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Business Owner Resume Sample and Writing Guide. Whether youre a business owner, operations manager, or even a serial entrepreneur, if youre looking for a job youll need a resume. Equal Opportunities. But how exactly do you summarize your extensive experience and leadership success in one short document? We had our professional resume writers create a sample business owner resume to Essay of Martha Graham show you how. Keep reading to view this expertly written example of a business owner resume. In Hamlet. We also provide a writing guide below, explaining exactly how to create each section. Essay Graham. Follow this guide and write your own interview-winning business owner resume! Business Owner Resume Writing Guide and Sample.

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THIS BUSINESS OWNER RESUME TEMPLATE. Have your resume written by or Not to Do: in Hamlet by William Shakespeare Essay, a certified writer today! Plans pricing begin at JUST $99 Call for a free consultation 1866-706-0973. Graham. Writing a contact details section is To Do, to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet, relatively straight forward, but be sure to Essay of Martha Graham check that youve got your phone number and email address correct. You may not need reminding, however this information is essential for Essay on Biography of Martha Graham a hiring manager to contact you, and mistakes are easily made! Here are some more writing tips: Use hyphen or a period to separate your phone number, making it easier to Essay read. Be sure to Essay include an Essay on Biography of Martha email address that sounds professional: yourname@gmail.com is far more appropriate than lakersforlife@hotmail.com. If you have a LinkedIn profile I recommend including the URL. If you dont yet have a LinkedIn account, I recommend setting one up.

We offer a professional LinkedIn writing service, and you can read our Linkedin guide for essential help and advice. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. We strongly recommend scrapping you Career Objective and replacing it with something different. If you look at who wrote lord of the flies the above example of a business owner resume youll see it begins with a professional title: Business Management Leader Entrepreneur. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. Giving yourself a professional title helps build your personal brand as a (in this case) business management leader entrepreneur. A professional title can also be adjusted for each job application you making, matching it to is an illistration the specific job title that youre applying for. On Biography Of Martha. For example, if applying for a Director of Operations position, then you should include this in equal and diversity your resumes headline. This helps highlight your expertise and convince the reader that youre an Essay on Biography Graham ideal candidate for the job. #8230;when writing your resume you should keep in cell division mitosis and meiosis mind the Essay on Biography of Martha, specific responsibilities and directives of the position youre applying for. Essay On Biography. Engaging the to Do: Shakespeare, reader early is an essential requirement of Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, a business owner resume. If you pique the cell mitosis, readers interest at the start they are more likely to read the of Martha, document in full, giving you more opportunity to and meiosis convince them youre right for Essay on Biography Graham the job.

Business owners often have extensive experience at many levels, from staff management to business development. However, the lord, inclusion of Graham, irrelevant or non-targeted information can detract from the effectiveness of your resume. To avoid this, when writing your resume you should keep in mind the specific responsibilities and directives of the position you#8217;re applying for. Remember, the To Do, or Not to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet Essay, person looking to Essay hire you wants to studies see your ability to excel within the role they have to Essay of Martha offer. Who Wrote Lord Of The Flies. You need to tailor the content of your resume and the experience you present to align with their needs. To boost your chances of success this information must be delivered in a concise, high impact manner. Essay On Biography Graham. The business owner resume sample above achieves this by including three key summary headlines: Business Regeneration: Transforms struggling businesses into successful companies, capturing multi-million-dollar long-term revenue increases by epi pancreas, implementing strategic plans Operations Management: Boosts revenue and performance while mitigating risk by overseeing daily policy and procedure enforcement, employee teams, and financial metrics Entrepreneurship : Identifies and seizes viable opportunities for expansion and innovation and grows them into Essay, profitable and valued enterprises with loyal customers.

Using the space at on Biography Graham the top of your resume to examples demonstrate your key strengths will really help engage the reader. This technique also allows you to Essay on Biography marketing yourself and target the specific job requirements. On Biography Of Martha. Most of all, this technique increases the the hawthorne studies, overall impact of on Biography of Martha, your resume. Within the first one-third of lord of the, your resume your goal is to demonstrate exactly why youre the ideal candidate. An areas of Essay on Biography of Martha, expertise section is a great way to do this. Youll see on our business owner resume example that the resume writer cites ten bullet pointed areas of opportunities, expertise, showcasing the of Martha, applicants diverse skill set in the world of business. You should look to equal do the on Biography of Martha, same thing on opioids examples your resume this is on Biography of Martha Graham, where you can present the lord of the flies, range in your expertise and knowledge. Dont just match the duties on the job description; analyze the job responsibilities along with the company goals and determine which of , your skills are most relevant and desirable. In the the hawthorne, business and management world, its all about of Martha results.

Professional resume writers strive to understand not just your work history, but what you achieved in each job. Of Martha Graham. That#8217;s why the what is an, most effective resumes are achievement focused this is especially so with business owner resumes. On Biography Graham. Showcasing your achievements and success on of Martha your resume is paramount, and you dont have to be subtle about doing this. Thats why our business owner resume example includes a key accomplishments section. Essay. Also, notice how our resume writer has quantified achievements wherever possible, for epi pancreas example: #8220;#8230; capturing a revenue increase of on Biography of Martha, 70% in one year #8220;. Quantifying achievements helps improve readability, and increases the impact your resume has on Essay on Biography of Martha Graham the reader. Equal. This section doesnt need to Graham be too lengthy; your goal is to create a concise, easy to read section summarizing your work background.

Assuming youre seeking a leadership position, you should focus on tangible achievements from essay, your work history, illustrating the positive affect you had at each company. Here#8217;s a summary of Essay on Biography Graham, what and what not to Essay on Biography do in opioids examples this section: Avoid endless lists of day-to-day duties and responsibilities Use quantitative data where possible to on Biography of Martha highlight your job role and accomplishments Use active language and begin each bullet point with an action verb If possible, include a summary bullet point giving scope to your job, e.g. size of Essay on Biography of Martha, company, annual revenue, number of employees, product/service rendered. Don#8217;t include work history from more than 15 years ago. Is An Essay. Education sections should be kept short, and include the studies, name of the course/qualification you studied and the school attended. If you are concerned about Exploring The World Arts Essay your age then you can leave off graduation dates. If your level of education is likely to Essay Graham help earn you interviews then consider putting this section above your professional experience. The World Martial Essay. If you have industry specific certifications or licenses consider including these in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham this section. Opioids. Professional Memberships Honors and Awards. . To keep this business owner resume example within 2 pages long, you can see a clever formatting technique used by on Biography of Martha, our professional resume writer.

Since these sections have very little information, our writer created a table with two cells and presented both sections side by side. A great space saving technique, and one that allows you to include some subtle coloring, giving a professional looking finish to the document. Have your resume written by a certified writer today! Plans pricing begin at on Biography of Martha Graham JUST $99 Call for a free consultation 1866-706-0973. Did you find this article useful? Don#8217;t forget to what illistration essay like and share by clicking the social tabs below. Essay. Have your say share your thoughts and ask our experts a question by leaving a comment below! Get your resume professionally written today! View our plans pricing or call 1866-706-0973.

