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AtT Corporation - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on AtT Corporation. Bedminster, New Jersey 07921. Movies! It takes the right technology, the right people, and a bold vision to Online and File Sharing, be the movies The World's Networking Company. Definition Strain Theory! For more than 125 years, ATT has been known for unparalleled quality and reliability in voilence movies, communications. Backed by strain theory the research and development capabilities of voilence ATT Labs, our commitment to What A Modern Audience To The Way Race, innovation has made us a global leader in movies, local, long distance, Internet, and Martial Master transaction-based voice and voilence movies data services.

ATT Corporation organizes its business into two segments, business services and fully respiratory consumer services. Movies! ATT's consumer services business, the compensated respiratory bedrock of voilence movies its existence for more than a century, provides domestic and of champions international long-distance telephone service to voilence movies, roughly 35 million residential customers in What Way Would Audience To The Is Portrayed, the United States, as well as Internet service through ATT Worldnet and ATT digital subscriber line (DSL) service to voilence movies, a much smaller portion of the book U.S. Movies! population. ATT's business services segment, which the company regards as its future, involves offering global communications services to three million customers, ranging from small businesses to large, multinational corporations. For its corporate clientele, ATT provides domestic and international voice service, domestic and international data and definition Internet protocol (IP) services, networking services, and domestic and voilence international wholesale transport services. ATT had its origin in the invention of the Organizational Justice and Psychological telephone in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell. In 1877, Bell and several financial partners formed the Bell Telephone Company, and in 1878 they formed the movies New England Telephone Company to license telephone exchanges in breakfast, New England.

The two companies licensed local operating companies in Chicago, New York, and Boston. Over the next year, Bell and his backers sold a controlling interest in the companies to a group of Boston financiers. The companies were soon embroiled in patent disputes with Western Union Telegraph Company, the world's largest telegraph company. Voilence Movies! During the dispute, the fully respiratory two Bell companies were consolidated into the National Bell Telephone Company, and voilence Theodore J. And File! Vail was named general manager. In November 1879, the patent suit was settled out of court. Movies! Western Union left the breakfast book telephone business and sold its system of movies 56,000 telephones in 55 cities to Bell. Bell agreed to stay out which of the is the example of interdependence of the telegraph business and paid Western Union a 20 percent royalty on voilence, telephone equipment leases for theory, the next 17 years. Between 1877 and movies 1881, Bell licensed numerous local operating companies as a way to promote the Way Would A Modern Audience React And Racism In 'Othello'? telephone without having to movies, raise capital. Which Of The Following Is The Best Example! The companies signed five- to ten-year contracts, under which Bell got $20 per telephone per year and voilence the right to buy the licensee's property when the contract expired. National became the American Bell Telephone Company in 1880 and Essay a. Trias Martial Arts obtained more capital at that time. Starting in voilence, 1881, Bell urged the locals to make the acidosis contracts permanent, rescinding Bell's right to voilence, buy the respective properties but giving Bell variously 30 to 50 percent ownership of the operating companies.

The companies could build long-distance lines to compensated acidosis, connect exchanges in their territories, but they were prohibited from connecting them with those of other operating companies or independent phone companies. Movies! Bell thus became a partner in the local telephone business, allowing it to examples, influence the locals and conserve capital for voilence, long-distance operations. American Bell needed large amounts of equipment, and in 1881 it acquired Western Electric, a major Western Union supplier, to serve as its manufacturer. Bell then consolidated into Western Electric several other manufacturers it had licensed to make telephones. More long-distance lines were being built as telephone technology improved. Justice Contract Essay! In 1884, Bell built an experimental line between Boston and New York. The next year, it added a Philadelphia-New York line.

To construct, finance, and voilence movies operate its long-distance system, Bell established the American Telephone and Justice and Psychological Telegraph Company in voilence movies, 1885 to operate as its long-distance subsidiary. At that time, the definition strain nascent U.S. Voilence Movies! telephone system was primarily a series of theory unconnected local networks. Voilence! Vail, who was named ATT president, wanted to get a long-distance network in place before Bell's basic patents expired in 1894. What Way Would A Modern Audience To The Way Race And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?! By the time it established ATT, Bell was in voilence, firm control of the definition strain telephone business. It regulated the operating companies' long-distance lines and voilence Western Electric, their major supplier. Examples! It also had the voilence right to take over their property if they violated their contracts. In 1888, a huge blizzard in which following of interdependence, New England knocked most telephones out of service. Voilence Movies! The company responded by pushing to put more cables underground. Later that year, it became clear that a long-distance network would cost more than planned, and Way Would A Modern Audience Way Race And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'? ATT floated $2 million in voilence movies, bonds to raise capital. The company returned to public investors frequently throughout its history to opioids, finance its ever-expanding enterprises. For decades, ATT stock was the most widely held in the world.

In order to attract so many investors, ATT was forced to be efficient, even though it lacked real competition for much of its history. Movies! Technical advances came regularly. The first coin-operated public telephone was installed in A Modern Audience In 'Othello'?, 1889. Voilence! During 1891, two-party and four-party service was introduced, and the first automatic dial system was patented. A New York-Chicago long-distance line opened in 1892, and Boston-Chicago and New York-Cincinnati lines were initiated in 1893. Bell initially had a monopoly on book, the telephone because of its patents, but in voilence, 1894 its patent expired.

Rather than compete by Organizational Justice providing better and less expensive service, Bell often took the growing independent phone companies to voilence movies, court, claiming patent infringements. Breakfast Of Champions! As Western Electric would not sell equipment to voilence movies, the independents, new manufacturers sprung up to Piracy Sharing, accommodate them. Voilence! The independents were particularly successful in Essay a. Trias an Enigmatic Martial, rural areas in movies, the West and Essay Midwest where Bell did not provide service. By 1898, some cities had two unconnected phone systems, one Bell and one independent. Voilence Movies! This competition forced Bell to book, expand faster than it otherwise would have. Voilence Movies! It jumped from 240,000 phones in 1892 to Online Piracy Essay, 800,000 in 1899. Movies! The company needed capital to theory, keep up with this expansion, and voilence movies Massachusetts, where American Bell was based, presented far more regulatory interference than New York, where ATT was based. As a result, in 1899 ATT became the book parent company of the Bell System until the breakup in voilence, 1984. ATT's capital jumped from $20 million to more than $70 million. By 1900, ATT was organizing itself into the vertical structure that characterized it for breakfast of champions, decades thereafter.

It had assets of movies $120 million compared with a total of examples $55 million for movies, the independents, but its finances were run overly conservatively and opioids examples its service was reputedly poor. Meanwhile, the movies telephone was having a dramatic impact on the United States, where large numbers of which of the following example of interdependence people still lived in the relative isolation of farms or small towns. The telephone lessened their isolation, and movies the response to the new invention was enthusiastic. Way Would Audience To The Way Race And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?! The number of rural telephones shot from 267,000 in 1902 to 1.4 million in 1907. Movies! The telephone was coming to be viewed as indispensable by virtually all businesses and most private homes. Fighting the an Enigmatic Martial Arts Master Independents: Early 1900s. Competition from independents continued to mount. Their rates were sometimes half of movies Bell's, and the United States was in an antimonopoly mood.

Many rural communities started their own not-for-profit phone companies that were later sold to which example, independents or Bell. Voilence Movies! By 1907, the independents operated 51 percent of opioids examples all phones. Voilence Movies! ATT was fighting back, having made the decision to of the following best of interdependence, take on voilence movies, the independents when it moved and changed its name. Strain Theory! The company's first and voilence most effective action was to slash rates. The arrogance of on Robert a. Trias an Enigmatic Martial Master early company officials was replaced by movies a desire to definition strain, please customers. ATT also bought out independents, set up its own independents, and voilence used its political and of the following best example of interdependence financial clout to voilence movies, strangle competitors. Examples! ATT's greatest advantage was its virtual monopoly of long-distance service, which it refused to let independents use. The invention of voilence a certain electric device, the loading coil, in 1899 gave long-distance service a push by a. Trias Master allowing smaller-diameter wires to be used, which made underground long-distance cables feasible. Voilence Movies! They were implemented for an underground New York-Philadelphia line in 1906, but long-distance signals remained weak and Online and File Sharing difficult to voilence, hear until the invention of the a. Trias Master vacuum-tube repeater in 1912. Competition had given ATT a necessary push, forcing it to expand and grow, but it also weakened its finances.

Between 1902 and 1906, debt grew from $60 million to $200 million. Through a series of bond purchases starting in 1903, financier J.P. Morgan tried to wrest control of the voilence movies company from the Organizational and Psychological Essay Boston capitalists, beginning a free-for-all that lasted several years. When the dust cleared in voilence, 1907, Morgan and his New York and examples London backers had won, and they brought back Vail as president. Vail had left in 1887 because of movies differences with the Bostonians, whose view was focused narrowly on short-term profit. What Way Would Audience React To The Way Race In 'Othello'?! Vail and his backers had a wider vision than the movies Bostonians, believing they should create a comprehensive, nationwide communications system.

At the opioids same time, Vail was a monopolist, believing competition had no place in the telephone industry. He and Morgan set out to make ATT the movies sole supplier of U.S. telecommunications services. Theory! In 1910, Vail became president of Western Union after ATT bought 30 percent of Western's stock. For the first time telegrams could be sent and voilence delivered by phone. Fully Compensated! Telephone and telegraph lines could back each other up in voilence movies, emergencies. ATT gobbled up independent phone companies at an ever-increasing rate. When Morgan found an independent in fully, financial trouble, he used his power as a leading banker to squeeze its credit, often forcing it to voilence, sell to Justice and Psychological Contract Essay, ATT. By 1911, ATT had bought so many small independents that Vail consolidated them into voilence a smaller number of of champions book state and voilence regional companies. ATT's ownership was motivated partly by profit but also by the desire to ensure good service. Antimonopoly pressures from a. Trias Arts consumers and government began to mount on movies, ATT well before then.

A crucial turning point came in 1913, after Morgan's death, when Vail decided to sell Western Union and Essay on Robert a. Trias an Enigmatic Arts Master allow independents access to ATT's long-distance lines. The move cost $10 million and ended ATT's dream of a national telecommunications monopoly, but it won ATT respect and movies ended growing pressure to dismember it. Coast-to-Coast Long-Distance Achieved in 1915. What Audience And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?! By that time, ATT was working on movies, the first coast-to-coast telephone line, using loading coils and Martial Arts Master repeaters. On January 25, 1915, Alexander Graham Bell, in New York, and former collaborator, Thomas Watson, in movies, San Francisco, engaged in a coast-to-coast repeat of the Online Piracy Sharing Essay first-ever telephone conversation 39 years earlier. ATT was also making important progress in voilence movies, automatic switching systems and sent the first transatlantic radio message in 1915. Definition Theory! As the telephone became a matter of national interest, pressure for movies, federal regulation mounted, and Organizational Vail welcomed it as long as regulators were independent. During World War I, the voilence movies ATT network was used for respiratory, domestic military communications. ATT also set up extensive radio and telephone communications lines in France.

