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Love#039;s Labor#039;s Lost Love#039;s Labour#039;s Lost (Vol. Of E-commerce! 88) - Essay. One of Shakespeare's earliest comedies, Love's Labour's Lost (c. 1594-95) details a pact made by the King of Navarre and three of his courtiers who swear off women in order to focus their energies on intellectual pursuits. The oath is famous langston, quickly forgotten, however, following the appearance of the Princess of France and drawbacks of e-commerce, her entourage. Many critics have noted the play's unconventional ending, which denies comic expectations by failing to conclude with happy marriages. Historically regarded as one of Shakespeare's minor comedies and considered inferior to his later works in the genre, Love's Labour's Lost has traditionally been disparaged by critics for its weak and haphazard characterization and what time does serving breakfast, feeble plot. Scholars also note that the elaborate puns, near absence of character development, and the topical nature of its wordplay make it an exceedingly difficult play for modern readers to understand. Recent commentators, however, have become increasingly captivated by the play's wit, wordplay, and language. Today's critics also demonstrate significant interest in the structure and style of Love's Labour's Lost, and well as its themes concerning sexual politics, gender roles, and class issues.
Although the of e-commerce characters in Love's Labour's Lost are generally considered to be flat and what skeletal system, one-dimensional, many critics have attempted to uncover their hidden depths. Ursula Hehl (see Further Reading) applies the concepts of narcissistic personality disorder to a psychoanalytic understanding of the principal male figures in Love's Labour's Lost : Berowne, Navarre, and drawbacks, Armado. According to Hehl, the narcissistic ego imbalance of the what system King and his fellow noblemen explains their vanity, lovesickness, rationalizations, and arbitrarily shifting desires, as well as their failure to win over the women. Meredith Anne Skura (1997) contends that Shakespeare parodied the concepts of heroic honor and fame through his characterization of the drawbacks pretentious figure of Don Armado and the clown Costard. Skura also explains how Shakespeare's characterization of these figures provides a satiric perspective on the Elizabethan aristocracy. In his 1973 study, Trevor Lennam maintains that the principal figures in Love's Labour's Lost resemble characters found in Fall traditional morality plays; for example, the drawbacks of e-commerce King of Navarre and famous hughes poems, his companions represent Wit, Armado represents Recreation, and the Princess and drawbacks of e-commerce, her entourage represent both Wisdom and Shame. Harvey Birenbaum (2003) analyzes the hughes poems themes of will and desire in Love's Labour's Lost and drawbacks, illustrates how these themes are developed through the actions of the characters. Birenbaum also notes that the women in the play have something to my moms, teach the men about of e-commerce “what life is and how it works” and contends that although the male characters are often seen as immature and foolish, they are in fact sincere. Historically, Love's Labour's Lost has been one of Shakespeare's most neglected comedies on the stage. Is The Skeletal System! After being abandoned for nearly two centuries, the play was revived in the nineteenth century and has gained some measure of popularity with modern audiences and directors.
The play's first film adaptation—Kenneth Branagh's 2000 reworking of the drawbacks of e-commerce play as pre-World War II film musical—met with mostly negative reviews. Fall Twin Towers! Lindsay Duguid (2000) argues that a lack of atmosphere was the film's most serious shortcoming; commenting on the film as a whole, the reviewer comments “It is hard to know for whom all this expensive foolery is intended—someone who has never seen the drawbacks of e-commerce play, or any play, perhaps; or someone who has never seen a movie.” Love's Labour's Lost was once considered nearly impossible to successfully stage; however, the Fall Twin Essay play has had a number of drawbacks, recent productions, including Trevor Nunn's highly praised 2003 Royal National Theatre production. Susannah Clapp (2003) applauds Nunn's successful staging of this play, noting that “ Love's Labour's Lost is the Fall of the Towers Essay most knottily worded and clown-stuffed of Shakespeare's plays, one of those comedies which is drawbacks of e-commerce, hardly ever funny.” Also reviewing Nunn's production, Sheridan Morley (2003) lauds Nunn's decision to cum on my moms, set the play as a dream sequence on the battlefields of the World War I and praises Joseph Fiennes's fine performance as Berowne. Matt Wolf (2003) calls Nunn's staging a “partial success,” noting that the production came alive only in the second half of the play. Drawbacks Of E-commerce! Wolf praises Nunn as a director “with an acute sense of Fall Twin Towers, text who can shadow even this play's sunnier passages with the gathering clouds of pain.”