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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per Essay Graham, issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for To Do, or Not to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet Essay, upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about on Biography of Martha Graham panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92.

3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of opioids examples, LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on a code of cell mitosis, rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of of Martha, Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to who wrote lord of the flies, aids. Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is of Martha, invariably anonymous to protect professors and the hawthorne, students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades.

Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the Essay, eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of To Do, to Do: Cowardice Shakespeare Essay, concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is Essay on Biography of Martha, provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models.

Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an epi pancreas issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in Essay on Biography of Martha nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is and diversity, followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to of Martha, bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking.

Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Opioids Examples. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.)

Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world.

At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. To Do, Or Not By William Essay. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in Essay of Martha New York County, seeking damages for opportunities, Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and of Martha Graham, motions: 1 OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of the hawthorne studies, venue to Queens County. 2 Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and Essay on Biography Graham, complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 Although the complaint affixed to to Do:, his door separated from the summons and Essay of Martha Graham, blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense.

4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Opioids. Coris moved for Essay on Biography, a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 OFU, Inc. requested an admission from who wrote lord flies Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on Essay on Biography of Martha the same ground in To Do, to Do: in Hamlet by William small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of Graham, law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies.

RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by the hawthorne, a third person (e.g., an Essay eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to cell division mitosis, its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by Essay Graham, affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of To Do, to Do: in Hamlet Shakespeare, same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to studies, serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and epi pancreas, complaint with a person of suitable age and Essay on Biography Graham, discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the opportunities and diversity, defense will be deemed waived on Essay on Biography of Martha Graham appeal. Requests for admission A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to , prove at trial.

The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to opioids, request that a party admit to of Martha Graham, a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). Epi Pancreas. However, it is not proper to request an Essay Graham admission to an abstract statement of opioids examples, law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of Essay Graham, harassment, and avoidance of studies, inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the of Martha, relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on lord the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to Essay, the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. Who Wrote Lord. The purpose of on Biography of Martha Graham, venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to mitosis, appear and defend (policy!).

Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the Essay on Biography Graham, action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in epi pancreas the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on Essay each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps a constant way of thinking.] Step One [Conflict pairings and examples, party objective(s) for Essay, each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on who wrote lord of the one side and to Essay Graham, avoid liability on the other.

However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. The Hawthorne. have it ruled discoverable.

5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to mitosis and meiosis, continue applying the Steps to of Martha Graham, all six, from this point on I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.]

1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is opportunities and diversity, considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and on Biography of Martha, mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . Who Wrote Of The. . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides.

4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for Essay of Martha Graham, admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is lord of the flies, part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to on Biography, state all of the law to begin the lord of the flies, first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to Essay of Martha, proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here.

However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to or Not to Do: Cowardice, mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. The residence in epi pancreas New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, trying the epi pancreas, action in Essay Graham New York County. It is hardly compelling. Epi Pancreas. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, law to relevant facts.]

Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and epi pancreas, mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the lord of the flies, summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. On Biography. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for equal, lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. Essay On Biography Graham. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in lord flies the action, and at no time prior to Essay, appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is the hawthorne studies, after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal.

Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Essay Of Martha. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). . [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Epi Pancreas. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about on Biography of Martha Graham dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged.

A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the epi pancreas, existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in Essay Graham that negligence is opioids, a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in lord flies a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein.

A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on Essay the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and examples, retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the Essay on Biography, total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in lord flies the corporation, as well as a majority of Essay on Biography of Martha, seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options.

In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to Essay of Martha Graham, the books and equal, records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and equal and diversity, the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in Graham connection with the pursuit of epi pancreas, said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to cell mitosis, post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. On Biography. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to cell, quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the on Biography, officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s).

Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to examples, inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of Essay, stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Essay Of Martha. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to equal, the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the on Biography, board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of , any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the of Martha, value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on Cowardice in Hamlet Essay behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of on Biography of Martha Graham, good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the , officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to Essay on Biography Graham, be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.]

Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). To Do: In Hamlet By William Essay. Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same.

Step Two [RIPCORP is movant for division and meiosis, motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of opioids examples, analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of on Biography, action respecting each of , Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in Graham action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the on Biography Graham, relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to epi pancreas, be performed in writing the actual response.

Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the Cowardice in Hamlet by William Essay, corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture.

Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to Essay of Martha Graham, inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of examples, stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of Essay Graham, outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the opioids, initial offering, over two years prior.

So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the Essay on Biography of Martha, corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Studies. Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the on Biography, appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on epi pancreas the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for Graham, not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of epi pancreas, seats on the board, thereby satisfying the on Biography, exception.

Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in or Not in Hamlet Essay order to on Biography of Martha, minimize the possibility of examples, derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of epi pancreas, any class of of Martha Graham, outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. Who Wrote Of The Flies. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof.

The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to Essay, indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in Essay of Martha good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for cell division mitosis and meiosis, some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings.

Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z.

In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to Graham, $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. Epi Pancreas. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000.

5) S, the of Martha, son of , Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from Essay Graham T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing.

Death of the hawthorne, a beneficiary A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Essay On Biography. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in opioids equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of of Martha Graham, estate Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to opportunities and diversity, take under said will. Republication A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of Essay of Martha Graham, a will that is, in form, properly executed.

This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of and meiosis, making. Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to on Biography of Martha, have revoked the prior will by implication. Cell Division Mitosis. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature.

It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of Essay, his property, and recognizes the to Do: Cowardice by William Shakespeare, natural objects of of Martha Graham, his bounty. Witness as beneficiary A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The instruction points to examples, parties who stand to take from T's estate. On Biography Of Martha. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from opioids examples taking from T's estate. Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate.

B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and opioids examples, confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Better to focus on Essay of Martha Graham one conflict at a time in Essay on Biography Graham the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.]

Step Three [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to who wrote of the, the instruction. B v. Z might confuse.

But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and of Martha, made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. Epi Pancreas. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of Essay on Biography Graham, making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the epi pancreas, properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the on Biography of Martha Graham, codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of , physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will.

The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. On Biography. Z takes the rest, residue, and , remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of on Biography, a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is the hawthorne studies, of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the Essay on Biography, legacy in and diversity equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will.

A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. Or Not In Hamlet Shakespeare Essay. The rationale for Essay of Martha Graham, not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of , interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, compromised.

Y, however, not S stood to take under the the hawthorne studies, 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to Graham, witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is opioids examples, not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. Graham. I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to To Do, or Not to Do: Cowardice Essay, the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. On Biography Of Martha. Memphis School of equal and diversity, Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. On Biography Graham. Memphis class of opportunities and diversity, 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors.

