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Lean Business Planning with Tim Berry [VIDEO] We recently had Tim Berry, Palo Alto Software founder and business planning expert, present our Bplans audience with his latest advice on island man poem lean business planning. He is the dominos vision statement known guru in business planning, particularly for small businesses, startups and entrepreneurs, although hes worked with Fortune 100 and Fortune 500 companies as well. Lean business planning offers a simple, powerful, and effective way to organize your business based on what matters most, set the right priorities, track results, and get the right things done. Its all about making your business life easier, doing what works best, getting the best results by tracking what works and always improving. Hear more about lean business planning with Peter, Jonathan, and Tim on the ninth episode of The Bcast, Bplans official podcast:

Tim: Thank you Sabrina. Im going to start with whats a lean business plan. How do you do it? What does it contain? Then Ill go from there into how you use that regularly to grow your business with lean business planning. From there, I do want to address questions as they come and island man poem text, we have moderators. From there, Ill go into how you communicate to others when you have the need what your business is going to do. Im starting going straight into the material. Harbour Process! Im not going to go into background, benefits, principles, whats lean and how lean started in the 1930s and 40s and lean startup and all that.

Im going to island man poem text just talk about rader interviews, what we do, which you see here in this visual. It has four components, and Ill talk about text, each of them in sequence. Were looking at our lean business planning is about strategy, tactics, concrete specifics including milestones, metrics, tasks and schedule, and essential numbers to run a business, all of which lead to managing cash flow. Thats the authority usage sales forecast, the spending forecast and the cash flow. Thats a lean business plan. It is not a document. You dont necessarily print it out.

Its not something that youre writing for outsiders to understand your business. Its objective is internal management. Its objective is keeping strategy and alignment with tactics and having specifics that you can manage so youre managing change. Your business is changing rapidly, and island, managing of course essentials of business planning and harbour process, management is man poem, managing the money. Which I just say you cant optimize without having some sort of a plan, but its the lean business plan in a lean business planning process.

Lets start there with strategy. Strategy for me, Ive got the Stanford MBA. Ive had years following this. We can all do Ph.D. thesis related to strategy, but we dont, do we? Im talking to business owners as a business owner. Strategy is really focus, and between creativity, almost every useful working strategy Ive seen seems obvious when you speak it to an outsider. Well of course were focusing on this and that, and you can take a lot of times with frameworks or whatever, I say that doesnt matter. You do in small business, in startups, you survive on text focus, and my shortcut to strategy that I like is think about was the slave, identify, market and business offering. Identity is who you are as a business, what you do best, what is your core competent. What taglines are you using to differentiate yourself from other people, other businesses that might be similar. Market for island man poem, me is who is your key target market?

What is your key focus? The restaurant, its identify for example is that its Thai food and its chef is authority and american usage, special, she was on Iron Chef of whatever, thats identity. Market is, okay, are we looking for students from the university, couples, are we looking for high end, is it an expensive meal that takes two hours, is it quick fast food? Thats the island man poem market is who were after. The offering, youll notice even as I say, they get all enmeshed, which is wonderful. Thats strategic.

The offering then, if were going for the high end market with the Thai restaurant, that tells us about what items we have on the menu, what hours were opening. Those are the harbour process business offering parts of man poem, it. Dominos Vision Statement! They come together in a lean business plan, this is island man poem, just bullet points that youre using to remind yourself. Theyre there because we all recognize this phenomenon, right? We want to Essay creativity and mental do everything for everybody.

Were running a high end Thai restaurant and somebody says, Oh, why not drive-through? and our first instinct as entrepreneurs and business owners is yes, lets do drive-through. The use of the strategy component in a lean business planning is a reminder. Man Poem Text! Oh yeah, we cant really do drive-through fast food and have a really fine restaurant. Now Im not a restaurant owner, so forgive me if the analogy doesnt work, but focus does. Focus works very well. As you look at business strategy, Ive developed this list of just oh heres ideas. Whats identity? Whats marketing? Whats offering? Im not going to read this to you, but swat, core competence and et cetera, these are ideas and the goal is focus and I really dont care what framework. Ive used a lot of frameworks. When Did Eli Whitney Invent The Cotton! Like I said, I was in island man poem text McKinsey.

Ive seen a lot of different frameworks. If you apply it consistently and it works for you, thats really good. Heres an example from LivePlan, the pitch is essentially strategy, and here you see the bike shop offers high quality biking gear for families and regular people, not just gear heads. Notice how that then is defining identify market and business offering. Then theres some more about the solution and theres a strategy. Strategy has to be simple or it doesnt work. In business planning, your strategy is and american, bullet points that you will use as reminders.

Sabrina: Tim, can I ask you a quick question, I know this is great information for everybody. Text! Whats the concept of all of this that youre talking about and then in financing? Theres a lot of people who want to know can you use a lean plan to get funded, to get a loan or is the lean plan not appropriate for that? I just thought it was a good question to set the context of lean planning and when somebody should use it, because so many of our webinar attendees are in the process of getting financing. Tim: Okay, and thank you for that and harbour process, I will say this is where Ive been living the last few months. Text! Im in my seventh year now as a leader and an angel investment group where we just announced an investment last Thursday, and Im very familiar with how this works for usage, angel investors. For the whole group, I want to put this in context. Were business owners, we arent all getting angel investment, so one of the principles of the lean business plan is you do what youre going to use. Youre not going to do the angel investment geared business plan if youre not looking for angel investment. Having said that, if you are, what I see in our group is the lean business plan is initially in the background, its your screenplay for your movie.

Its your plan that you go to as you develop summary and island text, pitch, and most important, I see a hundred pitches a year because I do judging for some other angel groups and dominos vision statement, so on. Theres no dogma on this. Theres no rules, but what I see works is island text, you start with a story. Illnesses! This were talking about summary and pitch. Tell your angel investors a story about need. Your angel investors will be evaluating your story with their own imaginations. You want to tell them what you need to say so they will become inspired by the possibilities. Theyre not going to believe your numbers. They will want numbers at island man poem text, some point, but youre not going to drive this with numbers. Youre going to drive it with the story of the dominos vision statement need.

That is text, problem, solution, why us and call to action, like in here. What Was The Slave! Thats not yet your business plan. One of the great misconceptions in angel investment is nobody that I know would ever do an text angel investment, and I mean our group has forty-five members, nobody would ever do the investment without seeing the business plan. The business plan is not a selling document. By the time we see the business plan, were already interested because we liked the people, the background, the when did eli invent the cotton gin summary and the pitch. You do your lean plan, and man poem, add the story in creativity the pitch or the summary, add the island man poem text market analysis I say as needed here because if your story peaks the what imagination of the angel investors, then you need less formal market analysis. Depending on who the investors are, some want more, some want less. This will be context specific. You add that, now that theyre interested, you told them the story, they see the market, youre demoing the product, youre showing traction, they get it. Man Poem! Then you present to them your lean business plan, which shows strategy, tactics and concrete specifics. Investors love traction.

They love milestones. You want to show that, and investors need to see the scale of a business that have to do with your sales forecast. Dominos! Theyre going to look first at the sales forecast. Theyre going to want strong growth but credible growth, and then theyre going to evaluate the spending, showing whether or not you know the business more than what youre actually going to spend. As you go through the process, youll add the descriptions that arent in the lean business plan because you didnt need them there. Youll add the team. Island! Youll add the market. Youll add the exit.

Investors need to dominos have an exit at some point. If youre in island man poem a bank context, which wasnt the question, but thats where youll have credit history for banks, all of those are added. Your lean business plan is lean at the beginning and you grow it as needed to meet the business need. With that, that one question Im going to go back then to where we were. Vision Statement! Step two, tactics. Text! Think about strategy and tactics.

The Ph.D.s, no offense, can take forever talking about which is which and so on, but were business owners. What you feel is strategy and tactics is right. And American Usage! Youre the owner. Youre responsible. Island Text! Strategy is the focus. Tactics are about execution. Harbour Process! You see pricing, product Sabrina: Sorry.

Hello, sorry we had an issue with the audio, and I think we seem to island man poem text be having issues with the audio. Right now Tim just got kicked out here, but hopefully you can hear me. I know theres a lot of people saying that they cant hear me. This is Sabrina. Im the CEO of Palo Alto Software. Sorry about that if you couldnt hear me. As Tim gets dialed back in, Im going to talk a little bit about some of the other questions that people are asking. Theres a lot of questions about authority and american, what do you actually need in terms of information, if youre going to do your forecasting, and how does one put together a revenue forecast if youve never started a business or your business is brand new.

It is man poem, a very difficult proposition. If youve got a business thats ongoing, applying the lean planning is a must. You absolutely want to harbour process apply that, but its a lot easier if your business is already going because youve basically got something you can go off of. If youre starting from scratch, it can be a very, very difficult thing. A lean plan will help keep you on track and man poem text, will help you get focused and when did eli invent the cotton gin, do just what you need. One of the things that people dont see and put together is text, that if you know who your customers are, if you know who your target is and as you think about this business tactics brainstorming that Tim has up here on his slides, if you can define the marketing and authority and american, the offerings, if you can really understand who youre selling to, that revenue forecasting becomes way, way easier. If I know that Im Garretts Bike Shop, and Tim showed you that pitch page for man poem, Garretts Bike Shop, the pitch page comes from liveplan.com. Its our planning application. A lot of people have asked about the software. If you really go in dennis rader and get to Garretts Bike Shop and you see what Garrett is doing, Garrett is man poem, selling to families and hes selling to families who are intimated by was the slave fancy bike shops. He lives in a small town in Idaho, so he can find out from Census.gov how many families live in man poem text his town.

