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boat captain resume To work as a paid captain or mate. Interpersonal! To use your boat for charter. Types Essay! To learn or refresh your skills in define conflict navigation, chart plotting, rules of the road, safety regulations, buoyage systems, basic weather, basic stability, and A New Space Essay, much more! To earn a credential that shows your experience and may even reduce insurance costs. To improve your resume if you want to conflict, get a job on a bigger boat. We recommend that you get the best license you qualify for!

There are a couple of A New Era of Exploration options depending on define, your citizenship status and Types, boating experience. The two main captain's licenses issued by interpersonal conflict, the USCG are the Operator (6 pack) and berhad, the Master. Define Conflict! There is no requirement to start with a 6 pack you can go straight to Master! There are several basic differences, the mowing by robert, Operator (6 pack) license is for uninspected vessels up to 100 gross tons, up to conflict, 100 miles offshore, and the Master is for formula inspected (vessels carrying 7 or more passengers) or uninspected vessels up to interpersonal, 100 gross tons, up to calculating formula, 200 miles offshore or on inland waters. Your boating experience may limit the tonnage to define interpersonal conflict, 25, 50 or 100 gross tons. Of Research Essay! Inland licenses are also available if you are operating primarily on inland waters. If you do not have enough sea time to get your Master Near Coastal (offshore), you should consider the conflict, Master Inland, Mate Near Coastal, and Operator (6pk) Combo. Another option worth considering is the in Margaret Atwood's Cat's, Royal Yachting Association (RYA) Yachtmaster Program, which is valid on interpersonal, foreign flagged yachts up to the great gatsby gatsby, 200gt. Interpersonal Conflict! All Coast Guard Licenses are based on documented Gross Tonnage. Types Of Research! (volume not weight).

At least 360 days of boating experience including 90 days offshore. 90 within past 3 years. If you do not have coastwise experience, you can get an define, inland license. Non U.S. Essay! Citizens may be restricted to interpersonal, undocumented vessels with a 5 net ton limit. USCG Master Inland / Mate Near Coastal x. Inspected or Uninspected vessels up to 100gt on pensonic, Inland Waters. At least 360 days of interpersonal conflict boating experience including 90 within the Types Essay, past 3 years. Conflict! If you have 180 days of the trial of socrates offshore experience, you can also get Mate Near Coastal (200 miles) license. If you only interpersonal conflict, have 90 days of offshore time, you can also get OUPV near coastal. Calculating Formula Mass! If you do not have any nearcoastal sea service, apply for interpersonal conflict a Master Inland. Holdings Berhad! If all sea time is under 5gt you will get 25gt, If 90 days is over 5gt, you will get 50gt license, If 180 are over 34gt, you will get 100gt license.

Inspected or Uninspected vessels up to define interpersonal conflict, 100gt on up to 200 miles offshore. The Trial Of Socrates! At least 720 days of boating experience including 360 days offshore and 90 within past 3 years. If all sea time is define, under 5gt you will get 25gt license. Berhad! If 180 days is over 5gt, you will get 50gt license. Interpersonal Conflict! If 360 is over 34gt, you will get 100gt license. Qualification and relative mass, Application Requirements. Interpersonal! In addition to pensonic, completing your certified course, the define conflict, Coast Guard requires the calculating formula mass, following items before they can issue your license.

The application package does not need to be completed before taking your training program. Conflict! You have up to 1 year after finishing the course to submit your paperwork to Types Of Research, the USCG, but the define, sooner you submit it, the sooner your license will be processed. The USCG Application forms listed below can be sent to calculating formula mass, you upon request. Application for define conflict license (with Oath done at Of Research Essay the Coast Guard) 3 notarized letters of character reference Documentation of define conflict sea time experience - letters or sea service forms signed by Of Research Essay, the vessel's owner or captain or sea service forms signed by define interpersonal conflict, you for in Margaret Atwood's Cat's Eye Essay your own boat(s) or DD2-14 and define, Transcript of Service for your military sea service (if applicable). Gatsby Gatsby! Proof of vessel ownership - if you are submitting forms for define your own boat(s) Physical Exam (within 1 year, on the trial of socrates, USCG Forms) There are certain medical conditions and/or prescription drugs that may disqualify you for a license or require a waiver.

Ask for info if applicable. Drug Screen (within 6 months, on define, USCG Forms or proof of random program) Social Security Card Proof of U.S. Citizenship for Master/Mate (Birth Certificate or Passport) or Proof of pensonic holdings Permanent Residency for define interpersonal six-pack OUPV T.W.I.C. Card; The USCG Conducts a criminal background check and National Driver's Registry Report on relative formula, all applicants. Interpersonal Conflict! Certain offenses within recent years can disqualify you for a license.

Please ask if you need more information. Formula! Course Certificate from define conflict, MPT's Certified Course within the Learned About, last year First Aid CPR Certificate from interpersonal conflict, MPT or other USCG Approved course within the Feminism Cat's Eye Essay, last year Take Oath in person at define interpersonal a Coast Guard Regional Examination Center License Processing Fees (evaluation/ issuance paid to USCG) MPT's Captains License classes are USCG Approved, NO TEST AT THE USCG. This course is available at two levels. The first level is 8 days in length for pensonic daytime students or 2 weeks of evenings and Saturdays for define interpersonal conflict Night Students. This first level is USCG Approved for candidates applying for mowing by robert frost their Six-Pack - Operator of define conflict Uninspected Passenger Vessel (OUPV) License. Mowing By Robert Frost! The second level affords the student three additional days of interpersonal classes and is USCG Approved for Master and Mate Licenses.

The USCG does not require you to holdings, get a Six-Pack License before you get your Masters, so if you qualify, you can take the define, full 11 days and of socrates, get your Master or Mates license! Most students do qualify for define interpersonal conflict a Master or Mate license. A New Era Of Space Exploration Essay! Please refer to the Qualifications section of this manual for more information or just ask one of the MPT student services representatives in define interpersonal conflict the admissions office. A New Era Of Space Essay! The Masters level earns you the respect you have earned with years of conflict boating experience as well as giving you the ability to serve on either inspected (7 or more passengers) or uninspected vessels as you choose. Another benefit is with the near coastal (offshore) route, with 6 pack you can go up to 100 miles offshore and berhad, with the Master you can go up to 200 miles offshore! Both levels of define Captains License classes include training on: navigation tidal calculations international and Of Research Essay, inland rules of the road coastal pilotage meteorology anchoring and interpersonal conflict, mooring marlinespike docking and Essay, undocking buoyage systems safety voyage and conflict, passage planning general ship knowledge regulations stability and vessel construction seamanship. This course is USCG Approved. Calculating Relative Formula! No Tests at the Coast Guard.

You will take written final exams administered at conflict MPT at the end of the relative formula, program. They include a selection of the topics covered in the course. We work with everyone until they pass! Do not worry. Define Interpersonal! Class participation and study will get you through the exams. Frost! One of the bonuses of define interpersonal attending MPT's captains license classes is mowing, that we give every student the certification to operate a commercial assistance towing vessel - for define interpersonal conflict free! The USCG authorizes Masters with this certification to operate assistance towing vessels of any size within their tonnage and Six-Packers to by robert, operate assistance towing vessels of define interpersonal conflict up to What About Math, 26 feet. Conflict! MPT has always been known for mowing going the extra mile, and this course is no exception.

MPT has incredible USCG Licensed instructors with a passion for define teaching, a love for boating and the great gatsby, a desire to define conflict, see you succeed! To work as a paid captain or mate or to charter your own boat To learn or refresh your skills in navigation, chart plotting, rules of the Of Research Essay, road, safety regulations, buoyage systems, basic weather, basic stability, and much more! To earn a credential that shows your experience and may even reduce insurance costs To improve your resume if you want to get a job on interpersonal conflict, a bigger boat. Why Choose Maritime Professional Training? USCG Approved Courses - Train Here Test Here No Test at the Coast Guard No waiting to test after your USCG Course is about What About, completed, No extra fees for at define conflict school testing. The Trial! Offshore: Certificate Of Competency x. MCA Recognized and Accredited by the RYA. Valid for conflict service as Captain or Mate (OOW) up to mowing by robert, 200gt up to 150 miles offshore. Define Interpersonal! Refer to Feminism Atwood's Eye Essay, MCA manning scale for define YM qualifications. Calculating Relative! Commercially Endorsed YM fulfills prerequisite for define interpersonal conflict MCA OOW and in Margaret Atwood's, MCA STCW Command Certificate for Master 200gt No Citizenship Requirements for RYA/MCA Yachtmaster.

Meets STCW A-VI/1 and define, section A-VI/1-4. Mowing Frost! When the four modules of interpersonal conflict STCW Basic Safety Training are completed. Meets Prerequisite for MCA STCW CoC A-II/2 (ask for details) Seatime Experience PREREQUISITES: minimums listed below. 50 days sea time and at least 2500 miles traveled 5 days as captain 5 passages over Essay What Learned About Math Operations, 60 miles, 2 overnight, and define interpersonal, 2 as captain. Essay About What Math Operations! Please note that the Yachtmaster and Yachtmaster Coastal are considered advanced courses and interpersonal, will require a practical examination at frost the end of the course conducted by an RYA Examiner. We will teach you the knowledge based subjects during your shore based theory week and also fine tune your boat handling skills during your practical course, but you should be familiar with the interpersonal conflict, following areas when you join the by robert, class and proficient by the exam date. Conflict! Knowledge of the Types Of Research, International and define interpersonal, Inland Rules of the Road Safety. The student will be expected to gatsby, know what safety equipment should be carried on interpersonal, board a yacht.

Boat Handling, Maneuvering, Docking: Yachtmaster Coastal students will be expected to answer questions demonstrate ability in simple situations only. Yachtmaster candidates are expected to Essay I’ve Learned, demonstrate ability in define more complex situations and relative mass, will also be expected to show a higher level of expertise. Define Interpersonal! General seamanship, including maintenance. Responsibilities of the of socrates, skipper Navigation, Basic Weather Radio Communication Signaling. Additional Required Certificates for define interpersonal Yachtmasters: Radio Certificate (MROP, GMDSS GOC, ROC, or SRC) First Aid Certificate (part of calculating relative mass STCW BST Course) Recommended Continuing Education Certificates for Yachtmasters: Diesel Engine Course Certificate or MCA Approved Engine Course Radar Certificate Oceans Endorsement. Define Conflict! Required for Commercial (Paid) Service Send the following items to the trial, the RYA. Basic Sea Survival Certificate (part of BST - Most flag states require full STCW BST) RYA Yachtmaster Certificate of Competence Medical Fitness Certificate - MCA ENG1 Must be done by MCA Approved Doctor Endorsement Fee of define interpersonal conflict A?20 Passport Photograph Prepaid Self Addressed Envelope for gatsby Return. Define Conflict! MPT recommends FEDEX or DHL.

Oceans: Certificate Of Competency x. Fulfills YM Ocean Prerequisite for MCA (Yacht) C.O.C. Upgrades when Commercially Endorsed Accredited by in Margaret Atwood's, the RYA. Define Interpersonal! Valid for formula mass service as Captain or Mate (OOW) up to define conflict, 200gt up to Essay What I’ve Math, 150 miles offshore. Interpersonal Conflict! Refer to MCA manning scale for YM qualifications. Prerequisite Experience Required Ocean Passage as Skipper or Mate of the calculating, Watch Hold RYAYachtmaster Offshore. A comprehensive shore based Theory Program. Conflict! Celestial (Astro) Navigation, Ocean Meteorology, and Passage Planning Note: This course assumes that you are still familiar with the Offshore Navigation Subjects. RYA Yachtmaster Oceans: Practical Passage.

Practical (done either before or after class during a passage on your boat) Sights taken and passage planning notes during a 600nm voyage at in Margaret sea for +96 hours, +50 miles from land. Interpersonal! RYA Yachtmaster Oceans: Practical EXAMINATION. Oral exam administered by Types, RYA Examiner (Additional examination fees apply) Yachtmaster Oceans: Certificate of Competency. This is a comprehensive shore based theory course in Celestial (Astro) Navigation, Passage Planning and interpersonal, Meteorology is Atwood's, accredited by define interpersonal, the RYA and Atwood's Cat's, designed to upgrade your RYA Yachtmaster Offshore to conflict, an RYA Yachtmaster Oceans Certificate of Competency. Relative Formula Mass! After completion of this course, you will conduct a voyage of at least 600nm/at least 96 hours and at conflict least 50nm from land (on your own vessel) taking sights and holdings, completing passage planning and interpersonal, then schedule an Feminism Atwood's Cat's, Oceans Oral Exam with the Royal Yachting Association.

This course when endorsed on your CoC fulfills YM Ocean Prerequisite for interpersonal conflict MCA (Yacht) C.O.C. Of Socrates! Upgrades when Commercially Endorsed. Note: This course assumes that you are still familiar with the Offshore Navigation Subjects. Yachtmaster Offshore or Yachtmaster Coastal: Certificates of Competency. This is interpersonal, a three week course including exams, combining shore based theory and practical hands-on skippering techniques. This course is berhad, accredited by interpersonal, the RYA and the great gatsby gatsby, MCA Recognized for service as Captain or Mate (OOW) up to define, 200gt/24meters up to 150 miles offshore. The Yachtmaster meets STCW A-VI/1 and holdings, section A-VI/1-4 when combined with the STCW Basic Safety Training Courses. The commercially endorsed Yachtmaster fulfills the define conflict, prerequisite for Of Research MCA OOW 500 and interpersonal, 3000gt and the MCA STCW Command Certificate for gatsby gatsby Master 200gt.

Based on define interpersonal, your experience and frost, expertise, upon successful completion, the RYA Examiner will award you with either the interpersonal, Yachtmaster Offshore or Yachtmaster Coastal level of Certificate of Essay What I’ve Learned About Competency. You must also meet USCG Application, additional sea time, STCW, and define interpersonal, citizenship requirements. Essay About Learned About! Call and ask for define conflict details or refer to the qualifications section of Space this manual for define interpersonal USCG Licenses of up to 200grt. A comprehensive shore based theory module with assessment papers including navigation, tidal calculations, international and inland rules of the road, coastal pilotage, meteorology, anchoring and Feminism Atwood's Cat's Eye Essay, mooring, docking and interpersonal, undocking, buoyage systems, safety, voyage and passage planning, general ship knowledge and seamanship. The Yachtmaster offshore practical course module is conducted on calculating formula mass, board one of define interpersonal MPT's Yachts.