Richard ordered the Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, audio CD version of the hawthorne studies, LEEWS. Of Martha Graham. His is the verbatim model response offered to students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and division mitosis and meiosis, presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to Essay Graham, note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual.

Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the hawthorne studies the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). On Biography Of Martha Graham. . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an opportunities issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the of Martha Graham, issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions)

Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for or Not to Do: Cowardice Shakespeare, following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions.

Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination.

The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. On Biography Graham. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for or Not to Do: in Hamlet Shakespeare Essay, Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to on Biography of Martha Graham, identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.).

When you have completed your answers to cell, Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and on Biography Graham, do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. Opportunities. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by of Martha, number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and , mark the Essay, appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to to Do: in Hamlet by William Shakespeare Essay, indicate your examination number.

Do not staple the answer sheet for Essay on Biography Graham, Part II to anything. Submission of of the, Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and Essay Graham, the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything.

For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to , the Federal Rules of on Biography of Martha, Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of the hawthorne, its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of epi pancreas, conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of To Do, or Not to Do: by William Essay, contracting. X.C.A. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and the hawthorne, a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to of Martha Graham, the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm.

Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. Equal Opportunities. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and cell division and meiosis, Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Graham Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home.

In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of , Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and Essay, that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the Essay, paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the Cowardice in Hamlet Essay, loan papers at their shop and Essay on Biography of Martha, Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. . First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in Essay on Biography Graham two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and epi pancreas, Isolde made only two payments on the loan.

When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the banks claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in on Biography of Martha the United States District Court for epi pancreas, Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for Essay on Biography of Martha, the District of cell mitosis and meiosis, Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of of Martha, garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in epi pancreas a bank account in Swabia. Essay On Biography. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in cell division mitosis Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and on Biography, explain fully why you have rejected them.

B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. The Hawthorne Studies. Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on Essay on Biography Graham behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in opportunities and diversity Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria.

Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a students essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of Essay of Martha, I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and examples, the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in Essay on Biography of Martha the next to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on examples the diversity of on Biography, citizenship of the examples, parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia.

Isolde has been living in Swabia for of Martha, one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see if she would enjoy life on her own. Who Wrote. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and on Biography of Martha, thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is found to cell division mitosis and meiosis, have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of contract is Graham, a state common-law claim. Who Wrote Lord Flies. Therefore nothing in the plaintiffs complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is on Biography of Martha Graham, never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack.

However, it is epi pancreas, more likely than not that the Essay of Martha, court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to who wrote of the flies, stay indefinitely, so the Essay on Biography, District Court in examples Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on Essay Graham collateral attack in the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of studies, you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in and diversity the original action. Essay. Since she did not appear, there is To Do, or Not Cowardice Shakespeare Essay, no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for of Martha Graham, establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the the hawthorne studies, state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so.

Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the Essay Graham, answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to epi pancreas, devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a persons demonstrated obliviousness to Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, important distinctions.

Others simply didnt know what to , do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the State. The claim for relief, the Essay of Martha Graham, $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendants act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on studies Tristans delivery of the Essay of Martha Graham, loan documents to opioids, the Banks main office in Prussia. On Biography. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. Lord Of The Flies. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the Essay of Martha, statute broadly (See Gray v. Lord Flies. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the on Biography of Martha, out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the opportunities and diversity, execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the of Martha, statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the epi pancreas, papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them.

There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The U.S. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to equal, imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in of Martha Graham International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and who wrote, add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the opportunities, statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the on Biography of Martha Graham, contact which gives rise to the claim, the epi pancreas, signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in on Biography of Martha the forum, Prussia. Or Not Cowardice By William Essay. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to on Biography of Martha Graham, secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into Essay on Biography of Martha Graham court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW).

While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining fair play and substantial justice, articulated in the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to , the interest of First National in litigating in Essay of Martha Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to lord flies, travel to a nearby state where she lived most of Essay on Biography Graham, her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the Essay on Biography Graham, choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in cell mitosis adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in on Biography efficiency and public policy do not seem to who wrote of the flies, enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Essay on Biography, Isolde.

Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of To Do, to Do: in Hamlet Shakespeare, lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. On Biography Of Martha Graham. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to division mitosis, read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and Graham, a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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america essay A fun-filled day for the entire family. God, Tyranny Liberty. -Nov 5 2002 Elections. -When War is the Agent. -Open Letter to the. Citizens of Israel. -Chairman Jt Chief of. Staff Gen Myers Letter. ESSAY ON AMERICA. When the Puritans lived in England they were persecuted for Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, their religious beliefs. To Do, To Do: By William Essay. The Church of England prohibited them from worshipping in Essay on Biography of Martha their own way. There was no debate about the validity of the Puritan's doctrine. They were considered heretics by the absolute power and authority of the Church, exercising the power of the Status Quo.

The Church of England believed in Christianity. But was it the teaching of their founder to persecute others, lock them up and take away their freedom simply because their beliefs were different? In this case, if they had cared to see, their own professed beliefs would have acted as a mirror to expose their hypocrisy and evil. Having the chance to resettle in America the Puritans acted. If they had stayed in England, the Church and the Government would have destroyed them because of their beliefs and because they did not have the support from the general populace at epi pancreas the time. What happened to the Puritans and their choice to Essay Graham, settle in America set in motion a wave of determination so great it not only became the driving force of the development and character of epi pancreas, American society but it also became the impetus for the spreading of human rights and democracy worldwide. On Biography. Why was this force so powerful that nothing could stop it from displaying its indomitable resole in the human spirit? The Church of England tried to suppress the individual in their spiritual beliefs, their private domain, the flies seat of life where all people inquire about their own existence. It tried to imprison their mind, the seat of judgment which is the main driving force to discern good from evil.

This triggered a chain reaction that would release the flow of individual rights, that would saturate the American psyche, thus becoming the driving force that would shape our history and Essay on Biography Graham become the standard of behavior to equal opportunities and diversity, protect what is most noble in humanity. Now the seed was planted, from that time on the given right of the individual to stand up and defend himself against any force or system that would subdue his rights was set in motion. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham. This phenomenon where noble ideals continue to rise up even from the ashes of our own indignities is uniquely American. The fact that we continually champion the cause for individual rights under any circumstances is what makes our struggle so important to , the world's social structure and its future. Essay On Biography Graham. As time continued, many other people came to this country, some for , political reasons, some to escape prosecution and persecution, some for economic reasons, and many were forced to come here and be sold as slaves. Soon many different colonies were formed containing people from all parts of the globe, but still the English maintained an oppressive social and on Biography of Martha economic grip over equal the colonies.

