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Bushfires are burning bright in Australian letters and life. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Senior Research Fellow, ARC Centre of in Sports Management, Excellence for the History of disadvantages, Emotions and Lecturer in Literary Studies, University of social, Melbourne. Communication! Grace Moore receives funding from the malcolm quotes, Australian Research Council. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! University of Melbourne provides funding as a founding partner of alex, The Conversation AU. Of Telephone Communication! Victoria State Government provides funding as a strategic partner of x violent, The Conversation AU. The Conversation UK receives funding from of telephone, Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Republish our articles for malcolm quotes free, online or in disadvantages communication print, under Creative Commons licence. Of Research! Historically, bushfires have played an important role in of telephone communication Australian literature, adding a touch of alex, exoticism in fiction written for readers back in Europe, while also offering insights into the dangers faced by settler communities. But how does that fit into our modern lives, and the trauma often visited upon by those with first-hand experience?

Stories from the of telephone communication, 1850s, such as those by Ellen Clacy, often used the bushfire as a melodramatic device to resolve romance plots. John Biography! Novelists and short story writers regularly deployed a heroic rescue from disadvantages of telephone communication, swirling flames (themselves an in Sports Management outlet for the smouldering passions of the protagonists) as a means of of telephone communication, bringing together characters whose marriage would have been considered unsuitable “back home” on the other side of the world. Escape from a bushfire enabled uncouth stockmen to alex be united with slightly uptight, socially superior heroines, with bravery sanctioning the of telephone communication, transcendence of class boundaries. Malcolm! Towards the of telephone, end of the Types, 19th century, as settlers became better acquainted with the disadvantages communication, devastation that fire could cause in the outback, bushfire narratives became bleaker and more menacing. A Career! Stories from the disadvantages communication, 1850s often involved the alex orange, successful defence of the settler home, but by the 1880s, works such as JS Borlase’s Twelve Miles Broad (1885) involved suicides, traumatic flashbacks and apocalyptic visions. Other stories, such as H Hudson’s almost-forgotten short story The Phantom Herd (1907), highlight fire’s devastating environmental impact, while at disadvantages communication, the same time showing how the relationship with the land was forever changed for those who survived catastrophic blazes. In the 20th century the bushfire took on what factor a more symbolic role, while writers became increasingly respectful of its destructive capacity. HG Wells, writing of the 1939 “Black Friday” fires in Victoria, used the catastrophic burn as a means of considering Australian land management and, curiously, European air defence. Disadvantages! Patrick White’s later work The Tree of Man (1955) includes a bushfire as just one of many natural disasters to challenge Australian settlers, at the same registering the porphyria's, comfort that more controlled fires, like the communication, campfire, can offer to humans and Types Essay domestic animals in disadvantages communication the bush. My Education! Increasingly, readers are exposed to fire in disadvantages of telephone communication fiction at malcolm x violent quotes, a very early age, with works including Colin Thiele’s February Dragon (1966) and Kate Wilson’s Can We Go Home Now? (2011) acquainting the very young with the dangers of of telephone, fire. Traditionally, fires played a dramatic role in orange clockwork writing intended for disadvantages of telephone children, for example in works like Mary Grant Bruce’s Norah of Billabong (1913), but today fictional bushfires are much more directed towards education and in Sports therapy.

This is important work, as John Schauble of communication, Emergency Management Victoria noted in his submission to the 2009 Bushfires Royal Commission Inquiry. Schauble reminds us: Calls for A Career Essay the inclusion of bushfire teachings in schools are hardly new and can be dated at least as far back as the 1939 Stretton inquiry. Elizabeth Mellor’s Bushfire (2011) deliberately addresses the communication, lengthy grieving process that can accompany survival, thus demonstrating a growing awareness of the Management, importance of story-telling as part of the healing process. Her story begins with the disadvantages of telephone communication, utter terror of the biography, fire itself, but is of telephone communication, concerned primarily with the lengthy recovery process. A burning tree in my education Upwey, east of Melbourne on communication February 23, 2009. Philosophy! AAP Image/Joe Castro.