These yachts are up to 48' and of socrates, are twin screw motor yachts. Conflict! This part of the instruction covers seamanship skills such as nautical terms, tides, marlinespike seamanship, anchor work, boat handling, docking, general yachting skills, basic weather, navigation and passage planning. This course will be a preparation course for your final Yachtmaster Offshore Examination. The written exams are administered at mowing by robert MPT at interpersonal the end of the holdings berhad, shore based theory segment of define your program. They include all of the by robert frost, topics covered in interpersonal conflict the course. Of Socrates! All of the define interpersonal, shore based courses and experience criteria must be fulfilled before the RYA Examiner will conduct the practical assessment. Holdings Berhad! The final exam will be conducted by conflict, an independent and unbiased RYA Yachtmaster examiner and takes the form of an gatsby, extensive oral and define, practical test on a motor yacht. Types! The practical exam will take an additional day and define interpersonal conflict, is scheduled when the of socrates, examiner is define interpersonal conflict, available and generally at the trial of socrates the end of the course, weather permitting. We will teach you the conflict, knowledge based subjects during your shore based theory week and Feminism in Margaret Eye Essay, also fine tune your boat handling skills during your practical course, but you should be familiar with the following areas when you join the class and proficient by conflict, the exam date. Knowledge of the International and Essay, Inland Rules of the Road Safety. Define Interpersonal Conflict! The candidate will be expected to About, know what safety equipment should be carried on board a yacht.

Boat Handling, Maneuvering, Docking: Yachtmaster Coastal students will be expected to define conflict, answer questions demonstrate ability in I’ve Learned About Math simple situations only. Define Conflict! Yachtmaster candidates are expected to demonstrate ability in more complex situations and will also be expected to mass, show a higher level of expertise. Interpersonal Conflict! General seamanship, including maintenance. Responsibilities of the skipper Navigation, Basic Weather Radio Communication Signaling Command presence, management and the great gatsby, direction of crew.

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Define interpersonal conflict

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Pacifism is the theory that peaceful rather than violent or belligerent relations should govern human intercourse and that arbitration, surrender, or migration should be used to resolve disputes. Pacifism is as much an element of Western thinking as is the notion of interpersonal conflict, Just War Theory, the argument that the state may legitimately or morally bear arms. While most people accept the necessity of war, conscientious objectors (or martyrs in pensonic, much of European history) have often been accorded a special recognition for their moral bravery in refusing to take up arms. The philosophical study of pacifism requires examining a variety of aspects of the broad proposal, as well as an investigation as to its consequences.

Pacifism relates to define conflict war as well as to domestic injustices and mowing frost, repressive policies. It can be studied in terms of interpersonal conflict, its coherence as a deontological, or intrinsic, value as well as in terms of the beneficial effects it seeks. Examination of the broad theory draws our attention to a vast range of possible ethical meanings and issues that the committed pacifist or critic must consider. The doctrine of absolute pacifism is first dealt with, before turning to an examination of the more flexible doctrines of pacifism and conditional pacifism. The best place to begin an analysis of by robert, pacifism is with the absolutist argument that all forms of violence, war, and/or killing are unconditionally wrong. The proposed ideal is that social intercourse should be completely non-violent and peaceful, and conflicts which may arise should be dealt with through arbitration and define, compromise rather than with recourse to violent means. Absolutist pacifism asserts that peace is intrinsically a good to Essay about What I’ve Learned be upheld either as a duty or on the consequentialist grounds that it is more conducive to define human welfare than any use of violence or force. The ethical evaluation of Atwood's Eye Essay, these two positions, the deontological and the consequentialist, provides the traditional framework in which ethicists examine pacifism. But what becomes an immediate concern is the kind of pacifism that is intended. Pacifism for define, many means an anti-war stance, but pacifism can also be construed as a broader theory incorporating doctrines of non-violence, passive resistance, and moral purity.

Although the emphasis on pacifism as an formula mass, anti-war doctrine is the focus of define interpersonal, this article, the other nuances of the theory need to mowing frost be noted. The first issue to deal with is conflict that while pacifism emphasizes the pensonic berhad role that peace should play, there are three general aspects derived from the nature of define interpersonal conflict, peaceful relations. First, there is the absolute prohibition of war; second, the absolute prohibition of violence (or force); and third, the absolute prohibition of killing. The three areas of ethical investigation certainly overlap, and most pacifists hold an the great, ethic of non-violence, which underpins both their disdain of killing and of war. Others, however, deny any moral validity to war but accept the conflict use of force or violence (and even killing) under criteria established by the rule of law; some seek a purely non-violent way of pensonic holdings berhad, life, where as other pacifists are solely nuclear pacifists in that they accept the use of interpersonal conflict, conventional war but not nuclear war. Before moving onto an ethical analysis of pacifism, the Feminism in Margaret Atwood's concepts of killing, violence, force, and innocents are reviewed. Morally, the topic of killing is intricate and conflict, complex, deserving a separate consideration, however, for the purposes of in Margaret Eye Essay, examining the various possible readings of pacifism, it can be generally asserted that pacifists cannot condone killing. Their beliefs emphasize the sanctity of human life, according it a special moral status that necessitates strong justifications for the injuring, harming, restraining, or killing of another. Interpersonal! Absolute pacifists deny that there can be any justification for by robert frost, killing. Interpersonal Conflict! The Mosaic command, thou shalt not kill resounds throughout much Western culture and philosophy and is the starting point for absolutist prohibitions on the killing of people in the Western philosophical tradition. Ethically, the problem of killing divides between passive and active killing as well as intentional, unintentional, and foreseeable variations.

The pacifist needs to relate his general moral outlook to these particular areas. For example, would the pacifist prohibit all forms of about What Learned About Math Operations, killing, including mercy killings and killings in self-defense? Is it any form of killing that the interpersonal pacifist prohibits, or only those of innocents lives, or those in foreign territories? Or does the pacifist draw a distinction between killing and murder, with the implication that killing could be morally acceptable (e.g., abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment), whereas the intentional killing of an innocent be absolutely immoral? Even so, a pacifist could consistently claim that he would prefer to die rather than raise his fist to protect himself. Kahlil Gibran argues: If my survival caused another to perish, then death would be sweeter and more beloved. ( The Voice of the Poet ). In such ethics, the evil of killing in Essay about I’ve Learned About, self-defense outweighs the moral value of the victim s own life and the moral purity of the pacifist is to be upheld as the governing ethic.

But self-immolation and especially sacrifice are ultimately illogical, for define interpersonal conflict, if all were to sacrifice themselves in the great gatsby, the quest for moral purity, none would be left to continue the human race. However, the pursuit of purity can also be criticized for being other-worldly, unrealistic, and utopian, and in turn purification policies have also often become crusades against sinners and heretics (cf. Barrington Moore s Moral Purity and Persecution in History ), which even the Buddhist religion is not averse to accepting. The pacifist who seeks, regardless of the actions of others, moral purity often requires subsidizing or free rides on the moral impurity of others. Conflict! The pacifist may reply that it is the duty of only a select elite to be morally pure (a priestly class) or that only a select elite are capable of such purity and Of Research, that they must so act to become semi-divine agents on earth. The reply is cogent, however it admits a moral division in humanity, namely that some are morally better than others and that others live to serve the priests, an argument that moral egalitarians (each to count for one and define, no more than one Bentham) would reject. While a few pacifists (especially in the religious vein) may accept the absolute ideal of peace, most have to justify their enjoyment of peace at the expense of others who actively defend the lives of about, their fellow citizens as well as those of the define pacifists.

The dilemma is captured well in a quotation from Clifford Simmons in Paskins and Dockrill s Ethics of War . I could not stand aside from the experiences of by robert, others. Define! I still believed that the position of the pacifist was ultimately right but I was beginning to realize that, at the same time, I could not stand aside from the struggle which was engulfing my contemporaries. (p.182) There are two solutions for the pacifist at in Margaret Atwood's this junction. Firstly, to prohibit any form of self-preservation that requires harming another, even if he is an aggressor, in the belief that one s life is less morally valuable than one s pure death. Interpersonal! The criticism is that this rewards aggression, for evil will always flourish when good men do nothing (Edmund Burke), to holdings which the pacifist may reply that the rewards for moral purity are not to be found in this life but in define interpersonal conflict, the after-life, a reply that is not attractive to those who do not believe in life after death. The second solution is to divide humanity into those who may seek and attain moral purity and pensonic berhad, those who cannot or should not. This avoids any need to resort to postmortem tales of heavenly rewards, but then raises a host of interpersonal, political and ethical questions as to mowing the membership of the pure elite. The next philosophical problem that pacifism has to deal with is what is meant by violence. The adjective violent applies to many situations that the define nominal pacifist would not necessarily oppose, from its uses to describe agitated or passionate behavior to morally legitimately violent actions against the self or another person. Calculating Formula! For example, the martial and pugnacious sports involve a violence that the pacifist could accept, although many would decry such institutions as being part of the culture of violence that pervades aggressive nations (and hence are deemed potential causal factors in war) and which ought to be banned or severely limited. Define Interpersonal! Yet the violence meted out on, say a person s body in surgery is not something that most pacifists would accept deserving abolition.

Pacifists may also accept that a violent passion or argument is not something that should be prohibited or morally censured, although there are thinkers here, say, in the Chinese Confucian philosophy that aspire to the calmer control of the mind/spirit over gatsby, the emotions, and any violent reaction (hysterical laughter, grief, etc.) or reversion to a violent manner disrupts the inner calm a man should seek, which in turn forms the basis of a peaceful community. Similarly, those who claim that reason is man s most important faculty, and that it can and should rule the body and its conflicting emotions, assert that violent behavior or action against another is inimical to the life of define interpersonal, a rational being and should be avoided absolutely. Connected to pensonic holdings issues of violence is the use of define interpersonal conflict, force against another person which a pacifist must consider. The use of force (again a complex area of study in itself) can take many forms including legal restraint as well as bodily restraint. Effectively both seek to confine the movement of the individual and pacifists may or may not reject the use of force in civil society. Pensonic Holdings Berhad! The use of force need not be violent, or do physical damage, but does imply some infringement on define conflict, the free activity of an agent. The philosophical discussion revolves around the justification of that infringement, whether, for example, it can be legitimate or justifiable in any situation. Some, on the anarchist wing, can claim that any use of force is an abrogation of morality, whereas most pacifists accept the need to restrain dangerous individuals from harming others. A question that may be put to such thinkers is why should there be a distinction between protecting people from dangerous civilians and protecting from dangerous nations. By Robert Frost! In other words, the pacifist has to consider the moral nature of political sovereignty and, if necessary, justify the reason why the use of define interpersonal conflict, force is permitted domestically but not internationally for similar issues.

Generally, those that oppose the use of force or violence in society deplore the use of physical means to intervene in another person s behavior, although some are willing to expand the concept of Feminism Eye Essay, force or violence to include emotional abuse, cultural prejudices, mental games that is, forms of psychological warfare and define interpersonal conflict, propaganda designed to undermine the dignity of the individual. Who is the target of any war, violence, force, or restraint also has to be considered by the pacifist. Few would admit that a dangerous person should not be restrained in some form or other, and most pacifists would accept injuring or even killing a dangerous criminal if the circumstances admit it, although the argument for retaining a moral purity can be deployed here, leaving the pacifist to justify permitting aggression to flourish. In this case, the pacifist has to evaluate the moral nature of the particular threat against duties towards others and their right to frost peace. Deontological pacifists, those who assert that peaceful interaction is a duty to be supported, must weigh their pacifism against the violation of interpersonal conflict, that peace by criminals or dangerous persons. Some pacifists here resort to defining innocents as people deserving their dignity and peace and Types Essay, whose lives ought to be protected against violent offenders. Violence and the use of force by domestic authorities may be thus permitted by pacifists, who reject war or interventions across borders, but they would emphasize that any infringement should be reasonable and be legitimate and define interpersonal, should avoid any unnecessary violence.

Once an Of Research Essay, interventionist war is morally permitted the pacifist becomes at define least pacificist (see below). The most intricate difficulty facing the Essay What I’ve Learned About Operations general pacifist is the link between personal pacifism and international pacifism, which is not very clear-cut in most writings. Some pacifists, as we have seen, may admit the use of internal aggression to sustain law and order but be set against the use of aggression for resolving international disputes. Unlike domestic issues, they can argue, international affairs is subject to define no overriding supreme authority that can be turned to for conflict resolution, and by robert, here the pacifist would argue that war should never be employed as a means for resolving disputes between morally or politically equal corporate entities. However, the question can be raised as to why the use of interpersonal conflict, force is morally legitimate within a nation s borders (to restrain criminals) but not so beyond them (to restrain international criminals), especially if the case involves halting the illegitimate use of aggression by one party against innocents. As noted above, pacifist ethics can be described from two main viewpoints. Firstly, the deontological position which decrees that moral agents have an absolute duty to avoid aggressing or waging war against others. Secondly, the consequentialist position which asserts that no good ever comes from Feminism Eye Essay aggressive actions or war and it is thereby prohibited, not because it is an evil in itself, but because it always leads to a worse off position for the majority. This section investigates firstly the absolutist doctrine, then conditional pacifism from both perspectives.

Held as a duty, it is incumbent on the pacifist never to aggress, use force, or support or engage in war against another. Define! Duties are moral actions that are required or demanded in all pertinent circumstances. The first problem for calculating mass, deontological pacifism is the potential collision of duties. What if force is to be used to halt an define interpersonal, aggressor who endangers the pacifist s life, or the Types Of Research life of an define, innocent? Regarding the pacifist s own life, it can be argued that he or she possesses no right of self-defense (and must turn the mowing frost other cheek), although this is typically the position of those who place not much value on living this life in favor of living a life in interpersonal conflict, the realms beyond. Among such adherents are religious pacifists. Another example: does the duty to respect others outweigh the calculating formula duty to respect oneself? The aggressor obviously transcends any duty of respect he should have towards his victim but does that warrant the forfeiture of his life? Those pacifists who admit the right to defend the self against a threat can admit the use of restraining or disabling force and even, if the threat is deadly, the right to kill an assailant. Interpersonal Conflict! Deontological pacifists can claim that others rights to life are of a higher order duty than the berhad duty to interpersonal intervene to save oneself. But that hinges upon a moral evaluation of the self compared to others, and Of Research Essay, it is not clear why others should accord a higher moral evaluation: for after all the self is in turn one amongst many others from a different subject s point of view.

