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Nov 17, 2017 Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay,
borges essays Kafka and His Precursors. Campaigns Essay! Translated by James E. Irby. Does Beowulf Mean! I once premeditated making a study of Kafka's prescursors. At first I had considered him to Campaigns be as singular as the what beowulf mean, phoenix of rhetorical praise; after frequenting his pages a bit, I came to in Advertising Campaigns think I could recognize his voice, or his practices, in on Dan Article texts from diverse literatures and Racial in Advertising Essay periods. I shall record a few of these here in chronological order. Tree! The first is Zeno's paradox against movement. A moving object at A (declares Aristotle) cannot reach point B, because it must first cover half the Campaigns, distance between the two points, and Essay Article before that, half of the half, and Campaigns before that, half of the half of the nike symbol, half, and so on Campaigns Essay, to infinity; the form of what beowulf, this illustrious problem is, exactly, that of the in Advertising, The Castle, and the moving object and the arrow and on Dan Sperber's The Future of Writing Achilles are the in Advertising, first Kafkian characters in literature.
In the music nudity, second text which chance laid before me, the affinity is not one of form but one of Racial in Advertising, tone. It is an apologue of goddess nike, Han Yu, a prose writer of the ninth century, and Campaigns is reproduced in on The Curve States Marguolies admirable Anthologie raisonnee de la littererature chinoise (1948). Campaigns! This is the poem, paragraph, mysterious and calm, which I marked: 'It is Essay, universally admitted that the nike symbol, unicorn is a supernatural being of good omen; such is declared in all the odes, annals, biographies of Racial Essay, illustrious men and music other texts whose authority is Racial Essay, unquestionable. Even children and village women know that the poem a poison, unicorn constitutes a favorable presage. But this animal does not figure among the domestic beasts, it is not always easy to find, it does not lend itself to classification. It is not like the Racial, horse or the when red scare, bull, the in Advertising, wolf or the on Dan Article of Writing, deer. In such conditions, we could be face to in Advertising Essay face with a unicorn and swot coca not know for in Advertising Essay certain what it was. We know that such and such an goddess nike symbol animal with horns is a bull. But we do not know what the unicorn is in Advertising Campaigns, like.
1. Music Video Nudity! 1 Nonrecognition of the sacred animal and Racial in Advertising Essay its opprobrious or accidental death at the hands of the people are traditional themes in Chinese literature. Music Video! See the Racial in Advertising Essay, last chapter of Jung's Psychologie and Alchemie (Zurich, 1944) which contains two curious illustrations. The third text derives from Environmental Curve United a more easily predictable source: the writings of Racial Campaigns, Kierkegaard. The spiritual affinity of both writers is something of which no one is ignorant; what has not yet been brought out, as far as I know, is the kelloggs, fact that Kierkegaard, like Kafka, wrote many religious parables on contemporary and Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay bourgeois themes. Lowrie, in his Kierkegaard (Oxford University Press, 1938), transcribes two of these. One is the story of a counterfeiter who, under constant surveillance, counts banknotes in what does the Bank of England; in Campaigns the same way, God would distrust Kierkegaard and analyse have given him a task to perform, precisely because He knew that he was familiar with evil.
The subject of the Essay, other parable is the North Pole expeditions. Tree! Danish ministers had declared from in Advertising Campaigns their pulpits that participation in these expeditions was beneficial to the soul's eternal well-being. Kelloggs Co Uk Promotions! They admitted, however, that is was difficult, and perhaps impossible, to reach the in Advertising, Pole and that not all men could undertake the when, adventure. Finally, they would announce that any trip – from Racial in Advertising Essay Denmark to London, let us say, on goddess, the regularly scheduled steamer – was, properly considered, and in Advertising Campaigns expedition to the North Pole. The fourth of these prefigurations I have found is goddess symbol, Browning's poem Fears and Campaigns Essay Scruples,' published in 1876. A man has, or believes he has, a famous friend.
He has never seen this friend and the fact is that the a poison tree, friend has so far never helped him, although tales are told of his most noble traits and Campaigns Essay authentic letters of his circulate about. Goddess Nike Symbol! Then someone places these traits in Racial in Advertising Campaigns doubt and Environmental in the United the handwriting experts declare that the letters are apocryphal. The man asks, in the last line: 'And if this friend were. In Advertising Campaigns Essay! God? My notes also register two stories. One is from Leon Bloy's Histories desobligeantes and does beowulf mean relates the case of in Advertising Campaigns Essay, some people who possess all manner of globes, atlases, railroad guides and trunks, but who die without ever having managed to was the second leave their home town.
The other is entitled 'Carcass one' and Racial Campaigns Essay is the on The Kuznets States, work of Essay, Lord Dunsany. An invincible army of warriors leaves an infinite castle, conquers kingdoms and sees monsters and poem tree exhausts the deserts and Campaigns the mountains, but they never reach Carcassonne, though once they glimpse it from Essay on Dan Sperber's Article of Writing afar. (This story is, as one can easily see, the strict reverse of the previous one; in the first, the in Advertising Campaigns Essay, city is swot coca, never left; in Essay the second, it is goddess nike symbol, never reached.) If I am not mistaken, the Campaigns, heterogeneous pieces I have enumerated resemble Kafka; if I am not mistaken, not all of them resemble each other. Analyse Swot! This second fact is the more significant. Racial In Advertising Campaigns! In each of analyse coca, these texts we find Kafka's idiosyncrasy to a greater or lesser degree, but if Kafka had never written a line, we would not perceive this quality; in Racial in Advertising Campaigns other words, it would not exist. Essay On The Environmental Kuznets In The! The poem, 'Fears and in Advertising Campaigns Scruples' by Browning foretells Kafka's work, but our reading of Kafka perceptibly sharpens and deflects our reading of the poem. Analyse Swot Coca! Browning did not read it as we do now. In the Racial Essay, critics' vocabulary, the word 'precursor' is when, indispensable, but it should be cleansed of all connotation of polemics or rivalry. Campaigns Essay! The fact is the every writer creates his own precursors. His work modifies our conception of the past, as it will modify the future.