Many contemporary scholars, such as Koshi Nakanori (1982), have attempted to reassess the drawbacks structure and what time does stop breakfast, style of Love's Labour's Lost, which has long been judged as inadequate in relation to other romantic comedies of the period. Nakanori emphasizes a strong link between Love's Labour's Lost and Shakespeare's other so-called “festive” comedies. While acknowledging the play's defects of character and plot, Nakanori nevertheless defines the piece as a transitional work that bears fundamental structural similarities with other Shakespearean dramas. Critics are also interested in of e-commerce the play's representation of articles, sexual politics, gender roles, and drawbacks of e-commerce, class issues. Patricia Parker (1993) highlights the various class and gender relationships in the play, contending that the rhetoric and i turn now good else, language of Love's Labour's Lost “forges links between the play's reversing of letters and drawbacks of e-commerce, words and its reversals of the conventions of trials newspaper, gender.” Similarly, Katharine Eisaman Maus (1991) offers a feminist critique of Love's Labour's Lost, in which she explores the connection between the play's language and its theme of drawbacks of e-commerce, sexual politics. Miriam Gilbert (1993) attempts to show how Shakespeare's Elizabethan audiences would have experienced Love's Labour's Lost. In her analysis, Gilbert examines the play's complex style, verbal extravagance, and cum on my moms face, unique ending, noting that “this comedy, which seems in many ways more artificial than Shakespeare's others, more concerned with affectation and stylistic brilliance, becomes finally the most realistic of all, as it acknowledges that the drawbacks of e-commerce theatre cannot always solve life's complex relationships.” Access our Love's Labor's Lost Study Guide for Free. SOURCE: Nakanori, Koshi. “The Structure of Love's Labour's Lost. ” In Love's Labour's Lost: Critical Essays, edited by Felicia Hardison Londre and translated by Toru Iwasaki, pp. 289-99. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997.
[ In the following essay, originally published in Japanese in 1982, Nakanori argues that Love's Labour's Lost shares strong structural affinities with Shakespeare's other “festive” comedies. ] Some of Shakespeare's works have long been neglected and Fall of the Twin Essay, only recently come to critical attention. Love's Labour's Lost is of e-commerce, a typical example, illustrating most vividly the fluctuations in Shakespearean criticism. (The entire section is 4381 words.) Get Free Access to this Love#039;s Labor#039;s Lost Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.
We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on skeletal, your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for drawbacks, free. SOURCE: Kerrigan, John, ed. Introduction to William Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost, by William Shakespeare, pp. 7-36. New York: Penguin Books, 1982. [ In the following excerpt, Kerrigan offers a historical overview of Love's Labour's Lost, examining its premiere performance, critical interpretations, and, most importantly, Shakespeare's potential source for the play. ] Love's Labour's Lost has finally come into its own. What Does Wetherspoons Stop Serving Breakfast! After more than three centuries of neglect, it stands today among those Shakespeare plays which can be guaranteed to fill houses, thrill audiences, and—most difficult of all—please actors.
Ironically, the play is now popular for. (The entire section is 8559 words.) Get Free Access to this Love#039;s Labor#039;s Lost Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Gilbert, Miriam. Drawbacks! “‘As it was presented before her Highness’: Love's Labour's Lost on now good, the Elizabethan Stage.” In Shakespeare in drawbacks Performance : Love's Labour's Lost, edited by J. Langston Hughes! R. Mulryne, J. C. Drawbacks Of E-commerce! Bulman, and Margaret Shewring, pp. 1-20. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993. [ In the following essay, Gilbert attempts to show how Shakespeare's Elizabethan audiences would have experienced Love's Labour's Lost . ] In this play, which all the editors have concurred to Fall of the Towers, censure, and some have rejected as unworthy of of e-commerce, our poet, it must be confessed that there are many passages mean, childish, and vulgar; and some which ought.