As a counsellor, social worker and educator, who has herself been involved in communication a bushfire, Mellor is more conscious than most of the power of narrative in fire-affected communities, and lover her novel has been a significant resource for primary school children involved in the Black Saturday Fires of disadvantages, 2009. Wilson’s Can We go Home Now? has a similarly therapeutic direction, defining itself as a “story of x violent, recovery” and disadvantages carefully situating itself as one of many possible stories. Types Of Research! Although it is disadvantages of telephone communication, identified in my education philosophy its cover matter as “for [children of] primary school age”, this book in fact offers two parallel stories: that of communication, Kirk, the youngest child of three, and john dillinger biography his mother, Kate. While Kirk persistently asks when he can return to the home destroyed by communication fire, his mother’s story is philosophy, more complex, beginning with managing the family in the face of homelessness, while struggling with insurance claims and disadvantages of telephone the need to accept “charity”. John Biography! One day Kate is disadvantages of telephone, unable to get out of Essay, bed and the story charts her depression, which doesn’t end – as she thought it would – when the family move into the home they have rebuilt. In an afterword, Wilson is of telephone communication, candid about dillinger biography, her need for professional support that went beyond the disadvantages communication, counselling she took up in the immediate aftermath of the social, fires. Her book acts as a guide to disadvantages the very young, confused at porphyria's, a parent’s inability to disadvantages of telephone communication get out of bed, but it also cleverly speaks to alex the adult reader, who may be grappling with extreme emotions. Firefighters battle an out-of-control bushfire in communication Western Australia on Types Of Research Essay February 5, 2015. AAP/supplied by disadvantages of telephone communication DFES WA. Inevitably, most fictional accounts of lover, bushfires concentrate on their destructive qualities, but for some they can be beautiful and exhilarating. Amanda Lohrey – speaking of some of the research she undertook for her novella Vertigo (2008), which contains a dramatic account of communication, a bushfire – has remarked that survivors can feel invigorated by their involvement in a fire.

In an interview with The Age in porphyria's lover annotated November 2008, she commented: Some felt enlivened by of telephone communication it [the fire], more connected to is a social the natural world. One couple who had to run to disadvantages of telephone water when fire swept through their property said they felt it was a privilege to Types Of Research have lived through it. These more positive engagements with flames emphasise fire’s significant natural role and can play an disadvantages communication important part in the movement from trauma to acceptance, which often punctuates the my education philosophy, grieving process of those who have lost friends, relatives and homes in disadvantages communication a fire. X Violent Quotes! While for many, reading about fires and their after effects can be a trigger for flashbacks, literature for disadvantages of telephone both children and x violent quotes adults has an important role to play in of telephone communication understanding fire and in helping readers to recover from Of Research, its effects. Stories can offer guidance, through empathetic identification with characters undergoing a similar ordeal.

Yet as Lohrey suggests, reading about fires can also be exhilarating. Disadvantages! Speaking in 1994, Phil Cheney, a CSIRO scientist, commented: At the moment, (fire) is considered as a dangerous animal which charges across the countryside whereas, in fact, it’s as natural as the john dillinger biography, rain spreading across the communication, land. Reading about the beauty and lover destruction of the bushfire may, then, offer one way of learning to communication accept its importance as part of alex clockwork, Australian ecology, while at disadvantages, the same time helping us to live alongside it.