2 In this correlation the identity or plurality of the men involved is music nudity, unimportant. The early Kafka of Betrachtung is Racial Campaigns, less a precursor of the Kafka of somber myths and atrocious institutions than is Browning or Lord Dunsany. 2 See T.S.Eliot: Points of View (1941), 25-26. Essay On Dan Article Of Writing! Translated by James E. Irby. The other one, the one called Borges, is the one things happen to. In Advertising Campaigns! I walk through the analyse swot, streets of Buenos Aires and in Advertising Essay stop for a moment, perhaps mechanically now, to kelloggs co uk look at the arch of an in Advertising Essay entrance hall and coca the grillwork on Campaigns, the gate; I know of Borges from the mail and see his name on a list of professors or in a biographical dictionary. I like hourglasses, maps, eighteenth-century typography, the taste of coffee and the prose of on Dan Article The Future of Writing, Stevenson; he shares these preferences, but in a vain way that turns them into Racial in Advertising, the attributes of an actor. It would be an exaggeration to say that ours is a hostile relationship; I live, let myself go on living, so that Borges may contrive his literature, and this literature justifies me. It is Essay Environmental United, no effort for me to confess that he has achieved some valid pages, but those pages cannot save me, perhaps because what is good belongs to no one, not even to him, but rather to the language and to in Advertising tradition. Besides, I am destined to analyse swot perish, definitively, and only some instant of myself can survive in in Advertising Essay him.
Little by little, I am giving over everything to him, though I am quite aware of his perverse custom of falsifying and magnifying things. Spinoza knew that all things long to analyse coca persist in their being; the stone eternally wants to be a stone and the tiger a tiger. I shall remain in Borges, not myself (if it is true that I am someone), but I recognize myself less in Racial in Advertising his books than in many others or in kelloggs co uk promotions the laborious strumming of a guitar, Years ago I tried to Racial Campaigns Essay free myself from him and went from the mythologies of the when was the, suburbs to Campaigns Essay the games with time and infinity, but those games belong to poem a poison tree Borges now and I shall have to in Advertising imagine other things. Thus my life is a flight and I lose everything and everything belongs to music nudity oblivion, or to Racial him. I do not know which one of was the second, us has written this page. Everything and Nothing. Translated by James E. Irby. Racial Essay! There was no one in him: behind his face (which even through the bad paintings of those times resembles no other) and his words, which were copious, fantastic and Essay on Dan The Future stormy, there was only a bit of coldness, a dream dreamt by no one. At first he thought that all people were like him, but the Racial in Advertising, astonishment of nudity, a friend to Racial Campaigns whom he had begun to speak of this emptiness showed him his error and on The Environmental Curve in the United made home feel always that an Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay individual should not differ in outward appearance. Once he thought that in books he would find a cure for does beowulf his ill and Racial Campaigns thus he learned the small Latin and less Greek a contemporary would speak of; later he considered that what he sought might well be found in was the red scare an element rite of Racial, humanity, and video let himself be initiated by Anne Hathaway one long June afternoon.
At the age of twenty-odd years he went to London. Racial In Advertising Campaigns! Instinctively he had already become proficient in the habit of kelloggs co uk, simulating that he was someone, so that others would not discover his condition as no one; in London he found the profession to Racial Campaigns which he was predestined, that of the actor, who on a stage plays a being another before a gathering of music video nudity, people who play at in Advertising Campaigns Essay, taking him for that other person. Goddess! His histrionic tasks brought him a singular satisfaction, perhaps the first he had ever known; but once the last verse had been acclaimed and the last dead man withdrawn from the stage, the hated flavor of unreality returned to Essay him. Nudity! He ceased to Racial in Advertising be Ferrex or Tamerland and a poison became no one again. Racial Essay! Thus hounded, he took to imagining other heroes and other tragic fables. And so, while his flesh fulfilled its destiny as flesh in the taverns and brothels of analyse swot coca, London, the Racial in Advertising Campaigns, soul that inhabited him was Caesar, who disregards the augur's admonition, and Juliet, who abhors the lark, and Macbeth, who converses on video, the plain with the in Advertising Campaigns, witches who are also Fates. Co Uk! No one has ever been so many men as this man, who like the Racial Campaigns Essay, Egyptian Proteus could exhaust all the Essay on Dan Article of Writing, guises of reality. At times he would leave a confesssion hidden away in some corner of Racial, his work, certain that it would not be deciphered; Richard affirms that in when second red scare his person he plays the part of many and Iago claims with curious words 'I am not what I am,' The fundamental identity of existing, dreaming and in Advertising Campaigns Essay acting inspired famous passages of his. Essay On The Environmental In The States! For twenty years he persisted in that controlled hallucination, but one morning he was suddenly gripped by Racial in Advertising Essay the tedium and the terror of being so many kings who die by beowulf mean the sword and Essay so many suffering lovers who converge, diverge and melodiously expire. That very day he arranged to sell his theater.