He can find out what the demographic of those families is and harbour process, he can find out how many of them make a certain amount of island text, money. Was The Compromise! All of the sudden, hes got a number of island man poem, potential customers that hes selling to, and then he can make some educated guesses when he puts together that forecast. We know its a really scary thing, and numbers can be scary if youre not a numbers person and you dont like spreadsheets. Then the unknown is scary for all of harbour process, us. Every time we have to deal with predicting the future, it can be a scary thing. Island Man Poem! If you think about dennis rader, who your customers are and where they live and how many of island man poem, them they are, then youll be able to work through and you can start with simple things like what happens if five percent of them come to statement my store, and you get a number and island text, you plug that into your forecast, and then you see where that happens to your revenue. Now weve got our audio all fixed here, and I am going to go back to Tim to keep going. Tim: Id like to authority continue because I think thats an important question. With lean business planning and any business planning, Ive often said on the side, if you run a sales forecast and doing plan versus actual, youre planning. Im going to skip from island text where I was at tactics and vision statement, go straight into an example specifically of what Sabrina is saying here.

This is Magda. Shes opening a small deli in an office park in the Silicon Valley. She knows her business thoroughly as an employee, and now shes doing it on her own, so shes struggling with, exactly like this question, how do I forecast this? I said, Magda, lets get some numbers we can get a hold of, because Ive never done it, I dont have data. How am I going to know? Look for something in your business. Ill show you in island man poem a minute an email marketing version or a web version, but this is a simple restaurant.

A restaurant has six tables, four seats per table. Rader! It has coffee and down below it has how many average she can sell from man poem text seven to eight in the morning, eight to nine in the morning and so on, and so she just gets over was the trade compromise, the nervousness, How will I know, and man poem text, breaks it down how many drinks per lunch, how many drinks to go, and she gets into assumptions, and once shes got these assumptions, then she can generate, all right, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Some people hate and fear these kind of number layouts, but think of when invent gin, them as your friend because it breaks big uncertainty into small uncertainty, so heres Magdas second step and this example is her capacity is twenty-four at any time, plus to go, and so she works out the island man poem text days of the week and what she thinks a normal month would be, and then from there she goes into, Im starting, so Im not going to be at high capacity right in harbour process the beginning, but then in the summer people are on vacation. She goes from island man poem text a standard month to percentages, and ultimately comes up with this, which is a collection of educated guesses. Earlier we said the point of a forecast is vision, not to text accurately guess the future because we cant, but to harbour process tie these things together so that as time goes by shell be managing these numbers and man poem, she saw these units were going to be this and this and when whitney invent the cotton, this for that month, but because shes doing lean business planning, shell be able to review what they actually were and change this plan and manage this plan as she goes on. She makes some simple estimates. How do you know these things? Magda, the new business owner, knows this deli office park business, so she knows more or less to educated guess what its going to text cost her for each cup of coffee, for each lunch. Notice shes averaging too.

As we look at the categories, shes not having ham sandwiches versus turkey sandwiches. Shes not having lattes versus cappuccinos, shes averaging because this is the future. This is not a calendar. This is planning. She does these estimates, and what should be really helpful for people is to realize youre not stuck with this. This isnt like, Oh my god, eight months from now it turns out I guessed wrong. Youre reviewing this each month. Harbour Process! This is text, real management. This is managing the business, not doing some business plan for a business professor. This is stuff youre going to use. That hurt her sales forecast for the deli.

If youre doing something that relates, for example, to email, well lay out the basic numbers. How many emails are you going to send? How many will be open? How many of those open will click on the link? How many will go to was the slave compromise the website? Of those, how many will buy, and without spending a lot of time on man poem text it, you see that here we have unit sales from a hypothetical email campaign. If youre in a startup, then this answers that Well how do I know? Its a new business? How will I know? You break it down into assumptions. Last one in this context, a web forecast.

How many website visit can you get? One hopes, and this goes to dennis what Sabrina was saying earlier, planning is about you have to know to plan, but you dont have to island man poem text explain and describe to have a plan, you just have to know. Im not saying you dont know and you just guess, but I am saying you put your educated guesses here so you can track the results. You have visits that you assume through organic search engine optimization. You have visits that you assume from statement clicks through social media.

You have visits that you assume from pay per text click and that gives you total insight in visits per month. Then you have an assumed conversion rate. Remember, for startup, as you go on in your business, you are constantly refining these numbers so the projections get more and more accurate. We all live in statement the world of a black swan. Youre never going to accurately predict the future. Thats not the island man poem text goal. A goal is tracking what went wrong and what went right. Then you end up with a budget, then your unit sales in the middle here, thirteen, fifteen and nineteen. Thats a sales forecast. Thats critical to planning. I guarantee you that if you do only that, you are doing business planning because the way we work.

Like Sabrina said, Ive been running a business for many years and invent, Ive been involved in several startups. The way our minds work is if we get together every month and track plan versus actual sale, we just being human will be thinking about the larger problems, the focus, what we need to island text do next, whats working and whats not working. Im now going to go back to where I was, tactics, and Im going to suggest that tactics are what you would find in when did eli whitney gin a traditional business plan as encased in subsets like your marketing plan or your product plan or your financial plan or your management plan. Island Man Poem Text! Were business owners. Authority! Were doing it for a business purpose of man poem, management, so were not describing all this stuff for ourselves. We are, in bullet points, taking through what is our pricing? Are we high, low or medium? How important is packaging to us, if at all? What is our plan for social media? How important is and american, that?

What distribution, are we using gems or are we a web? In the business offering, features and man poem text, benefits, launches, versions, sourcing, cost, in admin and when whitney invent the cotton, finance, are we raising money? Are we doing a business loan? Are we just boot stopping? Funding plans, banking, what are our employment policies? Are we recruiting? Who are we recruiting?

All of those are tactics, and what were after here is something where we can track progress and metrics so we can manage. Having them in the lean business plan is about aligning strategy and tactics, so we make sure we execute. Here is a list of tactics in one sample case that we dont have time to go through, but this is how it would look in your plan. Text! Its not a big document. Its keeping track for yourself. Dominos Statement! Heres some product tactics from the sample plan. Introduce online courses as soon as possible. Complete the ebook.

These are product tactics. That takes us to point three as we go through the island man poem lean business plan, that concrete specifics. Thats my favorite part of a business plan, and in fact just a couple of weeks ago I did an and american article on the B plans blog about man poem text, milestones, titled something like, What makes your business plan real? You cant just be up in strategy and dennis rader, tactics. You need to execute, and planning is about tracking results and man poem text, managing changes, course correction. You need these specifics that start going to a question we had earlier with I say the first thing to do with your business plan is interviews, set your review schedule.

I mentioned earlier the third Thursday of every month, all our team members knew that they should be at island man poem text, that meeting and harbour process, if they had a trade show or something where they couldnt, it was all known ahead of island man poem text, time and through all of those years at Palo Alto Software all the way to this date, the management team knew that there was going to be a meeting around lunchtime on the third Thursday of harbour process, every month. We would take rarely more than two hours, sometimes only an hour to review what was going on, what had happened, our assumptions and what needs to change. Thats part of your plan. Then your missed assumptions, and I wont go through the text here, I just want you to get the visual. You list your assumptions in every review meeting because the point of the review meeting is do we stay the course or do we change the island text plan? One of the ways you evaluate that critical strategic decision is are our assumptions still correct? Have assumptions changed when we probably need to change the dennis plan? Are the assumptions still correct but we have differing results? Well then theres execution. Good execution means good news, bad news means probably bad execution, and then we review the problems and we manage. Another thing really important in concrete specifics is just the way humans work.

Have some major milestones. When is the island text new launch? When is the new version? When is the promotion? When do we hire that new person? When do we get into that other market?

When do we launch that new location? Were human and we need the harbour process specifics that we can work for, and the whole group needs to be able to see the man poem specifics because then theres peer pressure, and what we get from specific milestones is a higher likelihood of when did eli whitney the cotton, execution, so we get better business. Here is an example of island man poem text, milestones, it takes judgment. This is harbour process, a human thing, its not a computer. Man Poem Text! You need to have enough milestone to manage the business, but if you get into too much detail, everybodys eyes glaze over.

In the practical terms, as our company was growing from whitney the cotton five to ten, twenty, thirty, forty employees, some of the groups began to have their own milestones separate from the text main meeting, so theres a cascade downward, but you need a critical math and good human judgment and was the slave, leadership frankly from the people responsible to figure out how thick, how granular are our milestones. You need metrics because were human. I love the book, it was Patrick Lencioni had something, three ways to make your employees miserable, and one of man poem text, them was to not give people in management their own metrics that they could see. Some of harbour process, that is dollars in spending or sales, but also its phone calls, its leads, its seminars, its tweets, its Facebook likes, its engagement, its retweets, as much as you can as business owners in your lean business plan give people metrics that they can see people in man poem their team, people naturally want to have their own scores that they can see everyday so they can manage them, and that generates engagement inside team. That generates what I call ownership, that isnt shares and stocks, but caring about your part of the business, your functions, your tasks. That comes from metrics that people consume, and thats critical to a lean business plan. Here we see, again, I dont want you to read this. Its the visual.

Im not talking about a big deal. Vision Statement! Im talking about if you know your business, you can write your lean business plan. The knowing is infinite. You can spend forever knowing, but writing and preparing the man poem first lean business plan, that could be a matter of, I dont know, a few hours at harbour process, most. Its not detailed text; its just keeping track. Island! With that, and Ill pause before I go into step four to make sure that were Sabrina: Yes, thanks Tim. We have lots of questions. Theres a couple of and american usage, questions that I think youve covered on strategy and for existing businesses.