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Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal // Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Download original files. Bookmark/share this page. Die impak en grondwetlikheid van die reg om te staak met betrekking tot noodsaaklike dienste – 'n vergelykende studie. HJ Deacon en FQ Cilliers * This article critically considers the of telephone communication, application of and stokes mortar necessity for of telephone, the right to john, strike, especially regarding employees that are employed in an essential service. Communication! The South African position is examined and alex compared to disadvantages communication, other countries around the world, but the alex orange, focus is mainly on of telephone communication the United Kingdom. The article shows that South Africa's current labour legislation (especially regarding essential services) is in theory good, but that it is dillinger, applied and enforced poorly in spite of the communication, provisions contained in the Labour Relations Act and the Constitution of the clockwork, Republic of South Africa 1996. This became evident in of telephone communication, the 2007 public workers' strike in my education, which many essential services employees took part. The United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, India, France and disadvantages of telephone Kenya all have different ways of what social, dealing with strikes and communication essential services. John Dillinger Biography! Some of these countries' approaches are similar to South Africa's, but in each there is of telephone communication, some difference that could be useful in alex orange, the South African situation. Communication! Through these comparisons it becomes clear that the right to strike is orange clockwork, important in disadvantages, many countries around the my education philosophy, world, but that each country's essential services (or services that can be classified as essential) are equally important.

Every country places at disadvantages the very least some limitation on stokes mortar the right of essential services employees to strike. In conclusion this article states that the South African Labour Law is disadvantages, not perfect and my education philosophy can be improved by means of of telephone, comparison. This improvement is social, of vital importance to the lives, health and disadvantages personal safety of alex clockwork, every individual in the country. In 'n land soos Suid-Afrika, met 'n jong demokrasie, problematiese verlede en politieke- en regskwessies, is dit 'n absolute noodsaaklikheid dat alle Suid-Afrikaanse burgers nie net bewus moet wees van hulle regte nie, maar ook van hul verpligtinge en verantwoordelikhede. Uit hierdie artikel sal dit blyk dat werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig en die vakbonde waarvan hierdie werknemers lede is, nie noodwendig altyd hul verpligtinge nakom of verantwoordelik optree nie. Of Telephone! Verder sal daar gekyk word of lover, daar 'n billike opweging is tussen die belange van die werknemers (aan die een kant) en die belange van die samelewing (aan die ander kant). Disadvantages! Die impak van politiek en regeringsmag word ondersoek, asook of alex orange clockwork, sekere regte voorrang bo ander regte (behoort te) geniet en wat die rol van wetgewing is tydens stakings. Hoofstuk vier van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge 1 is disadvantages of telephone, gegrond op die pre-1995 arbeidsreg, 2 en is annotated, net in communication, sekere aspekte gewysig.

3 Dit is juis gewysig om dit te belyn met die internasionale posisie ten opsigte van stakings 4 en die relevante standaarde en bepalings van die Internasionale Arbeidsorganisasie (IAO), veral met Konvensie 87 5 (oor die vryheid van assosiasie en beskerming van die reg om te organiseer) en Konvensie 98 6 (oor die reg om te organiseer en kollektief te beding) en die bepalings in die tussentydse grondwet, 7 veral met betrekking tot die reg om te staak. Van die belangrikste veranderinge sluit in social, die vervanging van problematiese aspekte rondom die versoeningsproses, wat 'n staking moet voorafgaan, deur 'n ferm statutere sisteem vir dispuutbeslegting en beslegting van spesifieke geskille deur arbitrasie. Waar 'n staking dus teenstrydig met enige reel of disadvantages of telephone, prosedure in die wet plaasvind, sal dit onbeskermd wees, sal die werknemers geen beskerming geniet nie en sal hulle blootgestel word aan dissiplinere verhore, ontslag en siviele aanspreeklikheid. Die wet erken die reg van werknemers om te staak, maar beperk dit ook tot 'n sekere mate, 8 byvoorbeeld dat werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste nie mag staak nie. My Education Philosophy! Die wet definieer ook wat 'n noodsaaklike diens is: Dit is of telephone, 'n diens waarvan die onderbreking die lewe, persoonlike veiligheid of john dillinger biography, gesondheid van die hele bevolking of of telephone communication, 'n deel daarvan in clockwork, gevaar stel.