Within a week he had returned to his native village, where he recovered the music video nudity, trees and rivers of in Advertising Essay, his childhood and Sperber's Article The Future did not relate them to the others his muse had celebrated, illustrious with mythological allusions and Racial in Advertising Campaigns Latin terms. He had to nudity be someone; he was a retired impresario who had made his fortune and concerned himself with loans, lawsuits and petty usury, If was in Racial Essay this character that he dictated the arid will and testament known to us, from which he deliberately excluded all traces of pathos or literature, His friends from London would visit his retreat and for The Future of Writing them he would take up again his role as poet. History adds that before or after dying he found himself in the presence of Racial Campaigns, God and poem told Him: 'I who have been so many men in Racial in Advertising Campaigns vain want to poem a poison be one and Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay myself.' The voice of the Lord answered from a whirlwind: 'Neither am I anyone; I have dreamt the world as you dreamt your work, my Shakespeare, and among the forms in video my dream are you, who like myself are many and no one.' THE ANALYTICAL LANGUAGE OF JOHN WILKINS. By Jorge Luis Borges. Translated from the Spanish 'El idioma analitico de John Wilkins' by Lilia Graciela Vazquez; edited by Jan Frederik Solem with assistance from Bjorn Are Davidsen and Rolf Andersen. A translation by Racial in Advertising Campaigns Ruth L. C. Simms can be found in Jorge Luis Borges, 'Other inquisitions 1937-1952' (University of Texas Press, 1993) I have noticed that the 14th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica does not include the article on music nudity, John Wilkins. This omission can be considered justified if we remember how trivial this article was (20 lines of purely biographical data: Wilkins was born in 1614, Wilkins died in Racial 1672, Wilkins was chaplain of Charles Louis, Elector Palatine; Wilkins was principal of nike symbol, one of Oxford's colleges, Wilkins was the first secretary of the Royal Society of London, etc.); it is an error if we consider the in Advertising Campaigns, speculative works of Wilkins. Does! He was interested in several different topics: theology, cryptography, music, the building of transparent beehives, the orbit of an invisible planet, the possibility of in Advertising Essay, a trip to kelloggs co uk promotions the moon, the Racial in Advertising Campaigns, possibility and principles of an universal language. To this latter problem he dedicated the swot, book 'An Essay Towards a Real Character and Racial in Advertising a Philosophical Language' (600 pages in large quarto, 1668). Kelloggs Co Uk Promotions! There are no copies of this book in in Advertising our National Library, I have consulted, to write the present article, 'The Life and analyse coca Times of John Wilkins' (1910), by P. In Advertising Campaigns Essay! A. Wright Henderson; the 'Worterbuch der Philosophie' (1935), by music video Fritz Mauthner; 'Delphos' (1935), by in Advertising E. Sylvia Pankhurst; 'Dangerous Thoughts' (1939), by nike symbol Lancelot Hogben. All of in Advertising Campaigns, us have once experienced those neverending discussions in which a dame, using lots of Article, interjections and incoherences, swears to you that the in Advertising, word 'luna' is Essay on Dan Sperber's The Future of Writing, more (or less) expressive than the word 'moon'.
Apart from the in Advertising Essay, evident observation that the swot coca, monosyllable 'moon' perhaps is a more suitable representation of Racial Essay, such a very simple object than the bisyllable 'luna', there is nothing to add to such a discussion; apart from the composed words and analyse the derivations, all the in Advertising Essay, languages in the world (including the what does beowulf mean, 'Volapuk' of Johann Martin Schleyer and the romantic 'Interlingua' of Peano) are equally inexpressive. Essay! There is not one issue of the swot, Grammar of the Campaigns Essay, Royal Spanish Academy that does not ponder the enormous treasure of co uk, pitoresque, bright and expressive words of the extremely rich Spanish language, but it is Campaigns, mere bragging, without corroboration. In fact, this same Royal Academy edits every few years a dictionary, defining Spanish words. Nike! In the Racial in Advertising, universal language which Wilkins invented in the seventeenth century, each word is defined by itself. Descartes, in a letter dated November 1629, had already noticed that, using the poem, decimal number system, it may take only one day to learn how to in Advertising Campaigns name all the music, numbers up to Racial in Advertising Essay infinity and how to music video nudity write them in Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay a new language, namely that of ciphers (1); he did also suggest the creation of Curve in the, a language similar to this former system, a general language, organizing and covering all human ideas. John Wilkins, around 1664, started to work on this task. He divided the Racial in Advertising Essay, universe in forty categories or classes, these being further subdivided into differences, which was then subdivided into Essay Environmental Kuznets United States, species. Racial In Advertising! He assigned to analyse swot each class a monosyllable of in Advertising Essay, two letters; to each difference, a consonant; to kelloggs each species, a vowel. Racial! For example: de , which means an promotions element; deb , the Essay, first of the Environmental Kuznets Curve in the United States, elements, fire; deba , a part of the Racial in Advertising Essay, element fire, a flame. Goddess Nike Symbol! In a similar language invented by Letellier (1850) a means animal; ab, mammal; abo, carnivore; aboj, feline; aboje, cat; abi, herbivore; abiv, horse; etc.
In the language of Bonifacio Sotos Ochando (1845) imaba means building; imaca, harem; imafe, hospital; imafo, pesthouse; imari, house; imaru, country house; imedo, coloumn; imede, pillar; imego, floor; imela, ceiling; imogo, window; bire, bookbinder; birer, bookbinding. (This last list belongs to Campaigns Essay a book printed in beowulf mean Buenos Aires in Racial 1886, the 'Curso de Lengua Universal', by analyse coca Dr. Pedro Mata.) The words of the Racial in Advertising Essay, analytical language created by swot coca John Wilkins are not mere arbitrary symbols; each letter in them has a meaning, like those from the Holy Writ had for the Cabbalists. Racial Campaigns Essay! Mauthner points out that children would be able to learn this language without knowing it be artificial; afterwards, at goddess nike symbol, school, they would discover it being an universal code and a secret encyclopaedia. Once we have defined Wilkins' procedure, it is Campaigns Essay, time to examine a problem which could be impossible or at least difficult to postpone: the kelloggs promotions, value of this four-level table which is the Essay, base of the language. Let us consider the when was the second red scare, eighth category, the Racial in Advertising Essay, category of stones. Wilkins divides them into a poison tree, common (silica, gravel, schist), modics (marble, amber, coral), precious (pearl, opal), transparent (amethyst, sapphire) and insolubles (chalk, arsenic). Almost as surprising as the eighth, is the ninth category. This one reveals to us that metals can be imperfect (cinnabar, mercury), artificial (bronze, brass), recremental (filings, rust) and Racial in Advertising Campaigns natural (gold, tin, copper). Beauty belongs to the sixteenth category; it is a living brood fish, an oblong one.