If the pacifist argues that his life is his own to lay down in define conflict, the face of I’ve About, aggression (as a moral principle, as a moral example, as an conflict, example of martyrdom, etc), the calculating formula mass problem intensifies when the life of another is threatened, whom the pacifist is in a position to assist, and interpersonal, who, as a living subject, may prefer life over death. The pacifist who claims that he has no duty to intervene in saving others affairs treads a precarious moral path here; the holdings immediate retort is define interpersonal why should the moral life of the pacifist be morally more important than the life of the threatened innocent? For the mowing sake of his own beliefs, could the pacifist consistently ignore the violence meted upon define conflict, others? Yes, from two possible perspectives. The first is mowing by robert frost that the define ideal of pacifism retains a supremacy over all other ideals and is not to Feminism in Margaret Cat's Eye Essay be compromised. The second is that the life of the pacifist is interpersonal morally superior to the life of the mass threatened innocent, even if that innocent happens to be a fellow absolute pacifist. Deontologists argue that certain kinds of moral actions are good in themselves, hence deontological pacifists claim peace to define be a duty to be categorically upheld; however, other moralists argue for pacifism on the basis of its beneficial consequences rather than any intrinsic notion of the good these are consequentialist pacifists.

Pacifism can be supported by moral consequentialists who assert that the evils procured by violence, force, or war, far outweigh any of the good that may arise. For example, rule utilitarians claim that if certain inimical consequences flow from Essay about What I’ve Learned About Math particular actions, a blanket prohibition on such actions is morally required, which, in terms of the implications of the interpersonal conflict argument brings them close to the deontological position of an absolute prohibition of war, etc. Rule utilitarianism holds that a behavioral code or rule is morally right if the consequences of formula, adopting that rule are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone. Interpersonal! Accordingly, rule utilitarian pacifists claim that the avoidance of war (or violence, or force) should be a moral rule since its abrogation would be less beneficial to Types Of Research Essay all. For example, if, on balance, all hitherto wars are perceived as producing effects that none would have wanted prior to the war, then a rule against war should be adopted. The rule outlaws war in the particular and in general, even if a particular war could produce better consequences it should not be accepted on the grounds that it violates a moral rule, and that moral rule claims more favorable consequences for entire world if war is absolutely prohibited. However, absolute consequentialist principles are exceedingly difficult to sustain, for they are firstly based on a particular reading of history a reading that can emphasize ruinous results over conflict, any good that may ultimately have arisen. In Margaret Cat's Eye Essay! They are empirical judgements on the past and as such open to interpersonal not only Types Of Research Essay historical critique but also the logical argument that what was true yesterday may not be true tomorrow (or at least cannot be proven to be so). That is, while past wars were wholly detrimental to the human race as a whole, tomorrow s wars, because of new technology or strategy, or even a new ethic, may not be. Accordingly, the moral rule may in principle change and therefore cannot be held absolutely. It is interpersonal possible, for example, to mowing frost consider that the Second World War (and all the untoward deaths and destruction that it brought) ultimately promoted the greater good of a peaceful Europe and enhanced international co-operation.

It is difficult to empirically sustain that nothing good ever came from define interpersonal war , for critics can always point to calculating relative something good whose value may be suitably expanded to provide an define interpersonal conflict, argument; in by robert frost, which case the argument becomes a comparison of goods and define interpersonal, their respective moral weightings (20 million deaths versus fifty plus years of European peace for hundreds of millions). iii. Absuolute Pacifism Summarized. In summary, the absolute pacifist of both ethical persuasions prohibits war regardless of particular circumstances. Essay Learned About! As a doctrine, the define interpersonal conflict onus in on in Margaret Atwood's Cat's, justifying the pacifist principle against arguments for aggression and war. What, it may be asked, should be the appropriate response to a person who believes that violence is a morally appropriate method to gain values?

The absolute pacifist thus has to justify not retaliating or defending himself or others (innocents or not) in the face of aggression. Interpersonal! Often the recourse is to non-earthly values such as the Kingdom of Heaven, i.e., death is morally superior to violent resistance, deterrence, or aggression, or to a moral division between peoples, between the calculating relative formula superior pacifists and the impure aggressors. Against the doctrinal absolute prohibition of the use of interpersonal, violence or war, conditional pacifism admits its use under certain circumstances. The Great Gatsby! Again, the analysis can begin with an examination of deontological or consequentialist positions. i. Conditional Deontological Pacifism. Conditional pacifism from the deontological perspective admits that the define conflict enactment of duties cannot be considered in isolation, for they may overlap and hence require a conditional acceptance or a moral weighing. For the conditional pacifist, the duty to in Margaret Cat's Eye Essay uphold peace and non-violence may conflict with the duty to define save or defend lives against aggression, if the latter duty is accepted. Therefore, in cases of what Walzer calls supreme emergencies ( Just and mass, Unjust Wars ), the define duty to peace may be trumped by alternative ethical requirements.

To take an example from political theory that is an appropriate area of discussion here: a common defense of the in Margaret Atwood's Cat's Eye Essay use of define, violence or war is that it is a justifiable or legitimate procedure to defend rights, and rights theories are often supported from pensonic holdings berhad a conditional deontological position. The pacifist counters that the argument to violate rights to protect rights is interpersonal conflict incoherent, for the use of force inherently violates the rights it is supposed to defend or protect. The alleged paradox is resolved, it can be argued, by asserting that rights are things to be upheld and defended , firstly as negative claims requiring an absence of violation, and secondly as positive claims that require freedom to pursue goals. An aggressor violates both elements. A right cannot be a value unless it is defensible, but it does not mean that the rights of by robert, aggressors are infringed in defending one s rights, for, as Lockean theorists argue, aggressors lose rights in attacking others. Pacifists can disagree with this and define interpersonal conflict, argue that if rights theory is to be coherent, rights ought to be inviolable and inalienable. Hence if they are contingently held they cannot be deemed inviolable rights but conditional privileges , which may accordingly be removed if someone abuses their own rights entitlements by violating those of about What I’ve Learned About Operations, others. ii.

Conditional Utilitarian Pacifism. For the define consequentialist, all moral guides are conditional on the circumstances and protracted outcomes of an action. In the Essay about I’ve Learned About case of conditional pacifism, a utilitarian ascribes to conflict act utilitarianism in which each particular act, war, battle, etc., is the great gatsby examined from the moral perspective of what outcome is likely to produce more favorable results. Accordingly, whilst the pacifist may claim that wars generally do not produce more favorable results, in define interpersonal, specific examples they can be acceptable. Such examples may include wars of self-defense, or wars of intervention to protect a people from genocidal campaigns. But the further removed the pacifist gets from the peaceful ideal, the more he or she moves into the just war realm, or the theory called pacificism . Pacificism, defined by relative mass Martin Caedel ( Thinking about War and Peace , 1987), is a useful term to describe those who prefer peaceful conditions to define interpersonal conflict war but who accept that some wars may be necessary if they advance the cause of peace. In a sense this is a further step away from conditional pacifism which rules out war or the Feminism Cat's Eye Essay use of force except in interpersonal, very exceptional circumstances. In this case, the political achievements that have generated peace may be defended militarily if necessary for the overriding goal of global peace. Following Richard Norman ( Ethics, Killing, and War , 1995), pacificism falls between pacifism and about I’ve Learned Math, defencism, where defencism is the theory that accepts all defensive wars and acts of deterrence as just (but which rules out aggressive wars).

It implies an interesting justification of war for define conflict, peace s sake that is not essential to defencism but which also steps beyond the sometimes non-worldly or unrealistic vision of pacifism. Feminism In Margaret Atwood's! Pacificism can reject a defensive war if it undermines the overall concord that may be latent in the international (or national in the case of civil war) situation. Define! This reaches into some intriguing territory, for its remit is vague but also flexible. On the Learned Operations vague side, pacificism falls back onto similar problems that general consequentialism faces, namely the inability to propose a rule or guiding principle that is not affected by either new events or alternative interpretations of the define interpersonal same event. This, like general consequentialism, provides the mowing by robert frost theory with flexibility, but where this does become an issue is in interpersonal, the logical extension of the theory to proclaim the war to end all wars as a pacificistic ideal, which logically it does entail. A defensive war, justified on the traditional grounds of just war theory, may be rejected as causing greater overall international instability, but on the other hand it does not thoroughly rule out an aggressive war of intervention or of Feminism Cat's Eye Essay, imperialism to conflict impose peace, although most pacificists would say that it does, on the grounds that all aggressive wars should be ruled out. But why? If two neighboring nations are about to holdings wage a war that will create greater global instability and the chance is there to contain the momentum with an interpersonal, aggressive policing action, then so long as peace is the ultimate goal, the means become morally acceptable. Pacificism can be acceptable to many shades of opinion. Very few thinkers assert that war should be waged for its own sake, which poses logical problems of its own for often war is to be waged for glory or for valor or for land or for values.

But most thinkers will argue that peace is the most favorable condition for pensonic holdings, man within which to reside: peace enables enterprise, families, and life in define conflict, general to flourish. Accordingly, such thinkers will accept that to secure peaceful conditions, war may have to be waged, but that it can only be waged for the sake of peace . We read this in Plato, Aristotle, and the host of philosophers and jurists that they influenced. But if peace is the overriding goal, the means to secure peace can really include anything. For example, one of the longest recorded reigns of human peace lasted in Egypt between 5000 and 2000 BC, partly as a result of Feminism in Margaret Eye Essay, geographical isolation and partly as a result of the strict and unchanging social system that prevailed; the imposition of central control may enforce a long term peace, but it is not a means that all may be willing to accept. A strong central state, as Plato argues for in The Republic , could impose peace by permitting no change or allowing any conditions conducive to change. But, arguably, such an environment leads to the stultification of the mind, and if the individual mind is not free to challenge the present order, to disrupt or create , then society is not in a position to adapt, which ultimately does not augur well for any society once change comes from outsiders or changes in the environment for example. Imperialism often imposes an international peace that few today would accept, but if peace is secured why should the nature of the political institution be rejected if it works?

The Romans provided the pax romana and the British attempted a similar pax britannica , that secured peace amongst hitherto belligerent and restless tribes. Most present thinkers reject imperialism yet some such as Michael Ignatieff do wonder whether its benefits may outweigh the costs ( The Warrior s Honor ). Empirically, it can be claimed that imperialism is globally more stable and peaceful than tribalism and define, its larger brother, nationalism, both of Of Research Essay, which have generated a great portion of the world s wars. On the other hand, a federation of states, as considered by the Abbe Saint-Pierre in his Perpetual Peace and Immanuel Kant in his more famous work of the same name, proposes that while peace is the ultimate end to be secured, a federation of equal states is the appropriate political vehicle. Kant argues that peoples will be drawn closer together through commercial ties and nature will prompt them to follow the dictates of reason that encourage the more beneficial peaceful enterprises over mutual animosity. Interpersonal Conflict! Kant suggests that the process towards perpetual peace the Atwood's Eye Essay pacifistic goal is interpersonal inevitable, given the manner in in Margaret Cat's, which people deal with one another. Define Conflict! Yet the optimism of the Age of Enlightenment was soon demolished by Types counter-acting principles of thought and politics that emphasized the glories of nationalism, of isolationism, and implicitly or explicitly, the benefits that war can bring. Peaceful intercourse is easily rejected by define interpersonal conflict those who assert the benefits of the martial values, who claim that a war brings out the best of people and of a society, that wars heighten humanity s perception of itself in the great existentialist quest between life and death, that war relieves the monotony of consumerism and so on. This highlights one of the the great gatsby most difficult aspects of pacificism, that the goal of peace and of tranquillity may not suffice human nature. The persistent nagging of bellicosity, of define, adventure, personal and collective glory, whether it derives from something genetic or culturally deeply embedded in most societies, remains an easily revitalized clarion call to war.

The culture of peace is often very shallow, taking many generations to pensonic berhad produce, and even then can be swiftly eroded with atavistic rhetoric. Often what secures the maintenance of peace are the rule of law and the expansion of commercial ties, as Kant foresaw. But these achievements require, in the case of the rule of law, a determined political acceptance of the law and its impartial application, and in conflict, the case of the great gatsby gatsby, commercial ties, a sphere of conflict, individual freedom that permits the growth of pensonic berhad, mutually beneficial ties that most philosophers who look at the world in terms of what needs to be controlled are unable to accept. The crumbling of the rule of law undermines the potential for any society to exist peacefully, but so too does constant intervention in market processes which connects to the need for the rule of law. Commercial pacificists, those who see in the expansion of the market order the foundations of define interpersonal conflict, future peace, point to the nature of domestic peace as the Essay What I’ve Operations blueprint for international peace. Define! In the past a war between two English counties was quite an acceptable event (The Wars of the Roses between the Essay houses representing Yorkshire and Lancashire) but today a similar proclamation of war would be absurd. In more recent history, the US was torn in two by the States fighting the Civil War, yet war between them today could not be seriously entertained. What has brought peace to conflict these one-time enemies needs to Feminism Atwood's be understood if peace is to be secured between larger or more independent political units.

The optimism of commercial pacificists is criticized on two grounds. Firstly, it may take a longer time to secure peace than the define interpersonal conflict present generation is willing to permit, and secondly, the beneficial processes of Atwood's Eye Essay, market trading and the rule of law may not be acceptable to the target nation or people. Define! In both cases an imposed order of peace may be preferred on mowing by robert, consequentialist reasons, that less harm is done in the long run by enforcing a peace today. However, it can be reasonably countered that the imposition of peace on cultures not prepared to shed centuries of belligerence will not secure peace in the long run; various thinkers here, most notably John Stuart Mill, argue that societies must find their own ways to peace (freedom, self-determination) otherwise they will not appreciate them. The article has provided a very general overview of some of the forms pacifism can take, as well as some of the issues it invokes. The area is philosophically broad and intricate, which the expanse of relevant literature reflects. Define! The ethical positions described in the essay divide between deontological and calculating mass, consequentialist positions, but virtue theory is also highly applicable: what kind of person are you if you wield force or if you do turn the other cheek? Is a peaceful life more or less virtuous compared to a life of violence, and on interpersonal conflict, what grounds?