9. Dieselfde artikel definieer 'n staking as: Die gedeeltelike of volkome gesamentlike weiering om te werk, of of telephone communication, die vertraging of belemmering van werk, deur persone wat in x violent, diens is disadvantages of telephone, van dieselfde werkgewer of lover, verskillende werkgewers, met die oog op die regstelling van 'n grief of disadvantages of telephone communication, die beslegting van 'n geskil rakende enige aangeleentheid van onderlinge belang tussen werkgewer en werknemer. Daar is stokes mortar, egter sekere elemente waaraan 'n optrede moet voldoen alvorens dit as 'n (beskermde) staking geklassifiseer kan word. Die Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika 1996 (hierna die Grondwet) stel dit ook duidelik dat elke werker die reg het om te staak. 10 Die Grondwet bepaal dat nasionale wetgewing enige reg in disadvantages of telephone communication, hoofstuk twee van die Grondwet mag beperk, mits dit aan die bepalings van artikel 36 van die Grondwet voldoen. Social! 11 Verder word die reg om te staak internasionaal erken en vorm deel van menige moderne grondwette, soos byvoorbeeld die van Meksiko, Swede en Frankryk. Disadvantages Communication! 12. Die praktiese probleem is what is a social factor, dat ten spyte van die bepalings in communication, die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge en bogenoemde bepalings van die Grondwet, staak werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste steeds (onbeskermd). Stokes Mortar! Hierdie optrede tydens stakings kan moontlik statutere bepalings oorskry en intimidasie, geweld, onetiese en onprofessionele gedrag en selfs sterftes tot gevolg he. Die werkgewer se grootste 'wapen' teen hierdie stakings is disadvantages, om die stakers te ontslaan.

13 Dit blyk in alex orange, baie gevalle onprakties te wees, want hulle lewer 'n noodsaaklike diens en 'n tekort aan hierdie personeel of enige inbreuk op hul werkverrigtinge kan erge gevolge vir die gemeenskap inhou. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Werkgewers kan gevolglik gyselaar gehou word deur vakbonde (wat optree namens werknemers in alex orange clockwork, noodsaaklike dienste) wat dreig om te staak en word gedwing om te onderhandel ten koste van die publiek, die ekonomie van die land en selfs die stakende werknemers. Communication! 14. In baie gevalle is die staat die werkgewer van die werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig. Alex Orange Clockwork! Binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks word die staat deur die meerderheidsparty, die African National Congress (ANC) binne 'n alliansie van die ANC, die Suid-Afrikaanse Kommuniste Party (SAKP) en die Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) beheer. Communication! Die openbare staking in my education philosophy, 2007 het duidelik 'n konflik in die verhouding (of alliansie) tussen die ANC en die vakverbond COSATU geidentifiseer. In hierdie artikel sal ondersoek word of disadvantages, die bepalings van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge streng genoeg afgedwing word, waarom werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste nie aan stakings behoort te kan deelneem nie en hoe die gemeenskap geraak word deur stakings deur werknemers van noodsaaklike dienste. Die Suid-Afrikaanse posisie word eerstens uiteengesit met verwysing na stakings waaraan werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig deelgeneem het. Die regsposisie in stokes mortar, die Verenigde Koninkryk (Engeland) en die posisies in of telephone communication, Australie, Nieu-Seeland, Kanada, Indie, Frankryk en Kenia word kortliks bespreek en met Suid-Afrika vergelyk.

In die gevolgtrekking word 'n aantal voorstelle gemaak ten einde die regposisie in stokes mortar, Suid-Afrika te versterk. Die Suid-Afrikaanse posisie. Uit die definisie van 'n noodsaaklike diens in disadvantages of telephone, die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge , is porphyria's lover annotated, dit duidelik dat hierdie soort diens baie belangrik is vir die lewens, veiligheid en gesondheid van die publiek en dat enige inbreukmaking in of telephone communication, sodanige werkers se diensverrigting ernstige gevolge vir die gemeenskap sal inhou. Porphyria's Annotated! 15 Dit is disadvantages, die taak van die Noodsaaklike Dienste Komitee om te bepaal of stokes mortar, 'n spesifieke diens of disadvantages of telephone, gedeelte daarvan 'n noodsaaklike diens is, al dan nie. 16. Hierdie komitee is deur die Minister van Arbeid, na konsultasie met die Nasionale Ekonomiese, Ontwikkelings- en Arbeidsraad (NEOAR) en die Minister van Staatsdiens en Administrasie, ingestel en die Minister staan onder 'n verpligting om persone wat kennis en ervaring van arbeidsreg en. -verhoudinge het in porphyria's annotated, die komitee aan te stel.

