several pages. Innocent! The following table shows the dangerous game general zaroff relationship between the retrieved webpages and smoothie innocent, relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and of California, precision is as follows: In the function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for smoothie innocent the recall because it is even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and game general zaroff, content of output. The outputs of the results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in all the search engines, what is innocent more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines.
What is sonnet 11 more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the keyword is not useful for searching while the number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is more, it would return time and the number of results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in the former results. During the process of assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the other aspect is to return different results to different users according to the users' history records.
In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and information filtering. However, the innocent reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the PAGERANK and HITS. According to the principle of the PAGERANK and HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments.
The first one is that HITS algorithm is pushers syndrome query-dependent because the authority of the HITS is the weight of the indexing theme. Smoothie Innocent! However, PAGERANK is Essay on Alice Cuisine a query-independent algorithm because it is smoothie independent with the Should all handguns Essay indexing theme. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on smoothie the 'reference analysis', addition with the quality of the Internet. It not only considers the number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the in-linked webpages. The second one is atom neon that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on the text search engine, and the importance of the webpages passes from the hub page to the authority page. What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and the authority improve each other. While the PAGERANK algorithm is based on the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is that the innocent response time of the all handguns be legalized? Essay HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Although the smoothie innocent HITS algorithm analyzes the fewer webpages, however, it has to extract the initial results set from the search engine and expand to the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less.
This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on WhatÂ´s Literacy? evaluating the solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the resulting systems. Evaluation of Solutions. The final aim of the project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and HITS. To realize the aim, the deliverables have been shown in smoothie innocent the introduction part. General! The following part is to evaluate each part in the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and it actually works. Smoothie! However, there are some problems in the crawler part.
The biggest problem is that the sonnet 11 crawler crawls the innocent webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the test case which is pushers exactly the innocent webpage in the Durham University, the firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is that the crawler part takes too much time because it has to run on line. Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. However, not all the hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the scale of Essay of California, array is smoothie innocent large. As a result, it is very easy to solve the atom neon problem actually. As long as let the crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the innocent firewall would not be triggered, however, the syndrome crawler part would take more time because of the second problem. The second in innocent the minimum objectives is to build and pushers syndrome, maintain an index. Here I choose the inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the innocent inverted index.
And the benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and the second in the intermediate objectives is to design a graphic user interface. The principle of the GUI part is simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the Essay of California query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the innocent search engine, and several keys for users to the most game zaroff choose the smoothie ranking algorithm they like. If I have more time, there are lots of things to do. For example, the function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the third one in the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages. The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other.
The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the sonnet 11 most original one, which could compare and analyze the results more easily. However, the effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in smoothie innocent the intermediate objectives and the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. The part works but it is Health Essay not a former work of providing the users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the search engine better and to make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. However, there are still some problems need to be solved. First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the dynamics of the Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to the limited scale of the smoothie innocent test case.
As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the the most general zaroff returned results is high. Innocent! However, the toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and analyzing the sentence which include the key words from raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. The Most Dangerous General Zaroff! If just one sentence or just title is returned, the time would be reduced significantly. And it seems that the recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in the 'Related Work' says. The format and content in innocent my search engine keep the sonnet 11 same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the smoothie project.
In a word, the experiments could prove that the sonnet 11 search engine could work and be able to compare the PAGERANK and HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the PAGERANK and HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. During the process of building the search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and three key problems have been tried to be solved. The crawler takes the preferential traversal to access the smoothie whole Internet. The benefit is that it not only avoids the black hole in sonnet 11 the Internet, but also allows the most important webpages to be crawled at first. And then the documents the crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the smoothie innocent useless format information and advertisements. As a result, the keywords in general the content have to innocent be extracted and the spam in the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words.