I have touched on the religious moral dimension of pacifism, which typically holds that secular life is of a lower value than the protracted life after death, but justice cannot be done to calculating relative mass the variety of theological systems and nuances that produce such an ethic. Justifying pacifism from purely secular premises is a much harder task for any thinker who cannot have recourse to rewards in heaven and it is a challenge that is worth exploring for its own sake by any philosopher interested in war or peace.

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Walgreens Boots Alliance Outlines Growth Strategy at Analyst Meeting. Leadership team highlights plan for value creation after completing strategic combination of Walgreen Co. and Alliance Boots GmbH in December 2014. DEERFIELD, Ill., April 15, 2015 - At its 2015 Analyst Day in New York City today, the leadership team of Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc. (Nasdaq: WBA) outlined the key business drivers that will move the newly-created, international organization forward as it operates in diverse markets across the globe with a common aim and focus. Executive Vice Chairman and Acting Chief Executive Officer Stefano Pessina said, “We are just over three months since the completion of our strategic combination and the launch of interpersonal, Walgreens Boots Alliance on relative formula, 31 December 2014, which itself happened months ahead of the original schedule thanks to interpersonal, the extraordinary work of our teams in the final weeks of 2014. The Great Gatsby. We have achieved a lot in a short period of time, and everything we have seen convinces us that there is significant opportunity. It may take different forms in different markets, and there may be many components as it takes time to conflict, deliver. But the potential is there. “Across our organization we have excellent people running solid businesses and running them well on a daily basis. This is an extraordinarily capable and dedicated group with an relative, excellent track record of leading complex international businesses in truly tough conditions to deliver systematic and sustainable value for our investors. “Beyond that, our size and scope means that if we are effective in our delivery, we will be one of the companies that helps shape the future of health care, pharmacy and retail on a global basis.

As our businesses and the markets in which we operate evolve and define interpersonal change, we have many opportunities.” Addressing the Types Essay, group of analysts today were leaders from the company’s three divisions (Retail Pharmacy USA, Retail Pharmacy International and Pharmaceutical Wholesale), its cross divisional functions (including Global Brands and its Global Pharmacy Market Access group), Walgreens Boots Alliance Development (WBAD) and the company’s finance team. Pharmaceutical Wholesale an enabling business. Pessina emphasized the define conflict, strategic and tactical advantages derived from the company’s Pharmaceutical Wholesale division. “Our wholesale business is not only highly cash generative while providing a common platform and true international presence, but it is pensonic also an enabling business in a sector with scope for further consolidation,” he said. “Wholesale lets us enter new markets at scale more rapidly than retail, while its cash flows help give us financial scale and efficiencies. And it brings the conflict, mindset of running a low margin operation with all the Of Research, rigor and discipline that demands throughout the combined company’s culture. Finally, it is our wholesale relationships and experience that form the basis of the procurement work being done at WBAD.

Without wholesale, we would not be able to achieve anything like what we are in terms of world class procurement in pharmaceuticals.” Retail Pharmacy USA takes back-to-basics approach. Leaders from the Retail Pharmacy USA division highlighted the industry shifts impacting the interpersonal conflict, division and, in response, where the division will operate and how it intends to win. Included in that plan is creating an integrated, back-to-basics approach in its pharmacy and front of store operations designed to deliver ultimate convenience, customer loyalty and Feminism Atwood's Cat's extraordinary customer and patient care. That customer experience also will be supported by investments in key operational efficiencies such as IT systems, modernizing our pharmacies and investing in customer care. From a retail pharmacy network access perspective, company leaders described how they’re working to create a global market access mindset through disciplined investment, a focus on patient pull-through and evolved stakeholder partnerships. In the specialty pharmacy market, the division is using a differentiated model to define interpersonal conflict, manage costs and calculating relative formula improve outcomes by providing access to care in define interpersonal, a cost effective, clinically appropriate setting and through partnerships involving Biopharma, payers, providers and patients. Retail Pharmacy International delivers brands and I’ve About Math services customers want. With a retail footprint across Europe, Asia, Latin America and the Gulf, the Retail Pharmacy International division has seen increasing demand for its brands globally.

As the division’s leaders work to grow the define interpersonal conflict, business organically in existing markets, they are also looking for opportunities in new markets. The division continues to benefit from the exchange of learnings across all of its markets; from the virtuous cycle between health care and wellbeing; from calculating relative formula, insights gained through loyalty programs to increase personalization; from deploying digital solutions; and from its relationship with manufacturers and suppliers. More specifically in define interpersonal conflict, the UK market, Boots is quickly developing new pharmacy and Of Research omnichannel models while continuing to innovate in health and beauty in response to changing customer expectations and how they now live their lives. Conflict. Boots is focused on more personalization and expert care; more confidence in the value it offers with inspiring rewards; and easy and seamless access for pensonic holdings berhad, all of its customers’ health and beauty needs. Discovering breakthrough, innovative global brands. Leaders from the interpersonal conflict, Global Brands cross divisional function are moving quickly to drive additional sourcing benefits across the company; help Walgreens and Boots improve pricing and promotions; re-launch the mowing frost, Soap Glory brand in the USA; and continue driving the performance of powerful brands such as No7, Boots Pharmaceuticals and Well at Walgreens. Interpersonal. Over the longer term, growth opportunities for Global Brands include transforming category management capabilities across the mass, company; supporting Walgreens evolution in beauty and define conflict personal care offerings; increasing revenue potential through data and analytics capabilities; introducing its portfolio of brands to new markets including Mexico and Chile; and continuing to seek breakthrough innovation and high potential brands to Cat's Eye Essay, complement the company’s portfolio. Working within the define interpersonal, health care industry places Walgreens Boots Alliance in a privileged position to help improve the health care available to communities around the globe and contribute to building strong foundations for Of Research Essay, a sustainable future.

The company’s leadership described its Corporate Social Responsibility framework through four key areas: community, environment, marketplace and workplace. Concluding the conflict, day, company financial leaders reviewed the integration and restructuring progress made so far. Pessina added, “This is a dynamic and exciting business to be in. I am honored to be part of it, to be leading it and to Essay about About, be a partner with our shareholders in conflict, it.” The Walgreens Boots Alliance 2015 Analyst Day continues tomorrow, 16 April 2015, beginning at 8 a.m. Essay. Eastern time with a half-day session to review financial performance and provide management’s perspective regarding key financial variables. Live video of tomorrow’s session will be simulcast through the Walgreens Boots Alliance investor relations website at Presentation materials also will be available on the website. A replay of the full conference will be archived on the website for 12 months after the conference.

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements: All statements in define interpersonal conflict, this release that are not historical including, without limitation, estimates of and goals for future financial and operating performance, the expected execution and effect of our business strategies, our cost-savings and growth initiatives and restructuring activities and the amounts and timing of their expected impact, are forward-looking statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of gatsby, 1995. Words such as expect, likely, outlook, forecast, preliminary, would, could, should, can, will, project, intend, plan, goal, guidance, target, continue, sustain, synergy, on track, believe, seek, estimate, anticipate, may, possible, assume, and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks, assumptions and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those relating to our ability to successfully integrate operations, systems and employees following completion of the strategic combination of Walgreens and Alliance Boots, the interpersonal conflict, impact of pensonic holdings, private and public third-party payers efforts to reduce prescription drug reimbursements, the impact of generic prescription drug inflation, the timing and magnitude of the impact of branded to generic drug conversions, our ability to realize anticipated synergies and define interpersonal conflict achieve anticipated financial, tax and operating results in the amounts and at the times anticipated, our commercial agreement with AmerisourceBergen, the arrangements and transactions contemplated by our framework agreement with AmerisourceBergen and their possible effects, the mowing by robert, occurrence of any event, change or other circumstance that could give rise to the termination, cross-termination or modification of interpersonal conflict, any of Essay, our contractual obligations, whether the costs associated with restructuring activities will exceed current estimates, our ability to realize expected savings and benefits from restructuring activities in the amounts and at the times anticipated, changes in management's assumptions, the risks associated with governance and control matters, the risks associated with equity investments in AmerisourceBergen including whether the define conflict, warrants to invest in AmerisourceBergen will be exercised and pensonic the ramifications thereof, the ability to retain key personnel, changes in financial markets, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, the risks associated with international business operations, the risk of unexpected costs, liabilities or delays, changes in network participation and reimbursement and other terms, risks of inflation in define interpersonal, the cost of goods, risks associated with the in Margaret Cat's Eye Essay, operation and growth of our customer loyalty programs, risks associated with acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures and interpersonal conflict strategic investments, subsequent adjustments to preliminary purchase accounting determinations, outcomes of legal and regulatory matters, and changes in legislation or regulations. These and other risks, assumptions and uncertainties are described in Item 1A described in Item 1A (Risk Factors) of the Walgreen Co. Annual Report on Form 10-K, as amended, for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2014, which is incorporated herein by reference, and in Essay, other documents that Walgreen Co. Define Interpersonal Conflict. or Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc. files or furnishes with the Securities and Exchange Commission (including the Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc. Form 10-Q filed on the great gatsby, 9 April 2015). Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those indicated or anticipated by define interpersonal, such forward-looking statements. Holdings. Accordingly, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on interpersonal conflict, these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the about What Learned Math, date they are made. Define Interpersonal Conflict. Except to the extent required by law, we do not undertake, and expressly disclaim, any duty or obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statement after the date of this release, whether as a result of new information, future events, changes in assumptions or otherwise. Notes to Editors: About Walgreens Boots Alliance.

Walgreens Boots Alliance (Nasdaq: WBA) is the the great gatsby, first global pharmacy-led, health and wellbeing enterprise in the world. The company was created through the combination of Walgreens and Alliance Boots in December 2014, bringing together two leading companies with iconic brands, complementary geographic footprints, shared values and a heritage of trusted health care services through pharmaceutical wholesaling and community pharmacy care, dating back more than 100 years. The company employs over define conflict 370,000* people and has a presence in more than 25* countries; it is the largest retail pharmacy, health and daily living destination in the USA and pensonic Europe. Including its equity method investments, Walgreens Boots Alliance is the conflict, global leader in pharmacy-led, health and wellbeing retail with over 13,100* stores in gatsby, 11* countries. Interpersonal. The company includes the pensonic berhad, largest global pharmaceutical wholesale and distribution network with over 350* distribution centers delivering to more than 200,000** pharmacies, doctors, health centers and hospitals each year in 19* countries. Interpersonal Conflict. In addition, Walgreens Boots Alliance is the world’s largest purchaser of prescription drugs and Essay about I’ve Operations many other health and wellbeing products. Its portfolio of retail and business brands includes Walgreens, Duane Reade, Boots and Alliance Healthcare, as well as increasingly global health and beauty product brands, such as No7, Botanics and define Soap Glory. More company information is available at mowing by robert frost, * As at 28 February 2015 including equity method investments.

** For 12 months ended 28 February 2015 including equity method investments. Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc. USA / Michael Polzin, +1 847 315 2935. International / Laura Vergani, +44 (0)207 980 8585.

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European journal of American studies. The theme of define interpersonal Russian expansion in the New World and North Pacific in Feminism Atwood's, the eighteenth to define conflict mid-nineteenth centuries has repeatedly attracted the attention of Russian and foreign scholars. At the same time, the topic evokes discussion in the great gatsby, scholarly historiography as authors frequently adhere to diametrically opposing points of conflict view. Holdings. In this paper we will investigate the define conflict, elaboration of Feminism in Margaret Cat's plans for Russian territorial expansion in the New World, noting that these plans often were an interpersonal organic part of larger plans to include the whole North Pacific among the possessions of the Feminism Cat's Eye Essay, Russian Empire. 1 Such plans for interpersonal conflict, expansion did not arise in a vacuum. By the beginning of the eighteenth century the authorities in eastern Siberia had begun to obtain more or less reliable information about the unknown lands lying to the east of by robert Chukotka, that is, Alaska. As a result of several exploratory expeditions between 1728 and 1742 Russian mariners discovered vast territories and numerous islands that became part of so-called Russian America, which included the interpersonal conflict, territory of the present state of Alaska, a small enclave in California (Fort Ross), and the Commander Islands (off the coast of Kamchatka). From 1799 the Types Of Research, American possessions of the empire were subject to the monopolistic Russian-American Company (RAC), which governed Alaska until 1867 when it was sold to the United States (Fort Ross had already changed hands in 1841). The concession of Alaska signified the withdrawal of Russia from the define interpersonal, American bridgehead, and its expansion was now entirely confined to the Asian continent. Up to this time, projects for holdings, colonial expansion directed at transforming the northern part of the Pacific basin into a Russian sea and increasing the possessions of the empire in the New World had been repeatedly promoted by government and private individuals.

2 These plans were explored and studied even during the existence of Russian America. Interpersonal Conflict. Thus, in 1861 Captain of 2 nd Rank P. N. Golovin pointed out that the well-known merchant G. I. Shelikhov (who founded in 1784 the mowing by robert frost, first permanent Russian settlement on Kodiak Island), as well as A. Define Interpersonal. A. Baranov, who managed Shelikhovs company in America, and Shelikhovs son-in-law, Chamberlain N. P. Rezanov, planned to expand Russian possessions from Alaska to California and to control at least part of this rich region, together with the mouth of the Amur, Sakhalin Island, and one of the Hawaiian Islands. Golovin wrote: The plan was vast, bold, but possible; however, inconsequential intrigues, which were revived as a consequence of the immoderate ambition of individuals who had assisted Rezanov, stopped the execution of the great gatsby his well-conceived plan at the very beginning. After Rezanovs death (in 1807 - A.G.) and the removal of Baranov (in 1818 - A.G.) the plan was dropped.1 Somewhat later, in 1865, the eminent publicist D. I. Zavalishin also reported on ambitious projects related to the North Pacific. In his words, an ingenious plan of interpersonal A. A. Baranov existed regarding Russias subjection of the mowing, whole northern part of the Pacific Ocean, beginning from the mouth of the Amur and Sakhalin to California, including the Hawaiian Islands, a plan then supported by Rezanov and interpersonal, the board of directors of the RAC.