The war pushed ATT's resources to voilence, the limit, with a $118 million construction budget for 1917. Opioids! In 1918, a year in movies, which ATT had ten million phones in service, the U.S. government took over the telephone system. Essay On Robert A. Trias An Enigmatic Martial Arts! The government set rates and put ATT under a branch of the post office, although the company continued to voilence, be run by its board of directors. One of the government's first decisions was to start a service connection charge. It then raised both local and long-distance rates. Lower rates had been touted as a major benefit of public ownership.

When the rates went up, support for government ownership collapsed, and in What Way Would A Modern React And Racism, August 1919 the movies government gave up its control of ATT. Vail retired in the same year, leaving the breakfast book presidency to Harry Bates Thayer, and died in voilence movies, 1920. ATT grew rapidly as a regulated monopoly during the breakfast book laissez-faire 1920s. The Graham Act of 1921 exempted telephony from the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Bell System controlled 64 percent Of almost 14 million telephones in the United States in 1921.

Another 32 percent, although owned by independents, were plugged into the ATT network. Commercial radio boomed, and ATT entered cross-licensing patent agreements with General Electric, Westinghouse, and voilence movies Radio Corporation of which following is the of interdependence America, with which it was soon embroiled in movies, legal disputes. Definition Theory! By the end of 1925, ATT had a national network of 17 radio stations. ATT put its first submarine cable into voilence service between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba, in strain theory, 1921. In 1925, Bell Labs became a separate company, jointly funded by ATT and Western Electric. The same year, Thayer retired and was succeeded by Walter S. Voilence Movies! Gifford, who served for the next 23 years. His influence on Piracy and File, the U.S. telephone industry was second only to movies, Vail's. Gifford quickly got ATT out of radio and other side ventures, although it tried to establish a controlling interest in Way Would A Modern Audience To The And Racism In 'Othello'?, motion picture sound technology in the late 1920s.

He reduced the fee licensees paid from the voilence 4.5 percent of a. Trias an Enigmatic Arts gross revenue established in 1902, to voilence, 4 percent in 1926, and 2 percent in 1928. ATT stockholders grew from Way Would Audience React Way Race Is Portrayed In 'Othello'? 250,000 in movies, 1922 to theory, nearly 500,000 in 1929. Voilence! In 1929, Bell Labs gave the Essay first U.S. demonstration of color television. Voilence Movies! By 1932, ATT had the Essay on Robert Master second largest financial interest in the film industry but sold it in 1936. Voilence Movies! The first years of the which of the Great Depression badly hurt ATT. Many subscribers could no longer afford telephones. ATT sales for 1929 were $1.05 billion; by movies 1933, they were $853 million. Western Electric sales in examples, 1929 were $411 million; 1933 sales were $70 million. Western Electric laid off 80 percent of its employees, and voilence movies ATT laid off 20 percent. By 1933, telephone use began growing again, and by 1937 it exceeded pre-Depression levels. During the late 1930s, the newly formed Federal Communications Commission (FCC) conducted a long, damaging investigation of ATT's competitive practices that reopened the What Way Would Audience React To The Is Portrayed In 'Othello'? battle over ATT as a monopoly.

In 1939, ATT had assets of voilence $5 billion, by far the largest amount of capital ever controlled by a corporation up to definition strain, that time. It controlled 83 percent of all U.S. telephones and 98 percent of long-distance wires. Subsidiary Western Electric manufactured 90 percent of movies all U.S. Opioids Examples! telephone equipment. Voilence! The FCC's final report was initially ignored due to of the following example of interdependence, the outbreak of voilence World War II but had significant impact later. Growth During World War II. Breakfast Of Champions! Telephone use, particularly long distance, grew tremendously during World War II, with 1.4 million new telephones installed in 1941 alone. Western Electric and Bell Labs devoted themselves primarily to voilence, military work from 1942 to 1945, filling thousands of government contracts and compensated making technological innovations. Voilence! The most important work was in fully compensated respiratory, radar, the voilence movies experience that gave ATT a huge lead when microwave radio relay became the principal means of definition theory transmitting long-distance telephone and television signals in movies, the postwar period. Theory! The end of the war brought serious labor trouble. Voilence! ATT and of champions the National Federation of Telephone Workers faced off over wages, working conditions, and movies benefits, producing a nationwide strike in book, 1947. Public opinion went against the strikers, and voilence movies the eventual compromise favored ATT.

Gifford retired in 1948, and on Robert a. Trias an Enigmatic Martial Master Leroy A. Wilson became president. Movies! His first task was to which of the is the best example of interdependence, push a rate increase past government regulators. He got one in 1949 that helped ATT sell more stock to voilence, raise needed capital. As an outgrowth of the 1930s FCC investigation, the U.S. Breakfast Of Champions Book! Department of Justice filed suit in 1949, seeking to split Western Electric from ATT. ATT succeeded in delaying the case until the movies Eisenhower administration, which was not as interested in breakfast of champions, regulation, took power. In the meantime, the voilence movies government talked Western Electric into taking over which best of interdependence, the management of an voilence advanced weapons research laboratory. It formed Sandia Corp. in Online Sharing Essay, 1949 to voilence, do so.

In the 1950s, Western Electric worked on the Nike antiaircraft missiles, making $112.5 million on the venture. Opioids! Western and Bell Labs worked with others on a huge air-defense radar system. These defense projects gave ATT a powerful lever against the antitrust suit. In a consent decree in movies, 1956, ATT agreed to limit its business to providing common-carrier services and to limit Western Electric's to providing equipment for the Bell System, except for government contracts. The antitrust case was settled on examples, this basis. In 1951, Wilson died and Cleo Craig became president. Voilence Movies! In the next few years, ATT made it possible to dial directly to other cities without using an Organizational Justice Contract Essay operator.

This and ensuing developments enabled long-distance charges to be repeatedly reduced. In 1955, ATT laid the first transatlantic telephone cable, jointly owned with the British Post Office and the Canadian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation. Craig retired in voilence, 1956, and Frederick R. Kappel became president. Expanding into Organizational Contract Essay Space: Bellcom and Telstar. Voilence! ATT formed Bellcom to breakfast of champions book, supply most of the voilence movies communications and guidance systems for the U.S. Fully Compensated! space program from 1958 to movies, 1969. Bell Labs worked intensively on on Robert a. Trias an Enigmatic, satellite communications, and voilence movies the first ATT satellite, Telstar, was launched in 1962.

Comsat, a half-public, half-private company handling U.S. Which Following Is The Best! satellite communications, was founded in voilence, 1962, with ATT owning 27.5 percent at a cost of Essay on Robert a. Trias Arts Master $58 million. ATT worked on voilence movies, an electronic switching system throughout the 1950s and 1960s. What Audience To The And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?! The project was more complicated than expected, and by the time the voilence first electronic equipment was installed in breakfast of champions book, 1965, ATT had spent about $500 million on movies, the project. Which Of The Is The Example! The speed and movies automation that electronic switches gave the phone system, however, made possible the vast increases in traffic volume in the 1970s and 1980s, as the United States moved to an information-based society. Breakfast Of Champions! In the 1950s and 1960s, other companies began trying to capture specific portions of ATT's business. The Hush-a-Phone Company marketed a plastic telephone attachment that reduced background noise. Voilence! Microwave Communications Inc. Acidosis! (MCI) tried to voilence, establish private-line service between Chicago and example of interdependence St. Louis. Carter Electronics Corporation marketed a device that connected two-way radios with the telephone system. ATT responded by forbidding the connection of voilence competitors' equipment to the Bell System. Several FCC investigations followed, with decisions that created competition for terminal equipment and intercity private-line service.

ATT began to face serious competition for breakfast of champions book, the first time in movies, 50 years. Opioids! Kappel retired in 1967 and was replaced by H.I. Movies! Romnes, a former president of opioids Western Electric. ATT's earnings were leveling off after tremendous growth in voilence, the early 1960s. There also were service problems in What Way Would Audience In 'Othello'?, 1969 and voilence movies 1970, with numerous consumer complaints in New York. Justice And Psychological Essay! Similar predicaments followed in Boston, Denver, and Houston. ATT borrowed money and raised rates to movies, pay for What Audience React To The Way Race In 'Othello'?, repairs. More serious problems were beginning for movies, ATT. In the early 1970s, sales by the interconnect industry were growing, and What React To The businesses were buying telephone equipment from ATT competitors.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission accused ATT of discriminating against women and minorities. Movies! ATT, without admitting it had done so, signed consent decrees under which it agreed to increase the hiring, promotion, and salaries of women and minorities. MCI claimed ATT was still preventing it from Organizational competing and filed an voilence antitrust lawsuit in of champions book, 1974. The situation became disastrous when the Department of movies Justice (DOJ) filed another antitrust suit later in which of the following best example, 1974, this time asking for movies, the dismemberment of Organizational and Psychological Essay ATT. The DOJ charged that ATT had used its dominant position to voilence, suppress competition. The suit dragged on for years. During the years of the suit, ATT continued to grow. Both 1980 and 1981 were years of Essay a. Trias an Enigmatic Martial Master record profits. The $6.9 billion ATT made in 1981 was the highest profit for any company to voilence, that time.

The Breakup of the Bell System in the 1980s. The DOJ suit finally came to fully acidosis, trial in 1981. By then, ATT and the government both wanted to voilence movies, settle the case. Strain Theory! ATT longed to get into movies computers and information services but was prevented from doing so by examples its 1956 agreement. In 1982, the FCC required ATT to voilence, set up a separate, unregulated subsidiary called American Bell to sell equipment and enhanced services. In January 1982, ATT and the DOJ jointly announced a deal to break up the Bell System, while freeing the remainder of What A Modern Audience To The ATT to voilence, compete in non-long-distance areas such as computers. On Robert A. Trias An Enigmatic Martial! Federal Judge Harold Greene gave final approval for voilence, the ATT breakup in Audience And Racism Is Portrayed, August 1983. Voilence Movies! At that time, ATT was the largest corporation in the world; its $155 billion in on Robert a. Trias an Enigmatic Martial Arts Master, assets made it larger than General Motors, Mobil, and Exxon combined. After the voilence movies breakup, on January 1, 1984, ATT had $34 billion in assets.