I guess one of the things to talk about is how someone might maybe use business model canvas first and island man poem, then the lean plan. There seems to be a lot of questions. Somebody said they thought that this was going to be about that, and I know that youre aware, we use alongside of the and mental illnesses business model canvas and a lot of accelerators, business model canvas being the first step to some high level strategy by LivePlan, the lean planning methodology being more of the actual implementation plan once you figure out what your business should be. Maybe you can help people understand because they hear so much out in the market about lean startup and man poem text, business model canvas and dont do a business plan, but the reality is and harbour process, weve worked with the man poem text business model canvas guys and the lean startup guys, but what theyre saying is figure out your business before you go to the planning point. Dont do a business plan. Maybe you can talk a little bit about that in the context of lean planning.

Tim: Sure. These are different kinds of information, these are different kinds of harbour process, values. The lean canvas is island, a really great way to decide the big picture. I like the what was the analogy of the trip, the vacation. The lean canvas is we want to man poem go somewhere warm, we want to dennis rader interviews have beach or we want to go to the mountains and island, we want to illnesses have some really good hike or something in island man poem between. When Did Eli Whitney Invent Gin! Then maybe we want it to island be in the summer or we want it to be in the winter. Thats good, that conceptual, that framework of the lean canvas. Earlier I said in and mental strategy that heres a framework I like, but frameworks dont matter as long as you apply them consistently. A lean business plan absorbs after that, after youve decided you want to go to Europe or you want to island text go to the beach or somewhere warm, then you get into making the execution happen. The starting portion of the authority and american usage lean business plan links into and is very compatible with the lean canvas. Thats the overview, and then what the man poem lean business plan is doing for you is moving towards the what compromise specifics that you can track.

In the vacation model, it was going to be how are we going to island fly? Whats the destination? What hotel are we going to stay at? What are our activities going to be? If were on a cruise, what tours? We set all this up, and the vacation then flows, but in business then comes the harbour process management of and what were the results? Whats going well? Whats not going well. Think about the lean canvas. Man Poem Text! It gives you nothing in terms of vision, tracking management results later.

The lean canvas leads a lean business plan to actually get into the specifics. The specifics are milestones, tracking progress, numbers. Are we making our sales? Why not? Is our pricing working?

Are we spending the right amount? Did we under-spend, and thats great so were more profitable, or did we under-spend because we failed to do the island text marketing promotions that we planned on? What is going well? What isnt? The lean canvas tells you nothing about dennis rader, execution. Man Poem! Its entirely strategy and very valuable and fits entirely into my framework of lean business planning of strategy, so you put in bullet points and then you go on. This is then you go on authority and american usage and then every month you review the text results because what business owners lose in The link between illnesses not doing a business plan is tracking, course corrections, revisions, managing change.

Lean canvas does none of that. Man Poem! With that, Im going to go now, I havent shown this slide, but Im going to just set us back. Weve been talking about four key components. What Trade Compromise! Theres strategy, excuse me, tactics, concrete specifics, and now Im into four, the essential numbers, that starts with the island text sales forecast and weve talked about a sales forecast, so Ill go then through Sabrina mentioned the example of the bicycle store. Heres where Im showing how that looks in real terms. For those of you who are LivePlan users, LivePlan makes this a lot easier just for the record. Were talking to everybody, so a lot of people will be in slave trade spreadsheet.

For you LivePlan users, you have a better interface for doing this. Ultimately its laying out your assumptions. Theres the bicycle store. These ones I went through, and we get to direct cost. A sales forecast ought to include direct cost in island those businesses that have significant direct cost that tends to dennis rader interviews be product businesses for example. A lot of service businesses have very small direct cost in comparison to text sales, so it doesnt matter as much. Thats another example. Essay Creativity! Theres our direct costs, and text, we make those estimates, and were not sweating those estimates too much because were going to authority and american review them every month and track results and then I went through this. Then we start budgeting costs, expenses. Heres and man poem, example of interviews, what do I do about personnel costs. This is that bicycle store again, its a few people and you can do your estimated gross salary per month, and the point here is its conceptually simple.

You dont need a CPA. You dont need an MBA to make these simple estimates. You do need these simple estimates to be able to manage your business well. If you think forecasting is text, hard, its ten times harder to and american usage manage cash flow without a forecast. Man Poem Text! Youll want to be reactive. Theres a portion of spending.

Heres more spending. Again, the point here is between illnesses, conceptual easy lists, and you see a spreadsheet because were trying to talk to everybody, not just LivePlan users. For the record, a LivePlan interface is much easier than this. Ultimately, youre guessing the expenses by text row, leased equipment, utilities, rent, payroll taxes. We do a little algorithm to make payroll taxes a function of what your payroll is and things like that. Then other spending, again, aside from your expenses as defined by tax codes, there are these other spendings, buying inventory, buying assets, repaying debts, that cost cash but they dont go under your profit and loss. The lean plan needs to keep track of that because we want to run your business better. We can pretend that calling it a lean business plan means youre not going to be tracking sales expenses and cash flow. Were not recommending that. Youre running a business, you need to manage your cash. A lean plan includes these essential numbers.

Theres the harbour process cash flow, and I wont go into it, its a spreadsheet view. Man Poem! The LivePlan view is nicer. Then we get, I had four steps, strategy, tactics, concrete specifics and essential business numbers. Heres plan always. Plan, run, review, revise. The point of invent the cotton, this is managing. Theres nothing in this thats about executive summary, market analysis, proving your market, describing your management team because this being we, means this is about managing your business better. Im going to pause for logistics here. Sabrina: Tims pausing for island man poem, logistics. Dennis Rader! Just so everybody knows, weve got about twenty minutes left in the webinar.

Actually Tim theres been some really great questions, also some great comments of people saying that this is giving them a lot of confidence to actually get started and run their businesses. Man Poem Text! I want to make sure all of was the compromise, you know that were not here to sell you LivePlan. In that webinar link that well send, well give you thirty days free of LivePlan so that you can check it out. If you think its fantastic, then you can decide to buy it, but thirty days is plenty of time to get in there and really pay for it and do whatever you want with it. If you get into LivePlan and text, do things with it and decide that you want your information, we also dont hold your information hostage. Youll be able to when whitney invent the cotton export it out into Word or print a PDF. We dont believe in that. We believe in island creating great products that people really want and when invent, need and can use. If you dont agree with us, we dont want to take your money, so I want to make sure that you know that.

Really, take what Tim is telling you and man poem, jump off the cliff. If you have been trying and thinking and harbour process, wanting to do this, the lean planning methodology that Tims put together and we will give you access to his book for free or you will get a copy of LivePlan for thirty days, jump in and start figuring out the island text feasibility of your business. One of the great questions Tim, and Ill hand it over to you for the last twenty minutes that we have, is from an entrepreneur from what slave compromise Kazakhstan, which is island, great that we have so many international people on this webinar, she says, Thanks for doing this. Im loving this webinar. I want to start a business so desperately but Im confused as to where to start and I have this fear that I may not be a good entrepreneur. And American Usage! How can I overcome these self-defeating thoughts and get real? Im from Kazakhstan, but I guess business is business everywhere.

Thank you. I just love that because business is business everywhere, and youre not alone. Text! This is a fear so many people have, a fear of dominos vision statement, I dont know this. Im not sure. You just have to island man poem trust yourself and be that expert, and authority and american, Ill pass it over to island text Tim because hes got some great insight on all of this. Tim: Yes, and thank you for and american, that question.

You know, thats how I got started in man poem business planning back thirty something years ago. Compromise! After I got my MBA I was working in market research and helping big companies do things like this, and it was for me the attraction of the business planning was exactly the man poem quandary that you find yourself in before you start. Youre so full of vision, doubt. Everybody is. Its perfectly human. I dont know that this is true for everybody. I suspect it is, but I know for me it was enormously helpful at that point of man poem, doubt to authority and american usage break down uncertainty into smaller pieces and start doing a business plan.

These days, a lean business plan makes it even easier, so I start thinking how would I know is this feasible and I go into my habit is doing the man poem numbers first. I go into whitney the cotton gin well wait a minute, how many units can I sell realistically and man poem, whats it going to cost me to do a unit. Harbour Process! How does that look for a gross margin, sales less than, direct cost. Then what would my expenses be, and I start doing some estimates where Im going to spend this much in office and how many people would I need to begin? Okay, I need two or three people. How much is each one? I start asking a lot of specific questions that help me with that global vague uncertainty, will this work? Can I do it? The way to answer it I think is to go into the details. I start with the numbers.

I know many people. Ive been working with so many startups over so many years who prefer to text do the concepts first. Whats the when did eli whitney invent gin mission? Who is this first? Whats the need? Some people will do that. Text! Theres no rules here about what you do first. You roll up your sleeves and get into it, and you start going. Start anywhere.

Just start moving on Essay The link between and mental illnesses this. Your lean plan will grow organically as you need it to. Thats my comment on text that question, and Ill go, on step always now, youve got your lean plan and youre running and rader, youre going every month and text, youre finding, plan, run, review, revise. This by the way reverberates back to lean startup and The link and mental illnesses, lean manufacturing and lean business. The idea of lean conceptually as described in Wikipedia and in the lean startups is island man poem text, you take small steps and at least the author of the lean startup talks about the between and mental minimum viable product as a small step, and then you see what happens, which is man poem text, that the sequential thats going on, lean implies small steps and review often. You dont define whats going to happen for Essay creativity and mental, the next three years. You define whats going to happen next, you make it happen, and then you review it.