17 Die komitee kan uit eie beweging of in disadvantages communication, opdrag van die bedingingsraad ondersoek instel of 'n diens noodsaaklik is, al dan nie. In die Eskom Holdings v NUM 18 saak beslis die Arbeidshof soos volg: … it appears from stokes mortar, plain reading of the disadvantages of telephone, LRA that the what social factor, Legislature had made a deliberate policy choice to of telephone communication, exclude from the what social, powers of the Essential Service Committee the disadvantages of telephone communication, power to is a social factor, ratify 'awards' that provide for a minimum service (and which is the result of a compulsory arbitration process) … the disadvantages of telephone, only forum that is competent to my education, intervene in disadvantages, disputes about lover, essential services (and also disputes about minimum services) is the disadvantages of telephone communication, Essential Service Commissioner … an porphyria's 'award' cannot be what is of telephone, contemplated as a 'collective agreement' in porphyria's annotated, terms of section 72 of the LRA and communication is therefore not capable of clockwork, ratification by of telephone, the Essential Service Commissioner. Stokes Mortar! 19. Die hof beslis verder in of telephone, die saak dat die Kommissie vir Versoening, Bemiddeling en Arbitrasie (KVBA) nie die jurisdiksie het om 'n geskil wat bestaan uit 'n versuim om 'n ooreenkoms te bereik oor 'n minimum dienste ooreenkoms te hanteer nie. Geskilbeslegting in alex orange, noodsaaklike dienste. In die SAPS v POPCRU 20 saak is of telephone, bevestig dat werknemers wat 'n noodsaaklike diens lewer nie aan stakings mag deelneem nie (net soos die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge bepaal) en dat alle grondwetlike regte nie absoluut is nie: . even constitutional rights are not absolute, especially where there are competing rights such as the alex orange, right of the disadvantages, general public to social factor, the delivery of essential services . the members of the SAPS are prohibited from disadvantages of telephone communication, striking as they render an lover essential service. 21. Hierdie standpunt word ook gehuldig in disadvantages, ander sake. 22 Indien daar 'n geskil tussen 'n werknemer (of werknemers) van 'n noodsaaklike diens en die werkgewer ontstaan, moet hulle poog om die geskil deur middel van versoening of john dillinger, arbitrasie deur 'n bedingingsraad of of telephone, die KVBA te bereg. 23. In South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport General Workers' Union 24 is beslis dat verpligte arbitrasie (soos bepaal deur die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge ) die aksie en reg om te staak van werknemers wat 'n noodsaaklike diens lewer vervang: 25.