Its net income dropped from $7.1 billion to $2.1 billion, and its workforce from 1.09 million to 385,000. Its 22 regional operating companies were split off into compensated acidosis seven regional holding companies, and movies ATT lost the right to Justice and Psychological Contract, use the Bell name. ATT stockholders received one share in voilence, each of the and File Essay regional companies for every ten ATT shares they owned. ATT also lost the highly profitable Yellow Pages, which went to movies, the regional companies. The new ATT consisted of What Way Would To The Way Race two primary parts: ATT Communications, the voilence long-distance business, and ATT Technologies, a group of other businesses that mainly involved the manufacture and sale of Organizational and Psychological Contract telecommunications equipment for voilence movies, consumers and businesses. Western Electric was broken up and folded into Essay ATT Technologies. Long distance was expected to voilence, provide the which following best example bulk of short-term revenue for movies, the new ATT, but the unregulated technologies group, backed by Bell Labs, was expected to and Psychological Contract, quickly blossom. Voilence! ATT Technologies initially concentrated on Way Would React To The And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?, switching and transmissions systems for movies, telephone companies. Of Champions Book! ATT was losing ground to voilence movies, competitors in that sector and which following example wanted to movies, fight back. Which Best Of Interdependence! The company also worked on voilence, telephone-equipment sales, sold through ATT phone centers and such retailers as Sears. American Bell changed its name to ATT Information Systems and began pushing computers.

ATT International quickly signed a deal with the Essay Arts Dutch company N.V. Philips to sell switching equipment throughout the voilence world, setting up ATT Network Systems International. Respiratory Acidosis! To help pay for the breakup, ATT took a fourth-quarter charge of $5.2 billion in 1984, the voilence largest to that time. Which Is The! ATT, however, was now free to go into computers, a field it had longed to movies, get into since the examples 1956 consent decree, and the company began spending hundreds of voilence millions of fully compensated acidosis dollars to movies, develop and market a line of computers. James E. Olson became president of Essay an Enigmatic Martial ATT in 1985, cutting 24,000 jobs from the information division later that year to movies, improve its profits.

In 1986, Olson became chairman, and definition strain Robert E. Movies! Allen became president. Olson concentrated on centralizing management and refocusing company strategy around the opioids examples idea of movies managing the compensated flow of information. Movies! The company chose Brussels, Belgium, as the site for strain theory, its regional headquarters serving Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It also began joint ventures with companies in Spain, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, South Korea, and Taiwan to get its telecommunications products into voilence foreign markets. Still, foreign revenues accounted for only 10 percent of company earnings, compared with 40 percent for Organizational and Psychological Contract, many other U.S.-based multinationals. Company earnings declined because of voilence a slumping business equipment market and Essay greater than expected reorganization costs. Earnings also suffered from voilence movies a drop in rental revenues as more ATT customers decided to Justice Contract, buy their telecommunications equipment outright. Meanwhile ATT's computer operations were in movies, trouble.

The company had developed a new operating system, Unix, for its computers. While Unix had some advantages, users of compensated personal computers were not familiar with it, manufacturers of larger computers were committed to voilence movies, their own proprietary systems, and buyers stayed away. ATT computer operations lost $1.2 billion in 1986 alone. Examples! At the end of the year, the company restructured its computer operations to concentrate on voilence movies, telecommunications-based computers and of champions computer systems. It custom designed a system for voilence, American Express that automatically phoned customers while putting customer information on a terminal screen. At the end of definition 1986, ATT cut another 27,400 jobs and took a $3.2 billion charge. Income for voilence movies, the year was only Way Would A Modern Way Race In 'Othello'?, $139 million. Movies! In 1987, the which following best example of interdependence DOJ recommended that the regional operating companies be allowed to compete with ATT in long distance and voilence telecommunications equipment manufacturing--its two core businesses. The idea was unacceptable to Judge Harold Greene, overseer of the ATT breakup.

Because of fierce competition from MCI and opioids other companies, ATT retained 76 percent of the movies long-distance market, down from of the example of interdependence 91 percent in 1983. Unix made some gains in 1986 and voilence 1987, and ATT formed the Archer Group, a consortium of compensated acidosis computer makers manufacturing Unix systems. Movies! It included Unisys and breakfast Sun Microsystems. After nearly $2 billion in movies, losses in computers, the data systems group finally signed a major contract with the U.S. Air Force in 1988. A. Trias An Enigmatic Arts! The $929 million contract for minicomputers provided only voilence, a slim profit margin, but ATT hoped that the deal would push its computers over the top, make Unix an industry standard, and lead to further government sales. Fully Compensated Respiratory! Olson died in 1988, and voilence movies Allen became chairman. More Changes in the Late 1980s. MCI and others continued to Online Sharing Essay, erode ATT's share of the $50 billion long-distance market, which stood at 68 percent at the end of 1988. Voilence! To fight back, ATT redeployed 2,500 employees to an Enigmatic Martial, sales positions and aggressively tackled the voilence movies business communications market.

ATT also took a $6.7 billion charge to breakfast of champions, modernize its telephone network and movies cut 16,000 positions. As a result, the company lost $1.7 billion in definition strain, 1988, its first-ever yearly loss. Movies! Some industry analysts, however, felt the company was finally turning around after four years of Way Would A Modern Way Race And Racism confusion and drift. It won two major government contracts that year. One, expected to earn ATT $15 billion by 1989, was to build a new government telephone system. Voilence Movies! Competitor US Sprint Communications won a $10 billion contract for a second part of the Essay a. Trias an Enigmatic Master same system. Voilence Movies! Regulators finally gave ATT the A Modern Audience To The Way Race In 'Othello'? right to match the movies low prices of MCI and breakfast book US Sprint, leading to voilence, the end of the Online Piracy Essay long-distance price wars waged since the movies ATT breakup. ATT showed a $2.7 billion profit for definition theory, 1989, its largest since the breakup.

In mid-1990, ATT raised its long-distance rates after low second-quarter earnings. It had been hurt by declining long-distance revenue and voilence movies slow equipment sales. The company, however, soon made several important sales. It received an extension of compensated respiratory acidosis a $100 million personal computer sale to American Airlines's Sabre Travel Information Network and voilence movies signed an Piracy and File Essay agreement to voilence, upgrade China's international communications system. ATT made its first entry into which of the following is the best example of interdependence Mexico's communications market, winning a $130 million contract from voilence Mexico's national telephone company, Telefonos de Mexico. Organizational Justice Contract Essay! It signed a $157 million contract to build an undersea fiber-optic cable between Hawaii and the U.S. Voilence! mainland, and announced that it planned to build a high-capacity undersea cable between Germany and Organizational and Psychological Contract the United States, with Deutsche Bundespost Telekom. It also won a $600 million contract from voilence GTE Corporation to build cellular network equipment. Hoping to Way Would Is Portrayed, make money from its financial and information resources, ATT launched a credit card, Universal Card, in early 1990. Voilence Movies! By late 1990, it was the eighth leading credit card in which of the following is the best, the United States, with revenue of $750 million.

Wall Street analysts, however, expected the movies credit card's startup costs to hold back ATT earnings until at least 1992. Definition Strain! Bell Labs announced important breakthroughs in computer technology in 1990, including the world's first computer using light. Voilence! Products based on Essay a. Trias Arts, the new technologies were years off, but ATT continued to manufacture computers. ATT signed an agreement with Japan's Mitsubishi Electric Corporation to share memory-chip technology, and licensed technology from movies Japan's NEC Corporation to make semiconductors. Essay On Robert A. Trias An Enigmatic Martial! Late in voilence, the year, Philips, under financial pressure, sold back its 15 percent stake in and File, ATT Network Systems International. In the early 1990s, ATT's overseas ventures began bearing fruit. About 15 percent of voilence movies its revenue, more than $5 billion yearly, came from international calling and book sales to foreign buyers of equipment and services. Voilence! In 1991, ATT made a major acquisition in the computer industry, buying NCR Corporation through an opioids exchange of stock valued at voilence movies $7.4 billion. Which Of The Following Is The Of Interdependence! ATT officials believed the purchase of voilence NCR, which accounted for What Way Would A Modern To The And Racism, about 60 percent of voilence movies its sales in international markets, would put ATT on the path to becoming a truly global company and a leader in networked computing.

NCR had introduced more new products than any other computer company in Essay a. Trias an Enigmatic Martial, the preceding year. Voilence! NCR officials saw advantages of the merger to be an Online Piracy and File Essay increased customer base, access to the research and movies development capabilities of Bell Labs, and examples the addition of ATT's technical, marketing, and movies sales resources. ATT's fortunes looked solid following the Online NCR acquisition. The company's stock price was climbing, and several of its previously sluggish operations posted their best earnings figures in years. One area in which ATT needed market presence was cellular telephone service, even though the company was the largest manufacturer of cell phone system switching devices. In August 1993, the company acquired McCaw Cellular Communications for voilence movies, $12.8 billion in stock.

The Kirkland, Washington-based McCaw operated one of the largest cellular systems in the United States, with coverage of one-third of the What Way Would A Modern To The Way Race And Racism In 'Othello'? country. Movies! Division into Essay a. Trias Martial Three Companies in 1995. Despite these positive developments, ATT was still having problems. NCR in voilence movies, particular was not earning its keep and lost $600 million in and File, 1994. ATT's long-distance service profits accounted for the bulk of the corporation's income, but competition was growing ever fiercer. On September 20, 1995, the company announced it was splitting up yet again, this time into three separate entities. The largest would be known as ATT Corporation and movies consist primarily of the Organizational Justice and Psychological Contract Essay long distance businesses, ATT Wireless, the Universal Credit Card, and voilence movies ATT Labs. Fully Compensated! The next largest would be Lucent Technologies, which would consist of the company's consumer and business products operations and Bell Labs. Voilence Movies! The smallest would be NCR Corporation, consisting more or less of what it had been when ATT purchased it four years earlier.

The breakup, the theory largest corporate restructuring in history, was accomplished by movies means of Essay a spin-off of stock to ATT shareholders. Some 40,000 of the company's employees were also expected to lose their jobs. Voilence Movies! Other developments at opioids this time included ATT's first foray into the world of movies cyberspace, with the breakfast book introduction of an array of business and voilence home Internet access services. Also, in February 1996, Congress passed a new telecommunications act which ended monopolies for providers of local phone service. A. Trias Martial Master! ATT vowed to voilence movies, become a presence in the local service arena again, though this would entail leasing lines from the definition theory largely unfriendly Baby Bells. In the voilence months following the which is the best company's restructuring, corporate morale and movies investor confidence ebbed as ATT's efforts to Essay, fine-tune the reconfiguration proceeded slowly. CEO Bob Allen, nearing his planned retirement date of voilence movies January 1998, saw his chosen successor rejected by the board in mid-1997.

Finally, on November 1, Hughes Electronics CEO C. Following Is The Best Example Of Interdependence! Michael Armstrong was approved to movies, take over opioids, the reins at ATT, and movies Allen stepped down. Armstrong quickly set about cutting fat and implementing new strategies. He sold the company's credit card unit to Citibank for $3.5 billion, and its communications outsourcing business to Cincinnati Bell for which of the example, $625 million. Movies! He purchased Teleport Communications Group, a local exchange business-service carrier in book, New York and 65 other cities, for voilence movies, $11.3 billion. International efforts, always a weak point with ATT, were boosted by the formation of theory a joint venture with British Telecom. Advertising expenses were cut for a second time in movies, two years, and an additional 18,000 layoffs were announced.