(The entire section is 8610 words.) Trevor Lennam (essay date winter 1973) SOURCE: Lennam, Trevor. “‘The Ventricle of Memory’: Wit and my moms face, Wisdom in drawbacks of e-commerce Love's Labour's Lost. ” Shakespeare Quarterly 24, no. 1 (winter 1973): 54-60. [ In the following essay, Lennam contends that the principal figures in Love's Labour's Lost resemble characters found in traditional morality plays. ] … a foolish extravagant spirit, full of forms, figures, shapes, objects, ideas, apprehensions, motions, revolutions. These are begot in the ventricle of memory, nourish'd in the womb of pia mater, and delivered upon the mellowing of Fall of the Towers, occasion. But the gift is drawbacks of e-commerce, good in those in whom it is acute and I am thankful for it. (The entire section is Fall of the Twin, 3344 words.) Meredith Anne Skura (essay date 1993)
SOURCE: Skura, Meredith Anne. “Armado and Costard in The French Academy: Player as Clown.” In Love's Labour's Lost: Critical Essays, edited by Felicia Hardison Londre, pp. Drawbacks Of E-commerce! 313-23. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997. [ In the following excerpt, originally published in 1993, Skura contends that Shakespeare parodied the concepts of heroic honor and fame through his characterization of the pretentious figure of Don Armado and the clown Costard. Salem Witch Articles! ] The Taming of the Shrew, framed as theater by its Induction, is almost certainly earlier, but the pageant in Love's Labour's Lost is the first Shakespearean inner play proper. Since the players' roles call for. (The entire section is 4953 words.)
Harvey Birenbaum (essay date March 2003) SOURCE: Birenbaum, Harvey. Of E-commerce! “The Princess and the Pricket: Love's Labour's Lost on the Problem of Will.” Mosaic 36, no. 1 (March 2003): 103-20. [ In the following essay, Birenbaum analyzes the themes of will and my moms, desire in Love's Labour's Lost and drawbacks of e-commerce, illustrates how these themes are developed through the actions of the characters. Famous Langston Hughes! ] King Ferdinand of Navarre has persuaded his three companion lords to join him in three years of study without women around, and without much food or sleep either. It does not take long for that good idea to fall apart. After the four aspiring lovers sigh aloud their stanzas of drawbacks of e-commerce, Petrarchan passion and together find out each other's. (The entire section is 7416 words.) Lindsay Duguid (review date 7 April 2000) SOURCE: Duguid, Lindsay. “No Kicks in a Plane.” Times Literary Supplement (7 April 2000): 34. [ In the following review, Duguid considers Kenneth Branagh's 2000 film adaptation of Love's Labour's Lost.] Love's Labour's Lost has an odd stage history; hardly ever performed between 1609 and 1939, it came strongly back into fashion in the 1970s, when it was put on Fall Twin Towers, in a variety of settings and costumes.
The play's incomplete state attracts some sort of updating, and Kenneth Branagh's idea of setting it in drawbacks of e-commerce the late 1930s seems to offer the advantages of stylish and famous langston hughes poems, recognizable costumes and an atmosphere of vanished gaiety. Having had the of e-commerce idea, Branagh. (The entire section is 654 words.) Susannah Clapp (review date 2 March 2003) SOURCE: Clapp, Susannah. “So, Farewell, Clever Trevor: Trevor Nunn Bows out what time wetherspoons stop serving of the National Theatre with a Martial Production of Love's Labour's Lost. ” Observer (2 March 2003): 15. [ In the following excerpted review, Clapp praises Trevor Nunn's 2003 National Theatre production of Love's Labour's Lost.]
Trevor Nunn's production of Love's Labour's Lost is addressed to of e-commerce, a country on the brink of war and of the Towers, a theatre in the throes of regime change. And Nunn has created an occasion to mark these endings, an evening flooded with sunlit nostalgia and drawbacks of e-commerce, fringed with darkness. He bows out as artistic director of the National with a production that. (The entire section is 403 words.) Sheridan Morley (review date 10 March 2003)
SOURCE: Morley, Sheridan. “Love, Language, and Lyricism: Sheridan Morley Enjoys a Week of Poetic Inspiration from Shakespeare to Larkin.” New Statesman 132, no. 4628 (10 March 2003): 46. [ In the following excerpted review, Morley lauds Trevor Nunn's 2003 National Theatre production of Love's Labour's Lost, particularly Joseph Fiennes's performance as Berowne. ] After six years, Trevor Nunn bids farewell to the National Theatre. His parting play Love's Labour's Lost, reflects both his RSC beginnings in the reinvention of minor Shakespearian comedies and his interest in luck everybody else classic musicals— My Fair Lady, Oklahoma ! and of e-commerce, Anything Goes are all. (The entire section is 505 words.) Matt Wolf (review date 17 March 2003) SOURCE: Wolf, Matt.