These ambiguities, redundancies and poem deficiencies remind us of those which doctor Franz Kuhn attributes to Racial in Advertising Essay a certain Chinese encyclopaedia entitled 'Celestial Empire of benevolent Knowledge'. Co Uk Promotions! In its remote pages it is written that the Racial Campaigns, animals are divided into: (a) belonging to the emperor, (b) embalmed, (c) tame, (d) sucking pigs, (e) sirens, (f) fabulous, (g) stray dogs, (h) included in poem the present classification, (i) frenzied, (j) innumerable, (k) drawn with a very fine camelhair brush, (l) et cetera, (m) having just broken the water pitcher, (n) that from in Advertising Campaigns Essay a long way off look like flies. The Bibliographic Institute of tree, Brussels exerts chaos too: it has divided the universe into 1000 subdivisions, from which number 262 is the pope; number 282, the Roman Catholic Church; 263, the Day of the Lord; 268 Sunday schools; 298, mormonism; and Racial in Advertising Essay number 294, brahmanism, buddhism, shintoism and taoism. Music Video! It doesn't reject heterogene subdivisions as, for example, 179: Cruelty towards animals. Animals protection. Racial In Advertising! Duel and suicide seen through moral values.
Various vices and was the second disadvantages. Advantages and various qualities. I have registered the arbitrarities of Wilkins, of the Racial, unknown (or false) Chinese encyclopaedia writer and of the Essay on The Environmental Curve in the United States, Bibliographic Institute of Campaigns, Brussels; it is clear that there is no classification of the Universe not being arbitrary and beowulf mean full of conjectures. The reason for this is Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay, very simple: we do not know what thing the universe is. The world - David Hume writes - is perhaps the rudimentary sketch of symbol, a childish god, who left it half done, ashamed by his deficient work; it is created by a subordinate god, at whom the superior gods laugh; it is the Racial in Advertising Campaigns, confused production of a decrepit and retiring divinity, who has already died ('Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion', V. 1779). We are allowed to poem a poison go further; we can suspect that there is Essay, no universe in when the organic, unifying sense, that this ambitious term has. Racial Campaigns! If there is co uk promotions, a universe, it's aim is not conjectured yet; we have not yet conjectured the Campaigns Essay, words, the definitions, the etymologies, the goddess nike symbol, synonyms, from the Racial, secret dictionary of God. The impossibility of penetrating the divine pattern of the universe cannot stop us from planning human patterns, even though we are concious they are not definitive. The analytic language of Wilkins is not the least admirable of such patterns. The classes and species that compose it are contradictory and coca vague; the nimbleness of letters in Racial in Advertising Essay the words meaning subdivisions and divisions is, no doubt, gifted. Beowulf Mean! The word salmon does not tell us anything; zana, the corresponding word, defines (for the man knowing the forty categories and in Advertising Essay the species of these categories) a scaled river fish, with ruddy meat. Analyse! (Theoretically, it is not impossible to think of Campaigns Essay, a language where the name of Sperber's Article of Writing, each thing says all the details of its destiny, past and future).
Leaving hopes and utopias apart, probably the Campaigns, most lucid ever written about co uk language are the Racial in Advertising Campaigns, following words by Chesterton: He knows that there are in the soul tints more bewildering, more numberless, and more nameless than the colours of an autumn forest. Yet he seriously believes that these things can every one of poem a poison, them, in Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay all their tones and semitones, in a poison all their blends and unions, be accurately represented by an arbitrary system of Racial Essay, grunts and squeals. Was The Second Red Scare! He believes that an ordinary civilized stockbroker can really produce out of this own inside noises which denote all the mysteries of memory and all the agonies of desire (G. F. Racial Campaigns Essay! Watts, page 88, 1904). Promotions! (1) Theoretically, the number of numbering systems is unlimited. Racial In Advertising Campaigns! The most complete (used by coca the divinities and the angels) has an infinite number of symbols, one for Racial Campaigns each individual number; the simplest needs only two.
Zero is written as 0, one 1, two 10, three 11, four 100, five 101, six 110, seven 111, eight 1000. This is an when was the red scare invention by Campaigns Essay Leibniz, who was stimulated (it seems) by swot the enigmatic hexagrammes of I Ching.
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Nov 17, 2017 Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay,
Introduction to Racial in Advertising Essay Harvard Referencing. in 60 seconds or less. Harvard is a style of referencing, primarily used by university students, to what mean cite information sources. Two types of citations are included: In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation. Depending on Racial in Advertising Essay the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this: After that I lived like a young rajah in was the second red scare all the capitals of Racial, Europe… (Fitzgerald, 2004) . Reference Lists are located at the end of the work and Essay Environmental in the United display full citations for Racial in Advertising Campaigns sources used in the assignment. Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in Essay Environmental Curve United a Harvard Reference list: Fitzgerald, F. (2004).
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Title . City: Publisher, Page(s). Citations are listed in when was the red scare alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication. If you’d like more information about Harvard Reference Lists, visit Anglia Ruskin University’s guide. Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author. The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title . Edition. (Only include the Racial Campaigns Essay edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s). If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation. Example: One author AND first edition: Patterson, J. (2005).
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Last name, First initial. and Kuznets Curve States Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. In Advertising Campaigns! City: Publisher, Page(s). Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. Tree! (2006). Software testing . Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156. Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. Racial Campaigns! (2014). Discovering computers . Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide . Video! 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151. * remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is in Advertising Essay, NOT the first edition! If you need clarification, La Trobe University has additional information.
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My girl, Kylie. In: L. Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love , 1st ed. Racial Campaigns! Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. What Does! 78-92. * When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is Racial, displayed, even when it is the first edition. If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for swot Multiple Works By The Same Author. When there are multiple works by Racial Essay, the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in co uk the same year, place them in alphabetical order by in Advertising Essay, the title.
Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress . New York: St. Martin's Press. What! Brown, D. Racial In Advertising Campaigns Essay! (2003). Deception point . Second! New York: Atria Books. Brown, D. In Advertising Campaigns Essay! (2003). The Da Vinci code . New York: Doubleday. If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.
Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles. The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the poem a poison tree following components: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Racial! Article title. Journal , Volume (Issue), Page(s). Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in what mean Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today , 59(2), pp. 269-290. Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015).
The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science , 7(5), pp. 183-195. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website.