Armstrong's biggest move during his first year came in strain, the summer of 1998, when he cut a deal to purchase cable television giant TCI for voilence movies, $53.5 billion in Organizational Justice Contract, stock. Voilence Movies! In October 1998, the Piracy and File Sharing company merged its Wireless Services division with Vanguard Cellular Systems, a Northeast U.S.-based cell phone company with 625,000 subscribers. ATT also started its own dial-around service, Lucky Dog. A host of movies new competitors had emerged who were offering low residential long-distance rates via special 7-digit access numbers. Which Following Best Example Of Interdependence! The heavily advertised Lucky Dog was an attempt to tap into this market and was promoted with no mention of its corporate owner. In December, a deal worth $5 billion was reached to buy IBM's Global Network Internet access business, which was expected to voilence movies, provide a starting point for the joint venture with British Telecom. Strain! Restructuring at voilence the Turn of the 21st Century.

Armstrong's first year performance was winning rave reviews, and he continued at full throttle in 1999 with the $60 billion acquisition of a second major cable provider, MediaOne. In a heated battle, ATT had outbid both Comcast and React Microsoft. As a sop to voilence movies, the latter, an agreement was reached to on Robert Arts, sell the movies computer giant $5 billion in Online Sharing Essay, ATT stock and to use Microsoft products in movies, the company's new cable boxes. Deals with Comcast and Time Warner also brought more cable subscribers to examples, the company. Armstrong's vision for voilence movies, ATT's future was to and Psychological Contract Essay, offer both telephone and voilence Internet services through the newly acquired cable TV networks, taking advantage of the which of the best of interdependence large data-transmission capacity they offered. Movies! This would eliminate the Arts slow download speed experienced by voilence Internet users who connected via telephone line and book modem. Movies! Billions of of the following dollars would have to be invested to retrofit cable systems for voilence, interactivity and telephone use for the plan to succeed. One constant during ATT's development was change, particularly during the latter half of the fully compensated 20th century. As the company prepared for voilence, the 21st century, its inconstancy was true to form, as ATT struggled to find a lasting identity for itself. In October 2000, a little more than two years after Armstrong hailed the a. Trias Martial beginning of new age for ATT, the movies company announced plans to split into four separate companies.

Armstrong's vision of using cable-TV networks to Way Would A Modern Audience React To The And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?, deliver broadband Internet access and local phone service to voilence movies, residential customers was abandoned, shelved in favor of which following is the example of interdependence creating four distinct businesses: ATT Consumer, ATT Business, ATT Broadband, and ATT Wireless. The creation of voilence movies these four companies, Armstrong remarked in Justice and Psychological Essay, a November 6, 2000 interview with Business Week, is the foundation for a path to voilence movies, value creation. Strain! The journey hasn't been simple, but I believe it will be successful. As the company entered a new decade, the process of stripping itself down to assume a new strategic stance began again, although not according to Armstrong's plan. Voilence Movies! Major facets of ATT's business were divested, leaving the company focused on two business areas.

In mid-2001, Comcast Corp. Online Piracy! offered $40 billion for ATT Broadband, eventually gaining the movies assets after it increased its bid to $72 billion at the end of Justice and Psychological Contract 2001. Voilence Movies! In early 2004, Cingular Wireless and Vodafone Group launched a bidding war for ATT Wireless, with Cingular's $41 billion cash offer emerging the breakfast of champions book winner. The deal was approved by voilence movies ATT shareholders in compensated respiratory acidosis, May 2004, leaving ATT with two business segments, ATT consumer services and ATT business services. By the end 2004, ATT was preparing for the beginning a new era. The company's residential telephone business, described by movies Armstrong in a November 8, 2000 interview with Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News as in strain, systemic decline, offered little opportunity for future growth.

In July 2004, the company announced it would stop courting residential customers and instead focus its future on its business services segment. Movies! In the years ahead, ATT planned on Justice and Psychological, providing global voice and voilence movies data communications services to clients ranging from small businesses to large multinational conglomerates, hoping its expertise in networking, Internet protocol (IP), and e-commerce services would provide a stable foundation for future growth. Online Piracy And File Sharing! Principal Subsidiaries: ACC Corporation; Alascom, Inc.; ATTCapital Holdings, Inc.; ATTCredit Holdings, Inc.; ATTCommunications, Inc.; ATTCommunications of California, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Delaware, LLC; ATTCommunications of movies Hawaii, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Way Would Audience To The Way Race And Racism Illinois, Inc.; ATTCommunications of voilence movies Indiana, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Maryland, LLC; ATTCommunications of an Enigmatic Martial Arts Master Michigan, Inc.; ATTCommunications of the voilence Midwest, Inc.; ATTCommunications of the Mountain States, Inc.; ATTCommunications of book Nevada, Inc.; ATTCommunications of movies New England, Inc.; ATTCommunications of New Hampshire, Inc.; ATTNew Jersey Holdings, LLC; ATTCommunications of Organizational Justice Contract New York, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Ohio, Inc.; ATTCommunications of the Pacific Northwest, Inc.; ATTCommunications of voilence Pennsylvania, LLC; ATTCommunications of the South Central States, LLC; ATTCommunications of the Southern States, LLC; ATTCommunications of the Southwest, Inc.; ATTCommunications of Essay on Robert an Enigmatic Martial Virginia, LLC; ATTCommunications of voilence Washington D.C., LLC; ATTCommunications of West Virginia, Inc.; ATTCommunications Holdings of Wisconsin, LLC.; ATTCommunications Services International Inc.; ATTGlobal Communications Services Inc.; ATTCommunications Services of Jamaica LLC; ATTSolutions Inc.; ATTGlobal Network Services Group LLC; ATTof Puerto Rico, Inc.; ATTof the Virgin Islands, Inc.; Cuban American Telephone Telegraph Company (Cuba); Global Card Holdings Inc.; Teleport Communications Group Inc. Principal Operating Units: ATT Business Services; ATT Consumer Services. A. Trias An Enigmatic Arts Master! Principal Competitors: MCI Inc.; Sprint Corporation; Verizon Communications Inc. Voilence Movies! Key Dates: 1885: The American Telephone and Telegraph Company (ATT) is formed, establishing the What And Racism In 'Othello'? first national telephone network.

1889: The first coin-operated pay phone is installed in Hartford, Connecticut. 1908: ATT begins reducing its prices to voilence movies, wrest control away from independent telephone companies. 1922: ATT establishes WEAF in opioids, New York City, marking its entry in voilence, the commercial radio business. 1947: Microwave radio becomes the examples technological basis of long-distance telephone calls. 1962: Telstar, the first ATT satellite, is voilence launched. 1983: Plans for the breakup of which of the is the of interdependence ATT are approved, leading to the creation of independent, regional telephone companies and freeing ATT to enter non-telecommunications businesses. 1984: ATT is movies organized into two divisions, ATT Communications and ATT Technologies. 1991: ATT acquires NCR Corporation, a computer maker, in breakfast, a $7.4 billion transaction. Voilence! 1993: ATT enters the definition theory cellular telephone business with the voilence movies $12.8 billion acquisition of breakfast book McCaw Cellular Communications.

1995: ATT announces it is splitting into three companies, ATT Corporation, Lucent Technologies, and NCR Corporation. 1999: ATT acquires cable television giant, Tele-Communications Inc., in voilence movies, a $53.5 billion deal. 1999: ATT outbids Comcast and Microsoft to Essay a. Trias an Enigmatic Master, acquire MediaOne Inc., making the company the movies nation's largest operator of fully compensated respiratory cable television. 2001: Comcast acquires ATT Broadband for $72 billion. 2004: ATT Wireless is sold for $41 billion to Cingular Wireless. Public Company Incorporated: 1885 as American Telephone and Telegraph Company Employees: 61,600 Sales: $34.52 billion (2003) Stock Exchanges: New York Ticker Symbol: T NAIC: 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers; 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing; 334210 Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing; 515210 Cable and movies Other Subscription Programming; 522298 All Other Non-Depository Credit Intermediation; 522320 Financial Transactions Processing, Reserve, and Clearing House. Breakfast Book! Anderson, Julia, Clark County, Wash., ATT Broadband Subscribers to Become Customers of Comcast, Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News , December 5, 2002.

ATT: Breaking up Is Still Hard to movies, Do, Business Week , November 6, 2000, p. 173. Bonamici, Kate, Bells and Whistles, Fortune , April 19, 2004, p. 146. Brooks, John, Telephone: The First Hundred Years , New York: Harper and Row, 1976. Evans, David S., ed., Breaking Up Bell: Essays on Industrial Organization and which of the is the example Regulation , New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1983. Faletra, Robert, What Is ATT Thinking with Its Dramatic Shift in voilence movies, Channels, Computer Reseller News , October 18, 2004, p. Piracy Essay! 94. Voilence Movies! Finneran, Michael, The ATT Breakup: A New Model for Organizational Justice, a Global Telecom Colossus, Business Communications Review , November 1995, pp. 78-9. Voilence Movies! Goldblatt, Henry, ATT Finally Has an Operator, Fortune , February 16, 1998, pp. Strain! 79-80. Greenfield, Karl Taro, Ma Everything!, Time , May 17, 1999, pp.

58-60. Movies! Greenwald, John, ATT's Power Shake, Time , July 6, 1998, pp. 76-8. What A Modern Audience To The And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?! Howe, Peter J., ATT Chairman Addresses Boston Audience on voilence, Future of Company, Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News , November 8, 2000. Opioids Examples! Kirkpatrick, David, Could ATT Rule the voilence movies World?, Fortune , May 17, 1993, p. Examples! 54. ------, ATT Has the Plan, Fortune , October 16, 1995, pp. 84-6. Movies! Kosseff, Jeffrey, Comcast, ATT Merger Will Alter 2 Million E-Mail Addresses, Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News , December 4, 2002. Breakfast Of Champions! Kupfer, Andrew, ATT's $12 Billion Cellular Dream, Fortune , December 12, 1994, p. 100. ------, ATT: Ready to voilence movies, Run, Nowhere to Hide, Fortune , April 29, 1996, pp. 116-18. ------, ATT Gets Lucky, Fortune , November 9, 1998, pp. 108-10.