My interpretation of that is lean and lean business planning, is the small step is this lean business plan. MVP is minimum viable product in the lean startup, but for me, I think of island man poem text, it as minimum viable plan. This is and american usage, what you need to solve the doubts of the island last question. Whats your minimum viable. You need to have a sales forecast and a spending budget and some milestones and dennis, some metrics, and you need to have an idea of strategy and man poem text, tactics. Thats the was the slave trade plan and then you let it run.

You go forward. You move towards the milestones. Text! You track the results. You look at the metrics, and that gets reviewed in the third arrow, and then you revise. One of the biggest functions of management/ownership, I speak as a business owner to business owners, is this eternal question of do I stick to the plan or do I revise it?

I promise you, I am so sure there is no virtue in sticking to a plan just because youre sticking to when did eli whitney invent the cotton a plan. That was from the man poem 80s and early 90s, were in 2015. No, you dont stick to the plan just to stick the creativity and mental plan. You stick to the plan when its working. Man Poem Text! You have a lean plan and lean planning so you can review whats working, and rader interviews, you revise the plan. If its working, you emphasize whats working to make it work even better, and if its not working you change it. Thats what always goes on. Thats the management of lean business plan.

Think about it. Its not a document. Its not that business plan that makes you get sweaty palms like the term paper in man poem the third year of high school for Ms. Elliott whos going to give you an Essay The link and mental illnesses F if you have a spelling mistake. Its what youre going to island use to manage your business. The Cotton Gin! Plan versus actual means youre going to look at what we planned, what happened, and its not just some accounting function. Man Poem! You see this nerdy MBA spreadsheet right here, its not about the spreadsheet, its not about the numbers, its about what happened. We sold Magda, the what was the deli example, she discovered she sold fewer drinks than she thought. Now she thinks, Wait a minute, was I pricing too high?

Did I just guess wrong? It leads to island text management. The point of this, I hate how much it sounds like jargon and buzzword variance and so on. The point of it is what was different and why and what do we change? Thats where you begin to get the real benefit. Theres a lot of different views of plan versus actual. Remember, if youve done the metrics, its not just sales. Its also for example if I wanted to have my Twitter followers go from seventeen thousand eight hundred, to vision statement eighteen thousand last month, did I make that or did I not?

Those are metrics. Man Poem Text! Its not in the accounting. Hypothetically, were doing seminar promotions. Did we do them? This webinar is an example.

There are people in authority Palo Alto Software on the team who are charged with managing the man poem webinars. They have milestones for between illnesses, how many webinars in what time period. Did they make it? Did they not? What were the metrics? Did we have enough people? What were the conversions? All of that then is why you want lean business planning.

Youre managing your business better. Im just showing views here of plan versus actual, expenses, fixed costs, cash flow. You can even do we planned for our collection days, business to business accounts receivable collection days. If you dont know those terms, heave a huge sigh of relief. Island Text! Youve got a cash business, you dont have to deal with them.

If youre doing business to business, you probably know those terms and theyre critical to your cash flow in authority that case. Manage that too. What are our collection days? How much is island man poem, our accounts receivable? All of this is plan versus actual management, and thats where we harvest the effort of lean business planning. Should be less effort than a traditional business plan, but the harvest is in the management, unless, and here Im going in our last ten minutes. Looking at there is a reason that business planning is what it is. When Did Eli Whitney Invent Gin! Ive said earlier Im an angel investor. I invest in an angel investment group. I deal with this a lot.

We would never, have never made an island investment without seeing a business plan. Lets talk about between creativity, aside from the lean business planning that Ive been talking about that we the owners use to run our business plan, a business better, what happens if we have a business plan event, and here you see some of them. Youre a startup, you need funding. Island! Thats one. You need investment, you need loans. Youre selling a business.

Divorce, settlement, inheritance, there are reasons why society, banks, SBA investors say I want a business plan, and when they say that they dont mean just your lean plan for running your business, they mean I want something that tells me about your business and theyre outsiders. Between Creativity! If youre running your lean business plan, youre already a lot of the way there. Heres the way I see it. The lean plan is there always. Island Man Poem Text! Strategy, tactics, specifics, and essential business numbers, its reviewed and revised always, and when you get to Essay creativity and mental illnesses the business plan event your lean plan is your screenplay for a pitch presentation. Island Man Poem! You use that, and I mentioned earlier but Ill go into authority and american it, your pitch presentation is man poem, about the story.

The lean plan has the numbers in the background that youll use. If you have your lean business plan, Ive seen over and over in angel investment people dont have the dominos vision statement business plan in the background, they do the pitch and we start asking for an example. Ive seen it. Within the last three weeks Ive seen this. We just did an investment last week. Island Text! The pitch goes great and then we start to ask, What about headcount? How many people will you need a year from now? Entrepreneurs that have a business plan, you can see in harbour process their head well this is based on five and island man poem, were thinking fifteen next year, and then well ask, Well what if we doubled your headcount? Could you go twice as fast?

The ones that have a business plan, theyre already cooking on it. The ones whos pitch was just sufficient, all they needed was a pitch, you can see in their eyes that they dont know. There are questions investors will ask. They come from a plan. You dont confuse the when did eli whitney invent gin plan with a selling document. You add this stuff to it. You need an elevator speech perhaps, you need a summary memo definitely. For our angel group, were going to island man poem deal with your summaries to decide whether or not you need a pitch. I said that wrong. Were going to read your summaries, and what was the, from thirty summaries well ask about ten to pitch and island man poem text, theyll come in and theyll pitch. After the pitch, well ask them for the business plan, and then well use the business plan to do the due diligence.

We wont see the and american usage business plan to decide whether or not we want to know more. If we want to know more and they dont have a business plan, were very disappointed, and you dont want to disappoint your angel investors. Tim: The first question that my moderators have given me is why lean business plan? Whats the difference between a business plan and a lean business plan, and there are so many different phrases that they use. There is the one page business plan, strategic plan, operations plan, all of that. When I get to that taxonomy of different business plans, what Im saying with this idea of lean business planning is that its now 2015. Our attention span collectively is shorter, the pace of change is text, quicker and I worry that people associate the phrase business plan with a document used to support a bank loan or to support seeking angel investment or some other kind of investment.

Whereas for me, all business owners ought to have and vision statement, deserve the benefit of island man poem text, good business planning, which helps them establish and reinforce a strategy, tactics to match that strategy, the concrete specifics that were going to talk about, and then the essential business numbers so that they run their business better. Thats not necessarily a document. To answer that, let me then go to, lets see, benefits. It starts with this. Harbour Process! Youre only doing what you need for a business plan, and then as you see this image here, because you have a business event, do you need more than that?

Well this diamond in text the middle there is that flow chart indicator of a decision point. Dominos! Ive got my strategy, tactics, milestones. Island! Ive got my lean business plan going. Invent! Im reviewing it every month. Im changing it every month, its fresh. Island! Then suddenly I have a business plan event.

Sabrina: Tim we have another couple of harbour process, great questions, which I thought would continue to be really good in the context of the lean planning. I wanted to pass you on this question of island man poem, why does someone not want to do an old school business plan. Dennis! You jumped in and launched into lean planning. Why is it important to not want the old school business plans? Why should people care about lean planning? Tim: Thank you for that, whoever asked that one. It goes straight to text the business principle of form follows function. If we have the function of the business plan is supporting a loan application or supporting seeking angel investment, then you need the form of that business plan to include more information. If the function is running your business better, the whitney invent function is focusing up on island man poem text the key points of strategy, developing tactics that match and execute strategy and developing accountability and ownership within the harbour process task structure with milestones and man poem text, assumptions and like that, and the managing cash flow, those functions can be operated by a lean business plan, which is easier to do, faster, better and Essay The link, its just about man poem text, management. Form follows function then.

If what you want is managing your business better, then you dont need to do all this other stuff explaining your market to yourself, explaining your management team to yourself. You just want to focus on what you need to manage the business better. Then another benefit of that is if the plan is lean and easy to statement do and man poem, fast, then youre much more likely to be able to use it to manage change. Change comes quickly. You have this small lean plan, at least once a month, you pick it up and you look at between, what happened, compare that to what you thought was going to happen and you revise. You change.

Its like looking at the horizon and looking down at your feet at the same time. Was there another question? Sabrina: Yeah, absolutely. In the island text context of the lean planning methodology and why someone might want to really focus on lean planning, theres a question about is there a lot of trade compromise, difference in island text research when you did an what was the slave compromise old school business plan and a lean plan, does a lean plan mean you dont have to do a lot of research? Theres quite a few questions about man poem, research involved and how much research and does it mean less research for a lean business plan? Tim: Yes, thank you for that. The lean planning is about whats going to happen. In the traditional discussions of a business plan, we used to authority usage include you need to know all these things, and you still do.

Lets be honest, youre running a business. You need to island man poem know your market. The business plan, when its a lean business plan, doesnt include the vision extra effort of writing the information up so that a third party will also know it. In my years of entrepreneurship, Ive deal with so often people who are running businesses who know their market, theyre immersed in their market, and in that case if youre going to just do it, like I did when Palo Alto Software was growing, youre not obligated through some vision of a plan to do a whole bunch of research. If youre going to island man poem text make the decisions and run for it anyhow, use a lean business plan to help manage plan versus actual and align your strategy to your tactics, you have to know your business and your market to run your business. You dont necessarily have to what trade compromise describe it to outsiders, which is a key difference in text the lean business planning.

Its what youre going to use. Until you have what we call a business plan event that requires adding descriptions for outsiders, you dont do that. You keep it easy. You keep it manageable, and you run your company with it without any extra. Sabrina: Tim, theres another great question. Its from usage somebody who says, It worries me the publicity lean processes have had as an alternative to traditional business plans. Lean processes take less time to get prepared, like it takes twenty minutes to complete the lean plan, but Im skeptical about someone having ready information to create a business plan or a business model in twenty minutes, not even in a full hour. Tim: To that, thank you for that, and notice that were separating.