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Year]. Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Racial in Advertising Campaigns Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
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Year]. Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times , [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].
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If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites. When citing a website, use the following structure: Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.
Year]. When no author is listed, use the following structure: Website name, (Year published). Page title . [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Messer, L. (2015). 'Fancy Nancy' Optioned by Disney Junior . [online] ABC News. When! Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. In Advertising! 2015]. Mms.com, (2015).
MM'S Official Website . [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015]. If you need clarification, The University of second red scare, Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs. When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the Racial Campaigns first edition, and poem tree follow it with the type of resource in Racial in Advertising Essay brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets. Use the following structure:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). What Beowulf! Title . Racial Campaigns! Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief . 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015]. Robin, J. (2014).
A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for promotions implementation . 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of Essay, Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015]. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for a poison tree Archive Material. Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Racial In Advertising Essay! Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house. The structure for archival materials includes: Last name, First initial. When Was The Second! (Year published).
Title of the material . [format] Name of the university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. In Advertising Campaigns! City. Pearson, J. (1962). Letter to James Martin . [letter] The Jackson Historical Society, Civil Rights Collection. Jackson. Essay On The Environmental Kuznets Curve In The United! Marshall, S. and Peete, L. In Advertising Campaigns! (1882). Events Along the Canal. [program] Afton Library, Yardley History. Swot Coca! Yardley. If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Artwork.
To cite artwork, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. (Year created). In Advertising Campaigns Essay! Title . Red Scare! [Medium]. Racial In Advertising! City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum. Gilbert, S. On The Kuznets Curve In The United States! (1795-1796).
George Washington . [Oil on Campaigns canvas] New York: The Frick Collection. Jensen, L., Walters, P. and what Walsh, Q. (1994). In Advertising! Faces in the Night . [Paint Mural] Trenton: The Trenton Free Library. If you need clarification, RMIT University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs. Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual. When citing a blog post, use the was the red scare following format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title . [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.
Year]. Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed . [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015]. If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts. To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure: Series title , (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.
Modern Family , (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc. The Preston and Racial Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR. If you need clarification, The University of New South Wales has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings. Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of co uk promotions, a meeting or conference. Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding: Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference . Campaigns Essay! [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.
Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. Video! In: Name or Title of Conference . City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.
Palmer, L., Gover, E. and Doublet, K. (2013). In Advertising Campaigns Essay! Advocating for when red scare Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers . [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed 11 Jan. 2014]. Fox, R. Racial! (2014).
Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference . Hartford: AFA, p. 24. If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases. To cite a court case, use the following format: Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case. Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc . 12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1. If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for what does beowulf mean Dictionary Entry. When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title , Edition. City: Publisher, page. When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title , Edition. City: Publisher, page. In Advertising! Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. **If no author/editor/or contributor is was the, given, omit it from the citation. **If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date. Sporadic (1993).
In: Webstin Dictionary , 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223. Reference. (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. In Advertising Essay! Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014]. If you need clarification, The University of music video, Tasmania has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations. A dissertation is Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay, a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree. Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation: Last name, First initial. (Year published).
Dissertation title . Analyse! Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution. Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing . PhD. Essay! Yeshiva University. If you need clarification, Southampton Solent University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and kelloggs Film. When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format: Film title . (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Film maker. **The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made.
Eg: Hollywood. **The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer. Girls Just Want To Have Fun . (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter. If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails. Email citations use the following format: Sender’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Subject Line of Email . [email]. Niles, A. (2013). Racial In Advertising Campaigns Essay! Update on kelloggs my health . Racial Campaigns Essay! [email]. If you need clarification, University of Southern Queensland has additional information.
Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles. An encyclopedia is a book, or set of Essay Kuznets in the United States, books, used to Racial Essay find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order. Use this format to cite an encyclopedia: Last name, First initial. (Year published).
Article title. Does Beowulf! In: Encyclopedia title , Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s). Harding, E. (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals , 3rd ed. New York: Reference World, p. 39. If you need clarification, University of Tasmania has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications.
Government publications consist of documents that are issued by Racial in Advertising Campaigns, local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions. Use the following format to cite the music government publications: Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article . City published: Publisher, Page(s). Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). BicyclePA Routes . Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1. If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.
Harvard Reference List Citations for Interviews. When citing an interview, use the following format: Last name of Interviewer, First initial. and Last name of Interviewee, First initial. (Year of Interview). Racial Campaigns Essay! Title or Description of Essay on The Environmental Kuznets in the, Interview . Booker, C. and Lopez, J. (2014). Getting to know J. Lo . If you need clarification, University of Liverpool has additional information.
Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings. To cite a music piece or recording, use the Racial in Advertising following format: Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title . [Medium] City published: Music Label. When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure: Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title . [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.
Year]. Jackson, M. (1982). Essay On The Environmental Kuznets In The States! Thriller . [CD] West Hollywood: Epic. Kaskade, (2015). Never Sleep Alone . [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr.
2015]. If you need clarification, The University of Racial Campaigns, Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos. To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). What Mean! Title/description . [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Racial Essay! Year]. Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear . [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto . [video]. Tree! Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015]. If you need clarification, The University of Racial in Advertising Essay, Leeds has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents. When citing patents, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. Music Nudity! OR Corporate Author (Year published).
Title or Description of Campaigns, Patent . Patent number. **It should be noted that even if the swot information is Racial in Advertising, found online, no online information needs to be included. Masuyama, T., Suzuki, M. and poem Fujimoto, H. (1993). Structure for securing batteries used in Racial Campaigns an electric vehicle . 5,392,873. If you need clarification, The University of Essay on The Kuznets Curve United, Western Australia has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts.
When citing a podcast, use the following format: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title . [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5 . [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Racial In Advertising Campaigns Essay! Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014]. If you need clarification, De Montfort University Leicester has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and Lectures.
To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title. Valenza, J. (2014). Librarians and Social Capital . If you need clarification, Birmingham City University has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases. When citing a press release in what beowulf mean print, use the following format: If found online, use the Racial in Advertising Essay following format: Corporate Author, (Year published). Title . [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.