In Zavalishins opinion, the most favorable moment for colonial acquisition, at least in California, was the period 18241825 when ships of the Russian naval fleet and relative formula mass, of the RAC commanded the North Pacific basin.2. 3 Some modern authors essentially repeat these assertions. Thus, E. Interpersonal. M. Roginskii writes that Zavalishin supported Baranov, the governor of Russian America, who unconsciously but instinctively tried to ingeniously enclose the Feminism in Margaret Cat's Eye Essay, northern part of the Eastern Ocean among our possessions, adding and isolating them from Udskoi Island to Sitka by occupation of interpersonal conflict California, the Sandwich (Hawaiian A.G.) Islands, and Essay What I’ve About Math Operations, the southern Kuriles, which would lead to define occupation of the mouth of the Amur and other points to the south.3 However Zavalishin was by no means able to support Baranov in his ingenious expansionistic undertakings for one simple reason. Zavalishin, a young naval officer, had arrived in the capital of Russian AmericaNovo-Arkhangelsk (Sitka)aboard the relative mass, frigate Kreiser in 1823, whereas Baranov, the first governor of the Russian colonies, died en route to St. Petersburg in conflict, April 1819. 4 If the What I’ve Learned About Operations, elaboration of colonial plans for the New World and the Pacific Ocean basin has been attributed in prerevolutionary historiography almost exclusively to conflict private individuals, then in Soviet prewar historiography the chief initiator of expansionist projects has been identified as the Tsarist government. Thus, academician B. D. Grekov wrote in frost, 1939, in the introduction to the monograph of Professor S. B. Okun: Similar to this, as the English government for 200 years carried out war for interpersonal, possession of the Indies cloaked under the name East India Company, so the Tsarist government intensively fought for almost one hundred years for the shores of the Pacific Ocean, cloaked under the name Russian-American Company.4 Okun himself emphasized in his work the about I’ve Learned Operations, unrestrained striving of Tsarism for colonial possessions, used for this purpose its proxy the RAC: The Tsarist government set before the Russian-American Company the task of great political significance. Precisely in this way it expected to realize grandiose plans of expansion, as a result of which the northern part of the Pacific Ocean would be transformed into home waters for the Russian Empire. This plan assumed further fortification of interpersonal Russia on Of Research the western shore of North America, including California, the Hawaiian Islands, the southern part of Sakhalin, and the mouth of the Amur.

These colonies, together with Kamchatka, Alaska, and the Aleutian Islands, which already belonged to Russia, would turn it into the absolute master of all the northern basin of the Pacific Ocean.5. 5 This program for the broad expansion of Tsarism was put forward in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and define interpersonal, it led to the creation of the Russian-American Company. As Okun noted, it began to What I’ve Learned Operations be carried out at a moment when the political situation made its realization very difficult. It required an open break with Englandits primary rival in the North Pacific. However, in spite of mutual antagonism, St. Petersburg preferred not to move toward an open clash. Its politics in relation to England in the Pacific Ocean, Okun suggested, were determined by events elsewhere. St. Petersburg opposed the French Revolution and its effects across Europe, and this objectively drew the positions of conflict Russia and England together in the First and Second Coalitions against France. This struggle, together with the effort to calculating formula mass support legitimism in Spain, did not provide Tsarism the possibility of actively encroaching upon California, which once belonged to Spain. Okun has written in his monograph: Thus, in the way of Russian expansion in interpersonal, the Pacific Ocean, in the way of broad development of the activity of the Russian-American Company, stood the aspiration of Alexander I to preserve the Sacred Union, which forced him to concentrate all attention on European affairs.

This signified the mowing by robert frost, failure of the grandiose plans, which once the government itself had proposed and supported and to which the merchant circles connected with the company clung.6. The original headquarters of the Russian-American Company at Moika 72, St.Petersburg. 6 The merchant circles, mentioned by Okun were represented primarily by G. I. Define Interpersonal. Shelikhov, who as early as 1786 proposed the initiative of subjecting for Russia the whole North American coast as far south as 40 north latitude (n. lat.), that is, to California.7 According to Okun, Russian merchants, had by that time, based on a decree of the government, hastened to pensonic berhad create on define any occasion some circumstance for seizing it in the future.8 Besides Shelikhov (who died in 1795) there was A.A. Baranov, who was living in Alaska from 1790 onwards and who was governor of the Russian colonies there from 1799 until his departure in 1818. Baranov contributed no small amount to the realization of this expansion. In addition, Okun could not disregard the chief prosecutor of the Senate, the active Chamberlain of the Court, Cavalier of the Maltese Order, and head of the diplomatic mission to Japan, N. P. Rezanov, who in the mid-1800s also actively pursued grandiose plans of expansion in the North Pacific.9 The latter was one of the creators of the RAC, a large stockholder in the company and simultaneously controller of its activities on behalf of the government. This circumstance permitted Okun to emphasize the state character of Russian expansion in Types Of Research Essay, the New World and to define the interpersonal conflict, RAC as a government organization that served as a distinctive tool of Tsarist expansionism. 7 In postwar Russian historiography several authors continued to follow this theme. Thus, S. G. Gatsby. Fedorova wrote in her monograph:

Studying the politics of the Tsarist government in define interpersonal, the years preceding the formation of the Russian-American Company, the Soviet historian S. B. Okun, and following him N. N. Bolkhovitinov, noted that primary in these politics in this case was not the granting of monopolistic advantages to any particular company, even such a strong company as Shelikhovs, but the striving to create under direct control of the government a powerful monopolistic unity for successful resistance to foreign expansion and firm possession of northwestern America.10. 8 Academician N. N. Relative Formula Mass. Bolkhovitinov, being then initially an interpersonal adherent to the views of S. B. Okun,11 changed his point of holdings view over time and began to assert that the define interpersonal, expansionism of Tsarism in frost, the Pacific region had been substantially exaggerated.12 In one of his recent works, Bolkhovitinov touched upon this theme: Meanwhile, Okuns assertion that the Tsarist government had a carefully considered plan of establishing the supremacy of Russia in define, the North Pacific, including the Hawaiian Islands and California, had no documentary support. In contrast, the documents that came from the government limited and suppressed attempts at about I’ve excessive expansion of Russian influence in the Pacific basin, which was shown in particular in the rejection in 18181819 of the request of the define, owner of the Sandwich IslandsKaumualiiregarding his admission into Feminism in Margaret Cat's Eye Essay Russian citizenship and of the skeptical relationship to the projects of P. Define Interpersonal Conflict. V. Dobell regarding the trade connections of Kamchatka and Russian America with the Philippines, California, Canton, and others.13. 9 N. N. Bolkhovitinovs student, A. Yu. Petrov, also observes that on the basis of available published and archival documents no weighty or direct evidence of the presence in Feminism in Margaret Atwood's, the government of interpersonal a grandiose plan of expansion is by robert, found.14 The Ekaterinburg researcher E. V. Alekseeva, with reference to A. Yu.

Petrov, also reports on this.15. 10 Other authors also give priority, in the expansion of Russia into the North Pacific, not to interpersonal the Tsarist government but to Shelikhov, Baranov, Rezanov, and Zavalishin. Alekseeva wrote in her book about the unrealized projects to transform the Northern part of the Pacific Ocean into an inland sea of Russia, something that the mowing, not indifferent Russian strategists G. Define Interpersonal. I. Calculating Relative Formula Mass. Shelikhov and D. I. Zavalishin supported.16 The St. Interpersonal Conflict. Petersburg Americanist V. By Robert Frost. V. Noskov states that in define interpersonal conflict, 1806 Rezanov proposed a concrete plan for Russias establishment on both shores of the Cat's Eye Essay, Pacific Ocean as a future flowering of the Russian Empire.17 The Moscow historian A. V. Postnikov holds in his monograph a similar view: N. P. Define Interpersonal Conflict. Rezanov tried in pensonic holdings berhad, every way to define bring to life the idea, proposed by Grigorii Shelikhov, of advancing the boundaries of the Russian colonies to the south (along the North American coast A.G) as far as the fortieth parallel.18 Foreign specialists also usually agree with such points of view, identifying Rezanov as the chief elaborator of the expansionist projects, and Shelikhov and Baranov as the builders of the empire on the Pacific coast of America.19. 11 Thus, a survey of the scholarly literature vividly demonstrates the absence of unity in Russian and foreign historiography in relation to the key questions of Russian expansion in the New World. Some scholars ascribe expansionistic plans in the North Pacific to government circles; others generally deny the presence of Tsarism in such projects; still others suppose that such plans were worked out by private individuals, especially representatives of the by robert, RAC. Interpersonal Conflict. The chronology of the origin of such projects and their final downfall remains unclear.

12 In order to grasp all these questions, we turn to the documents and begin with the sources of Russian expansion in the Pacific Ocean and North America. As the sources attest, Peter I had already initiated the organized movement of Russians to the east of Kamchatka and Chukotka: on December 23, 1724, he gave a decree to the Admiralty College regarding the organization of the First Kamchatka Expedition. Two weeks later Captain V. I. Pensonic Holdings. Bering, assigned as the main leader, received an imperial instruction to build two boats with decks in Kamchatka and interpersonal, that they be sent along the shore of the land which goes to the nord20 (evidently America); then to investigate the region where it met Asia, and about I’ve Learned Operations, after this to go to the nearest city of any of the European powers in the New World.21 In other words, the captain was to simultaneously execute at least two incompatible tasks: first, to examine the region of the interpersonal conflict, strait between the mainland just south of the Arctic Circle and second, to reach European possessions on the west coast of America, the closest of which were located far to the southin the territory of contemporary Mexico. 13 Understandably, Bering did not completely fulfill the instructions of the Emperor. In 1728 he only just passed the strait between America and Asia in the boat Sv. Gavriil , and mowing by robert, was not able to identify it because of the fog, nor to find the shores of the American mainland. Inasmuch as Bering did not carry out the task entrusted to him, he was sent once more to the Far East as head of the Second Kamchatka Expedition. In a decree of December 28, 1732, the conflict, Senate ordered the members of the new expedition to once again set off to the region of the Chukchi Peninsula and to finally clear up the question of the strait between Asia and America.

Peaceful relations were to be deliberately maintained with the local population, inviting them to adopt Russian citizenship and to mowing by robert pay yasak (tribute of furs) on a voluntary basis. A separate task of Commander Bering and his assistant Captain A. I. Chirikov was to search the American shores, using two packet boats built in Kamchatka, with extreme diligence and care. Finally, the Senate ordered a member of the expeditionCaptain M. P. Shpanbergto go with another boat and two dubel boats,22 also built in Kamchatka, and study the Kurile Islands and interpersonal, the coast of the great gatsby Japan.23. 14 On the whole, three vectors were marked for Russian expansion in the Pacific Ocean: the northern vectorthe region of the Bering Strait; the easternto the shores of America; and the southernin the direction of Japan. This second expedition had political as well as scientific goals in mind. It was no accident that precisely during preparations for this expedition that the first more or less detailed plans for a vast Russian colonial expansion in the Pacific basin emerged. Its author was over-secretary of the Senate I. K. Kirilov, who composed a remarkable report in define interpersonal, 1733 which directly discussed the necessity to investigate the American shore to 45 n. lat. and to advance from Kamchatka to Japan in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. As a special point, members of the Bering expedition were ordered to find everywhere new lands and islands and to bring nonsubject peoples as much as possible into mass citizenship.24 Kirilov especially stipulated the possibility of joining the American lands in California and Mexico to the possessions of the empire, and as a possible counteraction to the intrigues of the Spanish he proposed using the interpersonal, hatred of the local Indian tribes toward them.

Expansion on the American coast, in the opinion of the prominent statesman, would contribute to reinforcing the treasury and the development of Russian trade in the Pacific. Thus, Kirilovs report vividly demonstrates that already by the beginning of the pensonic, 1730s a project of broad expansion in the Pacific basin existed in government circles, including even the interpersonal, land of California. Therefore, one cannot agree with the assertions that such plans by the Tsarist government did not exist. We note that they were worked out long before similar proposals by G. I. Shelikhov, which researchers at times relate.25. 15 The history of the Second Kamchatka Expedition is sufficiently well known. About What I’ve About Math. During the course of this expedition Russian mariners on the packet boat Sv. Pavel , under the command of A. Define. I. Chirikov, succeeded for the first time in arriving, on July 15, 1741, on the shores of America at 55 n. lat.

This location was for a long time the southern boundary of the official Russian claim in the New World. After the discovery of the shores of Southeast Alaska, Chirikov went north to the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island, and on return to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski discovered several of the Aleutian Islands. The head of the expedition, V. I. Bering in the packet boat Sv. Cat's. Petr , landed at Kayak Island (58 n. lat.) not far from the define interpersonal, mainland at Cape St. Elias one day later than Chirikov. After that he immediately set off for Kamchatka, discovering along the way the Shumagin Islands and several islands in the Aleutian chain before reaching the Commander Islands, where the packet boat suffered shipwreck and the commander himself died from gatsby scurvy in conflict, December 1741. It was not until August 1742 that the surviving members of the crew of Berings packet boat succeeded in building a new boat, in which they returned to Petropavlovsk. In September 1743, the Second Kamchatka Expedition was officially concluded.

The Tsarist government was not satisfied with its results because of the mowing by robert, huge expenses in carrying out the geographical investigations without sufficient economic and political returns. In just organizing and equipping the Second Kamchatka Expedition the treasury had paid out since 1733 the gigantic sum of 360,659 rubles.26 The government was not satisfied with the scant information about lands discovered in the New World, which also had not been very earnestly studied. Members of the define conflict, expedition did not succeed in discovering mineral deposits or raw materials, or introducing Russian citizenship to the local population. Moreover, a third of the members of the expedition (including its leader) did not return from the trip to the shores of America, while one of the packet boats perished and mowing, much government equipment was lost. 16 Not surprisingly, with the termination of the Second Kamchatka Expedition the central government lost interest in organizing new expeditions to the islands in the Pacific Ocean, handing over the initiative to define private individualsprimarily to Siberian merchants, who had to provide their own capital and expense for the interests of the empire on its eastern borders.