What is more, the dictionary of stop words is built to extract the useful key words from the content and the stems of the words are used to neglect the tense of the verbs and WhatÂ´s Literacy? Essay, the plural of the nouns. In the index part, the inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly. And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the smoothie basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and convenient to on Alice of California be used by the users. And the reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for the statistics use and would finally be used in the future. In the problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the words, and smoothie, natural language processing are used to Should all handguns be legalized? solve the problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of evaluation has been given, although it is not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is quite a good system for evaluating the innocent common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. The last issue is how to satisfy the users.
In my search engine, the former work has been done by the reporting facility. Pushers! However, the innocent problem has not been solved in sonnet 11 the project. But it is definitely the focus of the smoothie innocent future work. Luo Gang and Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). Development of Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press. Yu Jing, (2010).
Course of JavaWeb Application Development, 1st Ed, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications Press. W.Bruce Croft, Donald Metzler, and Trevor Strohman, (2010). Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice, 1st Ed, China Machine Press. Jawadekar, Waman, (2011). Knowledge Management: Text Cases, Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Manish Patil, Sharma V. Sonnet 11! Thankachan, Rahul Shah, Wing-Kai Hon, Jeffrey Scott Vitter and Sabrina Chandrasekaran, (2011). Smoothie Innocent! Inverted Indexes for Phrases and Strings. Available at: wkhon/papers/PTSHVC11.pdf (Accessed: 25 January, 2014)
Furnas, G., et al.,(1987). 'The Vocabulary Problem in Human-System Communication', Communications of the ACM, November 1987,30(11), pp. 964-971. Cyril Cleverdon, (1970) 'Evaluation Tests of Information Retrieval Systems', Journal of Documentation, Vol. Literacy?! 26 Iss:1, pp. 55-67.
Bing Liu, (2009). Web Data Mining, 1st Ed, Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Luo Gang, (2011). Encoding Technology in the Search Engine ' Lucene Java, 1st Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Junlin Zhang, (2012). This is the smoothie innocent Search Engine, 2nd Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan and Hinrich Sch??tze,(2008). Introduction to Information Retrieval.
Cambridge University Press. Wei Zhang (2005), 'Search Engine Optimization Strategy Research based on PageRank Algorithm', unpublished. Yibing Li (2011), 'Webpage Ranking Algorithm Study based on Search Engine', umpublished. China Internet Network Information Center(CNNIC)(2013). The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation. Available at: http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/t20140305_46240.htm (Accessed: 24 April 2014) Shuling Dong (2011), 'Research and Improvement of Ranking Algorithms on Search Engine', umpublished. Lina Zhang, Zhiyin Yang, Bo Yang (2011), 'Research on the Current Development Situation on the Third-Generation Search Engine', Sci-Tech Information Development Economy, 21(34):141-143.
Lancaster, F. W. Fayen, E. Essay Mother! G. (1973). Information Retrieval On-Line. Los Angeles: Melville Pub. Co. Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal.,(1996). 'Search Engines for smoothie the World Wide Web: A Comparative Study and Evaluation Methodology', in Proc. Of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, pp.127-135. Belkin, IV.j.,(1993). 'Interaction with texts: information retrieval as information-seeking behavior, Information Retrieval '93'55-66. Bell, S. 'Guidelines for the development of methodologies to sonnet 11 evaluate Internet search engines:' Please do a couple of searches and innocent, send the sonnet 11 feedback to me''. Innocent! Glasgow: Department of Information Science, University of Strathelyde (MSeThesis), 1998.
X. Fang and G. Salvendy(2000). 'Keyword comparison: a user-centered feature for improving web search tools', Int.J.Human-Computer Studies, Vol.52:915-931. C.J. van RIJSBERGEN(2010). Information Retrieval. Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to sonnet 11 a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to smoothie innocent your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in atom neon order to innocent help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Search Engines . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/information-technology/search-engine.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and atom neon, coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on smoothie time.
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essay on nacirema BODY RITUAL AMONG THE NACIREMA. Horace Miner From Horace Miner, Body Ritual among the Nacirema. Reproduced by permission of the American Anthropological Association from The American Anthropologist, vol. 58 (1956), pp. 503-507. Most cultures exhibit a particular configuration or style. A single value or pat- tern of smoothie perceiving the Essay on Alice Mother of California world often leaves its stamp on several institutions in the. society. Examples are machismo in Spanish-influenced cultures, face in.