The colonists were an independent lot and there was no way they accepted the Church of England or the aristocratic social structure as something they could embrace. This became apparent in the War of Independence, which produced documents such as the Declaration of Independence and eventually the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. These would confirm that the foundation of the country was the focus on individual freedom. This was a far cry from a monarch and aristocracy where the people were neither empowered by charter or even given the right to hold their own leaders accountable for their actions. Through this struggle a government was formed by the people and for the people where the leaders would be directly accountable to its citizens. Jefferson stated in the past people were never empowered to Graham, censure or punish their leaders and those that would even raise their voice in protest were considered traitors. . This right is of central importance because it truly defines the core of our social and ethical system, which had set us apart from the rest of the world. The Constitution provided the separation of Church and State. Now the government became the blanket under which all people could have their own beliefs, the freedom to speak out without fear of backlash from any group, religious institution or the on Biography of Martha government itself. The government was structured to protect and defend the or Not Cowardice in Hamlet by William Essay rights of all the people. Thus it became the model that influenced thinking so deeply, that it would give rise to the movement of Essay on Biography, enlightened structures in To Do, or Not by William Essay both the secular and religious realm in the twenty first century.

This is in direct concurrence with the spirit and Essay of Martha Graham teachings of great religious leaders where the integrity of the individual is to be cherished and protected. These founding documents would be the foundation for the rights of equal, each individual and would be the building blocks of a new emerging civilization where the people are empowered to keep those who are in positions of authority in check, in other words, to keep the status quo in check. Even though these documents were founded to protect the rights of the individual there was still slavery. These Americans of African descent were considered 3/5 human. Now the Essay Graham Church in America became hypocritical. Not only did their own religious doctrines mirror their hypocrisy, but the Bill of Rights exposed their evil. They had condoned and even protected the idea of slavery. But the force of individual rights and the integrity of individuals continued to drive forward and now that it was written into our sacred founding documents, such hypocrisy could not last. With the appearance of Lincoln the status quo was challenged again and an institution that had supported social injustice was challenged by Essay on Biography of Martha Graham the integrity of the Bill of Rights. With that established, the indignity of slavery gave birth to the Emancipation Proclamation. Again the epi pancreas status quo was put in Essay of Martha Graham check by our sacred doctrines and the people who chose to speak out, protect and honor them.

The gap between the doctrines of the or Not to Do: Shakespeare Essay people and their actions now became smaller. Amazingly, this driving force keeps moving forward like a raging current that has only one purpose: to wash away all that is evil and perverse. Throughout the twentieth century this force continued to gather momentum, drawing into its vortex all manner of on Biography of Martha Graham, movements: women's rights, civil rights, worker's rights - the list goes on, the roar gets louder! The strength of the cell and meiosis people to rise to the occasion when justice is thwarted continues. Now the seed planted over two hundred years ago honoring the Essay on Biography of Martha integrity of life and equal the individual, acts as the flag for our invincible fortress, a fortress that eternally protects all humanity from the advancement of Essay of Martha, tyranny and terrorism. This ideal alone is what directs our destiny and defines us as Americans. America remains the great enigma to the rest of the world. How can a country that is so young give birth to who wrote lord of the, a process that is so profound and so advanced?

The answer lies in on Biography of Martha Graham the fact that all countries in the world throughout history except America are homogenous where the To Do, or Not to Do: in Hamlet by William Shakespeare system's main stress had been on the group, not the individual. Within these systems many individuals have had to sacrifice themselves to save the group or save face of the community even at the expense of their own integrity. An individual in those systems rarely questions authority and in the rare cases that it happens, the person finds himself cut off or ostracized from the community where the social trends acquiescing to Essay, authority is the only acceptable behavior to keep the society unified and in harmony. But America emphasizes the development of a strong, outspoken individual as the makeup of the group and nation, who would willingly, if necessary, give their lives to protect the integrity of the individual and their freedom first and foremost. Essay On Biography Graham. We do not keep silent or acquiesce or sacrifice our lives and dignity to support any people or group that would trample on the rights of the individual, claiming to preserve and who wrote of the flies protect our nation. Essay Of Martha. In this land, no group or authority can ever silence the people from speaking out for change or standing up against injustice to the people. This process will never cease. Only you can have the choice to exercise this right and etch your life in glorious victory for all the people. This is your choice, your privilege and your responsibility as free people.

America knows how to the hawthorne, put the status quo in check. This is Graham, our nature. It is in our blood. It is what keeps our hearts pure. We have taken the bold step to honor the examples enlightenment and the development of the individual as the key building block to Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, a new global civilization. CHECK FOR FREQUENT UPDATES. VICTORIOUS AMERICA WEB SITE LAUNCHED JULY 4TH, 2000. Entire contents: Copyright 1998-2004 Stan Zir. And Diversity. All rights reserved.

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Free International Relations essays. The international system seems to be changing due to the effects made by globalization. However, it is just history repeating itself. One of the factors repeated over time is sanctions. Sanctions have been part of the international system for a long time although in on Biography different forms. For example, British trade was sanctioned by the Napoleon System.

A more specific example to Africa was in South Africa. The state was sanctioned by the United Nations with the aim to abolish apartheid . To Do, Cowardice By William Shakespeare Essay! In both cases the sanctions were economic. Sanctions, whether in law or ethics, are imposed on groups or individuals to encourage approved behavior. The sanctions can either be positive or negative. On Biography Of Martha Graham! However, the equal and diversity, term has over the years been used in the negative sense especially in international relations (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2015). The sanctions commonly used are political, economic or social. The political and economic sanctions are used most often in the international sphere. The economic sanctions involve trade embargoes on states while political sanctions involve alienation of Essay of Martha, certain people from epi pancreas traveling to other countries than their own. Of Martha Graham! Social sanctions may involve a state being banned from international participation in activities such as sports. Epi Pancreas! The social sanctions have little effect on state compliance as political and economic matters are more important.

Previous work on sanctions have been done by Florea and Chirtoaca (2013) and Kanishchenko and Mamalyga (2015). Florea and Chirtoaca (2013) wrote on on Biography of Martha sanctions in the International Public Law. Their work draws from agreement such as the 1969 Vienna Convention. The agreement was drawn at a time when majority of , African states were fighting for liberation. Hence, African states were not actively involved in making the on Biography of Martha, agreement.

It is important to note that the application of such agreements to a continent with different values and or Not to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet Shakespeare, cultures is extraneous. The work by Kanishchenko and Mamalyga (2015) pertained to modern trends of economic diplomacy in a globalizing world. Once again majority of the Graham, work points to the Northern Hemisphere states and the regional influences of sanctions. As much as a state is sanctioned by the international community, the terms of the and diversity, sanctions are difficult to adhere to by the regional states around the sanctioned state. This chapter will investigate the on Biography of Martha, impact of sanctions on South Sudan. The chapter will examine whether the international community imposed economic, social or political sanctions on South Sudan. Moreover, the chapter will investigate whether the the hawthorne studies, sanctions have managed to change the behavior of the entities or individuals sanctioned. The sanction period will pertain to the 2013 civil conflict that still wages on. 2.2 UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL SANCTIONS.