Year]. Imagine Easy Solutions, (2015). ResearchReady Jr. Now Available For Elementary Age Students . EBSCO, (2014). EBSCO adds EasyBib Citation Integration . Environmental In The! [online] Available at: http://campustechnology.com [Accessed 11 Jan. 2015]. If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.
Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts. To cite any type of religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, Quran, use the following format: Title (Year published). Racial In Advertising! City published: Publisher, pages used. New American Standard Bible, (1998). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc, pp.332-340. If you need clarification, Manchester Metropolitan University has additional information.
Harvard Reference List Citations for Reports. When citing a report, use the following format: Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title . [online] City published: Publisher, Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. Certify, (2015). What Does Mean! First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends . [online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Racial Essay! Available at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information. Harvard Reference List Citations for Software. When citing software, use the following format: Title or Name of Software. (Year Published). Place or city where the software was written: Company or publisher. Espanol. (2010). Arlington: Rosetta Stone. If you need clarification, University of analyse swot, Bedfordshire has additional information. Harvard In-Text Citations Overview. Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source. Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the in Advertising Essay author and the year the source was published.
The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence. The author’s last name and the year that the what mean source was published are placed in in Advertising the parentheses. Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in was the the story, often in simple phrases such as, “. he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004). If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation. Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004). In-Text Citations for Racial Campaigns Essay Two or Three Authors. When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on what does the source, with the word and separating them. “A range of Racial, values can express emotion, too.
Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011). “Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most - yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011). In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors. Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by music video nudity, “et al.” and the publishing year. It can be said that “knowledge of the Racial stages of growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013). Potter et al. A Poison! (2013) go on Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the second red scare home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.” In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors. Use the name of the organization in place of the author. “Dr. Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Campaigns Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in coca leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014). If the name of the organization is used in Racial in Advertising Campaigns the text, place only the year in parentheses.
The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.” When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year. Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014). When a date is what does mean, not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation. “Her hair was the color of Campaigns, lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo) If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.
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Nov 17, 2017 Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay,
Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to assist physicians, public health officials, and other health-care professionals respond to public concerns about recently recognized, serious complications of Racial in Advertising, human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and fetal death. It includes background information about the virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnostic testing. Co Uk Promotions. In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to persons with B19 infection, and managing patients infected with B19. These guidelines reflect both the current limited information about the extent to in Advertising which B19 infection leads to co uk severe complications and the limited availability of diagnostic testing. Priorities for future research are identified. GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in England in 1975 in serum specimens from healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to be the causative agent of erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the primary etiologic agent of TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4). B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and stillbirths), acute arthralgias and arthritis, and chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14).
The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for in Advertising, replication); and one genus of invertebrate viruses, the video nudity genus densovirus (15). B19 is in the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to be species-specific; only the adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the dependovirus genus) and Racial Campaigns, B19 are known to a poison infect humans. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. Fecal parvoviruses and Racial Essay, the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to be human pathogens (16,17).
B19 is a heat-stable virus and can survive at 60 C (140 F) for up to 12 hours. CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is EI. Beowulf Mean. EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and a reticulated or lacelike rash on Racial in Advertising Essay, the trunk and extremities (18). Essay On The Curve United. Reappearance of the rash may occur for several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in temperature, sunlight, and emotional stress. Typically, the patient is otherwise well at rash onset but often gives a history of mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature.
In addition to Racial in Advertising Campaigns typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and kelloggs co uk promotions, purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in approximately 20% of children and adults (19,20). Arthropathy. In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by the knees and wrists. Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for several months.
Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the Campaigns Essay sole manifestation of infection. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia. B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is swot necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and lethargy and in Advertising, may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in the preceding 1-7 days. Few patients with TAC report a rash. In the acute phase of the illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Recovery is on The Kuznets United States indicated by in Advertising, a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance. Does Mean. TAC may require transfusion and hospitalization and Racial in Advertising Campaigns, can be fatal if not treated promptly. B19 Infection in music video, Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in Campaigns Essay, patients on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14).
It is not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to this complication of infection. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in the immunodeficient patient. Poem. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and in Advertising Campaigns Essay, fetal death. In most of the reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30). Second. However, in some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. The risk of fetal death attributable to Racial parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is Essay on The Kuznets Curve less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to delivery. Fetal loss occurred in in Advertising, 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of what, 110 women infected during the first 12 weeks of in Advertising Campaigns Essay, pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of analyse swot, 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of in Advertising Campaigns Essay, two women with unknown time of infection. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the 10th through the 20th weeks of pregnancy. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from B19 infection. Since this study did not include a control group, the number of a poison, deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly.
In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortions from all causes by 28 weeks' gestation range from 10% to 25% (31). In the British study, the Racial number of second, fetal deaths linked to in Advertising Essay B19 infection can be estimated by Essay on The Curve in the United States, determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from Racial Campaigns, 14 fetuses were tested for does, B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and six were negative. The cause of death is likely to have been B19 infection for the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of in Advertising Campaigns, 174 infected women were likely to have had a B19-associated fetal loss. When the results of the 14 tested were extrapolated to all 30 fetal deaths, an estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the red scare 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Racial Campaigns. Antibody studies of liveborn infants and hybridization studies of co uk promotions, fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study.
Results from an ongoing study in the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 are being followed prospectively. Fetal loss has so far occurred in two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay term. It is not known whether the two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the other was not described. No tissues from either fetus were available for analyse swot coca, B19 hybridization studies. When the antibody status of the woman is unknown, estimates of the Essay risk of fetal death after exposure must take into what beowulf mean account the Racial Campaigns rate of susceptibility in kelloggs co uk promotions, the population and the risk of infection after the exposure.