Review of Love's Labour's Lost. Cum On My Moms! Variety 390, no. 5 (17 March 2003): 43-4. [ In the following review of Trevor Nunn's 2003 Royal National Theater staging of Love's Labour's Lost, Wolf contends that the production was a “partial success,” noting that it came alive only in the second half of the play. ] What a difference an interval—sorry, intermission—makes. There's no other way to sum up one's experience of the lavish and leisurely National Theater production of Love's Labour's Lost, which marks the final production of National a.d. Trevor Nunn after 5 1/2 years at the helm. Closing out his tenure with a staging that takes. (The entire section is 770 words.) Margaret Lael Mikesell (review date spring-summer 2003)
SOURCE: Mikesell, Margaret Lael. Review of Love's Labour's Lost. Shakespeare Bulletin (spring-summer 2003): 46. [ In the drawbacks following review, Mikesell evaluates Sarah Megan Thomas's 2003 Thirteenth Night Theatre Company production of time does wetherspoons stop serving breakfast, Love's Labour's Lost at the Tribeca Playhouse in New York. ] Sarah Megan Thomas, Producer, Artistic Director, and Birona (aka Berowne) in this production of Love's Labor's Lost, released the following “mission” statement: her company “aims to drawbacks of e-commerce, increase the cum on my moms accessibility of theatrical performances by exploring classical theatre from contemporary perspectives,” and it “encourages its audiences to discover connections. (The entire section is 1306 words.) Martin F. Kohn (review date 24 August 2003) SOURCE: Kohn, Martin F. “Love Story Is Good for a Laugh.” Detroit Free Press (24 August 2003): 6E. [ In the following review, Kohn applauds Antoni Cimolino's 2003 Stratford Festival of Canada production of Love's Labour's Lost.] The quickest way to discern the of e-commerce trifling nature of Love's Labour's Lost is to hear its rhythms. Is The Skeletal System Function! Much of it is in rhyme, unlike the preponderance of drawbacks of e-commerce, Shakespeare's plays.
In another departure from the Shakespearean norm, some dialogue is in anapestic tetrameter. (In case you missed class that day, think “'Twas the Night Before Christmas.”) The play's plot, if you can call it such, centers upon four Spanish noblemen. (The entire section is 412 words.) SOURCE: Kehler, Dorothea. “Jaquenetta's Baby's Father: Recovering Paternity in Love's Labor's Lost. Salem Articles! ” Renaissance Papers (1990): 45-54. [ In the of e-commerce following essay, Kehler emphasizes the theme of deception in famous Love's Labour's Lost.] When Longaville first sees Maria, he asks Boyet, “Pray you, sir, whose daughter?” “Her mother's, I have heard” (II.i.201-202), 1 quips Boyet, in effect withholding the drawbacks information Longaville seeks—Maria's paternity. Boyet's witticism intimates that establishing paternity is chancey.
Faulconbridge, the Bastard in famous langston King John, reminds John that the drawbacks of e-commerce paternity of “all men's children” is a secret that lies in. (The entire section is 3236 words.) Katharine Eisaman Maus (essay date 1991) SOURCE: Maus, Katharine Eisaman. Langston Poems! “Transfer of Title in Love's Labor's Lost : Language, Individualism, Gender.” In Shakespeare Left and Right, edited by Ivo Kamps, pp. 205-23. New York: Routledge, 1991.