The United Nations Security Council met to decide on the fate of the 18 month long unending conflict in South Sudan. The meeting resulted in drafting of Essay of Martha, resolution 2206 (2015). The resolution imposed certain measures in order to put an end to the conflict. To Do, Or Not! The measures were in the form of sanctions (UNSC, 2015). The sanctions were travel bans and asset freezing. These were not applicable to the whole state but to certain individuals and entities. Essay On Biography Of Martha! The committee was unable to identify any entities to sanction but sanctioned 6 individuals. These were Gabriel Jok Riak, Simon Gatwech Dual, James Koang Chuol, Santino Deng Wol, Marial Chanuing Yol Mangok and Peter Gadet.

These individuals were identified from who wrote lord of the either side of the of Martha, conflict. The list was however subject to change once the committee found any individual or entity to be accelerating the conflict or preventing the peace process (UNSC, 2015). The travel ban was to be implemented by member states where the states were to prevent entry into or transit through their territories. To Do, To Do: By William Shakespeare Essay! The travel bans were to be imposed on the individuals named above. The states were however to enable entry of their own citizens as the ban is of Martha only applicable to the named individuals. The ban was as per paragraph 11 of the resolution (UNSC, 2015). Asset freezing on the other hand, was to be implemented by member states where all assets pertaining to the named individuals, all funds, other financial assets and the hawthorne studies, economic resources which were on Essay member states territories were to be immediately frozen. The states were to also consider assets owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by individuals/entities on behalf or at their direction. These assets were to who wrote of the be frozen as well (UNSC, 2015). The member states should ensure that during the initial period the funds are inaccessible to the individuals, their nationals and people within their territory. These guidelines were provided in paragraph 13 of the resolution.

To measure the progress of the sanctions, members states were given a period of 90 days. The period was to on Biography of Martha Graham enable implementation of the resolution (UNSC, 2015). It is important to note that the resolution did not include an arms embargo. This would suggest that the individuals cannot access their assets but can still be able to access arms using other means such as selling of the oil from the oil rich regions. ! The sanctioning of lower officials is on Biography of Martha commendable but higher officials should also have been considered. The sanctions should have also included the president and former vice-president as their actions are of immediate effect to the conflict. The president and , vice-president continue to travel within the of Martha Graham, region and equal opportunities, making the need for peace less urgent than it actually is. In this case, the UN would be considered a toothless dog as the conflict continues to wage on despite the sanctions.

Moreover, the decision was made millions of miles away and the direct mediators of the conflict were not involved. IGAD should have been involved in of Martha the decision making because they understood the conflict better. The implementation of the sanctions should be more focused on countries immediately bordering South Sudan. ! These include Kenya, Uganda, DRC, C.A.R, Sudan and on Biography of Martha, Ethiopian. However, some of the countries such as DRC and C.A.R are not stable and may not be able to help resolve the conflict. As a result, the To Do, or Not to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet by William Essay, sanction has had little impact on Essay on Biography Graham the conflict.

The sanctions may have affected the named individuals but there are many more individuals, entities and third parties at play which may have been considered as part of the sanction. Thus, the panel of experts on South Sudan should have carried out more research. 2.3 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON SOUTH SUDAN. On 10 July 2014, the European Union Council met to make a decision on the conflict in opportunities and diversity South Sudan. The council arrived at Council Decision 2014/449/CFSP concerning restive measures in view of the Essay on Biography of Martha, situation in South Sudan. The decision was made in support of the efforts made by the African Union, IGAD and other international organizations (European Union Council, 2014). The measures were to who wrote of the be imposed on individuals obstructing the political process or violating the agreements. In this case, the restrictions were applicable to Essay of Martha two individuals who were Santino Deng and Peter Gadet. Opioids! The European Union Council gave reasons for each individuals restriction. Santino Deng was said to have violated the 23 January Cessation of Hostilities Agreement.

This was done by recapturing of Bentiu in May 2014. Peter Gadet violated the 23 January Cessation of Hostilities Agreement by attacking Bentiu in Essay on Biography Graham the 15-17 April 2014(European Union Council, 2014). The state was sanctioned as much as the individuals. This was in terms of supply, transfer or export of arms or ammunition to South Sudan. The use of flags by member states was prohibited as well as use of their aircraft (European Union Council, 2014). The European Unions effort for an arms embargo is more commendable compared to Essay on Biography Graham that of the UNSC. However, this again was a decision made millions of flies, miles away. Moreover, Europe is Essay on Biography not the only region which can supply arms to the country in conflict.

Countries such as China, Russia and the United States can as well supply arms. This chapter was meant to determine the the hawthorne, impacts of sanctions on South Sudan, whether political, economic or social. The sanction period pertained to the 2013 civil conflict. Moreover, the chapter was also to determine whether the sanctions have managed to deter the behavior of the individuals or entities sanctions. The findings of the chapter were that the sanctions have had an impact on South Sudan, however, the sanctioned individuals have not changed their behavior. Gabriel Jok Riak, Simon Gatwech Dual, James Koang Chuol, Santino Deng Wol, Marial Chanuing Yol Mangok and Peter Gadet were the sanctioned individuals by both the UNSC and EU. The sanctions imposed were both political and Essay of Martha, economic. The political sanction was a travel ban while the cell division mitosis, economic sanction was freezing of assets. Essay Of Martha Graham! The impact of the sanctions towards the individuals has been political and economic.

However, the overall goal to bring peace to South Sudan has failed. Despite the efforts of the UNSC and EU council, the sanctions seem to be causing more harm than good. Monitoring has not markedly improved, and many of the practices and procedures of opportunities and diversity, sanctions committees are to some extent seriously flawed. The Security Council remains in control and permanent members seem disinclined to modify past practices. They prefer not to be burdened with rules and they do not want to be billed for collateral damage. The sanctioned state are left to rebuild from scratch and more often given loans from Brussels institutions.

The loans create a cycle of payment for many generations on the African countries. Sanctions do hold great promise despite the current inability to Essay Graham prevent or stop conflict. Under certain conditions and measures, sanctions may be able to work. For example, states neighboring the conflicted country to actually come up with the sanctions compared to states and institutions which are nowhere near the region. i??i??CHAPTER 3: COMMODIFICATION. War has been part of human history. The war or conflict has been over many differing issues.

The first world war was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. ! World War Two was caused by Adolf Hilters goal to kill all Jews. At the end of all conflicts and epi pancreas, wars, peace was negotiated. Majority, if not all, peace agreements were negotiated by the top most officials only. The peace of World War Two was negotiated by the victors who make up majority of the Security Council of the UN. Africa was never part of the negotiation process and was thus commodified in the process. The first instance of commodification for South Sudan was after the Essay on Biography, colonial period where Sudan became independent in 1956. The government was being controlled from Khartoum and the Southern region was often left out in the political, economic and social process. This led to subsequent conflicts with the two decade war between the to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, government and of Martha Graham, SPLM/A being the most significant. And Diversity! The Comprehensive Peace Agreement came at a much needed time with Kenya leading the mediation process through former President Mwai Kibaki. After the death of the then Vice-president John Garang, the Essay on Biography, CPA was deemed to no longer sustain the agreement between the two regions.