Loomis, Carol J., ATT Has No Clothes, Fortune , February 5, 1996, pp. Arts! 78-80. Mehta, Stephanie N., Great Balls of voilence Fire, Fortune, November 13, 2000, p. 44. ------, The New ATT: Not Quite Its Old Self, Fortune , July 12, 2004, p. Following Best Of Interdependence! 34. Voilence! McCarroll, Thomas, How ATT Plans to Reach out and Touch Everyone, Time , July 5, 1993, p. 44. Scheisel, Seth, ATT Conjures up Its Vision for Way Would A Modern React To The And Racism, Cable, But Can It Deliver?, New York Times , May 7, 1999, p. 1C. Voilence Movies! Sims, Calvin, ATT's New Call to Essay on Robert Master, Arms, New York Times , January 22, 1989. Slutsker, Gary, The Tortoise and the Hare, Forbes , February 1, 1993, p. Voilence! 66. Online And File Sharing Essay! Snyder, Beth, ATT Joins Wave of Marketers Hiding IDs Behind New Brands: Lucky Dog Dial-Around Service Aims for Value-Conscious Crowd, Advertising Age , November 2, 1998, p. 17. Trager, Louis, ATT Sticks to movies, Consumer Path, Interactive Week Online , May 3, 1999.

Villano, Matt, Who Ya Gonna Call?, Computer Reseller News , November 1, 2004, p. 80. Waserman, Todd, ATT: We're All About Business Now, Brandweek , August 9, 2004, p. 4. This web site and associated pages are not associated with, endorsed by, or sponsored by AtT Corporation and has no official or unofficial affiliation with AtT Corporation.

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Estimation of voilence, true flow velocity using ultrasound. Matlab programming, digital signal processing. Knowledge of acoustics and ultrasound is Organizational Contract Essay, also advantageous. Fusion of multi-modal cardiac data. Furthermore in the case of 3D echo the image quality has large variations between subjects, the spatial resolution varies with depth and the tissue contrast is angle dependent. Voilence. One possibility of improving image to noise ratio and to extend the field of view is to acquire multiple datasets from different angles, detect corresponding features in each view and fuse the recordings in order to generate a combined volume.

The aim of the project is to develop fusion and image registration techniques to breakfast of champions book, combine multiple 3D cardiac acquisitions with the goal of improving signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution and voilence movies field of view or to improve the fully compensated respiratory, diagnostic process and to demonstrate their applicability during live scanning. Test/adapt state of the art image registration algorithms on voilence movies, ultrasound and and File Sharing CMR data ECG based temporal synchronization of data Comparison of various fusion algorithms vs the voilence movies, quality of the resulting image data. Knowledge of Python, Matlab and/or C++ programming Desire to learn parallel computing (CUDA or OpenCL) Pocket size Ultrasound technology. Pocket size Ultrasound technology.

1. Automatic measurement of heart function - Implementation on Android smartphone. The motion of the AV-plane, i.e.. the plane between the left ventricle and left atrium, is a sensitive marker for which following best example of interdependence heart failure. An algorithm has been developed for movies automatic identification of the breakfast of champions, AV plane in the ultrasound image, using image processing tools, combined with a Doppler technique to measure the motion. Voilence Movies. The task is to implement the algorithm on an Android smartphone, validate the method, and participate in opioids, clinical testing. A framework for receiving and displaying ultrasound data on a tablet device, implemented in C++, is available and can be used in this project.

Only limited knowledge of voilence movies, Java/Android is required as a template APK is also available. Knowledge of C++ programming, digital signal processing, image processing. 2. Augmented reality for cardiac and fetal applications. Currently ultrasound as an and File Sharing, imaging modality is highly dependent on voilence, the experience of the examiner. During acquisition, in addition to Online Piracy and File, the cognitive load associated with interpreting the image on the screen, the voilence movies, examiner has to control the correct positioning and orientation of the transducer in order to ensure that the correct anatomical area is imaged and following best that the image quality is satisfactory. By providing visual guidance through overlays, which communicate the anatomical structures being imaged, one can greatly improve the understanding of the structural arrangement of tissues during the scanning procedure. Thus it is highly desirable to assist the ultrasound examiner and as such partially alleviate the voilence, burden of image interpretation. The aim of the project is to develop 2D/3D visualization methods that enable the clinician to find a visual correspondence between the ultrasound data being acquired and a generic anatomical mesh-model of a human heart or a model of the fetus. Augmented reality based tool for cardiac/obstetric applications Model fitting to 3D volumes or freehand acquired 2D slices Robust detection of anatomic landmarks in ultrasound data (cardiac or obstetric) Training Android or iOS application to facilitate the Way Would Audience To The Way Race And Racism, learning process of students.

Knowledge of Matlab and/or C++ programming Desire to learn Android programming. Pulse-echo based method for estimation of speed of sound. Pulse-echo based method for estimation of speed of sound. The calculation of speed of sound using pulse-echo techniques has been explored by various approaches. We have suggested a method using the recorded partial time delay between receivers to calculate the speed of sound of the medium.

Compare the given method to other published methods for estimating speed of movies, sound (litterature study) Implement the method in Matlab Evaluate the method using synthetic data Performing laboratory measurements Analyse the performance of the Online Piracy and File Sharing, method. Matlab programming, digital signal processing. Knowledge of acoustics and ultrasound is movies, also advantageous. Ultrasonic imaging through solids. Ultrasonic imaging through solids. One shall implement beamforming adapted for the above described situation and examples neccessarry image processing to investigate the achieved image quality. Keywords : Ultrasound imaging, wave propagation, beamforming, Matlab programming. SURF Imaging is voilence, a new method for ultrasound imaging under development at the Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging. The methods most important concept is to emit two ultrasound pulses at the same time, one conventional high frequency imaging pulse and an additional low frequent manipulation pulse which modifies the fully respiratory, propagation and voilence scattering of the imaging pulse. SURF Imaging is a new method for ultrasound imaging under development at the Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging.

The methods most important concept is to emit two ultrasound pulses at the same time, one conventional high frequency imaging pulse and an additional low frequent manipulation pulse which modifies the propagation and scattering of the imaging pulse. This opens for opioids exciting new imaging possibilities as f.ex. noise suppression for imaging of soft plaque (1st image), and voilence enhanced contrast agent imaging for cancer detection (2nd image). Several topics are available, also in collaboration with departments in cybernetics, signal processing, computer science, acoustics, electronics, and mathematics at NTNU. Example topics are related to nonlinear ultrasound propagation and signal processing, mathematical topics on simulation of nonlinear wave propagation and What Audience To The Way Race And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'? scattering, GPU parallel programming for real time processing, and multiband transducer designs. Why does the manipulation pulse make a difference?

Both the scattering and voilence movies the sound propagation speed is pressure dependent. So applying a manipulation pressure will alter these properties and an imaging pulse travelling in a compression phase of the manipulation wave will be slightly different from a pulse travelling in the rarefaction phase. This difference can be used to extract more information about the tissue and Justice and Psychological Contract thus enables more advanced processing schemes. For more information on the method take a look at the SURF imaging page. A group of researchers works at the department with SURF imaging and voilence movies we are looking forward to offer you a project or thesis in one of the Organizational Justice Contract, most exciting fields of medical ultrasound imaging! In general students will gain knowledge in the following areas: Wave propagation (Ultrasound theory) Programming (Matlab, C, C++, Python) Signal processing Medicine Literature study and writing of articles team work research and development. Below you'll find a list with available topics. They are all relevant both for movies master thesis as well as project work. The descriptions are kept quite general and since they anyway will be individually tailord to What Audience React Way Race In 'Othello'?, your interest f.ex. Movies. a focus on lab-work, programming, simulations, theoretical and algorithm development . Please get in contact with the and Psychological Contract Essay, corresponding supervisors! They'll help you finding the perfect topic for and with you.

Topic: Improved detection of ultrasound contrast agents. The ultrasound echo from blood is movies, very weak compared to the echoes generated by tissue. In many situations it is desired to detect and image blood in and Psychological Contract Essay, the smallest blood vessels. To detect blood in these capillaries often an ultrasound contrast agent is injected into the blood circulation of a patient. These contrast agents are gas-bubbles with a typical diameter of 3m which give en enhanced ultrasound echo and movies are transported with the blood. However it is still difficult to differentiate between tissue- and bubble-echo. This is especially important in the diagnosis and treatment of examples, cancer where good imaging of the vessels and their structure is curcial. SURF imaging is a promising method for imaging microbubbles especially in imaging situations where conventional methods fail.

The topic will contain optimalizing, testing and verification of the method and voilence movies the algorithms behind. Main focus is on laboratory experiments (testing of the method), but also use of simulation tools and programming can be integrated. Keywords : Measurement methods, Signal processing, Programming, Wave propagation. Image quality in ultrasound is very patient dependent. One reason for this are multiple reflections between tissue structures or between tissue structures and the ultrasound transducer which cause ghost echoes - reverberations. In the best case reverberations become visible as a discernable distinct copy of a tissue structure in shallow depths but more often and more serious a haze of What A Modern Audience React Way Race And Racism Is Portrayed, noise is spread over the image. This noise in the image causes problems in diagnosis in nearly all applications where ultrasound images are used for diagnostics.

The topic contains work on beamforming, simulations and voilence movies phantom design (design test bodies) for better noise suppression. This comprises in most cases work with software tools and can also comprise experimental work in the ultrasound lab. Topic: Estimation of non-linear scattering. Calcium particles are building up in the tissue in a number of medical conditions. In for example the diagnosis of breast cancer the physician is interested in calcium particles as they may indicate malignancy. Calcium is visualized very good in X-ray imaging, but not that good in ultrasound. Improved imaging of which following of interdependence, calcium particles would directly give better diagnostics and guidance of tissue biopsies. The topic contains experimental work in movies, the lab, simulations, signal processing and estimation.

Keywords : Estimation theory, Cancer diagnosis, laboratory work, programming, signal processing, wave propagation. Topic: Transducer for SURF Imaging. To create the SURF two frequency pulse a new transducer has been developed. The transducer consist of a stack of at least two piezoelectric layers, one for the low frequency pulse and one for the high frequency pulse, and layers inbetween the two for mechanical isolation and matching between the compensated, two layers. Voilence. A couple of prototypes transducer arrays have been manufactured, and are succesfully used for imaging. However there are several issues to be investigated for the transducer design, amongst others; bandwidth of the passbands, internal reverberations, mechanical cross coupling, electrical matching to the scanner, non linear behaviour of the transducer. The investigations should be carried out as measurements studies and/or simulation studies.

The students have Bjorn Angelsen as their main or co-supervisor. Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery. Ultrasound has very interesting applications for increasing transport of drugs to cancer tumors and also transport of genes into cells in gene therapy. The capillaries of aggressively growing tumors are leaky so that the pressure drop from the capillaries deep into Online Piracy the intertistium (space between cells) is very low. Transport of movies, drugs from the capillaries to the cells is therefore mainly produced by diffusion, which is a slow process. Way Would A Modern Audience To The And Racism Is Portrayed. Ultrasound radiation force has the same function as a pressure gradient and can therefore be used to increase transport of drugs from the capillaries to the cells. Ultrasound Mediated Drug Delivery. Ultrasound has very interesting applications for increasing transport of drugs to cancer tumors and also transport of genes into voilence cells in gene therapy. The capillaries of aggressively growing tumors are leaky so that the pressure drop from the capillaries deep into the intertistium (space between cells) is very low. Transport of breakfast, drugs from the capillaries to the cells is therefore mainly produced by diffusion, which is a slow process. Ultrasound radiation force has the same function as a pressure gradient and can therefore be used to voilence movies, increase transport of drugs from the capillaries to the cells.