Beginning in 1743, ships equipped by Siberian merchants with crews of Russian promyshlenniki set off for the Commander and Aleutian Islands, which had been discovered by members of the Bering-Chirikov expedition. The promyshlenniki collected valuable furs and subdued the local Aleuts,27 compelling them to pay yasak to the Tsarist treasury and to furnish furs for the merchant companies. 17 At the beginning of the 1760s the governments attention was again attracted to the North Pacific when mariner S. G. Glotov, who wintered over three years in the Fox Island chain, returned in 1762 to Nizhnekamchatsk and reported to the Kamchatka authorities that he had heard from local Aleuts about an enigmatic Shugachtany people, who lived to the east and supposedly had mirrors, broadswords, and ink pots. Formula Mass. He also delivered news about the find on Chikhmil Island of a foreign two-masted ship stranded on the shore.28 The appearance of the first signs of a foreign presence at define the most distant borders of the empire could not but alert the government. Empress Catherine II, in a decree of the great May 4, 1764, commanded the Admiralty College to immediately send several naval officers for a more detailed study of the region,29 and in March 1766 an official decree appeared on the annexation to Russia of six Aleutian Islands.30 In the same year the commandant of Okhotsk, F. Kh. Interpersonal. Plenisner, recommended annexing to Russia the territory of the New World from California to the highest regions of North America,31 that is, no more and no less than all the west coast of the present United States and Canada. However, the highly optimistic plans of the Okhotsk commandant were not brought to life. Instead a new government expedition led by Feminism Cat's Eye Essay, captains P. Define Interpersonal Conflict. K. Krenitsyn and M. D. Levashov, which lasted from 1764 to 1771, cost the treasury enormous resources and great human sacrifices, and did not bring the desired results,32 which again forced the government to withdraw from participation in any expansionistic projects in the North Pacific for almost 15 years. V. A Feverish Pace, an Aggressive Stance. 18 The next time the Tsarist government turned attention to this region was after obtaining reports from Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands of the arrival there of the English expedition of the Types, famous captain James Cook, who in 1778 visited the shores of Southeast Alaska, the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Unalaska Island (where he encountered Russian promyshlenniki), the region of Bristol Bay, and Bering Strait; in define, addition, Cooks ships twice visited Petropavlovsk in Kamchatka.

Cooks visit to the North Pacific brought alarm to the Tsarist authorities concerning the situation in the back yard of the Russian Empire. It was urgently ordered that the Essay about I’ve Learned Operations, priority of Russian discoveries in this region be confirmed: By 1780 feverish work had begun in the Admiralty College and the Academy of Sciences on composing geographic maps, which would reflect the results of the interpersonal conflict, expeditions of Russian mariners.33 In 1784, by the initiative of academician P. S. Pallas, the idea of sending to this region a new official expedition emerged in government circles, as seen in the invitation to join Russian service in this same year of one of the members of Cooks voyagemidshipman Joseph Billings. Pensonic Berhad. The formation of his expedition was accelerated by the dispatch of French ships under the command of La Perouse to the North Pacific.34 The new governmental Northeast Geographic and Astronomical Expedition of J. J. Billings and G. A. Sarychev was officially organized in August 1785 after a decree by Catherine II to the Admiralty College. Her main goal was the detailed investigation and formal strengthening of the Russian crown in Chukotka. A second goal was the study of the islands lying close to the Alaska Peninsula as far as Cape St. Elias, which had been discovered by V. I. Bering in 1741.

In addition, Billings was ordered to interpersonal conflict try to confer the Russian scepter upon pensonic berhad the local population, if not yet subject to any other European power. Define Conflict. Finally, if the occasion arose he was encouraged to describe the Kurile Islands as far as Japan, China, and Korea.35 On the whole, the calculating mass, Billings expedition (17851795) bore more of a reconnaissance and scientific character than political, and define conflict, less the military one that some historians occasionally assert.36. 19 Parallel with the Billings expedition, a project was elaborated within the Tsarist government to send a large-scale expedition of the Russian naval fleet from Kronstadt to the Pacific Ocean. The proposal to send two frigates and a military transport to the Pacific from the in Margaret Atwood's, Baltic with the goal of training experienced mariners, expanding commerce, and founding fortifications in America was first expressed as early as 1732 by the inspector general of the define, fleet Count N. F. Golovin at the time of Berings Second Kamchatka Expedition.37 However, Golovins project was not sanctioned by the throne. Another such proposition by the Empresss Secretary of State, P. A. Soimonov, appeared in December 1786.38 Soimonov substantiated the urgency of sending a Russian squadron to the Pacific by pointing to the growing activity of the English in the North Pacific and the expense of construction of naval ships at local sites.

The president of the Department of Commerce, A. R. Vorontsov, and a member of the the great gatsby, Office of Foreign Affairs, Count A. A. Bezborodko, entirely supported Soimonovs project in a joint message to Catherine II, which discussed the claims of Russia to all the interpersonal conflict, northwestern coast of America to 55 n. lat. and the great gatsby gatsby, the whole Aleutian and Kurile chain by define, right of first discovery of these lands and islands by Russian mariners. Foreign governments should be notified of the inadmissibility of their subjects ships appearing on the great Russian shores to conduct trade with the define interpersonal conflict, local inhabitants. To secure these demands two warships were to be sent from the Baltic to the Pacific, and the coats of arms of the Russian Empire would be displayed on the coast of Alaska and adjacent islands.39. 20 On the advice of her councillors, the Empress gave instructions to the Office of Foreign Affairs at the end of December 1786 to in Margaret Eye Essay notify European powers of the rights of Russia to the lands discovered by its mariners, and ordered four warships sent to the Pacific.40 At the end of April 1787, Captain of 1 st Rank G. I. Mulovskii was assigned to command the future Pacific squadron, having received detailed instructions from the Admiralty College.41 Mulovskiis squadron (four small warships and a transport carrying supplies) was expected to go from Kronstadt around the Cape of Good Hope, and then cross the Indian Ocean and pass through Sunda Strait into the Pacific. Here, on the shores of Japan, two vessels were supposed to begin a detailed inventory of the Kurile Islands and officially secure them for Russia, and then examine the mouth of the Amur River and Sakhalin Island. At the same time, Mulovskii was to continue the voyage to Kamchatka with the remaining ships, and from there move on to the shores of the New World in the region of 4050 n. lat. Later, he was to go along the coast to the north, to visit Nootka Sound on interpersonal conflict the west side of Vancouver Island (49 35' n. lat.). All land north of 55 n. lat. was considered (since its discovery by Captain Chirikov) as belonging to Russia, and the great, Mulovskii was to tear down, level, and destroy coats of arms and signs of other powers discovered there.

Southwards from that point Mulovskii was to take into define interpersonal the possession of the Russian state, if no other power occupied it. With favorable circumstances Mulovskii was to extend the possessions of the empire in America to 43 n. lat. and even farther south,42 that is, to occupy all of California. For formal seizure of the American coast he was to raise Russian flags on high places, to erect state coats of arms, and to distribute to the natives specially cast medals. V. Dreams Crushed by the Weight of Wars. 21 Thus, a broad plan of colonial expansion was outlined, including a clear military-political aspect, which in fact reanimated the project of I. K. Kirilov of 1733. In the event that it was realized, Russia would make a serious claim to converting the I’ve Math Operations, northern part of the Pacific Ocean into the Russian Sea. However, these plans were not realized: the beginning of the Russian-Turkish and then the Russian-Swedish war forced the abandonment of the define conflict, Mulovskii expedition (he was himself redirected to the Baltic, where he heroically perished in the battle of Oland in 1789). The French Revolution and subsequent upheavals in gatsby gatsby, European politics completely moved the question of Russians colonialism in the New World to the background, at least for St. Petersburg. 22 Almost simultaneous with the governments expansionist plans concerning the North Pacific, a similar project was proposed by the Rylsk merchant G. I. Shelikhov.

Shelikhov, in instructions of May 4, 1786 to the director of his company on Kodiak Island, K. A. Samoilov, called for the settlement of artels (groups or brigades) of promyshlenniki along American lands to 40 n. Define Interpersonal. lat.43 In his reports to the Irkutsk governor-general in April 1787, Shelikhov emphasized in every way his unselfishness for the benefit of the fatherland and formulated tasks for later colonization of in Margaret Eye Essay America. Define. And what is more, wrote Shelikhov, I tried to go as far as possible to the south along America to the shore lying at California with occupation by Russian settlements and Types Of Research Essay, leaving our signs to avert those who might think of making attempts on this part of the land for other nations, to make our acquisitions first.44 Later, patriotism and external threats became favorite argumentative devices to justify expansion both for G. I. Shelikhov personally and for the RAC as a whole. 23 Shelikhovs proposals were completely supported by the Irkutsk governor-general, I. V. Yakobi, who was an active advocate of expansion, the more so since as a result of the activity of the Shelikhov company new vast and rich territories fell under his authority.45 Therefore, in define conflict, November 1787 he sent a report to gatsby gatsby Empress Catherine II, which also reflected a worry for the future of Russian possessions in the Pacific in define conflict, connection with the active penetration of foreign mariners and traders onto the Northwest Coast of America following the voyage of James Cook. In order to secure these territories for Russia, Yakobi ordered 30 copper Russian coats of arms prepared and the same number of iron plates with the the great gatsby gatsby, inscription Zemlya rossiiskogo vladeniya (Land of Russian Possession), part of which was handed over to Shelikhov. The people of his company were to set up the coats of define interpersonal conflict arms in the most visible places on the coast beginning at 44 n. lat., while the plates were to Feminism in Margaret Cat's Eye Essay be buried in the ground nearby as evidence that the land belonged to the empire. Interpersonal. This claiming of territory also was to Essay be done in the Kurile Islands. In addition, for securing Russian claims, Yakobi recommended sending to the Pacific several warships and define interpersonal, building fortresses on the American coast as far south as possible, at least to 47 n. lat. if farther is not possible.46 Thus, Yakobi, on behalf of the pensonic holdings berhad, Siberian administration, supported the plan of turning the North Pacific into the Russian Sea. 24 The report of the Irkutsk governor-general and the petition of G. I. Shelikhov and his companion I. I. Golikov about the development of trade in the Pacific and the intention of founding new colonies on define interpersonal the Northwest Coast of America and by robert, the Kuriles received a favorable response from the Tsarist government.47 However, in March 1788 the conflict, Committee on berhad Commerce, regarding voyages and trade in the Pacific Ocean, recommended limiting Russians possessions to 55 n. lat., about where Captain Chirikov had encountered the American mainland in 1741, because of the threat of a clash with the English in America.48 Catherine II herself generally rejected the petitions of the define interpersonal, high governmental authorities and the solicitations of privileges by the zealous merchants, noting: Much spread in the Pacific Sea will not bring positive benefits. Trade is one thing, seizure is another.49 As historian N. N. Bolkhovitinov has convincingly indicated, the rejection by the Empress of colonial expansion at this time was also dictated by other things, such as wars with the Turks and Swedes.

During the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the the great gatsby, nineteenth centuries the define, primary direction of Russian expansion was south (the northern Black Sea areathe Caucasus), which was directly reflected in the utterances of the relative formula, Tsaritsa during this period. Also the all-powerful favorite Duke G. A. Potemkin was lobbying for a southern direction. In addition, the Empress did not trust swindling Siberian merchants and feared a future desertion of the interpersonal conflict, Russian colonies from the old country based on the example of the United States, which had just liberated itself from the authority of Great Britain. Finally, she did not wish additional complications with other powers in the Pacificthe problems of European politics fully occupied her.50. 25 As we see, in only one year the plans of the Tsarist government regarding expansion in the Pacific basin radically changed: if Mulovskii was ordered in 1787 to consolidate the the great gatsby, rights of the empire from the shores of Japan to California, it was followed by a full rejection of the new acquisitions in the east followed in define conflict, 1788. After Catherine IIs resolution, Count A. A. Frost. Bezborodko wrote in September 1788 to define conflict Procurator General of the Senate, A. A. Vyazemskii, that it was necessary to strongly declare in general to the promyshlenniki, concerning the Kurile Islands, to calculating relative formula mass not engage in conflict, disputes with the Chinese about gatsby gatsby, possession and likewise not to touch the islands that were in possession of define interpersonal other powers.51.

26 And later, while Russia was involved in numerous coalitions and wars in Europe and in the Caucasus at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries, the government did not wish additional foreign political complications on the far-eastern boundaries of the empire. From this moment the initiative in elaborating expansionist plans in the North Pacific finally moved to representatives of merchant capital, who were vitally interested in occupying new resource areas because of the exhaustion of fur wealth in the former territories. Gatsby Gatsby. In February 1790, Shelikhov reported to the new Irkutsk Governor General, I. A. Pil: Along the mainland of define interpersonal conflict America from the island of Kaktak [Kodiak] to Types Of Research Essay California, far beyond Cape St. Elias, in many places through the means and expense of the company, at my instruction, imperial signs were distributed and left, the essence of which is the coat of arms and plates with the inscription: land belonging to Russia.52 In addition, Shelikhov planned to begin trade and to subject the tribes north from the Alaska Peninsula to the mouth of the Yukon River and farther to Bering Strait to the Russian scepter. He succeeded in this same year in engaging a new director for his company in Americathe Kargopol merchant, A. A. Baranovwho completely shared the views of his patron in spreading in every possible way the possessions of the empire in the New World. 27 Pil, like his predecessor I. V. Yakobi, did not give up hope of helping Shelikhovs company to eventually advance south along the American coast to California and along the define conflict, Kurile Islands to Japan, which he reported to Catherine II in 1790. Mass. He especially directed the attention of the Empress to the English and Spanishthe chief competitors of the Russians during this periodwho now carried out voyages to the shores of Russian America more often.53 Later, in a report of Septembebr 28, 1793, Pil again turned the attention of the define interpersonal conflict, government to the need to support Shelikhovs company.54 On the Types Essay, other hand, in a letter of August 9, 1794 to A. A. Baranov, Shelikhov wrote about his organizing a special North American company that would spread its operations to the north from Unalaska Island to Bering Strait, as well as establishing a colony on conflict the Kurile Island of Of Research Urup.55 Later, the primary burden for the expansion of Russian possessions in define interpersonal, America lay entirely with Baranov, since Shelikhov unexpectedly died in Irkutsk in by robert frost, July 1795. Baranovs dream was to interpersonal spread Russian colonies from Alaska along the Of Research, American coast to Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island.56. 28 In a letter of June 10, 1798, Baranov outlined a detailed plan for define, founding new colonies in the region of Southeast Alaska.57 And in a letter of Of Research July 24, 1800, to the head of the Unalaska office, E. G. Larionov, he wrote: And with this it may be that our high court will also follow with reinforcement and defense of our hunting and trade from being undermined by new arrivals (foreigners A.G.), and interpersonal, this is very necessary at the present time, since Nootka is not yet occupied by the English and the courts of the Gishpanskii [Spanish] and holdings, Aglitskii [English], and the American Republic are occupied by interpersonal conflict, war with France and other ministerial (diplomatic A.G.) affairs; the advantages of those places are so important since they ensure the future gains of millions for the government.58. 29 However, the spread of Russian possessions in America was accompanied by incredible difficulties: Baranov struggled with dangerous competitors represented by the company of P. S. Lebedev-Lastochkin (until 1798) and foreign businessmen.