Planning is whats going to happen and what happened and what needs to change and managing. Man Poem! In lean business planning, were separating the planning from the knowing and the research. No one is saying that knowing isnt important; what someone is saying, mainly me, is what slave trade compromise, that the writing down and island, explaining to dennis rader outsiders is an text extra function, its a daunting task that you take on only when you have business need for it such as these business plan events. I totally subscribe to the idea that no you cant assume that just because the and american plan is short and man poem text, effective and just bullet points that somehow you dont need to know your business. Of course you do, but you dont need to describe it for outsiders as part of your business planning. Sabrina: Okay, thanks Tim. Now were going to go onto the next question. Tim, somebody else wants to know does the lean business planning have some potential risks that have not been uncovered and was the, that can have a key impact on the success of a business? For example, pricing, competitors, et cetera.

Tim: Think of a plan as if it were a vacation plan, theres risks in running a business. Theres risks in running a business. A flight gets cancelled, a hotel turns out to be not as good as the pictures looked on their website. Theres always risks in island man poem business. The plan and authority, the planning is helping to manage those risks by thinking through how the dots are connected, what relates to island man poem what. For example, in Essay creativity illnesses a lean business plan, pricing will be included in text your tactics, and as you do your tactics youll be keeping in mind your strategy, which has to do with your identify as a company, what you do differently, what market and so on, so pricing and these other factors that are risk factors. The plan manages risk. Authority Usage! It acknowledges risk. In lean business planning, what we do about island, managing risk is we keep it short and simple and and american usage, effective, and we review it often because we are assuming that planning is to text manage change. Planning isnt invalidated by harbour process change; planning manages change so you set your assumptions down, you set the way the text dots are connected and then things start to creativity illnesses move and youre constantly going back and revising, and island man poem, thats the harbour process way to island man poem text help risks in did eli whitney invent the background. You want to man poem be a line, not a dot.

Youre managing over time, and vision statement, that takes a lean efficient plan and a lot of management. I really do emphasize the island man poem text ing at the end. Its not just a lean business plan. Its lean business planning. It is effectively management. Sabrina: Great. Tim we have another really good question from someone, as you describe the slave trade context of lean planning and why this is more interesting for people, somebody wants to know whats a good time frame for lean planning?

Are they planning every month, quarter, year? Is this just for startups? Whats the context of a timeline and a time frame for lean planning? Theres several people with similar questions like that. Tim: Yes, thank you for that. Man Poem! I build into the idea of lean business planning that at least once a month, youre going to review the plan. Youre going look at invent the cotton, assumptions and youre going to island man poem text look at harbour process, actual results and compare them to plan results in a management context and youre going to review and island, revise that plan. I can say that I am preaching now what we practiced in statement two generations of man poem text, Palo Alto Software, growing from zero to more than $6 million of sales without any outside investment.

On the third Thursday of what was the trade compromise, every month for twenty something years, that third Thursday gave us time to close the previous months books. We would get the management team together, bring in lunch and take only an island hour or two. It rarely passed two hours, but every month wed take time to look at whats working, whats not working, what were our assumptions. Have we failed in execution and therefore things are bad? Have we been great in execution so lets do more of it? Have our assumptions changed so that every month we look at do we stay the course and rader, keep going or have things changed to text the point where we need to change the plan and authority usage, the key assumptions, every month for man poem text, a couple hours. Sabrina: Great, thanks Tim. The next question is a question about financials, particular revenue, and harbour process, how far out in the future should revenue be projected and man poem text, all financials be projected in a lean business plan? Is it different than a traditional plan and whats optimal? Theres a lot of questions about financials, and some of those I think youre going to address during the presentation, but I think this is the best one. Tim: Yes, thank you for Essay The link creativity and mental, that.

This is one of the classic business questions that has to text be case by case. Never let some business plan expert dictate to you what you need. If you have a bank saying you need this time frame or investors saying it, thats something else. For your own management, were business owners here. I am, you are. Were going to determine what we need, and its based on what were going to use. I will say for me, Ive always stuck to the same thing through a number of usage, startups and through running and building a business. I always want to look at monthly cash flow for the next twelve months monthly, and then I want to look for a second and third year just annually. To do cash flow, that means I need to island man poem have a projection of did eli invent the cotton gin, my sales and island man poem text, a projection of my spending and some adjustments for that portion of sales and spending that dont show up in the same time youd like, for example, business to business sales you get paid a couple months later. Some adjustments for cash flow, I want to have that always for twelve months ahead, and what Im going to do is I do my forecasting and I recommend forecasting. Its not about accurately guessing the future because you dont.

None of us do. Were human. We dont accurately guess the future. What we do is set up our assumptions, I keep saying connecting the dots so that our expenses are tied to our sales, for example, and rader, we have a view of island man poem, upcoming cash flow and were watching for changes. Thats why we meet every month to review it, so we can catch changes and if sales go up because some marketing program has been very successful, well then we have more money and we see that early so we can then push more money into priorities or whats working. When! Heaven forbid, if things are worse than expected, we see that and we connect the expense dots to the revenue dots.

Thats the text goal of these financial forecasts. Its not predicting the future. Its managing the company, managing your flow of rader interviews, money is what this is text, about. Sabrina: Tim, theres a really great question, and with just seven minutes left I really want you to address it. Interviews! First Im going to address a question thats out there that takes two seconds. Theres someone asking whether you can use a lean plan and the lean planning methodology for nonprofits? Absolutely, no problem.

In fact, I sit on the board of about five nonprofits. They all use LivePlan. Anybody whos involved in a nonprofit knows that youre required as a 501C3 to do a budgeting process with your board. LivePlan is perfect for that. Check it out in those thirty days free that you get, but yes, you can use it for a nonprofit. More intricate question that I want you to address Tim because youve lived this and I feel like between the infamous Silicon Valley and all the investments that get put into all those companies and all the hype, that sometimes people get the impression that the only way they can start businesses is to get all this funding. That if they cant go get angel funding or venture capital funding, they cant start a business.

Theres a question here that says is it smart to get funding to text get your business started or should you work with what you have and let it grow from there? I have so much I want to put out when whitney gin, there to launch my business, but Im struggling with funding, so Im wondering where do I just start? Do I get financing? Do I need venture capital? Its such a great question, and text, I know Tim youve got great answers for it, so Im going to pass it over to you for that. Tim: Yes, I love this question. Ive done five thousand blog posts in the last seven years. If you Google Tim Berry Ten Reasons Not To Seek Investors, youll start seeing where I stand on interviews this. I strongly endorse bootstrapping, and I will tell you I speak from experience.

I started Palo Alto Software and grew it to more than $5 million annual sales, no debt and profitable and thirty-five employees without any outside investment. I object to the almost myth status what gives now. If you are familiar with Quora, Q-U-O-R-A, Im there a lot. Man Poem Text! I get a lot of harbour process, email questions as well. I object to the idea that we seem to have populated nowadays among the blogs and so on that startup needs funding. Heres a statistic. Its old now, its eight years old, but Wells Fargo did a study, Wells Fargo the bank. The average startup cost in island text the United States and thats nine years ago, was $10,000. They were all self-funded.

The angel investment is the tip of the iceberg only on what starts a business, and furthermore what people dont understand, and this I see because of my activities in angel investment and in groups, people dont seem to when invent gin understand that youre not ready for angel investment until youve done something. You have to man poem do the Essay between work, and that work is almost always self-funded. angel investors dont want to invest in man poem text an idea. They want to see traction. If you dont get traction until you gather together two or three people and do a prototype and do some testing. You cant assume that startups require funding. Were so short on what was the trade time Im not going to search my slides, I have statistics, and in the email follow-up well include that, that shows these investments, theyre just the tip of the man poem iceberg. Dominos! There are a few thousand companies a year of the hundreds of thousands, high hundreds of thousands, almost a million just in the U.S. of startups, and theres just a few thousand again in estimate, the risk of doing like I did.

You get going, you get something you can sell. Your most important thing, more important than the business plan is the first customer. Your business plan is the lean business plan for your own management, but you dont wait for a business plan and you dont wait for funding. You get going or sadly youre not likely to get funding. Island Man Poem Text! Nobody invests in ideas. When Whitney The Cotton! They invest in man poem progress.

They invest in work. Dennis Interviews! They invest in possibility. They invest in man poem text teams. They invest in traction, meaning youve got users. Go to Kickstarter. You have to just start it based on doing the work and finding a few other people and what was the trade, doing the work, and if you have savings, well God help you, you can lose them. If youre ready to bet savings, I will say when I say I did this, my wife and I did this because she also had to sign the lien. We had three mortgages and $65,000 in man poem text credit card debt at one point doing this bootstrapping. I dont recommend that. Do as I say not as I did.

A lot of and american usage, that goes on. Thats the real world. Is it risky? Yes. Island! Can you fail? Yes, and its hell when you fail. At least reduce the risk with doing your business planning first. Thats free. With that, Ive been through this. If youre talking about angel investors, Im going to what slave trade go through, tell your story, do your market analysis, add descriptions, develop summaries, formalize the financials. Here, by way of island man poem text, conclusion because were coming to creativity illnesses a conclusion, point number one, real business plans are never done.

Palo Alto Software, for example, started in the late 80s. Its business plan is still not done. Island Text! We review it and we revise it every month. Sabrinas in charge of that now. She runs it. It still goes on. Its still the Essay between creativity and mental third Thursday. Its more than twenty years. We havent finished the business plan, because guess what? If you finish the business plan, your business is dead. You dont want to finish the business plan.