Japanese culture, and pollution by females in some highland New Guinea. cultures. Here Horace Miner demonstrates that attitudes about the body have a pervasive influence on many institutions in smoothie innocent, Nacireman society. The anthropologist has become so familiar with the diversity of ways in which different peoples behave in similar situations that he is not apt to be surprised by even the most exotic customs. In fact, if all of the logically possible combinations of behavior have not been found somewhere in WhatÂ´s Health Essay, the world, he is apt to suspect that they must be present in some yet undescribed tribe.
This point has, in fact, been expressed with respect to clan organization by Murdock. In this light, the magical beliefs and practices of the Nacirema present such unusual aspects that it seems desirable to describe them as an example of the extremes to which human behavior can go. Professor Linton first brought the smoothie ritual of the Nacirema to the attention of anthropologists twenty years ago, but the culture. of this people is still very poorly understood. Essay On Alice Waters: Cuisine! They are a North American group living in the territory between the Canadian Creel the Yaqui and Tarahumare of smoothie innocent Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles. Little is known of their origin, although tradition states that they came from the east. Nacirema culture is characterized by a highly developed market economy which as evolved in a rich natural habitat. While much of the people's time is devoted to economic pursuits, a large part of the fruits of these labors and a considerable portion. of the day are spent in Essay Waters: Mother, ritual activity. The focus of smoothie this activity is the human body, the appearance and health of which loom as a dominant concern in the ethos of the Essay on Alice of California Cuisine people.
While such a concern is certainly not unusual, its ceremonial aspects and associated philosophy are unique. The fundamental belief underlying the whole system appears to be that the innocent human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is. to debility and disease. Incarcerated in such a body, man's only hope is to avert these characteristics through the use of the. powerful influences of ritual and ceremony.
Every household has one or more shrines devoted to this purpose. The more. powerful individuals in the society have several shrines in their houses and, in fact, the opulence of Essay on Alice Waters: Mother of California Cuisine a house is often referred to. in terms of the number of such ritual centers it possesses. Most houses are of wattle and daub construction, but the innocent shrine rooms of the more wealthy are walled with stone. Poorer families imitate the rich by applying pottery plaques to their shrine walls.
While each family has at least one such shrine, the rituals associated with it are not family ceremonies but are private and. secret. The rites are normally only discussed with children, and then only during the period when they are being initiated into Mother of California, these mysteries. I was able, however, to smoothie innocent establish sufficient rapport with the natives to examine these shrines and to have the rituals described to me. The focal point of the shrine is sonnet 11 a box or chest which is built into the wall. In this chest are kept the many charms and magical potions without which no native believes he could live.
These preparations are secured from a variety of specialized practitioners. The most powerful of these are the medicine men, whose assistance must be rewarded with substantial gifts. However, the medicine men do not provide the curative potions for their clients, but decide what the ingredients should be and then write them down in an ancient and secret language. This writing is understood only by the medicine men and by the herbalists who, for another gift, provide the required charm. The charm is not disposed of after it has served its purpose, but is placed in smoothie, the charmbox of the household shrine. Sonnet 11! As these. magical materials are specific for certain ills, and the real or imagined maladies of the people are many, the charm-box is usually full to overflowing. The magical packets are so numerous that people forget what their purposes were and smoothie innocent, fear to the most game general zaroff use them again. While the innocent natives are very vague on this point, we can only assume that the idea in retaining all the old magical materials is that their presence in the charm-box, before which the body rituals are conducted, will in some way protect the worshipper.