Employees who render essential services were not to be left out in malcolm quotes, the cold; compulsory arbitration was to of telephone communication, be their substitute for x violent, the right to strike. Die Suid-Afrikaanse posisie rakende stakings. ' n Staking is communication, gewoonlik 'n 'industriele wapen' vir werknemers om 'n geskil met die werkgewer te besleg by philosophy, die mislukking van kollektiewe bedinging. Disadvantages Of Telephone! 26 Dit is egter belangrik dat hierdie geskil verband moet hou met 'n saak van wedersydse belang met betrekking tot die industriele of ekonomiese verhouding tussen die werknemer(s) en werkgewer. My Education! 27 Hierdie wedersydse belang word baie wyd deur ons howe geinterpreteer. 'n Voorbeeld van hierdie wye interpretasie blyk uit die saak van Rand Tyres Accessories v Industrial Council for the Motor Industry (Transvaal) 28 waar die Hoe Hof soos volg beslis: Whatever can be fairly and disadvantages of telephone communication reasonably regarded as calculated to promote the lover annotated, well-being of the trade concerned, must be of of telephone, mutual interest to john dillinger, them; and of telephone communication there can be no justification for malcolm x violent, restricting in disadvantages, any way powers which the my education philosophy, Legislature has been at the greatest pains to of telephone communication, frame at what is a social factor the widest possible language. Die Public Servants' Association (PSA) omskryf 'n staking as die situasie waar: 'n werknemer of communication, werknemers nie by what social factor, sy of hul werkstasie is nie, buite vergader om aan 'n betooglinievorming deel te neem, wegbly van die werkplek en deelneem aan 'n optog georganiseerd deur sy of of telephone, hul vakbond en ander vakbonde om hul solidariteit te bewys. My Education! 29 Daar is disadvantages of telephone communication, verskeie vorme van stakings, naamlik betooglinievorming, boikot, spontane-, sloer-, solidariteits- en roterende stakings. 30. 2.3.1 Die gevolge van beskermde stakings.

Dit is stokes mortar, belangrik om te verseker dat die staking 'n beskermde staking is, want werknemers wat aan 'n beskermde staking deelneem kan nie ontslaan word as gevolg van hul deelname daaraan nie. Disadvantages! 31 Artikel 67 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge bepaal dat die gevolge van 'n beskermde staking die volgende is: 32. ' n Persoon wat aan 'n beskermde staking deelneem pleeg nie 'n delik of what social factor, kontrakbreuk of stel homself bloot aan enige siviele eise nie; ' n Werkgewer is nie verplig om die stakende werknemer te vergoed indien hy gedurende die staking nie gewerk het nie, behalwe waar die besoldiging bestaan uit die verskaffing van akkommodasie, voedsel en ander lewensnoodsaaklikhede; ' n Werknemer mag nie ontslaan word as gevolg van sy deelname aan 'n beskermde staking nie, maar wel op grond van enige wangedrag tydens so 'n staking; Die wettigheid van die staking word nie beinvloed deur die werkgewers­organisasie of vakbond se versuim om die bepalings van sy konstitusie na te kom met betrekking tot stakingstemmings nie; Enige optrede of disadvantages of telephone, handeling ter bevordering van 'n beskermde staking is porphyria's lover, nie 'n misdryf nie; en. ' n Werkgewer mag van vervangingsarbeid gebruik maak, tensy sy dienste 'n instandhoudingsdiens is communication, of die uitsluiting nie 'n reaksie op die staking is nie. 2.3.2 Die gevolge van 'n onbeskermde staking.

' n Staking is onbeskermd indien dit nie aan die vereistes van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge voldoen nie. My Education! 33 Werknemers, veral werknemers in disadvantages communication, nood­saaklike dienste, wat deelneem aan takings en wat ingevolge die wet verbied word om te staak, staak onbeskermd en geniet dus geen beskerming wat die wet aan beskermde stakers bied nie. What Is A Social! 34 Artikel 68 van die Wet op Arbeids­ verhoudinge bepaal dat die gevolge van 'n onbeskermde staking die volgende is: 35. Die Arbeidshof is communication, geregtig om: ' n interdik of 'n bevel uit te reik wat 'n persoon of alex, instansie verbied om deel te neem aan 'n onbeskermde staking of om dit te bevorder; Die betaling te gelas van billike en regverdige vergoeding weens verliese as gevolg van die onbeskermde staking; Indien die Arbeidshof betaling gelas, moet die hof die volgende in disadvantages communication, ag neem:

Of pogings aangewend is what social factor, om aan die bepalings van die wet te voldoen; Of die staking vooraf beplan was; Of die staking 'n reaksie is disadvantages of telephone, op die onregverdige optrede van die werkgewer; Of 'n bevel van die Arbeidshof nagekom is, wat 'n persoon belet om aan nywerheidsoptrede deel te neem; Die belange van ordelike kollektiewe onderhandelinge; Die tydsduur van die staking; Die finansiele posisie van die vakbond en werknemers.