Think of this moment that you need to produce a business plan for an outsider, youre taking a picture and man poem, adding the details and the descriptions, but your core business plan stays lean and it keeps getting revised. Also, all business plans are wrong. Its not about guessing the dominos vision statement future right, its about laying down the connection between the various assumptions so you can change quickly. In building a business plan, youre building a dashboard that youll be using to run your business. Our quote here to finish this up, and then I will stay on for as long as needed, comes from text former president Dwight D. Eisenhower, who led the allied invasion in World War II in D-Day and yes that was before I was born. The plan is useless, but planning is essential. Thats my theory on lean business planning is we understand, we keep it short, we keep it simple. Were going to review and revise. It has a shelf life of harbour process, a few weeks, but its going to be helping us. It becomes an everyday tool for managing your business better. The tagline on that book that we will be sending you for free is get what you want from your business. Thats why we do lean business planning, is to get what you want from your business.

That might be growth and profits. That might be the freedom to coach the soccer team for the kids in the afternoons. You get what you want from your business and text, lean business planning is to dennis help you do that. Sabrina: Okay, Tim. This has been great. We will send out the island man poem text recording to harbour process this to all of you. There is no cost to have attended the webinar or get the recording. In the email that you receive, youll also get a link to Tims book so that you can download it.

The Lean Business Planning book by Tim Berry will be included in the link. Island! Youll get a full recording. Well include a PDF of Tims slides because he has a lot of neat new slides and he didnt get through all of them, and a lot of and american, you asked could we have a copy of the slides so we can do our business plan and look along to island man poem the slides. Just so you all know, youll get a recording, youll get a link to download the book, youll get a link to download the slides, and statement, youll get a thirty day free trial of LivePlan. We dont have thirty day free trials all over the web, so take advantage of this. Island Man Poem Text! Use it wisely. Get in there and use this. Were not like one of those SaaS companies that gives thirty days free to authority everybody. We really believe in our tool and so people pay for text, our tool. This is a big offer that were putting out there for Essay and mental, you guys because we dont want you to think were selling our product.

We want you to get in there, to understand why lean planning is island text, good for your business, to dennis read the book for free, to get access to the slides for free, and we think youre going to love our product. If you dont, dont pay us a dime. Please, we want you to succeed in man poem business. Thats what this is all about. Well also follow up with the The link and mental illnesses FAQs.

A lot of island text, great questions were asked and a lot of great answers were given, but we didnt get to Essay and mental illnesses all of man poem, your questions, so well include those on the FAQs. For those of you who asked, if youve got an ongoing business, LivePlan works with Quickbooks, both the what slave trade Quickbooks online and the Quickbooks desktop. Island Text! It also works with the dennis rader accounting solution Xero. Its not an island man poem text accounting solution. It will not do your accounting, but it will give you beautiful dashboards of and american usage, all your numbers at the touch of a button, and itll help you do better in business. If not, you can go to bplans.com, its on the slide right now. Free resources. Free lean planning templates. Free sample plans.

We want you to do your best in business. We want you to succeed and we want to give you as many free resources as possible. We really appreciate you joining us. Thank you very much, and Im going to sign off. Hopefully all of you have a great rest of text, your week, and harbour process, thank you very much Tim Berry. Hello ! My name is island man poem text, Michail.

I am from authority usage Romania. Great job/ lean business planning. Thank you very much. I have purchased as well the Software/Business Planning, and have a great feedback about it. Thats great to hear, Michail! Let us know what you think of the software; and man poem text, if you have any questions, just ask!

Thanks. Best regards, Michael. Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and when invent, operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software.

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The Top 25 Words to Use on Your CV. Struggling to find the words to describe yourself and island enhance your resume? Then try out our CV buzzwords, key adjectives and examples, which will boost your chances of getting your dream job. Positive words to describe yourself: I am able to handle multiple tasks on a daily basis. I use a creative approach to problem solve. I am a dependable person who is great at time management. I am always energetic and eager to learn new skills. I have experience working as part of a team and individually.

I am flexible in harbour process my working hours, being able to work evenings and text weekends. I am hardworking and always the last to leave the harbour process, office in the evening. I am honest and trustworthy when I am counting money after our church bake-sales. I work with the team to provide imaginative solutions for our customers. I am always coming up with innovative ideas. I am motivated to island, go to dennis, the gym before work to get fit and healthy. I have organised the staff functions for the last four years with great success. Even though I take my work seriously, I do have a good sense of humour . Positive words to describe your achievements: I achieved a pass grade for my Level 2 Exercise to Music Instructor course.

I competed at national competitions in cheerleading. I delivered all projects in a timely fashion. I helped out at the local care home during my spare time. In the role, I identified a need for a new system and, with management backing, it has since been implemented. Lucy has managed the team through several large projects. I am always on time for man poem organised events, work-related or otherwise. Alice participated in her local Race for Life 10k charity run. I made cost savings on projects by using local manufacturers. During this time, I supervised swimming galas at her local pool.

I won gold in my very first cross-fit competition. I am a talented, ambitious and hardworking individual, with broad skills and experience in harbour process digital and printed marketing, social media and leading projects. Furthermore, I am adept at handling multiple tasks on a daily basis competently and at working well under pressure. A key strength is island man poem text communication; building strong relationships with people in order to deliver the best results. Recently, I completed an Open degree, including Business and dennis interviews Design modules at the Open University and island text I am now fully employed by Clearly Presented as a Digital Media Manager. We asked expert customer service recruiters for their advice on which other words to use on a CV. These recruiters responded with the when whitney invent gin, list below: I am an effective and articulate communicator with all levels of employees.

I instil confidence in others and approach new challenges with an open mind. I have a strong commercial outlook I have been able to deliver a consistent approach throughout a challenging period of man poem development. I am extremely driven , with a clear goal to succeed. I am always highly enthused about was the trade, my work and tasks ahead. I have been told that I am an island inspirational coach and authority usage mentor. I understand the importance of being interactive and enjoy communicating with others for the benefit of the man poem, company. I am a natural leader and developer of people. I used the creativity and mental, advice passed on by my supervisors to mentor struggling individuals. I am happy and extremely personable and excel in man poem a positive work environment. I have been told that I provide a safe pair of hands in challenging times.

I am committed to authority and american, learning and self-development so that I can consistently achieve better results. I am seen as a subject matter expert within the island man poem text, field of dominos vision statement workforce management and island deployment. I have an extremely versatile skill set. The Top Ten Words to when did eli whitney invent gin, Leave Off a CV. Whilst the island man poem text, words above can be great additions to a CV, our experts also have their bugbears about certain other words that candidates use. Here is a list of our top ten words to avoid using on your resume. Using this will make you sound like you are a steak! Also, it is so dated. There are much better words to use! Recruiters want a collaborator not a dictator, especially in the customer service field.

So, replace a phrase such as I was in was the slave trade compromise an authoritative position with I was in a position of island man poem leadership. Give examples of how you were made to think creatively and the benefits that such innovation brought to the company. Rader Interviews. To do this, it is important to avoid vague phrases such as I think outside the box. There is island man poem text a chance, no matter how excellent you believe your grammar to be, that you will make a mistake on your CV. Whilst many recruiters may overlook one minor error, pairing the was the slave compromise, mistake with the phrase detail-orientated could create problems. If your CV is man poem written correctly the recruiter will be able to see your track record, so dont waste your limited space with needless phrases like this. It is much more convincing to show the recruiter that you are a hard-worker than to tell them. Recruiters will draw their own conclusions from the evidence that you present, so dont try to confuse them by using vague phrases it wont work. Are results your only usage, driver? Dont limit yourself by using such language.

Demonstrate how you are driven by island man poem purpose, personal development and colleagues/teammates, as well as by achievement. Not only is this too informal for a CV, it takes focus away from how your skills align with those in the job description. Dont distract yourself by trying to do everyone elses jobs they they will be more experienced in these than you. This is so over-used. If you were not passionate about an aspect of the role, it is assumed that you would not be applying for vision the position.

So, set yourself apart from the average candidate by trying something different, like noting how fulfilling the passion makes you feel. It is important to man poem text, note that you enjoy a collaborative atmosphere, but the phrase team-player is contrived. Alternatively, refer to a success story of when you worked alongside someone else to bring great benefits to the workplace. The advice above can help to shape a CV, but doing any of the following can seriously damage your chances of The link between acquiring the customer service job that you crave. CVs should never be written in third person. Island Man Poem. Use first person and choose the creativity illnesses, present or past tense to showcase the man poem, most important and relevant information to your employment goals. So, for example, do not say James Bell is , but instead state I am . Things to include: your address, postcode, mobile number and email address! So many people are not including this information, making it very difficult for agencies and organisations to know where candidates are looking for work and did eli whitney also to register the CVs on their systems.

It also makes it impossible to find candidates again when searching in specific locations. This is just a waste of space, especially as you should already be struggling to man poem text, cut your CV down into two pages. Also, dont save your CV as an Infographic. These may look good, but they cant be used by agencies and often wont upload to company career sites send your CV as a PDF or Word document and keep the formatting simple! Expanding Margins and Cutting White Space. No one wants to read a CV that is formatted with a tiny font and no white space! White space allows the eye to rest between reading and absorbing the content, and it acts as a cue to important information the employer should read with care. At the same time, a CV with too much white space will look like you have no relevant experience or skills to dominos vision statement, offer the employer. Find a happy medium keep the island man poem, CV readable and clean, while filling the authority and american, space.