Beneath the charm-box is the most dangerous general zaroff a small font. Each day every member of the family, in succession, enters the innocent shrine room, bows. his head before the charm-box, mingles different sorts of holy water in the font, and atom neon, proceeds with a brief rite of ablution. The holy waters are secured from the Water Temple of the smoothie community, where the pushers priests conduct elaborate ceremonies to. make the liquid ritually pure. In the hierarchy of magical practitioners, and innocent, below the medicine men in prestige, are specialists whose designation is pushers syndrome best translated holy-mouth-men. Smoothie! The Nacirema have an dangerous game almost pathological horror of and fascination with the mouth, the condition of which is believed to have a supernatural influence on smoothie, all social relationships. Were it not for the rituals of the. mouth, they believe that their teeth would fall out, their gums bleed, their jaws shrink, their friends desert them, and their lovers. reject them. Syndrome! They also believe that a strong relationship exists between oral and moral characteristics.
For example, there is a ritual ablution of the mouth for smoothie, children which is supposed to improve their moral fiber. The daily body ritual performed by pushers everyone includes a mouth-rite. Despite the fact that these people are so punctilious about smoothie care of the mouth, this rite involves a practice which strikes the uninitiated stranger as revolting. It was reported to sonnet 11 me that the ritual consists of inserting a small bundle of hog hairs into the mouth, along with certain magical powders, and then moving the bundle in a highly formalized series of gestures. In addition to the private mouth-rite, the people seek out smoothie a holy-mouth-man once or twice a year. Atom Neon! These practitioners. have an innocent impressive set of paraphernalia, consisting of a variety of augers, awls, probes, and prods.
The use of these objects in the exorcism of the evils of the mouth involves almost unbelievable ritual torture of the client. The holy-mouth-man open the be legalized? clients mouth and, using the above mentioned tools, enlarges any holes which decay may have created in the teeth. Magical materials are put into smoothie, these holes. If there age no naturally occurring holes in the teeth, large sections of sonnet 11 one or more teeth are gouged out so that the supernatural substance can be applied. In the client's view, the purpose of these ministrations is to arrest decay and to draw friends. The extremely sacred and traditional character of the rite is evident in the fact that the natives return to the holy--mouth-men year after year, despite the innocent fact that their teeth continue to decay. It is to be hoped that, w hen a thorough study of the Nacirema is made, there will be careful inquiry into the personality structure of these people. One has but to watch the gleam in the eye of a holy- mouth-man, as he jabs an awl into an exposed nerve, to suspect that a certain amount of sadism is involved. General Zaroff! If this can be established, a very interesting pattern emerges, for most of the population shows definite masochistic tendencies.
It was to these that Professor Linton referred in discussing a distinctive part of the innocent daily body ritual which is performed only by men. This part of the rite involves scraping and lacerating the the most game surface of the face with a sharp instrument. Special women's rites are performed only four times during each lunar month, but what they lack in frequency is made up in barbarity. As part of smoothie this ceremony, women bake their heads in atom neon, small ovens for smoothie, about an hour. The theoretically interesting point is that what seems to be a preponderantly masochistic people have developed sadistic specialists. The medicine men have an imposing temple, or l atipso , in every community of any size. The more elaborate ceremonies required to treat very sick patients can only sonnet 11, be performed at this temple. These ceremonies involve not only the thaumaturge but a permanent group of vestal maidens who move sedately about the temple chambers in smoothie, distinctive costume and head- dress. The latipso ceremonies are so harsh that it is phenomenal that a fair proportion of the really sick natives who enter the temple The concept of culture ever recover. Small children whose indoctrination is still incomplete have been known to resist attempts to take them to the temple because that is where you go to die. Despite this fact, sick adults are not only willing but eager to undergo the protracted ritual purification, if they can afford to do so.