He fought the sabotage of formula mass his own promyshlenniki and sailors, encountered hostile relations with natives, and dealt with insufficient necessary goods and materials and lack of personnel. Interpersonal. In 1799 the ship Feniks , on which 70 promyshlenniki reinforcements and goods valued at 569,328 rubles were being sent to Baranov from Okhotsk, was wrecked.59 But these setbacks did not retard the process of the Russian colonization of America. In 1799 Baranov succeeded in founding on Sitka Island (57 n. lat.) the Mikhailovskaya (Arkhangelskaya) fortress, while in Russia the final formation of the monopolistic Russian-American Company occurred, created by the union of several merchant organizations under the in Margaret Atwood's Cat's, aegis of the government. The RACs region of operation was defined as stretching along the American shore from 55 n. lat. to interpersonal the Bering Strait and the Aleutian and Kurile Islands (to the island of Iturup). It especially stipulated the possibility of making new discoveries not only above 55 north latitude, but also some farther to pensonic berhad the south and occupying lands discovered by it [the RAC] for Russian possession . if they are not occupied by any other (European A.G.) peoples and are not subject to them.60. 30 Having in fact obtained carte blanche expansion in the New World, the RAC selected its chief direction as south, which was dictated by several circumstances. First, the sea otter did not live north of the Alaska Peninsulathe main commercial object hunted by the companywhereas it was plentiful to the south from Kodiak to California.

Second, the RAC strove to outstrip foreign competitors in the struggle for new territories and hunting grounds. Third, company management pursued the hope of developing agriculture in America to provide a dependable supply base for the Russian colonies. By fall 1801 the board of conflict directors of the RAC reported to the Emperor that A. A. Baranov meanwhile arranges to add to the possession of Russia the Queen Charlotte Islands and Nootka Sound, which the English have now left.61. 31 In a secret instruction to Baranov in April 1802 the directors of the RAC wrote: The board of directors commissions you to try to assert the right of Russia not only to the 55 th degree, but even farther, supported by the maritime voyages of Captains Bering, Chirikov, and pensonic berhad, others. The instruction added: Strive even with this to display some right also in Nootka Sound itself, in order that for the demands that might come from the English court it will be possible in some way to determine the boundaries at define interpersonal conflict 50 th degree or at holdings berhad least at half the distance to define 55 th degree, if farther is not possible, because that part is not yet occupied by them, and, consequently, at this time Russia has the primary right to it, and toward this you are to the great gatsby gatsby try to assert by settlements at the 55 th degree as forcefully and quickly as possible, with completion of conflict a regular fortress, as far as the people you now have are sufficient . And for better success in those places it is Essay About Math, suggested at define the present time to stop all investigations toward the north and to turn attention to that part when we strengthen our establishment with the English in the neighborhood.62. 32 At the by robert frost, same time the directors reported to interpersonal Emperor Alexander I that should Baranov receive the necessary reinforcements, he will intend to occupy not only the closest lying Queen Charlotte Islands but spread the What I’ve About Math, Russian acquisitions farther.63. 33 However, the active expansionist striving of the RAC encountered opposition in the Tsarist government, which given the complex situation in define interpersonal conflict, Europe did not want additional complications in America.

This was directly discussed in gatsby, the instructions of July 10, 1803, by the Minister of Commerce, Count N. P. Rumyantsev, to the correspondent of the RAC, N. Define Interpersonal. P. Rezanov, before the dispatch of the latter to the Russian colonies: In the reasoning of the membership of the pensonic, Russian Empire you have as a boundary the define interpersonal, recent discovery, made in mowing by robert, 1741 by Captain Chirikov, known as the 55 th degree of north latitude. Give the director of America the conflict, order that he by no means spread farther from Types Of Research Essay this place any Russians beyond boundaries being occupied by other maritime powers. Bring home to them that this should be the more piously observed, that through this all trouble will be removed forever from the maritime powers allied with us, and that the company, being limited to acquisitions indisputably belonging to Russia . in this way will more quickly attain the their respect and conflict, general trust.64. 34 In addition, Rumyantsev ordered the correspondent of the RAC to avoid in every way, upon encountering foreigners, any talk about the boundaries of our American settlements. 35 For his part, N. P. Rezanov was exhorted to repeat the basic order of about What About Math Rumyantsev to the governor of Russian America, A. A. Baranov, in the instruction of January 12, 1804, where he appealed to confirm resolutely our property to 55 degrees north latitude, taking this as the interpersonal, rule and for future plans in America not to embrace its spread farther on the shores, but to pensonic berhad strive gradually to penetrate into the interior of the mainland.65 Consequently, Rezanov tried to redirect the point of Russian expansion from a southern direction to an eastern and northern one. Arriving in Alaska in 1805, he offered a proposal to the directors of the RAC to significantly strengthen the colonial flotilla with armed ships and with their aid to expel from the Northwest Coast American maritime traders who had been buying up the valuable furs from the local Indians and selling them firearms, which they then used against the Russians. In a letter of define February 15, 1806, to the Emperor, Rezanov reported to him the intention of expelling the Japanese from Sakhalin Island and compelling them to enter into trade relations with the RAC.66 For this, he sent two RAC ships from Alaska in in Margaret Atwood's Cat's, the summer of this same year, the crews of define conflict which destroyed several Japanese villages in the southern Kuriles and Sakhalin and sank four Japanese junks in 18071808,67 blocking for a long time any friendly contact between Japan and Russia. 36 The diversion of relatively substantial forces to the Japanese expedition had a very negative effect on the Russian colonization of America, though plans of strengthening the colonization effort especially occupied the thoughts of N. P. Rezanov. Finding himself in Alaska, he elaborated the project of broad expansion, presenting a detailed program of colonial seizures in the New World. By Robert. Although a government official of high rank, in this case he emerged rather as a representative of the RAC inasmuch as he was the informal head of the interpersonal, company and representative of its interests before the throne.

In a letter of February 15, 1806, to the directors of the RAC, Rezanov wrote from Novo-Arkhangelsk: If we have the possibility of making a settlement on the Columbia River, it will be a central place from which to easily seize the island of Kaigani (Prince of Wales and by robert frost, Dall Island A.G . Define. ) and settle on it, and to the great gatsby construct shipyards opposite the Queen Charlotte Islands. Being based at Novo-Arkhangelsk, at Kaigani, and at a settlement on the Columbia River, and define interpersonal, having warships constructed, Rezanov planned to calculating relative mass seize all the fur trade on the Northwest Coast. From the Columbia river he intended to spread the influence of the Russians as far south as San Francisco Bay in California: If means are given to them at the very beginning, then I could boldly say that we will attract to the Columbia residents from various places, and in the course of ten years it would be possible to define be strengthened to that stage, that with the least occurrence of fortune in favor of our political circumstances in Europe, it could be included in the number of Russian possessions.68. 37 Especially attractive to the enterprising chamberlain was the bountiful California: The Gishpanskii [Spanish] people are very weak in this region and if in 1798, when war was declared on the Gishpanskii court, our company had been found in forces corresponding to its activity, then the part of pensonic holdings berhad California to 34 north latitude to the mission Santa Barbara could easily be used and a piece of this could always be held for ourselves, since from Mexico, due to natural conditions, any aid by a land route would be impossible for them.69. 38 Rezanov also developed his ideas in a dispatch of June 17, 1806, to the Minister of Commerce: If earlier the conflict, Government thought about this part of the world, if it considered it as sufficient, if it uninterruptedly followed the insightful visions of Peter the Great who outlined the Bering expedition with small means for that time, then it can be affirmatively said that New California never would have belonged to the Gishpanskii, for it was only from 1760 that they turned their attention and with the undertaking of some missionaries consolidated this best piece of land for Essay, themselves forever. Now no occupied interval still remains that is equally profitable and is very necessary to us ( sic ), and so if we let it pass, then what will our descendants say?70. 39 However, Rezanov, due to an early death, was prevented from bringing to life plans for define interpersonal, a substantial increase in the possessions of the by robert frost, empire in America. He died in Krasnoyarsk of pneumonia en route to St. Petersburg on March 1(13), 1807.71 With the demise of Rezanov, the conflict, RAC was compelled to set aside the plans of broad colonial expansion in America. As the eminent Russian mariner V. M. Golovnin wrote later, not without sarcasm: With the death of Mr. Rezanov all hope of great undertakings by the great company ended, the directors, being from merchants . Essay I’ve About Operations. gravitated away from great ideas, as Rezanov called his dreams, to the usual merchant speculations.72.

40 On the other hand, the directors of the RAC tried to interpersonal conflict colonize Sakhalin and in August 1808 secured approval from the Feminism in Margaret Cat's, throne for colonization of the island,73 but the plan remained unrealized. During this period the company fell into a serious financial crisis. It lacked the strength, means, and personnel for define, large-scale colonial seizures. In America A. A. Baranov was not able to push Russian colonies south of Novo-Arkhangelsk. In a report to the Emperor of August 20, 1808, the directors of the RAC reported: Because of the insufficiency of time and opportunity, and most of all an adequate number of Russian workers, the Company has not yet spread in America farther to the south beyond the mentioned occupation; though more than 600 people are found there, they are all obliged to by robert provide both for the island of Sitka and all occupied land lying behind it along the islands and mainland shore. As soon as time and possibility contribute, the company business will advance into the Queen Charlotte Islands, and farther toward the Columbia, if these lands and places do not yet belong to any European peoples.74.

41 Baranov acted rather carefully. He had neither the interpersonal, sanction of St. Petersburg for independent seizure of the territory south of the 55 th parallel nor sufficient forces for the realization of huge expanionist plans. Therefore, in 1808 he directed his closest assistant, I. A. Kuskov, to carry out only reconnaissance in the regions of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the mouth of the Columbia River, and California. Relative. Regarding negotiations with foreigners, Kuskov was instructed not to enter into any discussion about the awarding of define interpersonal rights in Types, the local seizures there.75 Under favorable conditions Kuskov was supposed to establish a small outpost in the territories examined. However, Baranov clarified that it is not necessary to establish vast replacements with buildings in the first and present case, until all this shore from Californian San Francisco harbor to interpersonal the Strait of de Fuca is entirely explored and the great, we receive formal permission from our government for occupation and define conflict, settlement there.76. 42 In contrast, the government was clear during this period about not making colonial seizures in the Pacific. When Lieutenant L. A. Hagemeister, who was on an RAC ship in 1808, visited the Hawaiian Islands and carried out rather successful negotiations with the local king, Kamehameha I, for a colony of Russians on one of the islands,77 the gatsby, prospects of consolidating a position in Hawaii did not entirely inspire official St. Petersburg. 43 Under these conditions the RAC was forced to act independently while the government remained passive.

Also, negotiations between St. Petersburg and Washington in 18091811 were not successful concerning the limitation of interpersonal conflict trade of American entrepreneurs with the Indians of Southeast Alaska, which was within the sphere of Russian influence.78 Tsarist diplomacy not only in Margaret Eye Essay lacked a clear idea of the boundaries of its possessions in America, but also did not assert its governmental interests or the interpersonal conflict, rights of the RAC there. However, in summer 1810, N. P. Rumyantsev, upon Types Essay an encounter with the American envoy J. K. Adams, mentioned that the define interpersonal, Russian maps included all the coast from Nootka Sound to the Columbia River among Russian possessions. However, the chancellor later acknowledged directly to Types Essay the American diplomat that he himself and the Emperor did not attach great significance to the question of contraband trade by citizens of the interpersonal, United States; further, it was advisable to lay aside the question of the boundary on Types Of Research Essay the west coast of America to define conflict a later time in order to avoid possible clashes.79. 44 Meanwhile, events moved rapidly. In 1811, Americans established an outpost at the mouth of the Essay, Columbia River, which at one stroke sharply limited the potential claims of the RAC on the Northwest Coast.

And though in the following year, based on the initiative of the company, the define, Russians established a fortified settlement (Fort Ross) in California north of San Francisco, the scheme for complete control over the whole American coast was by then given up for lost. Founding Fort Ross on lands that the Spanish claimed led to diplomatic friction with the Spanish crown,80 and in Margaret Cat's, later with authorities in Mexico. In this connection, S. B. Okuns assertions that the Tsarist government at the end of the decade 18001810 allegedly prepared to define conflict seize Spanish colonies in America under the cloak of the RAC appear unconvincing.81 Neither the Tsarist government nor the company planned seizure of the Spanish colonies; the RAC only wished expansion of their own possessions in California, where there were no Spanish settlements. However, the establishment of Fort Ross was not a success for the company. The development of agriculture there for supplying goods to the colonies in Alaska was pursued by an insufficient work force, and the colony suffered from an economically and strategically unfavorable location. 45 One attempt by representatives of the RAC to obtain one more agricultural outpost to supply Alaska with goods was the Types Essay, so-called adventure of Doctor Schaeffer. In 18151817 a physician in the service of the RAC, G. Interpersonal. A. By Robert. Schaeffer, attempted at his own risk to join one of the Hawaiian Islands to Russia, which N. N. Define Interpersonal. Bolkhovitinov has described in detail.82 He correctly criticized S. B. Okuns thesis83 of an alleged plan by the Tsarist government for seizure of Hawaii.

On the contrary, as the documents attest, such an initiative came almost wholly from in Margaret Cat's Eye Essay Schaeffer himself, though partially from A. Define Interpersonal. A. Baranov, who sent him to Hawaii in 1815. With this, the gatsby, governor of Russian America, under specific conditions, did not exclude the annexation of the island of Kauai by armed means, but nevertheless preferred to act with St. Define Conflict. Petersburg in Feminism in Margaret Atwood's Cat's, mind. The RAC board of directors at first reacted very negatively to the plans of the ardent doctor, fearing international complications. However, the board later tried to carefully support its employee, whereas Alexander I himself and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, K. V. Nesselrode, categorically rejected the idea of joining tropical islands to define conflict the empire in What I’ve Learned, 1818.84 If the conservative legitimism of the Tsar and the head of the Ministry of conflict Foreign Affairs is rejected as a reason, then the pensonic holdings berhad, real arguments against the annexation of Hawaii were the lack of define a strong naval power in the Pacific and the insignificant trade fleet of Russia, as well as the danger of provoking the calculating relative formula, discontent of England and the United States, which the government sought to avoid for the sake of RAC interests. In these circumstances, when the Russian consul in Manila, P. V. Dobell, came out in 1820 with a scheme for joining the Hawaiian archipelago by means of an armed expedition, his plans did not arouse serious attention of the Tsarist government.85. VIII Continuing Attempts in America.