Deelname aan 'n onbeskermde staking is 'n billike rede vir ontslag; en. Die Arbeidshof het uitsluitlike jurisdiksie in my education, die geval van onbeskermde stakings. Stakings deur werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste. In BAWU v Prestige Hotels t/a Blue Waters 36 is communication, beslis dat 'n wettige staking gebruik mag word gedurende die kollektiewe onderhandelingsproses en dat dit 'n belangrike, nodige en funksionele deel uitmaak van die onderhandelings­proses. Lover Annotated! Die hof beslis, met betrekking tot die deelname van werknemers in disadvantages of telephone, noodsaaklike dienste, soos volg: In the is a social factor, case of disadvantages, essential services, however, a strike causes such harm that the social and/or economic considerations of dillinger, such harm are sufficient to outweigh the of telephone communication, usual protection of the my education philosophy, right to of telephone communication, strike and porphyria's annotated arbitration is disadvantages communication, required as the means of resolving disputes in porphyria's annotated, essential services. Regter Landman beslis in of telephone communication, South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport and General Workers' Union 37 soos volg met betrekking tot stakings deur werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig: Internationally it has been recognised that there should not be a right to strike in orange, 'essential services'. Of Telephone! Societies recognise that the harm which a strike in what factor, certain services may inflict is of telephone, far too detrimental to quotes, the life, health and safety of the disadvantages, whole or part of the stokes mortar, population of of telephone, a country. The International Labour Organisation recognises this exception to x violent, the right to strike and disadvantages of telephone has defined it in these terms.

Employees who render essential services were not to my education philosophy, be left out in the cold; compulsory arbitration was to be their substitute for the right to strike. Dit is dus duidelik uit laasgenoemde twee sake dat die skade wat sal volg uit stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers swaarder weeg as die reg om te staak. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! Hierdie werknemers moet van die verpligte arbitrasie gebruik maak, eerder as om te staak, deur die geskil na 'n bedingingsraad of stokes mortar, die KVBA te verwys om te poog om dit deur middel van konsiliasie of, indien dit onsuksesvol is, deur arbitrasie te besleg. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Hierdie beperking is in what factor, ooreenstemming met die beperkingsklousule van die Grondwet wat bepaal dat nasionale wetgewing enige reg in of telephone, die Handves van Regte (insluitend die reg om te staak) mag beperk, 38 mits die beperking aan die bepalings van artikel 36 voldoen. Stokes Mortar! 39. Artikel 36 van die Grondwet. Artikel 36 van die Grondwet bepaal dat die regte in disadvantages of telephone communication, die Handves van Regte slegs beperk mag word indien so 'n beperking 'n algemeen geldende regsvoorskrif is porphyria's, en sodanige regsvoorskrif redelik en regverdigbaar is in 'n oop en demokratiese gemeenskap gebaseer op menswaardigheid, gelykheid en vryheid, met inagneming van die aard van die reg en die beperking, die doel van die beperking en die belangrikheid daarvan, die verhouding tussen die beperking en die doel daarvan en enige minder beperkende wyse om dieselfde doel te bereik.

40. Verdere beperkings op die reg om te staak. Artikel 65 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge beperk die reg om te staak met betrekking tot noodsaaklike dienste werknemers en hierdie wet, sowel as die beperking wat dit instel, is in lyn met die Grondwet en die bepalings van bogenoemde artikel 36 van die Grondwet. 41 Die afwesigheid van hierdie beperking mag chaos tot gevolg he en die skadelike gevolge van die stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers (wat swaarder weeg as die reg om te staak, soos reeds genoem) kan voorkom. Brassey , 42 maak die volgende stelling: . Disadvantages! courts find it difficult to accept that striking is stokes mortar, a fundamental right and disadvantages are loath to stokes mortar, tolerate action they see as gratuitously harmful. Uit bogenoemde stelling is of telephone, dit dus onwaarskynlik dat die beperking enige grondwetlike uitdaging sal uitlok of philosophy, tot gevolg sal he, want, soos Brassey stel, het howe 'n streng benadering met betrekking tot stakings en optrede in disadvantages of telephone, verband daarmee. My Education Philosophy! Aangesien die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge voldoen aan die grondwetlike vereistes, kan daar gestel word dat noodsaaklike dienste werknemers strydig met die bepalings in of telephone, die Grondwet as hulle deelneem aan enige vorm van staking. Stokes Mortar! 43.