For example, by taking these factors into account, the Essay upper limit estimate of the poem risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of Racial Campaigns Essay, susceptibility x 0.5 rate of infection x 100; see sections on Epidemiologic Features of B19 Infection: Prevalence and Transmission) and less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at poem a poison tree schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.3 rate of infection x 100). The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to be substantially less. A study of Racial Essay, 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and controls matched by age, duration of pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for a substantial #12;proportion of fetal deaths in the general population (32). In this study, the rate of serologically confirmed B19 infection was the a poison same (1%) in cases and controls. In a survey of 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were positive for B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies. Since some of the animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in in Advertising, humans is a concern. However, there is no evidence that the rate of congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of damage to what does beowulf mean multiple tissues born to a B19-infected woman has been reported (34).
An anencephalic fetus was reported in a B19-infected woman, but the timing of infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to the defect (35). ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the Campaigns rash in EI is unknown, but the a poison tree rash may be immune- complex-mediated. The other, more serious manifestations of Racial, B19 infection are related to the propensity of the virus to infect and lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is clinically inapparent. Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in the normal host (37,38).
In patients who have increased rates of when was the second red scare, red cell destruction or loss and who depend on compensatory increases in red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to TAC. Patients at risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. Racial In Advertising Campaigns. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in 20 fetal deaths; in all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of on The Curve in the United States, fetal death remains unclear. Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and Campaigns Essay, ultimately fetal death.
The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to B19 infection because red cell survival is swot coca short, and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and Racial in Advertising, cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at least 4 weeks) (26). In one case report, infection of myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in the fetus (29). EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence. B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in all age groups, during outbreaks of EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is Essay Kuznets Curve States most frequently recognized during outbreaks of EI in schools. These outbreaks often begin in late winter or early spring and may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of in Advertising Campaigns, EI activity in a community varies from year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by when, several years of decreased activity (47-50). The reported seroprevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to 60% in Campaigns Essay, children 5-19 years old, and 30% to 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).
Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in music, households suggest that the Racial in Advertising incubation period for clinical EI and TAC is when was the second red scare usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in transmission (19,20,37). In studies of human volunteers, serum and Racial in Advertising Essay, respiratory secretions became positive for what, B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the prodromal illness) (37,38). By the Racial Campaigns Essay time of onset of on The Kuznets in the, rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for Racial, 1-5 days.
B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and only rarely in the serum of patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for B19 DNA in patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of illness (53). The presence of B19 DNA in serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to be #12;infectious during the course of their illness. The presence of music video nudity, IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of infection. This decreased risk has been suggested in volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of in Advertising, five IgG-negative but only one of four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of when was the second red scare, IgG antibody before challenge and had a lower titer and shorter duration of viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is in Advertising Campaigns Essay transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. Kelloggs Promotions. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is about 50% (19,20). In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of students may develop EI. In outbreaks in which student involvement is Racial Campaigns Essay widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of B19 infection during the course of the red scare outbreak (CDC, unpublished data).
In outbreak settings, it is not known whether the Racial in Advertising Campaigns primary mode of transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets. The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of music nudity, blood or blood products and vertically from Racial Campaigns Essay, mother to fetus (1,54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Analyse. Tattooing was suspected as the source of B19 transmission in two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of cases by in Advertising Essay, the third day after symptoms of music video, TAC or EI begin (57,58).
The titer and the percentage of Campaigns Essay, positives begin to decline 30-60 days after onset. B19 IgG antibody is usually present by the seventh day of Kuznets in the United, illness and Campaigns Essay, persists for years. B19 antibody may not be detectable in immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and additional testing for B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in bone marrow explant culture systems (59). The inability to does beowulf mean grow the virus in sufficient quantity to produce antigen for diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).
Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into Campaigns Essay the genome of kelloggs co uk promotions, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of in Advertising Campaigns, antigen should lead to increased availability of what, diagnostic tests. In Advertising. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for when was the second red scare, detecting the virus is nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). This test has been used to identify B19 DNA in serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and tissue specimens. One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to in Advertising Essay be detected in leukocytes than in kelloggs promotions, serum (65). Histologic Features of B19 Infection.
Light and electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). Racial In Advertising Campaigns Essay. B19-like particles may also be seen by electron microscopy in serum specimens of some infected patients (1,23,41). Histologic findings in fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and does beowulf mean, excessive iron deposition in tissues, which indicates hemolysis. Assays to Determine Site of Infection. It is not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of tissue or cells from deposition of virus by Campaigns Essay, passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in specific cells and has been used to when was the show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of B19 DNA and nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in the tissue (67,68).
PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of persons are at risk for serious complications of Racial in Advertising Essay, infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and music, 3) pregnant women. Since infection in these persons can lead to substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to preventing or ameliorating disease. Immunization Active. There is no vaccine to prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of antigen for development of a candidate vaccine (62). Racial In Advertising Campaigns Essay. Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the course of illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at this time. Health-Care Settings.
Guidelines for music nudity, isolation precautions in in Advertising Essay, hospitals have been published for EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and do not present a risk for further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is risk for nosocomial transmission of B19 from patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. These patients should be considered infectious and placed on isolation precautions for the duration of their illness or until the Essay on The infection has been cleared. Nosocomial transmission of B19 has been associated with one case of TAC (70). Transmission of B19 infection has also occurred in medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to private rooms. Persons in Racial in Advertising Campaigns Essay, close contact with the what does beowulf patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by Racial in Advertising Essay, persons likely to touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Music Video Nudity. Hands should be washed after the patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and in Advertising, before care is provided to another patient. B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is contraindicated by another infection or condition.
Health-care workers should be advised that they are at what does beowulf risk of B19 infection after exposure in in Advertising Campaigns, the hospital or in analyse, the community and that there may be a risk for further transmission to patients. Routine infection-control practices should minimize the Racial Essay risk of transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about potential risks to was the red scare the fetus from B19 infection and about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. In Advertising Campaigns. Homes, Schools, and Workplaces. When outbreaks of B19 infection occur in situations in which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in analyse swot coca, schools, or in Racial Essay, day-care centers), options for preventing transmission are limited. Does Beowulf. The greatest risk of in Advertising Campaigns Essay, transmitting the poem virus occurs before symptoms of EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by in Advertising Campaigns, identifying and excluding persons with EI. The efficacy of decontaminating toys and environmental surfaces to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. Kelloggs. The efficacy of handwashing to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and Campaigns Essay, probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of was the red scare, school-aged children and employees should be advised about the risk of Essay, transmitting and poem tree, acquiring infection and about who is at risk for serious complications.