46 Having accomplished no success in Hawaii, the directors of the RAC nevertheless did not give up hope of conflict expanding Russian possessions in America, having shifted the boundary on the shore to several degrees south of the 55 th parallel. The board of directors of the RAC tried to persuade the government of the incontestable right of the company to new territoriesnot merely for the sake of acquisition or exaltation of the motherland, but for calculating mass, obtaining as many potential hunting grounds as possible. Define Interpersonal Conflict. The RAC quietly explored such acquisition for several years before the formal expiration of its 20-year privileges in 1819. In a special memorandum of December 23, 1816 (January 4, 1817), the head of the company, clearly falsifying the facts, reported that the Russians were the first Europeans to tread on the American shore from the Bering Strait to the mouth of the Columbia River (46 n. lat.), that geographical expeditions from the great gatsby 1728 to 1785 discovered and described all the local places, and that the number of baptized natives by 1806 was considered more than 20 thousand souls of both sexes.86 From this came the logical conclusion that all these lands were legally owned by the Russian Empire, which the RAC represented. However, wishing to secure beforehand the support of the government in case of possible complications, the authors of the conflict, memorandum pointed to frost the insignificant number of Russians in America (a total of 400 men) and the contraband trade of the Americans, who equipped the hostile Indians with guns.87. 47 Around this time the board of directors issued a document with a predictable title: Regarding the right of Russians to possession of the Northwest Coast of America from north latitude 50 to Icy Cape (70 19 n. lat. A.G.) and to the supposed Polar Sea. The author of the document rejected outright the discovery of the region by the Spanish and Captain Cook, striving to substantiate the territorial claims of the RAC.88 As a result of such historical research the company concluded the legitimacy of the southern boundary of Russian possessions at 51 n. Define Interpersonal. lat.89 In the formula, scheme of the new privileges of the RAC, presented to the government in spring 1819, the establishment of control by the company over the coastal mainland from Bering Strait to 45 n. lat. was assumed, and even posts farther south if these territories were still not occupied by European nations.90 In another document submitted to the governmentMemorandum on the Trade of interpersonal North Americans in the Russian Colonies in Americaclaims were made to all the Northwest Coast north from 46 n. lat.91 Thus, the company proposed to Feminism Cat's promote the officially recognized boundary of Russian possessions in the New World 10 to 12 degrees south to the mouth of the Columbia River.

48 The question of the interpersonal, delimitation of possessions in the New World was raised as early as 18161817 during diplomatic consultations between the leaders of Russia and formula mass, the United States in connection with the founding of the American colony at the mouth of the Columbia River. With this, the claims of the conflict, American side initially did not extend north of 49 n. lat.92 For its part the RAC strove to induce the Tsarist government to act on Cat's Eye Essay two fronts in defense of its privileges: first, to define organize diplomatic pressure in Washington for the prohibition of trade by American citizens with natives of Russian America; second, to guarantee the holdings, dispatch of naval vessels for suppressing the contraband trade of conflict Americans in the waters of Southeast Alaska. With the goal of pensonic holdings strengthening their claims, the board of directors sent one complaint after another about the activity of foreign traders in the possessions subordinate to the RAC. Thus, in a report to the Minister of Internal Affairs of October 31, 1819, the conflict, RAC board of directors referred to data concerning this question provided by the government inspector V. M. Calculating Formula Mass. Golovnin. The latter sent the directors of the RAC a memorandum on September 10, 1819, about the indisputable right of Russia to the Northwest Coast of America, and recommended securing the possessions of the company in California and appealing to the government for support and protection of the privileges and interpersonal conflict, colonies of the RAC.93 In his opinion Russia had inalienable rights to the vital shores of America up to pensonic holdings 51n. lat.94. 49 These memoranda and reports received on the whole a favorable response from the Minister of Finance, Count D. A. Gurev, who supervised the RAC in the Tsarist government. Gurev felt that the southern boundary should have been the interpersonal, northern cape of Vancouver Island at 51 n. lat., and even suggested that the boundary could have been moved even farther south. However, this faced two problemsthe proximity of American colonies and the hostility of local Indians.95. 50 Gurevs views were taken into consideration in a new decree (Rules) of the RAC, signed by Of Research Essay, the Tsar in September 1821. In the first section of the interpersonal conflict, document were designated the boundaries of the possessions of the RAC in America: from the coast of Bering Strait to 51 n. lat., with the adjacent islands; and in Asiathe chain of the Kurile Islands to the island of Urup, inclusive (45 50' n. Mass. lat.). In these territories the company was granted exclusive rights to hunting and trading.

The Rules of 1821 also stipulated the interpersonal conflict, possibility of the great gatsby expanding the possessions of the company to unoccupied lands.96 The conclusion to be drawn is that the Tsarist government backed the RACs territorial claims, though rather moderately: the southern boundary of Russian possessions was designated at 51, and interpersonal conflict, not at 4546 n. lat., as the company insisted. Yet even in this case the territorial appetites of St. Petersburg were clearly ambitious, since the southernmost Russian settlement (Novo-Archangelsk) was located at only 57 n. lat. 51 Besides expansion of the boundaries, a Tsarist decree of September 13, 1821, prohibited foreign whalers and merchants conducting hunting and trade on mowing all the Northwest Coast of America from Bering Strait to 51 n. lat. and the whole coast of eastern Siberia: Foreign ships, under threat of seizure (along with the cargo), did not have the right to approach the designated shores of Russian possessions closer than 100 Italian miles.97 Commenting on define conflict the September decree, D. I. Zavalishin wrote: All this was interpreted by foreigners in such a way that Russia would seize all foreign ships past the above-designated boundary, though they did not approach the shoresuch a claim of pensonic holdings berhad annexation of part of the ocean was considered unheard of. In American and English newspapers individual declarations even began to appear that force will be repelled by force.98 These unilateral steps of the Tsarist cabinet quickly brought on official protests from the interpersonal, United States and England, and Types Of Research, a little later served as a trigger for the well-known Monroe doctrine.99. IX Collapse of the American Bridgehead 52 By 1822 the Tsarist government was forced to retreat: the head of the define interpersonal conflict, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nesselrode, ordered that the patrols of Russian warships should stay as close as possible to the shores of Feminism Eye Essay Russian America and not to stretch, as was recorded in the most recent privileges of the RAC, farther than 55 n. lat. to the south along the American shore.100 In Russian America itself, rejection of trade with foreigners led to conflict a sharp deficit of many necessary wares and supplies since the RAC board of directors was not able to regulate an effective supply of the colonies from the Baltic port of Kronstadt. By 1824 the Cat's Eye Essay, RAC had asked the government to permit trade with foreign entrepreneurs in Novo-Arkhangelsk.101 By this time the Tsarist cabinet had become completely disappointed both in the politics of the company and its own rash steps in the Pacific arena. In response to interpersonal unfounded claims to a substantial part of the Northwest Coast of America, the pensonic berhad, government was forced in 18241825 to define interpersonal sign conventions with the United States and mowing, Great Britain,102 which included considerable concessions. Foreigners were granted the right to ten years free trade (with the exception of the sale of guns and spirituous drinks) and hunting in the territorial waters of Russian America, and the Russian side had no right to undertake any forcible action toward foreign ships. The conventions determined the southern boundaries of the Russian colonies on the Northwest Coast of America at 54 40' n. Interpersonal Conflict. lat., and the eastern boundaryalong the coastal range of mountains only 10 sea miles from the shore to Cat's Eye Essay the 141 st meridian, from where the boundary went north to the shores of the Arctic Ocean.

In addition, the English were granted the perpetual right to freely sail on all rivers having a source in define interpersonal conflict, British possessions and that emptied into the Pacific Ocean in the territory of Russian America. And inasmuch as in Southeast Alaska the Russian-British boundary was installed along the coastal range only 10 miles from the shore, this gave the English practically unlimited access to this region. What is more, the largest river in Alaskathe Yukonalso had its source in Canada and therefore, by the Convention of 1825, was perpetually open for English navigation. Of Research. Representatives of the RAC insisted in interpersonal conflict, vain on creating the About, boundary in Southeast Alaska at 53 40' n. lat. and along the Rocky Mountains inland. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs represented by Nesselrode was inflexible on this point, and the Emperor did not wish to hear more about any claims of the company in America.103.

53 After signing the conventions, the Russians recognized that the only place in the New World still open to Russian expansion was California. In November 1823 Midshipman D. I. Zavalishin, having just arrived in conflict, California aboard the Essay about What Math Operations, frigate Kreiser , created a storm of activity, striving to influence several local officials to proclaim the independence of this Mexican province and make it a protectorate of Russia. Interpersonal Conflict. Zavalishins final goal was to expel any citizens of the United States, to join northern California (from Bodega Bay to 42 n. lat.) to the empire, and to gatsby settle it with Russians. However, his plans, which have been analyzed in detail by Barratt,104 were deflected by the Tsarist government as adventurist and conflict, bound to mowing by robert frost cause aggravated relations with England and the United States. Likewise was the proposal of the representative of the RAC, Admiral N. S. Mordvinov, who addressed himself to define interpersonal the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nesselrode, on January 8, 1824. Relative. Mordvinov wrote of Fort Ross: The boundary for this distant southern possession could have been assigned from Bodega to 2 degrees to interpersonal conflict the north; in calculating relative formula mass, the depth of the land to the east, to the Cordillera Mountains or Rocky Mountains. But if this expanse of land was impossible to acquire, then at least to conflict sufficiently try to retain one degree to the N from Bodega and to one degree to the east.105 The petitions of the board of directors of the RAC in 1825 for settlement of California by peasant-farmers and the expansion of the Essay, colony to define interpersonal conflict the north of Fort Ross to 4042 n. lat. were also in vain. In fact, the proposals of the calculating relative formula mass, company were supported by such eminent navigators as I. Conflict. F. Kruzenshtern and V. M. Golovnin, who recommended acquiring for I’ve Learned About Math, Russia the port of San Francisco.106 But all these ideas found no support in government circles. However, as A. A. Istomin correctly notes, the idea of define conflict joining part of by robert northern California to Russia in the mid 1820s did not seem entirely unreal.107 Furthermore, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not wish to pursue the formal confirmation of Russian ownership of land in New Albion (northern California) already occupied by the company.

In 1827, the board of directors of the RAC stated with sadness in a dispatch to the governor of Russian America, P. E. Chistyakov, that the endeavors for formal confirmation for Russians of the places where settlement has been approved remain unsuccessful, and based on present circumstances there is no hope of a favorable resolution. In 1829 the leadership arrived at a more categorical conclusion, that supporting any hope . of expansion of settlement would be useless.108. 54 Though the directors of the define conflict, RAC recognized the economic uselessness of Fort Ross at the end of the 1820s, they nevertheless did not hasten to part with the California colony,109 hoping with more favorable circumstances to expand it to the north and northeast. The last attempt in this direction was undertaken by the governor of Russian America, Baron F. P. Wrangell. In 1834, he began to test the ground in St. Petersburg for negotiations with the Mexican government with regard to the Fort Ross settlement in California. Wrangell hoped that the Of Research Essay, establishment of official diplomatic relations would help not only to state the define interpersonal, right of Russians to Fort Ross, but to expand this enclave. To delay this affair was dangerous, since the English or Americans could soon occupy California. Wrangells opinion was supported by the directors of the RAC.110 However, the Council on Political Questions at the RAC rejected his petition to begin official negotiations with Mexico, declaring to Essay go no farther than negotiations about the development of trade.111 The Emperor also rejected Wrangells proposal in January 1835, having sanctioned only interpersonal conflict trade connections.112.

55 This resolution placed a definitive end to expansionist plans of the RAC with regard to the New World. After this began the surrender of positions and the retreat of Russia from Types Of Research Essay America: in 1839 the interpersonal conflict, strip of mainland coast from the Portland Canal in the south to Cape Spencer in What About Operations, the north was leased to the English; in define interpersonal, 1841 Fort Ross was sold; in 1847 the British Hudsons Bay Company constructed Fort Yukon in the territory of Russian America without sanction of the RAC; and in 1867 the Tsarist government sold Alaska to the United States, which sharply changed the geostrategic balance in the North Pacific, and not in Russias favor. 56 In light of the above investigation, the following conclusions can be drawn. The research and analysis of documents presented here attest to a complex picture, far from the simple appraisals of plans of Russian expansion in the New World often proclaimed in the works of previous researchers.113 At the outset stood the government, which soon delegated the expansion of the Empires possessions in America to Types its subjects. It was initially the conflict, government that declared grandiose plans to transform the mowing by robert frost, northern part of the Pacific Ocean into the Russian Sea. These plans were then taken up by representatives of the merchant class at the end of the eighteenth century and supported by the local Siberian administration. From the beginning of the nineteenth century the main elaborator of expansionism was the RAC, with complete passivity on the part of the Tsarist government. Only at the beginning of the interpersonal conflict, 1820s did official St. Petersburg try once more to reanimate the old schemes, but they were unsuccessful, after which any plans by the RAC to expand possessions in America were blocked by the central authorities. The extremely inconsistent and short-sighted politics of the Tsarist government in Atwood's Cat's Eye Essay, the end led to the loss of the American bridgehead in define conflict, the New World, and as a result a complete reorientation of colonial expansion to the Amur area and Sakhalin. Andrei V. Grinev , The Plans for Russian Expansion in the New World and the North Pacific in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries , European journal of American studies [En ligne], 5-2 | 2010, document 2, mis en ligne le 18 fevrier 2010, consulte le 03 octobre 2017.

URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/ejas.7805. Andrei Grinev, Professor, Department of Learned About Sociology Law, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University. Summer 2017, including Special Issue: Popularizing Politics: The 2016 U.S. Presidential Election. Spring 2017: Special Issue - Eleanor Roosevelt and Diplomacy in the Public Interest 11-3 | 2017.

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