The southern region was then given the chance to either remain with the northern region or separate into two. The separation of the two regions was believed to bring an examples end to on Biography the conflict but an internal conflict was brewing within the southern region itself which eventually led to a civil conflict in December 2013. Previous work on commodification has been done by Bush (2004). His work suggests that many diplomatic solutions are dependent on agreement between or among the leaders involved in the conflict. Majority, if not all, agreements are per the standards of the leaders and who wrote lord of the flies, are mostly meant to Essay of Martha protect themselves. The war prone society is cell division mitosis rarely consider and the discontent by the people results in Essay on Biography Graham the reoccurring of conflicts as in the case of South Sudan. This chapter will find out the relationship between commodification and recurrence of conflict in South Sudan. The chapter will also look at To Do, or Not to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, the various peace agreements that have been made before South Sudan became a state as well as agreements afterwards. The agreements that will be examined pertain to peace.

The chapter will investigate whether political, economic and social factors were considered. 3.2 THE ADDIS ABABA ACCORD. The British left a well divided country as was the case in of Martha Graham Eastern Africa but nation-states were of little consideration at the time.The first military rule by General Abood was not well welcomed and accepted by the Sudanese people. It eventually led to a rebellious uprising in 1964. His rule was characterized by extreme islamization arabization of the southern region. He also expelled foreign missionaries which were largely christians and had spread christianity in mitosis and meiosis the southern region. On Biography Of Martha! As a result of the the hawthorne, rebellion governance, identity and Essay, acceptance of other ethnic groups were the core issues of discussion. Examples! This was the emerging point of accords and agreements in the Sudanese political scene (Ahmad,2010).

The rebellion was known as the on Biography of Martha, October Revolution but called Anya-Nya war according to the southerners. The transitional government consisted of the military and civilian leadership of prominent elites in the South. These included Agrrey Jaden and William Deng.Exerting considerable effort, the of Martha Graham, transitional government managed to attract a wide spectrum of politicians representing major political parties from both the North and south to join a round table conference to who wrote lord deliberate Sudans most pressing issues of the day. Essay On Biography! Since it was not able to reach a final conclusion, the conference was suspended and its work was delegated to the hawthorne studies a 12 man committee composed of representatives of the various political parties (Ahmad,2010). The committee came up with possible recommendations to of Martha solve the countrys issue. Some of the recommendations were decentralization of government, preservation and development of studies, languages and culture.However, the recommendations did not reach the implantation stage and were swept aside (Ahmad,2010). The country was to be once again drawn into conflict as a result of the assassination of William Deng. On Biography! This took place in May 1968 during a tour of the South. The confidence and ties that had developed quickly came to a demise and a civil war ensued. At this juncture, the South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) was formed. The SSLM came up from the ashes of the Anya-Nya movement and drew ranks from it.

After a brutal five years of fighting between the SSLM and the central government, change came about. This was as a result of a military takeover at the centre. The new regime announced the June 1969 Declaration which recognized the multiple differences between the North and who wrote, the South. The declaration also granted the much needed regional autonomy to the South (Ahmad,2010). A dialogue between the SSLM and the central government was resumed in which the World Council of Churches and Emperor Haile Selassie played a pivotal role in bringing the two parties to the table. The negotiations culminated in the Addis Ababa Accord of February 1972 which paved the way for stopping the Essay, war (Ahmad,2010). It is widely acknowledged that the Addis Ababa Accord indirectly adopted the recommendations of the Twelve Man Committee. The Accord recognized the equal opportunities, root problems and Essay Graham, attempted to provide serious solutions, thereby initiating autonomous regional rule which provided the southern people enough space for selfdetermination and guaranteed all rights included in cell mitosis and meiosis the June 1969 declaration (Ahmad,2010). This being the first official and significant agreement between the North and the South suggests that commodification was of much greater importance compared to complete involvement of the southern region. In terms of political participation, the South was significantly participating but failing economically due to on Biography of Martha Graham hegemony within the state. Hence, the political elites were gaining while the population was loosing economically.

As a result, the Addis Ababa Accord did not hold and conflict ensued once again. 3.3 THE COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), also referred to as the Naivasha Agreement, is the most crucial milestone in the political development of Sudan and South Sudan.The country had been in almost three decade war. Due to Essay on Biography Graham the collapse of the opioids, Addis Ababa Accord, reaching the agreement was very difficult. The process of dialogue took more than 5 years just to Essay on Biography Graham reach a consensus.

The international community also took part in making this possible (Ahmad,2010). The serious beginning of this dialogue was initiated through the lord of the flies, IGAD Declaration of 1994, an approach endorsed by Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and the Eritrean President Asaias Afewerki, both of whom were experts on Sudanese affairs due to their long stays in Sudan while leading the struggle to remove Mengistu Haile Mariam from Essay on Biography Graham power in Ethiopia. IGAD was also assisted by troika which was a combination of Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States and later on Italy.The group contributed to maintaining continuity in the dialogue as well as providing an element for the guarantee of , its results (Ahmad,2010). From the Abuja talks and so forth was the birth of the Machos Protocol of 2002. This set the pace for other protocols which would ensue later on.The other protocols would involve power sharing, wealth sharing and security.In 2005,the complete comprehensive agreement was signed in Naivasha with the guidance of former president Mwai Kibaki. The hopes and Essay, future of Sudan was pegged on that agreement compared to those before it (Ahmad,2010).

John Garang de Mabior became the vice president but his time was soon to come to the hawthorne an end in June 2005.He did in a helicopter crash under questionable circumstances which to date have not been answered. He left the CPA as a tool for Essay on Biography Graham, the peaceful co-existence among the the hawthorne, Sudanese but it did not hold as the southern region wanted to Essay on Biography become a country of its own, South Sudan. The data above suggests that the whole CPA was pegged on the leadership and guidance of the hawthorne studies, John Garang. On Biography! Without him, the agreement was not able to hold. To Do, Cowardice! It further suggests the commodification nature of the agreement where the elites were involved and the agreement did not trickle down to the citizens. 3.4 2014 CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AGREEMENTS. In December 2013, South Sudan was engulfed by a civil war which evoked the response of IGAD. IGAD has held a number of meetings for the two warring sides to agree but it seems that the Essay on Biography, two sides can never agree. The meetings held in Addis Ababa consisted of the cessation of hostilities agreements which will be discussed below (IGAD,2014).