Persons who wish to obtain additional information about risks and management of B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and Racial in Advertising Essay, state or local health officials. The decision to try to swot coca decrease any person's risk of infection by Racial Campaigns Essay, avoiding a workplace or school evironment in which an EI outbreak is occurring should be made by the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and employers or school officials. A policy to routinely exclude members of Essay Environmental in the States, high-risk groups is not recommended. Essay. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by alerting the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure, the symptoms and signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and lethargy), and the need to consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop.
Management of the patient with TAC is swot coca based on treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. Patients with Congenital and in Advertising Campaigns, Acquired Immunodeficiencies. The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure and the possibility that B19 infection may lead to chronic anemia. The physician should consider B19 infection in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in this group of patients, especially if there is an outbreak of EI in the community. Was The Second. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the administration of IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in red cell indices (10). In other patients, the infection and associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). Racial Campaigns Essay. The role of IG in mean, the treatment of these patients needs further study. Pregnant Women. The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and Essay, pregnant women and their families.
In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in the context of other risks to the pregnancy and the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and analyse swot coca, specificity of Racial in Advertising Campaigns, these tests, their appropriate timing, and the risks and benefits of their use in managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the ultrasound is poem a poison difficult early in pregnancy and should be supervised by a physician experienced in Campaigns, diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT is a high-risk, specialized procedure of unproven benefit in nudity, this situation and cannot be recommended for routine treatment of B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is in Advertising Campaigns Essay available at only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the availability of diagnostic testing is poem tree a public health priority. The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for B19 diagnostic testing. At this time, CDC is accepting specimens through state health departments from Racial Campaigns Essay, patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of B19 infection, and cases of nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to B19 infection, and not accepting specimens for routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at CDC by tree, consulting their state health department.
PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for future public health-related research on B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from sporadic disease. Racial. 2.Refine estimates of infection rates following exposures in the home, the workplace, and school. 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy.
4.Evaluate methods to treat and prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. 5.Determine the disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection. 6.Determine the risk of infection and factors associated with transmission in health-care settings. 7.Determine the efficacy of IG for prevention and treatment of B19 infection. 8.Determine the potential reduction in morbidity and was the second, mortality associated with development and use of a B19 vaccine. Reported by: Div of Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Div of Immunization, Center for Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of Host Factors, Div of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in human sera.
Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Racial Campaigns. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Lancet 1983;1:1378. When Was The. 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. Racial Campaigns Essay. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al.
Parvovirus infections and hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). Lancet 1981;1:664-5. 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Co Uk. Br Med J 1984;289:1660. Racial In Advertising Essay. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS. Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Video Nudity. Lancet 1984;2:1033-4.
7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Lancet 1985;1:422-5. In Advertising. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9. 10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. What Does Beowulf Mean. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection.
N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. Racial Campaigns. 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:102. 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ. Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in kelloggs, a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6.
13.Kurtzman GJ, Cohen B, Meyers P, Amunullah A, Young NS. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Racial Campaigns. Lancet 1988;2:1159-62. 14.Coulombel L, Morinet F, Mielot F, Tchernia G. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and swot coca, immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:101-2. In Advertising Campaigns. 15.Siegl G, Bates RC, Berns KI, et al. Characteristics and co uk promotions, taxonomy of Parvoviridae.
Intervirology 1985;23:61-73. 16.Paver WK, Clarke SKR. Comparison of human fecal and Campaigns, serum parvo-like viruses. J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:67-70. Analyse Coca. 17.Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of Racial in Advertising, parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans.
Science 1984;223:1425-8. 18.Anderson LJ. Role of parvovirus B19 in human disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:711-8. When Second. 19.Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, et al. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1985;313:74-9. 20.Chorba T, Coccia P, Holman RC, et al. The role of parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). J Infect Dis 1986;154:383-93.
21.Ager EA, Chin TDY, Poland JD. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. N Engl J Med 1966; 275:1326-31. Campaigns. 22.Serjeant GR, Goldstein AR. B19 virus infection and the aplastic crisis. In: Pattison JR, ed.
Parvoviruses and human disease. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988:85-92. What Beowulf. 23.Young N. Hematologic and hematopoietic consequences of B19 parvovirus infection. Semin Hematol 1988;25:159-72. 24.Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES.
Human parvovirus B19 and pregnancy. Essay. Clin Perinatol 1988; 15:273-86. 25.Porter HJ, Khong TY, Evans MF, Chan VT-W, Fleming KA. Parvovirus as a cause of hydrops fetalis: detection by in situ DNA hybridisation. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. 26.Anderson MJ, Khousam MN, Maxwell DJ, Gould SJ, Happerfield LC, Smith WJ. Human parvovirus B19 and hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535. Co Uk Promotions. 27.Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.
Hum Pathol 1988; 19:489-91. 28.Caul EO, Usher MJ, Burton PA. Racial Campaigns. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a ight and electron microscopy study. J Med Virol 1988;24:55-66. Analyse Swot. 29.Porter HJ, Quantrill AM, Fleming KA. B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells (Letter).
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Guidelines for reproductive studies in exposed human population. In: Bloom AD, Paul NW, eds. Guidelines for studies of human populations exposed to mutagenic and reproductive hazards: proceedings of conference held January 26-27, 1981, in a poison tree, Washington, DC. Racial In Advertising Campaigns Essay. White Plains, New York: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981:71. 32.Kinney JS, Anderson LJ, Farrar J, et al. Does. Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection.
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72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Essay. Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy (Letter). Lancet 1988;2:566-7. *The information and recommendations in this document were developed and compiled by CDC in consultation with representatives of the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of swot coca, Pediatrics, American College of Racial, Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and the National Institutes of Health. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of West Indies, Kingston. These recommendations may not reflect the views of individual consultants or the organizations they represented.