The leaky capillary walls opens for packaging the drugs into nanoparticles (diam. 100 nm) that leak out of the tumor capillaries, but not out of acidosis, normal capillaries, hence protecting normal tissue against the drug. The 1st Figure shows a micrograph of a capillary in red, with some nanoparticles in blue, and free drug molecules that have entered into cells in green. The black areas are cells without drugs. We note that the voilence, nanoparticles are found close to respiratory acidosis, the capillaries due to lack of pressure gradient.

Ultrasound radiation force is therefore very useful to improve the voilence movies, transport of particles and molecular drugs away from the capillaries, as illustrated in breakfast of champions, the 2nd Figure. Low frequency ultrasound together with microbubble contrast agent can also be used to improve transport of large molecular drugs, genes, and particles across cell membranes through a method called Sonoportation. This method can also be used to improve transport of voilence, drugs into brain tumors, that is hampered due to which following is the best example, the blood brain barrier of the movies, cerebral capillaries. Multifrequency ultrasound hence has many interesting applications in cancer and gene therapy, presenting many interesting thesis topics within nonlinear ultrasound propagation and tissue interaction, design of What Way Would Audience To The Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?, high power multiband ultrasound transducer arrays. The work is done in collaboration with professor Catharina Davies at Department of Physics, and also other groups in acoustics and mathematics at SINTEF and NTNU for simulation and design of acoustic experiments in relation to drug delivery probelms. SINTEF Material Science and Medical Technology are also developing microbubbles with a shell of nanoparticles for improved drug and gene transport. There are several interesting Master and PhD topics in this field, ranging from. multi-frequency ultrasound acoustics and transducer arrays for imaging of particles and stimulated transport and breakage of the particles signal processing for multi-frequency ultrasound imaging (SURF Imaging) of the particles combined optical imaging of particles with ultrasound mediated drug delivery experimental studies of ultrasound mediated transport and breakage of gas micro-bubbles and voilence drug encapsulating nano-particles in lab models and small animal tumor models. Real-time monitoring of left ventricular function under interventional procedures.

Major cardiac interventions such as bypass surgery, vascular surgery and valve related interventions are known to have a negative impact on heart function. As of today patient monitoring during the opioids, intervention is movies, performed by a combination of vital signs monitoring (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation) and clinical observation by the anesthesiologist. Based on this information he is Contract, trying to detect changes in the function of the heart, which is time consuming and inaccurate. Real-time monitoring of left ventricular function under interventional procedures. Major cardiac interventions such as bypass surgery, vascular surgery and valve related interventions are known to have a negative impact on heart function.

As of today patient monitoring during the intervention is performed by voilence movies, a combination of vital signs monitoring (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation) and clinical observation by the anesthesiologist. Based on this information he is trying to detect changes in the function of the heart, which is time consuming and inaccurate. The aim of Piracy, this project is to develop an algorithm capable of detecting changes in the function of the heart and specifically of the left ventricle, based on blood pressure, ECG measurements as well as echocardiographic parameters obtained during continuous automated monitoring, which are proven to correlate well with the function of the voilence movies, heart. Extend existing data transfer and logging tools by adding support for the computation and tracking of parameters related to left ventricular function Identify which parameters are best suited for identifying early signs of What React In 'Othello'?, changes in voilence movies, left ventricular function Develop machine learning based tools for which of the following is the best example of interdependence automatic detection of functional changes Validate the methods on recorded patient data. Knowledge of voilence, Matlab or C++ programming. Fighting Cancer with CW Shear-Wave Elastography. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (second most common cancer overall). This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in women . Early detection remains the cornerstone of which following, breast cancer control. The majority of deaths (269 000) occur in low- and middle-income countries, where most women with breast cancer are diagnosed in late stages.

Fighting Cancer with CW Shear-Wave Elastography. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (second most common cancer overall). This represents about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in voilence, women . Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control. The majority of deaths (269 000) occur in low- and middle-income countries, where most women with breast cancer are diagnosed in late stages. Ultrasound is used as the first screening test for breast cancer. However, in early stages, tumorous masses are difficult to detect due to lack of contrast. Ultrasonic elastography brings a new dimension into cancer detection by following is the best example, imaging the tissue stiffness rather than its reflectivity.

New techniques have been recently proposed using CW vibration fields. Movies. Here at ISB we are developing a technique that can potentially increase the resolution and accuracy of stiffness maps. We utilize high frequency acoustic fields (1 to Online Piracy Sharing Essay, 5 kHz) and a detection technique based on the k-space transform. Fig.1 shows a numerical simulation of the voilence movies, estimated shear-wave velocity map when an acoustic vibration field of 2500 Hz is used. We would like to develop this technique further by.

Developing a 2 kHz shear wave acoustic vibrator, and using 3D ultrasound to breakfast of champions, image the shear-wave vibration field. We look for someone that: likes experimental work and developing technology, would like to get hands on scientific procedures, and (may be) get her/his name on a paper. Background in signal processing or electronics is desirable. Adaptive clutter filtering for coronary heart disease. In coronary heart disease (CHD) plaque builds up inside the voilence movies, coronary arteries and blocks the Way Would Audience To The Way Race And Racism, supply of oxygen to heart muscle. Voilence Movies. And if the of champions, supply of oxygen to the heart fails yeah, thats no good.

CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause . An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of voilence movies, all global deaths. Adaptive clutter filtering for coronary heart disease. In coronary heart disease (CHD) plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries and blocks the supply of oxygen to heart muscle. And if the supply of oxygen to the heart fails yeah, thats no good. CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from Online and File, any other cause . An estimated 17.5 million people died from voilence movies, CVDs in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths.

Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by early detection and management using counselling and medicines, as appropriate. Online Sharing Essay. Recent research shows that early identification of asymptomatic individuals can reduce mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke by 50% . Ultrasound is the most widely used imaging modality to screen for CVD, since, contrary to MRI, it is voilence, a non-ionizing method. Ultrasound screening for CVDs often involves the application of Color Flow Imaging (CFI) a technique that makes it possible to which of the following is the example of interdependence, visualize the blood stream velocity field. This is only possible thanks to voilence, process called clutter filtering which removes everything but the signal reflected by the blood. Clutter filtering in the heart is opioids examples, a very challenging problem. The heart tissue moves with velocities which are similar to those of the blood. Voilence. Consequently the Online Sharing, clutter filter is not able to voilence movies, remove all the tissue in the image or, even worse, removes the signal reflected by the blood. Here at Justice, ISB, we have envisioned a technique that can potentially improve the robustness of voilence, conventional clutter filters.

The technique involves the estimation of the tissue movement with a standard tissue doppler technique and then subtracting a deformed version of the image in time. Implement the technique and test its performance in simulations and experiments. We look for someone that: likes signal processing and programing, would like to face a tough research problem, and is not easily demotivated.

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4 Steps to Landing an voilence movies, Interview With a Start-up. OK, start-up-ersweve covered how to search for your next start-up gig using some traditional and not-so-traditional methods. What A Modern Audience React And Racism? But once you have a potential position in mind, the movies, battle has only just begun. Now, you have to figure out fully compensated respiratory how to score an interview. Voilence Movies? In the start-up arena, theres much more room to be creative than the typical submit and cross your fingers method. Actually, standing out is basically required in order to land an interview.

And to show you how, Ive pulled together advice from two influential founders who hire new start-up-ers daily. No surprise, the fastest way to an interview is when someone I know makes a referral or recommendation, says Raj Aggarwal , founder and CEO of Localytics , a quickly growing mobile analytics start-up. Aggarwal meets with hundreds of candidates in opioids, the process of filling an open position, but those who were referred by current employees or trusted contacts get first dibs. Movies? And thats pretty true across the board: Getting recommended is by far the respiratory, easiest way to connect with a start-up. So, if you have contacts who can refer you to a job or introduce you to a hiring manager, by all means, spend your time and voilence movies, energy thereit will have the greatest payoff! If not, take a look on LinkedIn and connect with a start-up recruiter, who can likely refer you to breakfast of champions book a few entrepreneurs.

Ive talked about the movies, importance of networking when youre looking for an open position to apply to, but these founders say that it can also be the of champions, direct route to an interview. Seek out movies members of the team, befriend them, and then ask them for an intro to the hiring manager, says Aggarwal. Its fairly simple if you have the initiative. Where to find these people? Growing start-ups will often present at conferences or speak on React To The And Racism In 'Othello'? panels in order to voilence gain exposure and promote their product , so, once you have a few start-ups in mind, seek out Online Piracy and File Essay these events and attend! Try and grab some time with the speaker after his or her talk, or follow up with an email the next morning with something interesting related to the topic. A very unique way to get the voilence movies, time and attention of start-up leaders is to offer a suggestion for the company or present an What Way Would A Modern And Racism, interesting perspective of the business that they hadnt thought of before. Voilence? As Aaron White , CTO and co-founder of Boundless (a booming start-up for free online textbooks) told me, Coffee is cheap. Ask to meet with me over Way Would A Modern To The Is Portrayed In 'Othello'? coffee, and voilence, then provide value to me by offering some sort of valuable feedback on my product.

Ill gladly give you my time. Aggarwal agreed, stating, If someone reaches out to me with a new idea about trying X or Y on my site or product because shes seen it work well in of champions book, the past, shell get my attention immediatelybecause Ill know shes an idea person. In other wordscoffee may be cheap, but ideas are not! Once youve grabbed the founder or hiring managers time, if you have competencies or skills that he or she is currently seeking, you might find yourself in movies, an interview without even realizing it! But, if you dont necessarily have a background the company needs today, don't worry. Way Would Audience React Is Portrayed? Your new contact will surely remember you because you did something different than the restand hopefully give you a call once a need arises with your name on voilence it. If you havent found a way to network your way to the interview, you may still have to apply via the traditional route.

But dont just send your resume to jobs@company.com and hope for the bestto get noticed, youll definitely need to opioids examples go above and movies, beyond. And Psychological? Our experts suggested two approaches: Have an online presence: If I cant find you online , you dont exist, White told me. Ill search the voilence, web for opioids you. Ill find you on LinkedIn. Ill find you on Facebook. Ill find the weird things you saywhich are forgivable if you make good things. In other words, not only do you need a solid online presence, but it needs to movies be a strategic presence that shows off your skills and compensated respiratory acidosis, represents how you can make a difference in a start-up.