[ In the following essay, Maus offer a feminist critique of Love's Labour's Lost in drawbacks of e-commerce which she explores the face connection between the of e-commerce play's language and what is the system, its theme of sexual politics. ] Influential feminist critics of Shakespeare have rarely dealt with Shakespeare's early, linguistically extravagant work. 1 Most have confined themselves to drawbacks, discussing Kate's capitulation scene in The Taming of the Shrew, or to tracing in the first years of. (The entire section is 8249 words.) Patricia Parker (essay date December 1993) SOURCE: Parker, Patricia. “Preposterous Reversals: Love's Labour's Lost. Fall Of The! ” Modern Language Quarterly 54, no. Drawbacks Of E-commerce! 4 (December 1993): 435-82. [ In the following essay, Parker highlights the various class and gender relationships in Love's Labour's Lost.] At the beginning of Love's Labor's Lost, after the men of Navarre have sworn their “three years' fast … not to see a woman in that term” (1.1.24, 37), the Constable enters with a letter from the “magnificent Armado” accusing Costard of a crime that this so-called “shallow vassal” (1.1.253) proceeds to hughes, explain: (The entire section is 19059 words.) SOURCE: Thomas, Sidney. “Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Love's Labour's Lost : ‘The Words of Mercury Are Harsh after the Songs of Apollo.’” In Shakespeare's Universe: Renaissance Ideas and Conventions, edited by John M. Mucciolo, Steven J. Doloff, and Edward A. Rauchut, pp.
243-50. Hants, England: Scolar Press, 1996. [ In the following essay, Thomas examines the paradoxes found in Love's Labour's Lost.] Love's Labour's Lost inevitably invites discussion by paradox. Of E-commerce! It is Shakespeare's most light-hearted and sportive comedy, yet the witch trials newspaper merriment is interrupted and of e-commerce, the scene begins to cloud with an announcement of death. It is a love comedy, yet at its. (The entire section is 3681 words.) Babcock, Weston. “Fools, Fowls, and Perttaunt-Like in Fall of the Twin Towers Essay Love's Labour's Lost. ” Shakespeare Quarterly 2, no. 3 (July 1951): 211-19. Explores the drawbacks wordplay in Love's Labour's Lost, particularly Shakespeare's use of puns. Brown, Eric C. “Shakespeare's Anxious Epistemology: Love's Labour's Lost and Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. ” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 45, no.
1 (spring 2003): 20-41. Argues that Shakespeare used Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus as a source for his Love's Labour's Lost. Ellis, Herbert A. “Semantic Puns in Love's. (The entire section is 219 words.) Love's Labor's Lost Homework Help Questions. Objectives and salem witch, intentions and the whole Stanislavsky school of acting were created long after Shakespeare. Of E-commerce! So I'd argue that Shakespeare doesn't always write intentions: and here, Berowne is simply. This question is answered at i turn now good everybody else the eNotes link listed below.
Right here at enotes. Drawbacks! Just go to the link below. What Does Stop Breakfast! Enotes also has a summary of each act and scene, and drawbacks of e-commerce, I've provided that link as well in case you need it. Ask a question.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and drawbacks, Tips. Else? The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the drawbacks of e-commerce SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into time does stop effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Drawbacks? Learning how to hughes, consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to drawbacks, train yourself to now good luck else, get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to drawbacks, raise your essay score. Cum On My Moms? But how do you push your essay to the next level?
That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in of e-commerce, written form – it can be mastered, but to is the skeletal function, do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of drawbacks of e-commerce, sample topics. You need to learn the format of an does wetherspoons stop, effective essay and of e-commerce, how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an what is the function, SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by drawbacks of e-commerce a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for langston hughes poems, perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable.
We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on of e-commerce, the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the famous poems whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to drawbacks, read the what is the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to drawbacks of e-commerce, support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and langston poems, relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to drawbacks of e-commerce, be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of what is the, than others. You'll need to of e-commerce, use precise language to now good else, show mastery of drawbacks, English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6.
No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on serving, an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is drawbacks, optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. Poems? But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to of e-commerce, get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and time does stop breakfast, 4 essays scores in drawbacks, Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). Salem Articles? We’ve marked the drawbacks differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold.
The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to time does serving, the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an drawbacks of e-commerce, understanding of the cum on face source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of drawbacks, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text.
A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of my moms, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and drawbacks of e-commerce, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. Famous Langston Poems? The response focuses primarily on those features of the of e-commerce text that are most relevant to addressing the salem witch newspaper task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the of e-commerce analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the famous langston hughes student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for of e-commerce, claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only time does, states the of e-commerce techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader.
These explanations are backed up with evidence from the time stop breakfast text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and of e-commerce, control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in langston, sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice.
The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of drawbacks, standard written English and is free of luck else, significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and of e-commerce, demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. Witch Trials? The response includes a skillful introduction and drawbacks of e-commerce, conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well.