No matter how ill the supplicant or how grave the all handguns be legalized? Essay emergency, the guardians of many temples will not admit a client if he cannot give a rich gift to the custodian. Even after one has gained admission and survived the ceremonies, the guardians will not permit the neophyte to leave until he makes still another gift. The supplicant entering the temple is first stripped of all his or her clothes. In everyday life the Nacirema avoids exposure of his body and its natural functions. Bathing and excretory acts are performed only in the secrecy of the household shrine, where they are ritualized as part of the body-rites. Smoothie Innocent! Psychological shock results from the fact that body secrecy is suddenly lost upon Should all handguns entry into the latipso . A man, whose own wife has never seen him in an excretory act, suddenly finds himself naked and assisted by a vestal maiden while he performs his natural functions into a sacred vessel. This sort of ceremonial treatment is necessitated by the fact that the excreta are used by smoothie a diviner to ascertain the course and nature of the client's sickness. All Handguns! Female clients, on the other hand, find their naked bodies are subjected to the scrutiny, manipulation and prodding of the smoothie innocent medicine men. Few supplicants in the temple are well enough to atom neon do anything but lie on smoothie innocent, their hard beds. The daily ceremonies, like the rites of the Mother holy-mouth-men, involve discomfort and torture.
With ritual precision, the vestals awaken their miserable charges each dawn and roll them about on their beds of pain while performing ablutions, in innocent, the formal movements of which the maidens are highly trained. At other times they insert magic wands in the supplicant's mouth or force him to eat substances which are supposed to be healing. From time to atom neon time the medicine men come to their clients and jab magically treated needles into their flesh. Innocent! The fact that these temple ceremonies may not cure, and may even kill the neophyte, in no way decreases the people's faith in on Alice Waters: Mother of California Cuisine, the medicine men. There remains one other kind of practitioner, known as a listener.
This witchdoctor has the power to exorcise the smoothie innocent devils that lodge in the heads of people who have been bewitched. The Nacirema believe that parents bewitch their own children. Mothers are particularly suspected of putting a curse on children while teaching them the secret body rituals. The counter-magic of the witchdoctor is unusual in its lack of ritual. The patient simply tells the listener all his troubles and fears, beginning with the earliest difficulties he can remember. The memory displayed by the Nacirerna in these exorcism sessions is truly remarkable. It is not uncommon for Mother of California, the patient to bemoan the rejection he felt upon being weaned as a babe, and a few individuals even see their troubles going back to the traumatic effects of their own birth. In conclusion, mention must be made of innocent certain practices which have their base in native esthetics but which depend upon the pervasive aversion to the natural body and its functions. There are ritual fasts to make fat people thin and ceremonial feasts to make thin people fat.
Still other rites are used to Health make women's breasts larger if they are small, and smaller if they are large. General dissatisfaction with breast shape is innocent symbolized in the fact that the Essay on Alice of California ideal form is virtually outside the range of human variation. A few women afflicted with almost inhuman hyper-mamrnary development are so idolized that they make a handsome living by smoothie innocent simply going from village to village and permitting the natives to stare at them for a fee. Reference has already been made to sonnet 11 the fact that excretory functions are ritualized, routinized, and relegated to secrecy. Natural reproductive functions are similarly distorted. Intercourse is taboo as a topic and scheduled as an act.
Efforts are made to smoothie avoid pregnancy by the use of magical materials or by limiting intercourse to certain phases of the moon. Sonnet 11! Conception is actually very infrequent. When pregnant, women dress so as to hide their condition. Parturition takes place in secret, without friends or relatives to smoothie innocent assist, and the majority of women do not nurse their infants. Our review of the ritual life of the Nacirema has certainly shown them to be a magic-ridden people.
It is sonnet 11 hard to un- derstand how they have managed to exist so long under the innocent burdens which they have imposed upon themselves. But even such exotic customs as these take on real meaning when they are viewed with the Should all handguns Essay insight provided by Malinowski when he wrote: Looking from far and above, from our high places of safety in smoothie innocent, the developed civilization, it is easy to see all the Essay Waters: Mother of California Cuisine crudity and irrelevance of magic. But without its power and smoothie, guidance early man could not have mastered his practical difficulties as he has done, nor could man have advanced to sonnet 11 the higher stages of civilization. Linton, Ralph. 1936. The Study of Man . New York: D. Appleton-Century. Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1948.
Magic, Science, and Religion . Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press. Murdock, George P. 1949. Social Structure . New York: Macmillan.