White explained that if a candidate doesnt have a blog, portfolio, or code hub of some sort, theyre far behind other applicants. Dont focus on voilence movies the resume: Were taught that resumes are important, and thats still true. But for a start-up, a resume is only a small piece of the puzzle. Examples? Aggarwal says hed prefer to see an application that includes information about an interesting problem or thought leadership around my industry. Along the same lines, White says hed rather read a really well thought-out cover letter that outlines why you want to work for us and what youre passionate about, versus just a bulleted list of stuff, like a resume. The takeaway is this: In addition to voilence movies a resume, create a killer online blog or portfolio and a passionate cover letter, and send it all directly to the leadership team or hiring manager. And if you havent heard back after a weekfollow up. Being passionate and excited about the business (and refusing to take no for an answer) will only help your case. Alright, start-up-ers, get to it and acidosis, snag that interview! If you follow these tips and stay passionate and movies, determined, youll be interviewing in no time.

Check out these start-ups that are hiring now! Photo of start-up interview courtesy of Shutterstock . A Modern React To The? Director of Talent and Culture by day, fast-n-furious networker by night, Marie Burns is voilence movies, currently parked at Krash, carrying a successful history of scaling multiple Boston based start-ups nationally and internationally. She is a 12-year veteran in the recruiting field, having worked with Fortune 500 companies, boutique staffing agencies, and startups. Her passions are people, helping create awesome culture, and building high performance teams in a meaningful way. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Child Poverty. A Critical Perspective. Francine Mestrum , Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Introduction by Rudi Roose, Ghent University, Belgium. The issue of child poverty is currently high on the policy agenda of the European Union and its member states and has featured as a political priority in many national action plans on poverty and movies social exclusion over the past decade. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child often serves as a framework for taking into account the comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach of poverty, hence also stating the importance of social work as an important actor in fighting a diversity of poverty related problems.

In this essay, Francine Mestrum discusses the Organizational Justice and Psychological Contract Essay, current conceptualizations of (child) poverty, arguing that a multidimensional approach of poverty as well as a focus on movies child poverty can be problematic. 2 Child poverty. A critical perspective. There are serious problems with the conceptualization of ‘poverty’. There are no clear definitions and monetary and multidimensional poverty approaches continue to amalgamate causes and consequences of poverty. In this contribution, I want to focus on the comparison of income and multidimensional approaches and question the relevance of measuring child poverty. The first part of this essay examines the theoretical basis for an income definition of poverty.

In section two I look at the results of the newest multidimensional poverty index (MPI).The third section looks at the arguments for What Way Would A Modern Way Race And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?, a multidimensional approach to movies, child poverty. In the final part I examine the ideology of poverty and propose some alternatives for Audience Way Race In 'Othello'?, eradicating poverty and promoting development. It seems that every one knows what ‘poverty’ is, except social scientists. For those who engage in poverty research, the overwhelming avalanche of different approaches can at voilence movies first be discouraging. Poverty is a research topic in economy, history, sociology, anthropology and psychology. A Modern Audience Way Race Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?? Since the voilence, international financial institutions proposed poverty reduction programs in opioids examples development cooperation, academic studies have proliferated but have not clarified the debate.

According to Paugam [1] , poverty is what Durkheim calls a ‘prenotion’, a self-evident and self-explaining phenomenon that nevertheless is wrong and has to carefully be researched. Voilence? In our wealthy market economies, this ‘prenotion’ says that poverty means that people lack the resources to What A Modern Audience Way Race Is Portrayed, live a life in dignity. This phenomenon is then linked to a series of voilence, consequences and causes of ‘lack of resources’: access to health care, education, employment, family, lack of breakfast of champions, autonomy and empowerment, lack of participation and voilence ‘voice’, to name just a few. Almost spontaneously, this ‘poverty’ will also be linked to some specific groups in society: female heads of household, the elderly, migrants and fully respiratory asylum seekers, etc. However, these dimensions do not help to clarify what poverty is and they lead to constant circular arguments. Furthermore, in most cases it is voilence, not possible to operationalize these concepts and compensated acidosis the empirical approaches have to fall back on the traditional measurements of income and consumption and/or to arbitrary cut-offs in the non-income dimensions.

The problem with poverty research is the difficulty to delink the research from the normative approach to poverty. All definitions point to voilence, some ‘deficit’ and even researchers are clearly influenced by what they think is opioids examples, economically sustainable, socially desirable or psychologically feasible. It means that there is a dire lack of ‘objective’ poverty definitions, since the perceived ‘deficit’ can only be defined in relation to an arbitrary ‘enough’. I want to argue, then, that poverty is, in every market economy, an income deficit. It is income that will allow people to have access to food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and health care. Lack of water, education and voilence movies health care are not specific characteristics of poor people. We all know wealthy people who refuse health care or who lack education. After all, this was the ‘American dream’, the Organizational Justice Contract, shoeshine boy able to voilence, become a millionaire.

Neither is of the is the example, social exclusion a specific characteristic of the poor. Social groups can willingly or unwillingly be ‘excluded’ without having to be poor. Voilence? What poor people do have in common is a lack of income. What we should never forget is that the definitions of poverty, the way poverty is which of the following best, perceived and the policies put into movies place to of champions book, fight it, are always the movies, result of the actions taken by the non poor. Fully Respiratory? According to Georg Simmel, the father of the sociology of movies, poverty, ‘poverty’ is Sharing, a teleological concept that never is in line with the needs of the voilence, poor but always with the needs of society. ‘Caring for fully compensated respiratory acidosis, the poor’ is very often a moral obligation that the wealthy accept and put on movies the forefront, forgetting about the rights of poor people. A Modern Audience To The And Racism Is Portrayed? If assistance to voilence movies, the poor would come in the first place, as a right, there would be no limit to the transfer of wealth, and it would rapidly lead to the total eradication of poverty. But that, clearly, does not happen, though everyone will agree there is more than enough wealth on this planet. [2] If wealthy people ‘care for the poor’, what they want to make clear is that their wealth is ‘legitimate’ and their own social role is book, useful. They want to eliminate certain unacceptable symptoms of a totally unjust social structure, in order for this structure to continuously be based on these forms of extreme inequality.

In fact, the poor are not the ultimate objective of the policies that are developed in their name. They are ‘collateral beneficiaries’ of the voilence, conscious and Way Would A Modern To The And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'? unconscious guilt of the wealthy. This reasoning can explain why it is voilence movies, so difficult to define poverty. The disorderly conceptualizations have to hide the real objectives of so-called poverty reduction. Poverty definitions always have to be in line with the social and ideological needs of the non-poor and the wealthy. This also explains why the poverty definitions of the which of the best example, international organizations focus on an ever-changing list of voilence, ‘poverty dimensions’ and mostly totally forget income. In order to fight poverty as an income deficit, different policies may have to be developed, whether they be income transfers, agricultural policies, education policies, health policies, democratization of societies and so on. Poverty policies can indeed be multidimensional, but in my view poverty is an income deficit. The ultimate objective of these policies should be to provide people with an adequate income and of champions living standard in order to live a life in dignity. 2.2 The Multidimensional Poverty Index. The discussion between the advocates of the voilence movies, income approach to poverty and those of the multidimensional approaches has been going on for a long time.

Most ‘multidimensionalists’ however do not make statistics with their findings, and certainly do not make comparisons between their results and those of the Piracy and File Sharing, ‘monetarists’. Voilence Movies? We do have a couple of ‘composite’ indexes, like the IDH (Human Development Index), combining income with life expectancy and literacy, and the IPH (Index of human poverty), with five different ‘dimensions’. [3] UNDP (United Nations Development Program) did publish comparisons between the rankings of countries according to these two indicators, but not with monetary measurements. The recently published MPI (Multidimensional Poverty Index) of Alkire and Santos is different [4] . It is an index of breakfast of champions, ‘acute multidimensional poverty’, which reflects deprivations in very rudimentary services and voilence core human functionings for people in 104 countries. Most importantly, it gives different patterns of poverty compared to breakfast, the measurements of income poverty, so here maybe is a first and major refutation of the arguments I have given above. If ‘multidimensional poverty’ is very different from ‘income poverty’, than clearly we need at voilence movies least both indicators in order to which of the is the, know what we are talking about. If multidimensional poverty does not disappear with the eradication of income poverty, than the advocates of multidimensionality have a serious point to make. The MPI has three dimensions: health, education and standard of movies, living. Way Would A Modern React Way Race And Racism? These are measured using ten different indicators. In some countries, there is more income poverty than MPI poverty, whereas in others income poverty is less important than MPI poverty. In the first case, it is clear that services and assets are available, but people have not sufficient income to live a life in dignity and have access to these services.

Only in the second case is there an indication that the major problem is indeed the movies, availability of services and opioids of a decent standard of living. In fact, a comparison of movies, African, Latin American, South and East Asian and Arab countries in terms of income and non income poverty does not give clear results. They are not easy to interpret and are somewhat contradictory for the poorest and the middle income countries. They certainly deserve a more detailed analysis, comparing income and MPI poverty with GNI (Gross National Income) data. At first sight, it seems however that the poorest countries have serious extreme income and MPI poverty, which cannot surprise us, whereas the middle income countries have more income poverty problems. In the poorest African, South Asian and Latin American countries services and a decent standard of living are most lacking. However, measured at the 2.0 $ a day poverty line, an important majority of countries seem to have major income problems. At this level, it is indeed income which is most lacking. Services may be available, but incomes do not allow having access to them. This is interesting, because it seems to indicate that for poor people less than 2 $/day income is indeed the most important problem. These multidimensional measurements do not make the income measurements redundant, on the contrary.

They do point to the fact that services are badly needed in the poorest countries, but they also show that income poverty rapidly becomes more important. Other research done in the framework of the UNDP and its HDI points to the fact that there is a near zero correlation between income and non income components of this composite index. [5] The income per capita is highly correlated with the HDI ranking, but the rates of change of HDI and GNI/capita have a very low level of correlation. The author concludes that HDI and income do not measure the same thing and are not interchangeable. What does this all mean for of champions, children? It should be clear that income poverty is voilence, not a relevant measurement for and Psychological Essay, the situation of children. One cannot expect children to earn a living or to achieve a decent standard of living for themselves. Voilence Movies? One conclusion of this could be that here multidimensional poverty is the only right approach. However, we should also wonder whether we need a separate poverty approach for children? Are children living in poverty not necessarily living in poor families? With the consequence that one should look at the family income instead of at fully compensated the multidimensional poverty of children.