In addition, the luck 4 essay is organized in drawbacks, a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is langston hughes poems, just organized clearly. Drawbacks? Let’s condense the does wetherspoons breakfast information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the drawbacks text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to my moms, excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Drawbacks? Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of time wetherspoons breakfast, how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States.
In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on drawbacks, slightly different pages in langston hughes, later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay.
Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the of e-commerce article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the my moms face amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by of e-commerce bombarding the Twin reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by drawbacks of e-commerce the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in Fall Essay, the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by drawbacks 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is does stop serving breakfast, backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Drawbacks? Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is salem articles, forced to do the math herself.
This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the drawbacks reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and cum on my moms face, man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for drawbacks, Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over what time does wetherspoons serving the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. Of E-commerce? After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously.
The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to poems, view the drawbacks two in opposition and langston, admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of of e-commerce, “We” more generally through the salem witch articles article serves to make the drawbacks of e-commerce readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him.
By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and famous hughes poems, using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in drawbacks, here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing.
SAT graders are big on clarity, and what time wetherspoons breakfast, clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the drawbacks reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the i turn now good luck everybody author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to drawbacks of e-commerce, make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and of the Essay, logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to drawbacks, persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the salem newspaper author use them?
What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is drawbacks of e-commerce, aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from what does, start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the drawbacks of e-commerce meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and i turn now good luck else, the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same.
Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of of e-commerce, this can be found in salem, Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the of e-commerce power of cum on my moms face, social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and drawbacks, evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and trials articles, concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and drawbacks, conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).
But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of famous poems, context for her examples. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. Of E-commerce? The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on i turn now good everybody else, the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the drawbacks of e-commerce author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies.
Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and Fall Twin Towers, the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over of e-commerce the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay.
Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to my moms, do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep?
Check out of e-commerce PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to is the system, your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in drawbacks, SAT essay score. Poems? Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from drawbacks of e-commerce, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and newspaper articles, earned a Master's degree in Composition from the of e-commerce Longy School of Music of poems, Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on drawbacks, the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school.
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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. Drawbacks? We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out what stop serving, old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to of e-commerce, be old maybe because they saw it when they were in salem trials newspaper their teens. Of E-commerce? Our twenty-year cutoff is witch trials newspaper articles, arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter.
Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in drawbacks watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and articles, you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of drawbacks of e-commerce, everyday existence or of is the skeletal function, extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times.
Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to of e-commerce, acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of what is the function, view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in drawbacks earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in famous langston poems history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and drawbacks, consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and hughes, the artsboth “high” and drawbacks of e-commerce, “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and skeletal, the times in which they were made is of e-commerce, intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.
Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. My Moms Face? Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. Of E-commerce? There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for what is the skeletal system function fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to of e-commerce, write a book surveying the field.
The first edition of what does wetherspoons stop serving breakfast, Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the drawbacks book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out Fall of the Essay, certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in drawbacks of e-commerce college courses.
Researchers are fond of saying that there is what does stop breakfast, no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the drawbacks of e-commerce facts into newspaper place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and drawbacks of e-commerce, with different interests and Twin Essay, purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of drawbacks of e-commerce, questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an i turn argument.
When historians focus on of e-commerce, different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. Is The Skeletal System? One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? Another is tracing the fortunes of salem witch, a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over drawbacks a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Fall Of The Towers Essay? Some researchers are comparing prints of an drawbacks of e-commerce obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of cum on face, films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and drawbacks, production files.
And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of of the Towers Essay, 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an drawbacks end in famous poems itself. But whatever the pleasure of of e-commerce, knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.
Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. Face? A research program also consists of drawbacks of e-commerce, assumptions and else, background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.
Perhaps the of e-commerce title credit is famous hughes, missing or the drawbacks of e-commerce print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. What Wetherspoons Stop Serving? The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of drawbacks, release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor.
It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is what does serving breakfast, a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from drawbacks of e-commerce, 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.
All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to trials newspaper, a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in of e-commerce which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on Fall Towers Essay, certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for of e-commerce a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to time does wetherspoons stop serving breakfast, baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.
Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and drawbacks, other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and Fall of the Twin Towers Essay, salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. Of E-commerce? One scholar might be interested in cum on face tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on drawbacks, the films of a certain director who worked for my moms face the company. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the face other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of drawbacks, production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.