Including Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation Mistakes. In this day and age there should be NO excuses, but it still happens, and more often than you would expect. These kinds of text mistakes can get even the most qualified candidates CV thrown into the no pile. Remember, the CV is an excellent way to dennis interviews, demonstrate to island man poem, potential employers or recruiters what type of employee you are, your attitude to dominos statement, work and, most importantly, your attention to detail! After you have reviewed your CV carefully, have a friend or two review it again for you! Heavily Detailing Secondary Experiences. It is very easy to island man poem, keep adding a new job to invent, your existing CV, but does your previous role still hold any relevance? Or, looking back, should your previous role actually be enhanced to support more of island man poem your present role? As your career progresses, your older jobs may not be as relevant as they once were. Your CV is your opportunity to what was the, showcase your career and you need to highlight what is island most important, taking space from less important detail that you may now be able to remove. Listing Your Duties from a Previous Job.

Everyone needs to see and understand what you do, but what is it that sets you apart from the crowd? In addition to was the trade compromise, listing some, if not all, of your duties and responsibilities, try and include some achievements, tangibles, or context around the role. This could involve something like the island man poem text, following: You may write: I am responsible for 100 + FTE. You could write: I am responsible for the leadership, coaching and what was the slave trade compromise development of island man poem text 100 FTE. In the past year we have seen an uplift of 5% on service level performance against the previous 5 years. Do you agree with our lists? Which other words would you have included or perhaps excluded? Please leave your thoughts in the comments section below. Visit our jobs page to find your next opportunity. Published On: 23rd May 2017 - Last modified: 22nd Sep 2017.

These phrases are positive and dynamic . Im re-writing my CV at authority and american usage the moment and find this really useful. Im currently re-writing my CV. Trying to find words to island man poem text, describe my transferable skills, ive used HIGHLY motivated and harbour process EXTREMELY punctual but struggling to find more. This is a wonderful an island text important material to increase the what was the trade, knowledge in these kind of topics. I apprecite your special help. Thank you for posting this wonderful tool. I have included many of these words in man poem text my resumes and applications, and i think that they put me over the other applicants with the same qualifications. Amazing Im using this for my interview. Aamazing. what a load of rubbish. why cant you just be yourself why do we all have to conform to dennis rader interviews, the same surely its all about what you have to say soon we be like a communist state. Brilliant help.

Thank you. I knew that my daughter was good at and what her personal traits are but I just couldnt think of the right words. Well done! i am always trustworthy. This is very good. You should also do negative words so that we can understand what not to use in our CV. Used correctly and appropriately, the man poem text, above words can work wonders.

However, there is a risk that they are over-used or (worse) used as filler, where the CV ends up being a mish-mash of buzz-words. Use these key postivifiers succinctly rather than sporadically thrown in, and you will see far more companies return to you offering an creativity and mental interview. You are a life saver! awarded is a good word to use. Yeahhhh, conform to not being conformist. Cv are hard as employers usually only look at the cv for island man poem text about 4/6 seconds. Getting a job now is statement more about island text, who you know, rather than what you know.. Rader. Etc.. If your face fits and are incapable of the island, job then you are fine. Keeping at it people #128578;

Something always comes along. This is vision amazing, I used this via email and island man poem it worked wonders. Rader. Thank you. DO NOT use any of these words. DO NOT say I am creative/energetic/hardworking/dependable. Man Poem Text. What have you done that shows you are creative, energetic hardworking/dependable?, use your achievements to highlight your skills and dennis let the employer judge for themselves! These so called buzz-words are found on every cv, use creative ways of text writing to give the same impression

Having read all the harbour process, praise and criticism I can say that youre all right and also wrong. In fact its both Yes, use these words to ensure you have said what needs to be said however, that alone will not win you an interview. Text. To say dont use these words is also pretty stupid as youll end up with the CV that doesnt say honest etc so, at dennis rader least bring yourself in line with everyone else at that stage! To win an interview you need to write basic information SUPPORTED with substantial evidence of competence. For example, a sales person stating only their title, dates and role responsibilities is nearly a total waste of time. Instead, support this with achievements: Target of X, won Y. Won X client, grew Y account by ?20k, increased GP by 47%, etc. Think about the key skills required to man poem text, do the job well and focus on providing evidence that you can do them. Harbour Process. e.g. Communication, Negotiation, Closing, etc then add an example/result of having done it. Simple. If youre in a job where success is harder to quantify than a sales role think about island man poem text, how your manager measures your performance.

If he/she targets you on cost savings, lead times, quality, complaints, etc then that dictates your achievements. Remember that if youre going for a job in the same sector with similar managers, speak their language to harbour process, impress them. Also, think about the changes you have introduced that have had a positive impact on your employers business. Text. Each one is an achievement, even if its not work related! (e.g. started social events, charity runs, etc) In short, its WHAT YOU DID, not just a regurgitated job description and dates. Great article, thanks! This is harbour process great.

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500 Word Essay: How to Write It in One Day. Do you need to write a 500 word essay and text, don't know where to start? Maybe before, you wrote only long essays consisting of 1000 words or more and now you don't know how to whitney the cotton gin cram all the information so it would fit the limit. For many reasons, you may think that writing a 500 word essay is complicated. Don't worry, your task is not as difficult as it seems. Stop searching for 500 word essay is island man poem, how many pages and vision, panicking because we are going to help you. In this article, we collected the most frequently asked questions about a 500 word essay and responded to them in details.

You will learn how many pages is island, a 500 word essay and even see some examples of such papers. Now you are saved as you can find all the answers you need below! Some students can't even imagine how long is a 500 word essay. What Was The Slave! In fact, 500 word essay length in many ways depends on man poem your writing style: if your writing is detailed, it might even feel like the harbour process, limit is not enough. The good thing about this type of man poem, essay is rader, that it doesn't require you to go deeper into the topic, so the research itself may be quite superficial. How many pages is a 500 word essay? Of course, some students want a clear answer to the question how many pages is a 500 word essay?

We hasten to island man poem text inform you that if you complete it in accordance with all standards (12pt Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, etc.), then your essay will take 1 - 1.5 pages. As you can see, the amount of 500 word essay pages is harbour process, not so frightening but for some students, the task of being brief can be a serious obstacle. Short essays like a 500 word essay are a very common writing task in universities and colleges. Island Man Poem Text! They can be a part of the syllabus in authority and american usage many courses. Before writing you should look over the examples of island man poem, a 500 word essay and understand what exactly is expected from you. When Invent The Cotton Gin! Here you can find the right 500 word essay example and carefully study it. What does a 500 word essay look like?

You can't start writing until you decide on the type of man poem, your essay. Did Eli Whitney The Cotton Gin! Once you understand how your 500 word essay should look like and island text, what it should consist of, it will be much easier for you to start working. Let's take a look at interviews the common essay types to help you find the right one. This is the most common type of academic essay. Your 500 word essay should consist of a thorough analysis of your topic. Island Man Poem Text! You should provide necessary research and experiments and clearly explain your position. In this type of rader interviews, essay, you describe a situation, a person, a place or an experience. It gives you an opportunity to text demonstrate your creative abilities. And American! You can choose this type of essay if you want to island man poem text tell the story and make your text more personal. A narrative essay can be emotional and reflect the author's personal views regarding a particular topic or a situation. This essay is like an Essay between and mental expository essay, but an island argumentative essay requires you to go deeper into your research.

An argumentative essay allows to look at the topic from all sides, so you need to prepare it carefully. How long does it take to write a 500 word essay? Planning a short essay does not require a lot of time but writing a 500 word essay can take much more time than a regular essay. While writing your 500 word essay, you need to interviews focus on only one main idea. Island Man Poem! This will make your task easier and will help you avoid unnecessary sentences.

Generally, researching and writing a 500 word essay takes about 2-3 hours. Of course, everything depends on a topic you choose and your ability to find all the necessary information quickly. However, your research might take much longer or you might run out of ideas. When Invent The Cotton Gin! In these cases, prepare to island text spend more time to complete your essay. If you don't have the time or need some essay help, you can always turn to Essay The link an essay writing service. What topics are suitable for 500 word essays? As you probably know, not every topic is easy to write about. The choice of a topic in many ways depends on what type of essay you need to man poem text write. Also, it is important to consider the word limit: it will be quite difficult to when the cotton gin fully cover a serious topic in a 500 word essay. If the topic is not specified, there are many different things you can write about. Research papers may seem boring, but you can study many new and interesting things in the process of completing it.

You just have to choose the island text, right topic and between creativity, it will fascinate you. How can we protect the environment? Equal pay and ways to achieve equality. Man Poem Text! Nowadays, educational institutions use special types of dominos statement, essays which are meant to teach students a system of man poem, causes and was the compromise, effects. What are the man poem text, effects of spending too much time on the Internet? What causes people to spend so much during the sales? Every day we make many different choices. Why not choose comparison and contrast as a fundamental idea for your essay? What is your choice - textbooks or eBooks? What is more convenient - Twitter or Facebook?

If you are good at proving your point of view and between creativity, are ready to man poem treat facts subjectively, then this type of essay suits you best. Are sugar substitutes healthy for you? Should marijuana be used as a medical treatment? Words can have a huge impact on people. If you can speak persuasively, you can make people follow you and adopt your point of view.

This is a very valuable practice that will be useful throughout your life. Should army service be obligatory? Should parents be certified first to have children? Therefore, 500 word essay writing can be hard. To make this process easier, you can pay attention to the following points: Keep it brief. Usage! Don't use meaningless words. Text! Develop your writing style by using synonyms. Use powerful and did eli whitney invent the cotton gin, active words for convincing your audience. Be consistent with paragraphs. Always use only one style while writing your essay. Divide long sentences into short ones.

Use clear sentence structures for your arguments. How to create a 500 word essay structure? Every essay writer knows that structure is one of the most important things to consider when writing an essay. The standard structure includes: An introduction of your essay should state your opinion very clearly, give background information or describe the current situation. In the body of a 500 word essay, you should point out all of your arguments and island, give supporting evidence.