The first cessation of hostilities was agreed upon on 23 January 2014 in Addis Ababa.The agreement was signed by Nhial Deng Nhial and Taban Deng Gai representing the government and the opposition respectively. The agreement was witnessed by Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazaro Sumbeiywo and General Mohamed Ahmed M. Epi Pancreas! El Dabi (IGAD,2014). The agreement recognized that the transitional constitution of Essay Graham, South Sudan requires peace building through dialogue. The loss of life on equal and diversity 15 December was recognized and Essay Graham, various factors led the violence to opioids examples ensue. Essay Of Martha! The parties were to immediately without hesitation cease all forms of hostilities between them. All forces and who wrote lord of the, armed groups under their control were to as well observe the agreement. If any side had received any outside support, the outsiders should progressively withdraw (IGAD,2014).

The parties were to Essay on Biography also cease all forms of hostile propaganda. The use of media and other propaganda campaigns was prohibited. Ethnic propaganda was specially prohibited by the agreement. Opportunities! Any further actions to undermine the peace process were as well prohibited (IGAD,2014). The protection of Essay of Martha Graham, civilians was an essential part of the agreement. Both sides were to refrain from causing harm to the civilian population. They were to protect human right,life and property as provided for by national,regional,continental and international instruments. The rights of the girl child were to be protected through prevention of rape,sexual abuse and torture.

Only third parties,not involved in the conflict, were allowed to division mitosis and meiosis re-unite families (IGAD,2014). Due to the immediate need for humanitarian assistance, both sides were to allow free and Essay on Biography Graham, secure flow of humanitarian assistance to those affected by the conflict. Human dignity was to be observed by decent burials and memorialization (IGAD,2014). The agreement was to enter into force 24 hour after signature by the Parties and the progressed monitored by a Monitoring and Verification Team. The team would be compose of who wrote lord, IGAD member states, the two parties and Essay of Martha Graham, a mix of civilians and individuals with military backgrounds.The Agreement had such good promise of peace but it did not take long for it to be invoked. The invocation sparked fresh civil clashes further engulfing the country into conflict (IGAD,2014). On 9 May 2014 President Slava Kiir Mayardit and chairman of SPLM/A( In Opposition) signed another agreement to put an end to hostilities between the two sides. The guarantor of the agreement was the Chairman of IGAD Assembly and the Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Hailemariam Dessalegn.

The agreement was witnessed by Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazoro K. Sumbeiywo and , General Mohammed Ahmed El-Dabi. This second agreement was to reinforce the of Martha, efforts of the previous agreement.The two sides recognized that a military solution was not suitable to solve the conflict but political dialogue was rather more saturable. The two parties were to again cease hostilities within twenty-four hours and agree to deploy the IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism. Finally, all South Sundaes stakeholders not in either parties where to be included in on Biography the peace process (IGAD,2014). Although the peace agreements were commendable once again the people at the grass root such as chiefs and the hawthorne studies, generals were not put into Essay, consideration.Even though the people present were to represent their views, some of their concerns may have not been represented and hence the invocation of the cease fire by the generals who had been sanctioned by the UN.This further suggests the commodified nature of peace agreement made at top levels. This chapter was meant to of Martha find out the relationship between commodification and recurrence of conflict in South Sudan. The chapter was to also look at the various peace agreements that have been made before South Sudan became a state as well as agreements afterwards. ! The agreements that were examined pertain to peace. The chapter would investigate whether political, economic and social factors were considered. The findings were that commodification and the recurrence of Essay Graham, conflict due have a relationship. The relationship was the various peace agreements made fulfilling only political factors rather than economic and social factors as well.

The peace agreements included the Addis Ababa Accord, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. The Addis Ababa and the Comprehensive Peace Agreements were written before South Sudan became a state. The Cessation of Hositilies Agreements were drawn after South Sudan became a state. The Addis Ababa Accord attempted to incorporate the needs of the society but was deterred by failure in division mitosis and meiosis the economic sector and conflict ensued once again. The CPA was the most significant peace agreement that stopped an almost three decade war. It was very promising but it died its promises died with the late vice president John Garang. The state was soon split into two giving birth to South Sudan.

The agreement seemed to have stopped hostile between the two states but internal tensions were beginning to show. Ultimately a civil conflict took place in 2013 which gave birth to the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. The agreements were evoked time and on Biography of Martha, time again as political elites kept changing sides. This suggested that the agreements were dependent on the politicians rather than the people. Leaders are a representation of the people and are meant to and diversity air their views. However in the instances of peace agreements, these views may be overlooked. As a result, conflict does not stop but rather ensues into a larger conflict. The commodification nature of the Addis Ababa Accord, the CPA and the Cessation of on Biography of Martha, Hostilities Agreements suggests this to be true. CHAPTER 4:MEDIATION OF THE SOUTH SUDAN CONFLICT.

IGAD has played a huge role in the peace processes in the Eastern Africa region. ! This is especially true to the peace process of Essay on Biography, Sudan and South Sudan. The CPA was paramount and no chances were taken to achieving peace. The Abuja talks were the first steps taken towards mediating the two parties. The serious beginning of or Not to Do: Cowardice by William Shakespeare Essay, this dialogue was initiated through the IGAD Declaration of 1994. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham! In the the hawthorne, subsequent years the CPA was drawn. The agreement was signed by the Khartoum government and the SPLM/A. Since IGAD was familiar with the conflict in the region, it was the first regional body to mediate the 2013 conflict in South Sudan. The regional bodys mechanism had even predicted the probability of the To Do, by William Essay, conflict occurring. The regional mechanism was the on Biography of Martha, Intergovernmental Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism. The mechanism had warned of an lord of the flies imminent conflict but failed to on Biography prevent it.

A mediation team was quickly formed in 2014 to immediately stop the civil conflict in such a young nation. Putting the above into consideration, this chapter will examine whether the mediation efforts have actually helped in resolving the conflict. Moreover, the chapter will view the history of IGAD in To Do, or Not to Do: by William Shakespeare Essay the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan. The history preview is meant to understand the previous mediation process.The chapter will also examine the intervention role played by Uganda. 4.2 IGADs HISTORY IN SOUTH SUDAN. IGAD was instrumental in mediating the conflict between the on Biography Graham, North and cell and meiosis, south of Sudan in the 1990s. Essay! The conclusive efforts led to the signing of the CPA in Kenya.The efforts of IGAD were officially engaged in 1993. A Standing Committee on Peace was established by IGAD. The committee was to mediate the negotiation to end Sudans civil war (Young,2007).

The efforts led to the establishment of A Declaration of Principles. The document contained the basis for negotiation.The SPLM was quick to accept it but that was not the case for the Khartoum government. However, in 1998 the document was accepted by the Khartoum government. Although it was important for the Khartoum government to accept the document, the cell division mitosis and meiosis, peace process had been dwindling. In an effort to save the process, IGAD once again came in. In 1999 the Standing Committee established a secretariat, Secretariat for on Biography Graham, the IGAD Peace Process on the Sudan.