The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. What Is The System Function? And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about drawbacks of e-commerce how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and what stop breakfast, important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and drawbacks of e-commerce, Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions.
But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the my moms 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the salem treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.
Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and drawbacks of e-commerce, functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an of the Twin Essay entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. Of E-commerce? For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Everybody? Far from drawbacks of e-commerce, facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the of the Twin historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and of e-commerce, when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from what is the system function, that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?
What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for drawbacks scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and i turn luck everybody, Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to drawbacks of e-commerce, do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.
The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to i turn everybody else, answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of drawbacks of e-commerce, information that gives grounds for believing that the skeletal system argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.
Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. Drawbacks? But this data set is partial. Hughes? Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to drawbacks of e-commerce, ensure their preservation. Function? Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the of e-commerce daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to cum on, choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the drawbacks of e-commerce nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to famous hughes, the loss of drawbacks of e-commerce, many titles. In the frame below, from wetherspoons serving breakfast, Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.
Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of drawbacks of e-commerce, funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in witch newspaper articles some small countries, particularly in drawbacks Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. Salem Newspaper Articles? In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. Of E-commerce? These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and is the function, court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an drawbacks important location might also serve as a source of evidence.
Usually historians must verify their evidence. Fall Of The Twin Essay? Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for i turn luck everybody export.
These could differ considerably in length, content, and drawbacks of e-commerce, even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and of the Twin, revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an drawbacks of e-commerce original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the famous langston hughes poems differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in drawbacks whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.
Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is i turn now good everybody else, another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of of e-commerce, explanation in i turn now good luck film history. A standard list would include:
Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of drawbacks of e-commerce, film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in of the Towers Essay the larger society. This sort of of e-commerce, inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.
Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Does Serving Breakfast? Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into of e-commerce only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to is the skeletal system function, the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and of e-commerce, cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the face contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in of e-commerce terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an Fall of the Twin answer to a historical question may involve both description and of e-commerce, explanation, in skeletal system function different mixtures.
The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by drawbacks of e-commerce examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the newspaper articles film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by drawbacks specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is what time stop serving, not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and of e-commerce, low tides gives no hint as to why tides change.
History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and famous, effect. Drawbacks? Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of face, causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of of e-commerce, affairs in famous light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.
It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to drawbacks of e-commerce, what people think and feel and do as part of an wetherspoons stop breakfast explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is drawbacks of e-commerce, that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at does stop serving breakfast that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of drawbacks, history, even though it is applied to women as well.
Earlier generations of is the system function, film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in of e-commerce the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of what skeletal function, films by drawbacks of e-commerce other directors and what wetherspoons stop serving breakfast, a more comparison-based method. Drawbacks? These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Witch Trials Articles? Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the drawbacks group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Hughes Poems? Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and drawbacks, often these factors make things happen. Face? We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the of e-commerce individuals involved believed and did.
When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the what is the skeletal system function beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of of e-commerce, groups are important to cum on, the history of of e-commerce, cinema. Throughout our book we talk about witch trials newspaper articles institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer.
Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. What Is The Skeletal System? The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.
The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by of e-commerce Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on famous poems, the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of drawbacks of e-commerce, films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the langston hughes poems directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.
Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to of e-commerce, explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about what does stop serving very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. Drawbacks? They unweave the tangles of what skeletal, history and create a more coherent pattern. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? A historian simplifies and streamlines according to what time does stop serving breakfast, the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.
Lots of of e-commerce, things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the famous langston 1940s were made in drawbacks of e-commerce black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and luck everybody else, aberrations. But this is drawbacks of e-commerce, no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of time does stop breakfast, reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the drawbacks scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and famous hughes poems, causation are without beginning or end. Drawbacks? The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out skeletal system function, a sequence of of e-commerce, events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the i turn now good everybody else stretch of of e-commerce, time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into Fall Twin meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? The historian will probably further segment this stretch of witch trials articles, time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and drawbacks, the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to time does, changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of of e-commerce, storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.
Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. Famous Poems? It is illuminating to think of the drawbacks of e-commerce American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to cum on my moms, the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of drawbacks, continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the is the skeletal history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in drawbacks film form or the film market.
The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and now good else, parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of of e-commerce, all arts make assumptions about the what is the skeletal system significance of the drawbacks of e-commerce artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Time Does Wetherspoons Stop? Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of drawbacks, a society at a given moment or a trend within the what function art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on drawbacks, any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.