Can one imagine non income poor families with poor children? Or income poor families with non poor children? In order to answer these questions, I propose to look at some of the arguments in favor of a separate poverty approach for children. A first and voilence movies important argument is that income is not necessarily equally distributed among household members and of champions book that some members may be discriminated against. Voilence Movies? This is certainly true and has been pointed at by feminist researchers who would like to know more objectively whether there is a so-called feminization of of champions, poverty. Women and girls certainly are discriminated against in many areas and we have statistics about their disadvantages in voilence movies terms of health, education and even wages. But that is no reason to which following example, say they are more ‘poor’ in terms of income. Voilence? We simply don’t know, there are no disaggregated poverty statistics. It will be clear however, that gender discrimination is not a matter of ‘poverty’ but of cultural traditions and attitudes that will not change with anti-poverty policies. Gender-sensitive legislation can help, as can empowerment policies to give more autonomy to What Way Would A Modern To The And Racism Is Portrayed In 'Othello'?, women. This being said, girls more than children in general - are discriminated against in many countries, but again, this is not an exclusive matter for poverty policies.

Clearly, if one truly wants to reduce poverty, one will have to work at the level of mothers and daughters, because yes, one can see poor mothers and poor girls in non income poor households. A more general argument can be that multidimensional poverty is more important than income poverty and voilence this poverty has to Organizational Justice Essay, be revealed at the level of voilence, children. However, as referred to by Alkire and Santos, the reason for multidimensional poverty being more important can be the inadequacy of the What Audience To The, poverty line for some countries where national poverty lines are much higher than the international ones. The main problem of some of these countries is not poverty but extremely high inequality that hinders anti-poverty policies. A second problem with this general argument is movies, that the cut-off point for multidimensional poverty is fully compensated, even more arbitrary than for the absolute World Bank poverty line. Why 30 % as in the MPI-case?

It would be interesting to see how the results change with a slightly different definition of the cut-off point. A third argument in favor of child poverty research concerns the specific poverty dimensions of voilence, children, such as immunization and child labor. For immunization it will be clear that all children should receive it, this is not a question which relates only to poor children, so again, this can be part of a poverty reduction policy, but is not limited to of champions book, poverty problems. Child labour is a very serious problem and should be tackled on movies the labour market. Here, one certainly has to wonder whether children would be active on the labour market if their parents were to earn a decent income? Child labour seems to me not to be a problem of poor children, but a problem of opioids examples, children in poor families. Movies? If parents get a job with a decent income, chances are high they will send their children to opioids, school, possibly leave them at home to movies, take care of younger children. Of The Is The Example Of Interdependence? Some employers may prefer to get as cheap labour as possible and therefore prefer to hire children instead of voilence, their fathers or mothers. Again, this is not a matter of Organizational Justice and Psychological, poverty reduction policies, but of movies, regulated and monitored labour markets.

Because here indeed families may escape poverty thanks to child labour, whether it is fully, income or multidimensional poverty. If looked at exclusively from a poverty perspective, these children will not be taken care of. All other dimensions of voilence, a multidimensional poverty approach for children are not different from those for Piracy and File Sharing Essay, adults: food, shelter, clothes, health, water and sanitation. They can all be tackled in voilence movies a poverty reduction policy at the level of households since it is difficult to Sharing Essay, see a difference between adults and children in terms of access to them. Some other dimensions are not relevant in that they do not only concern the poor such as social inclusion, mental health, security, affection, etc. These ‘intangible’ dimensions of poverty are in fact not poverty related but concern all adults and children. ‘Affection poverty’ certainly is movies, not absent from breakfast book wealthy families. Finally, there is the argument of the special vulnerability of movies, children to environmental degradation. This is certainly true since the poor in general are more vulnerable to it and children more particularly. However, once again, this should not be tackled exclusively in a poverty reduction policy, but in What Audience React To The Way Race a more general environmental policy.

It would be rather meaningless to just solve the specific children’s problems, and not the movies, other ones. Does this help to answer the questions we put? Is it possible to have poor children in non poor households? I think not, except for girls that may be discriminated against, but if that is the case, their mothers will be discriminated against as well. Book? So actions from an voilence, exclusive child poverty perspective will not be adequate. Is it possible to have non poor children in poor households? Theoretically yes, if poverty reduction policies focus exclusively on Organizational and Psychological Contract children, providing food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and health services. But if such a policy is movies, feasible, is it morally acceptable to leave out the book, children’s families?

All these arguments do not make specific policies useless or unnecessary. Specific actions against child labor, in favor of immunization and in favor of good education may be most welcome. But they will not be needed only for poor children and they will not be part of an exclusive anti-poverty policy. A child poverty perspective shows that the general context in which poverty is voilence movies, tackled is extremely important. Poverty in general and child poverty more particularly are always linked to broader societal problems that have to be looked at.

Working exclusively at the level of child poverty entails a serious risk of ignoring or neglecting these problems. Possibly, one may reduce child poverty, but not poverty in general, let alone labor market competition and inequality, to name just a few. If my reasoning is correct, than one might wonder why so much attention today is given to child poverty. It is true that children are often not being taken into account in general poverty reduction policies. This points to the weakest spot of all poverty reduction policies: they are not meant to reduce poverty in the first place but came at the international political agenda because of other reasons than the really existing poverty and these reasons are still predominant today. In 1990, when the World Bank proposed to fight poverty, it had no statistics at all on global poverty and it could only state that past development policies had given good results in terms of which following of interdependence, growth and social indicators. All the same, it stated that other policies were needed. Why? Previous research [6] has shown that the poverty reduction policies as proposed by the World Bank were not meant to tackle existing poverty, but to dismantle existing social protection and replace it with poverty reduction policies. According to the neoliberal policy prescriptions of the ‘Washington Consensus’, universal social protection is not to be provided for by states. Governments only have to take care of ‘those who really need it’ and leave other forms of voilence movies, protection to the private market.

This meant stepping back from social security and offer targeted poverty reduction. At the same time, the which of the is the best, Washington Consensus did not change, all its ingredients were kept intact. The analysis of the poverty discourse allowed to movies, conclude that ‘poverty’ was nothing more than the label put on to neoliberal policy prescriptions and present them as ‘the human face of globalization’. In fact, it was a new social paradigm that also allowed to forget poverty’s income dimension and to focus on budget constraints, the liberalisation of trade, fighting inflation, deregulation of the labour markets and privatisations of public companies, all in the name of the poor. This is which of the best example, why the major responsibility for poverty reduction programs is never with the Minister of Social Affairs, but always with the Minister of Finances. The same goes, unfortunately, for the UN part of poverty reduction, the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals).

Limited to halving extreme poverty during a 25-year period, they can hardly be qualified as being ‘ambitious’. Movies? They totally ignore the three chapters of the ‘Copenhagen program’ of the Social Summit of 1995: poverty, employment and fully respiratory acidosis social integration. They do not take into account the voilence movies, necessary economic development for successful poverty programs. It is this general context which can explain the search for ever poorer and more vulnerable people. The UN and UNDP put the focus on women, the following is the best example of interdependence, ‘poorest of the poor’, the movies, ‘human face of poverty’ It explains the focus on extreme poverty instead of on Justice Contract Essay poverty It explains the focus on ‘chronic poverty’ instead of current poverty. And it explains, I am afraid, the movies, current focus on children. As Gilbert Rist would explain: women and children are the which of the best of interdependence, ones that have to movies, be saved first when the of champions book, ship is voilence, sinking [7] All this is evidence of the lowered level of Online, ambition of donor countries and of governments in developing countries. While ‘development cooperation’ started in the 1960s with ‘economic development’ and was later coupled to ‘social development’, now both have been abandoned and poverty eradication became poverty reduction and in movies practice the reduction of extreme poverty. Focusing on women and child poverty has a major advantage. It is easy to get funding from charities and Organizational and Psychological Essay philanthropic institutions.

While pointing to the general context of voilence, inequality, lacking economic development, unfair trade relations, unsustainable debt servicing, corruption and tax evasion will only result in denial and/or indifference, the face of Justice and Psychological, a poor child will open wealthy people’s wallets. Poverty reduction, especially when it is focused on women and voilence movies children, allows for unfair economic and social structures to be maintained and breakfast of champions even strengthened. It even gives these structures a moral legitimacy. Alternatives will have to be looked for that will allow children, and all other people, all over the world, to live a life in dignity. A first condition seems to me to not de-link child poverty from other people’s poverty. Even if, theoretically, child poverty can be dissociated from the poverty of their families and their communities, it goes without saying that for voilence movies, poverty reduction policies to be perceived as being fair, all poor people should benefit from and breakfast of champions be allowed social progress. This means that labour market policies and social protection will come at the forefront. A very positive development of these last years has been seen in the work of the ILO (International Labour Organization) and the UN who now plead for ‘decent work’ and voilence ‘universal social protection’. Thirdly, all research points to the fact that poverty reduction strongly needs women and gender-sensitive policies.

If one wants to help children and more particularly girls, one will have to compensated acidosis, help their mothers and fight their discrimination. A gender agenda goes far beyond poverty, but is the major element that can help to movies, promote social change, empowering women, giving them economic autonomy, education and health services. Finally, it should be clear that poverty cannot be de-linked from economic development. Real and sustainable poverty reduction can only be the result of a successful economic and social development process. They should go hand in hand since they are mutually strengthening each other. What this means is Organizational Justice and Psychological Contract Essay, that poverty is not a problem of poor people, but of the whole of society and even of the voilence movies, international community. Breakfast? It is the result of a distributional bias that has to be corrected if one truly wants to eradicate poverty. While poverty has always existed and probably will never be totally eradicated, today’s societies certainly have better ways and resources to fight it than what is currently being proposed by international organizations. Western Europe still remains the best example of what social policies can achieve in voilence terms of poverty and inequality reduction. The structural solidarity mechanisms our countries have introduced almost a century ago have helped to prevent poverty and to eradicate extreme poverty. These values remain utterly important and Piracy Essay should guide cooperation policies.

Child poverty can be reduced if policies duly take into account its link to poverty in general and from there to social protection, inequality and economic development. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Oude Graanmarkt 47. [1] Paugam, S., La disqualification sociale. Essai sur la nouvelle pauvrete, Paris, PUF, 4eme ed., 1997. [2] Simmel, G., Les Pauvres, Paris, PUF, 1988 [1908].

[3] Both proposed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in their ‘Human Development Report’, 1990 and 1997. The dimensions of human poverty are : life expectancy, literacy, access to health care and to voilence, water, malnourishment of children. [4] Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E., Acute Multidilmensional Poverty: A new Index for Developing Countries, OPHI Working Paper n 38, July 2010. [5] Gray Molina, G. and Purser, M., Human Development Trends since 1970. A social convergence Story, UNDP Research Paper 2010/02, New York, UNDP, 2010. [6] Mestrum, F., Globalisering en armoede. Over het nut van armoede in de nieuwe wereldorde, Berchem, EPO, 2002.

[7] Rist, G., Le developpement. Histoire d’une croyance occidentale, Paris, Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1996.