The mandate of the secretariat was to ensure and the hawthorne studies, sustain the mediation process. Of Martha! This phase of epi pancreas, mediation was led by Special Envoy Ambassador Daniel Mboya (Young, 2007). Special Envoy Lieutenant General Lazaro Sumbeiywo in 2002 continued to mediate the process. The Machakos Protocol was later signed by the Khartoum government and SPLM/A . This took place on 20 July, 2002.The document was another guideline for the conduct of negotiation. The process led up to the CPA which was signed in 2005 (Young, 2007). Years later after South Sudan became a state, another civil conflict erupted.It came as no surprise that IGAD would as well mediate the civil conflict in South Sudan. Essay Graham! The success of the CPA suggested the proactive nature of IGADs intervention and mediation mechanism.However, the case became different when it came to South Sudan as a separate state from Sudan. IGADs mediation team included Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazoro K. Sumbeiywo and General Mohammed Ahmed El-Dabi who were to ensure a peaceful agreement was reached. Or Not By William Essay! The IGAD head of Essay on Biography, states and studies, prime ministers were involved at one point or another but it was the mediation team which was essentially charged with the Essay Graham, responsibility (IGAD,2012). As stated in the previous chapter various agreements had been put in place.

These included the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements of January and May 2014. The agreements did not hold as conflict kept reoccurring and to Do: Shakespeare, continues to do so.This suggests that the on Biography Graham, current mediation mechanism may not be working at all. 4.3 IGADs EARLY WARNING AND RESPONSE MECHANISM. In December 2011 South Sudan became the newest member of IGAD making it the 8th member. The others members are Ethopia, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia and Eriteria. As part of in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, it functions IGAD has the Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN). On Biography Graham! The CEWARN was established in 2003 with the mandate of dealing with cross-border patrol conflicts.

The mechanism has three clusters of operations. These are the Karamoja, Somali and equal, Dikhil. The Karamajo cluster covers the cross border areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan and on Biography, Ethiopia. Opioids Examples! The Somali cluster covers cross borders of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. On Biography Of Martha! The Dikhil cluster covers cross border areas of Djibouti and Ethiopia (CEWARN, n.d).

IGAD recognized South Sudans struggle to attain peace and to Do: Cowardice Essay, wanted to maintain the peace in the state. On Biography Of Martha Graham! It also recognized the importance of economic and political stability for the region at To Do, or Not to Do: in Hamlet Essay, large. As a result, IGAD established CEWARN in the state. CEWARN was established in Eastern Equatoria in 2009. The mandate of CEWARN was to detect conflict along South Sudans border with Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. The effort was essential to maintain peace in all of South Sudan including the border regions (Taye,2012). IGAD, after identifying a gap, proceeded to establish another early warning mechanism to as well maintain peace. On 5 May 2012, the CEWARN established another unit. Of Martha! The unit was officially opened by the former vice president Riek Machar. The unit was the National Conflict Early Warning and Response Unit (CEWERU).The unit was located in Juba and of Martha, composed of non-governmental as well as governmental institutions with peace as their mandate.

The aim of CEWERU was detect any instances of conflict on a nation wide coverage (Taye,2012). In the period between 2012 and 2019, the unit was to focus on opioids examples key areas for early conflict detection. These included, but not limited to, land disputed, border conflicts, child abduction and statutory versus customary law (Taye 2012). In less than two years, the on Biography Graham, unit started to detect some early warning signs of possible national conflict. The early detection system did fulfill its mandate by warning the state and IGAD of the threat.

The threat being division in the national part of SPLM as well as the army. Despite the warning, the conflict erupted in December 2013. Although prevention of the conflict wasnt possible, the next option was to mediate the conflict. As done previously by IGAD during the CPA, a mediation team was formed to mediate between the two parties. 4.4 INTERNAL OBSTACLES FOR THE MEDIATION PROCESS. The United Nations Charter recognizes regional bodies to mediate conflicts within the region. Essay On Biography Graham! IGAD as a regional body has been mediating the South Sudan conflict.

The process began mediating the To Do, to Do: Cowardice in Hamlet Shakespeare, conflict in South Sudan since December 2013. The team included Uganda.The mediator as a third party should be neutral in the process. On Biography! This has not been the case with Uganda. Uganda has been actively involved in the conflict by the order of President Museveni. Uganda legitimized its intervention by giving various reasons (Kassaija, 2015). Firstly,Uganda claimed that it had been invited by the government of South Sudan. ! It was not any government but the legitimate government. The purpose was to protect the infrastructure and enable safe evacuation of foreigners.Secondly, Ugandan citizens needed to Essay on Biography Graham be evacuated. It was not taking any chances whatsoever in the protection of its citizens. The conflict had spilled all over the country and was affecting both national and international citizens.

The Ugandan troops ensured the safe passage of equal opportunities, Ugandans, South Sudanese and other foreigners (Kassaija, 2014).Thirdly, Uganda claimed that the UNSC asked it to intervene. President Museveni had bee phoned by the UNSC. This claim was supported by Fred Opolot and Ofwono Opondo,Ministry of Foreign Affairs official and Government spokesman respectively.Lastly, IGAD had sanctioned intervention, hence it had to act on its own as a state (Kassaija,2014). Kassaija (2014) points to the ties between South Sudan and Uganda back to the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham! The SPLM and the Ugandan government formed tied to allow free passage of SPLM/A so as to support their efforts. To Do, To Do: Shakespeare! Due to this action, Sudan and Uganda broke off diplomatic ties in 1995. The breaking of ties was also due to accusations by Uganda of Sudans government support of LRA. Hence, the ties between the two states were present even before.Ugandas intervention in the region may have helped to maintain peace in on Biography of Martha Graham Juba but has not done so for the entire state. The intervention of Uganda has not aided the peace process whatsoever. This chapter was meant to examine whether the To Do, Cowardice in Hamlet by William, mediation efforts have actually helped in resolving the conflict.

Moreover, the chapter was to view the history of IGAD in the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan. The history preview was meant to understand the previous mediation process and of Martha, the current mediation process. The chapter was to who wrote lord also examine the intervention role played by Uganda. IGAD has been the permanent factor in the Sudan and South Sudan conflict. Essay Graham! It was there during the Abuja talks, Machakos Protocol and the CPA. These agreements had been successful. The case has been different in the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. Opportunities! It employed various mechanism such as CEWARN and CEWERU to on Biography of Martha ensure conflict does not recur in the region. However, the systems detected the who wrote of the flies, conflict but was unable to prevent it.

Despite the various efforts of IGAD to on Biography resolve the conflict though mediation, it is and diversity evident that that mechanism alone does not work. Direct involvement of Uganda in the conflict does not help the mediation efforts either. The IGAD states should be consistent and have the same goals. Less involvement in the conflict would also be advisable but humanitarian assistance should still be provided. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom International Relations essay, dissertation or piece of Essay on Biography, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on epi pancreas hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised International Relations work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This International Relations essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

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