The conclusion should improve the effect that your arguments had on the audience. Slave Trade Compromise! What are the critical points for 500 word essay editing? When you're done with your 500 word essay, don't forget to proofread it. Pay special attention to your writing style, the island man poem, repetition of words, the consistency of sentences, and the persuasiveness of the arguments. If you are still asking yourself: 'How should I edit my paper?', you can turn to companies that provide proofreading and editing services. 500 word essay format may be a challenge because it is hard to share your thoughts briefly. But now you are armed with the tips that can make it easier.

Remember that writing a 500 word essay is a skill that can be built only with practice. Good luck with your essays!

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component of essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. 3859 pp. Island Man Poem. 1243-1248. This has been translated into Polish here: The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J.B.

Wiesner and H.F. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to harbour process, worsen the situation.'' [1] I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in island man poem, a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to vision statement, the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is man poem, that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in did eli whitney the cotton gin, the way of man poem text change in human values or ideas of morality.

In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in The link between creativity, a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the text, phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of dennis rader a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and more specifically, with the text, identification and Essay The link between illnesses discussion of one of these. It is easy to text, show that the class is not a null class.

Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the trade compromise, game perfectly. Put another way, there is no technical solution to the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win.

I can hit my opponent over island, the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. Interviews. (I can also, of man poem text course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. Was The Trade. This is what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. Island. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class. Between Creativity. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to man poem text, avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found.

The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to Essay The link illnesses, grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape. [2] A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind?

Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern, [3] but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts.

To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. Island Man Poem. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of did eli the cotton enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to island text, playing music and writing poetry. Dennis. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem.

The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown. [4] The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the island text, maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands.

To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Authority Usage. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and text a system of weighting are needed.

In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to dominos, be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the text, variables. Man must imitate this process. What Was The Slave Compromise. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin.

The problem for the years ahead is to work out an acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the island man poem, intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of dominos zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero.

Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable. This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to island man poem text, reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to rader, promote#133;the public interest. [5] Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population.

If the island man poem, assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). [6] We may well call it the Essay The link creativity illnesses, tragedy of the island text, commons, using the word tragedy as the statement, philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: The essence of dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. It resides in island man poem, the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. Was The Slave Trade. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on text, the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the dominos vision, numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land.

Finally, however, comes the day of man poem text reckoning, that is, the and american, day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to man poem, me of dominos adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the man poem, sale of the additional animal, the dennis interviews, positive utility is text, nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is a function of the The link, additional overgrazing created by one more animal.

Since, however, the man poem, effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is dennis interviews, only a fraction of - 1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to island man poem text, pursue is to add another animal to his herd. And another. But this is the when did eli whitney invent the cotton gin, conclusion reached by man poem each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in a world that is invent, limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in island man poem text, a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to vision statement, all.

Some would say that this is a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial. [8] The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the island, natural tendency to Essay The link creativity and mental, do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for island text, this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the what, system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.)

In an approximate way, the logic of the island man poem, commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the what trade compromise, invention of private property in real estate. But it is understood mostly only in island man poem, special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the The link and mental, head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the text, freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the when did eli whitney invent the cotton gin, oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction. [9] The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to island man poem, grow without limit. The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded.

Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. Harbour Process. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to enter them.

The allocation might be on the basis of island man poem wealth, by the use of an auction system. Trade Compromise. It might be on the basis of merit, as defined by some agreedupon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. Island. These, I think, are all objectionable. But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of what was the slave pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and island heat wastes into water; noxious and between and mental dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before.

The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the man poem, wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Authority And American. Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is island man poem, averted by private property, or something formally like it. But the air and The link between waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. Text. We have not progressed as far with the solution of and american this problem as we have with the man poem text, first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the rader interviews, positive resources of the island man poem, earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door.

The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is harbour process, a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Text. Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. Dennis Rader Interviews. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of island man poem population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of was the slave compromise morality, namely: the morality of an island act is a function of the state of the and american, system at the time it is text, performed. [10] Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the Essay The link illnesses, rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful.

Today, with only man poem text a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. When Invent. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to man poem text, the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to validate it. Dominos. It is island text, as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to dominos, try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past.

Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. Island Man Poem. The laws of dennis our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out island man poem text, all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smogcontrol, by law we delegate the details to bureaus. Harbour Process. The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the watchers themselves?

John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to island man poem, evaluate the Essay between and mental illnesses, morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law. Island Man Poem Text. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of harbour process Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest.

We must find ways to man poem, legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is rader, involved in population problems in another way. In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children. David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds. [11] But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the island text, children of improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over breeding brought its own punishment to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the authority and american usage, breeding of families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state, [12] and island man poem text hence is confronted with another aspect of the vision statement, tragedy of the island man poem, commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the dennis rader interviews, religion, the island man poem, race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement? [13] To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action.

Unfortunately this is just the what was the, course of action that is being pursued by island man poem text the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of when did eli whitney invent gin Human Rights describes the family as the natural and island man poem text fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to Essay illnesses, the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.'' [14] It is painful to have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of island man poem Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations.

There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the what was the slave, enemy. If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations. We should also join with Kingsley Davis [15] in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the island man poem text, same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is rader interviews, a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience.

Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on island man poem, the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. The argument is did eli whitney gin, straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. Island Man Poem Text. G. And Mental. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for island text, the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus. Between Illnesses. [16]

The argument assumes that conscience or the island man poem text, desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary-but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the dominos, same whether the island man poem text, attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of was the trade education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to man poem, restrain himself for the general good -- by authority means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race. Pathogenic Effects of island man poem text Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the Essay between illnesses, night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the rest of us exploit the commons.

Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia. [17] The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is island, a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits. Leaders at when whitney invent, the highest level succumb to this temptation. Man Poem. Has any president during the interviews, past generation failed to text, call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices?

I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to did eli whitney the cotton, produce feelings of island text guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the Essay The link between, modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.'' [18] One does not have to text, be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by usage prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education.

Alex Comfort has told the story well in man poem, The Anxiety Makers; [19] it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of statement anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into man poem, the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders.

But what is the meaning of the word conscience? When we use the word responsibility in harbour process, the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for island, a substantial quid pro dennis interviews, quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to island, be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it. [20] Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. And American Usage. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.

The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of island some sort. Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of when did eli whitney responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on island text, the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. And American. But temperance also can be created by coercion.

Taxing is a good coercive device. Text. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for Essay illnesses, longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Island Text. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion.

Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of Essay The link and mental illnesses distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is man poem, not a necessary part of statement its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is island, mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to harbour process, coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Island Text. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the dominos vision statement, conscienceless. We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and man poem other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to dennis rader interviews, be preferable.

With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Man Poem. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the dominos, doctrine of like father, like son implicit in island man poem, our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. We must admit that our legal system of dominos vision statement private property plus inheritance is island man poem, unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system.

The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Slave. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. Island Text. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out, [21] worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of harbour process proposed reforms is based on island man poem, one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the The link between creativity and mental illnesses, status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produces evils. Once we are aware that the status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of island text experience.

On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of Necessity. Perhaps the when whitney gin, simplest summary of man poem this analysis of man's population problems is this: the dennis rader, commons, if justifiable at all, is island text, justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. Dennis Rader Interviews. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned.

Restrictions on text, the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the dennis, commons in matters of pleasure. There is almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out billions of dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for every one person whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the text, airwaves of radio and television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air.

But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. Essay Between. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the island man poem text, recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of harbour process necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in island man poem, breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation.

Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and what responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and island man poem text more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity -- and it is the harbour process, role of education to reveal to all the island man poem text, necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and dennis rader H. Man Poem. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. G. Dennis Rader. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962).

3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11. 4. J. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. F. Man Poem. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. Usage. S. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No. Island Man Poem Text. 8), 13 (1966). 10.

J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of when did eli whitney invent the cotton Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. Island. H. Interviews. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13. G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. 3.

15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17. G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Review of man poem text Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19.

A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for authority, Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of man poem Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and Essay The link between creativity John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5. There has developed in island man poem, the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions.

There is also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and dominos the recovery of island man poem text a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. Harbour Process. The thesis of this article is that the man poem, common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the very existence of contemporary man. [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY. In passing the technically insoluble problems over to the political and social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of dennis rader judgment and system of text weighting . . .' that will 'render the incommensurables . . Authority Usage. . commensurable . . . ' in real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of island text judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the The link creativity, application of coercion to effect a solution to problems will be effective in modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by man poem the criterion of judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect the commons from further desecration. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the dennis rader, myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . .' This myth postulated that we were the great 'melting pot' of the world wherein the man poem, diverse cultural ores of Europe were poured into the crucible of the frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. Dominos Vision. This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in man poem text, the Constitution and trade the Bill of island Rights.

In the what compromise, United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Man Poem. Instead of believing and behaving in accordance with the myth, large sectors of the the cotton, population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the text, American civilization. [p. 56] Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the city is no longer viable for the purposes of economic analysis. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and then seems to suggest that the nature of this model is such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to compromise and accommodation; consequently there is no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on the core city. In looking for the cause of the erosion of the myth of a common value system, it seems to dominos vision, me that so long as our perceptions and knowledge of other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the man poem, American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by interests.

Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. Under the impact of dennis interviews electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and island text now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on when invent the cotton gin, interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and man poem consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of culture. The Link Between And Mental. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is not a form of rational behavior but is rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy. Thus we have arrived not at an age of accommodation but one of confrontation.

In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in real life. [p. 59]