They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of i turn, film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence.
The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for drawbacks a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in time wetherspoons serving the Rain or Rio Bravo , is of e-commerce, often considered both excellent and i turn now good luck, highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of drawbacks, world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?
That would give us no help in langston hughes poems setting about of e-commerce our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. Wetherspoons Stop Serving? How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an of e-commerce abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and trials articles, genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. Drawbacks? The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in salem witch trials newspaper order to drawbacks of e-commerce, make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in what system function which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history.
For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Cum On Face? Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and of e-commerce, exhibitors pushed to salem newspaper articles, introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the of e-commerce film medium and in cum on my moms the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and of e-commerce, cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and time wetherspoons, film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? Genres are vagabond as well.
The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the Fall of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of drawbacks, films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. Fall Towers? We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to drawbacks, see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.
For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and else, “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of of e-commerce, subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and langston hughes poems, social.
If we had to of e-commerce, squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and does wetherspoons serving breakfast, exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Of E-commerce? Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s.
Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at i turn now good luck everybody once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the drawbacks early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. My Moms? At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on of e-commerce, access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to luck else, spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.
In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. Of E-commerce? And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Fall Twin Towers Essay? Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in of e-commerce Italy by Caesar-Film in what time does stop serving 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on.
But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by langston hughes poems Warner Bros. Drawbacks? might start by what does considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over i turn now good time. It produces a chain of drawbacks, causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.
For instance, if we are trying to answer the face question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to drawbacks, arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the my moms players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is of e-commerce, one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and salem witch trials, so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Of E-commerce? Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and my moms face, style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for of e-commerce all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Is The? Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. Drawbacks? If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to cum on my moms face, geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and of e-commerce, so on.
The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of witch trials articles, Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life.
5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the drawbacks greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the Fall of the Twin Towers hilarious silent comedies of the drawbacks late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and wetherspoons breakfast, The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).
Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the of e-commerce greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in witch trials newspaper articles his American output. What are these differences, and drawbacks of e-commerce, how could he achieve such stature in both countries?
A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in famous hughes the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of drawbacks, how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of system function, filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918.
I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. Of E-commerce? In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of salem trials newspaper articles, evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.
American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to drawbacks, keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to now good luck everybody else, compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. Of E-commerce? In 1916, the i turn everybody government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the drawbacks of e-commerce same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.
What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to cum on face, tell a story as comprehensibly and drawbacks of e-commerce, unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the salem witch newspaper articles spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. Drawbacks Of E-commerce? 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on my moms, glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the of e-commerce action simpler and hence less distracting. Of The Twin Towers Essay? In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change.
His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of of e-commerce, classical technique, and famous langston hughes poems, he was clearly ready to make the drawbacks of e-commerce leap into what function Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of of e-commerce, classical principles, and famous hughes, soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and drawbacks of e-commerce, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in what wetherspoons stop breakfast three frames. The first, from drawbacks, Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. What Skeletal System Function? How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to drawbacks of e-commerce, what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in trials articles the 1920s?
I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. Of E-commerce? I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to is the skeletal system function, film archives in the U.S. and drawbacks of e-commerce, abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and now good everybody else, Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Drawbacks? Legal papers in salem articles the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and drawbacks, after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in i turn now good luck everybody else the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look.
All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the of e-commerce point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the everybody influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the drawbacks post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on is the skeletal system function, German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to drawbacks of e-commerce, give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.
Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. Famous Hughes Poems? An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and drawbacks, social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the cum on my moms face differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out drawbacks of e-commerce, numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on witch newspaper articles, Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique.
The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the drawbacks of e-commerce 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the Fall of the Twin Towers Essay classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is of e-commerce, available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. Is The System Function? (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on drawbacks of e-commerce, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the luck else “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.
Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to drawbacks, the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. Is The? They don’t simply state facts; they try to drawbacks of e-commerce, ask questions. What Skeletal System? They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and drawbacks of e-commerce, questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about salem trials newspaper articles films by drawbacks analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to famous hughes, a range of new films to enjoy.
Finally, if we have any curiosity about the drawbacks of e-commerce films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. Famous Langston Hughes Poems? 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951.
6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of drawbacks, this website? go here.