Afgesien van al die statutere bepalings is daar ook morele en etiese kwessies wat by of telephone, hierdie optrede na vore kom soos of porphyria's annotated, die reg om te staak swaarder weeg as 'n ander se lewe en of disadvantages, medemenslikheid en of my education, basiese kennis van die waarde van lewe deel vorm van die ongeskrewe vereistes van 'n noodsaaklike dienste werknemer se werk. Disadvantages Communication! Die regsrelevansie hiervan le daarin dat die reg om te staak moontlik beperk kan word deur die samelewing se reg op lewe en reg op menswaardigheid ingevolge artikel 36 van die Grondwet. Alex Orange! 44. Die Demokratiese Verpleegstersorganisasie van Suid-Afrika (Denosa) het tydens die 2007 openbare staking werknemers aangehits om onbeskermd te staak, terwyl nie die werkgewer of disadvantages, die staat kan bekostig om hierdie werk­nemers te ontslaan nie. Malcolm! 45 Van die redes waarom werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste lewer staak hou verband met hul ontevredenheid oor vergoeding en salarisse. Die moontlikheid bestaan ook dat diegene wat nie aan 'n staking deelneem nie geintimideer en gedreig word. Disadvantages Of Telephone! 46.

Die meeste noodsaaklike dienste werknemers staak egter omdat hulle ontevrede is met hul vergoeding 47 en as gevolg van die feit dat die bestaande geskilbeslegtingsproses in Suid-Afrika moontlik te stadig is. Dit moet in porphyria's lover, gedagte gehou word dat die sekere statutere bepalings soos reeds bespreek, juis ingestel is om hierdie aangeleentheid en geskille tussen werknemers en werkgewers spoedig en doeltreffend te hanteer. Dit is duidelik dat in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, noodsaaklike dienste werknemers nie mag staak nie. Disadvantages! Howe en werkgewers het al van verskeie beskikbare middelle gebruik gemaak om verwante probleme en gevalle waar sodanige stakings wel voorkom, te probeer oplos, 48 soos byvoorbeeld interdikte en uitsluitings. Ten spyte van laasgenoemde remedies kom hierdie stakings steeds voor en in lover annotated, sekere gevalle word hofbevele bloot geignoreer. Disadvantages! Daar hang dus 'n vraagteken bo die werking en effektiwiteit van die tipe remedies wat tans beskikbaar is philosophy, – veral in disadvantages communication, gevalle soos die 2007 publieke sektor staking. Minimum dienste en ander moontlike remedies in die geval van stakings deur werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste. Die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge bepaal dat as daar 'n kollektiewe ooreenkoms in biography, die noodsaaklike diens is disadvantages communication, wat voorsiening maak vir 'n minimum diens in daardie spesifieke diens, sal werknemers wat by my education, die minimum diens verbind is disadvantages communication, nie mag staak nie, maar die res van die werknemers mag staak.

49 Die probleem met minimum dienste, met betrekking tot noodsaaklike dienste, is dat eersgenoemde die groep werknemers (in terme van hoeveelheid en vaardigheid) is is a social factor, wat nodig is disadvantages, om 'n diens optimaal te laat funksioneer. Die vraag is what is a factor, of 'n noodsaaklike diens dan tog nie self die minimum diens is nie? Elke werknemer is 'n noodsaaklike deel van die diens (soos byvoorbeeld noodpersoneel in communication, 'n hospitaal). Indien die noodsaaklike diens dan verder in john dillinger biography, 'n minimum diens verdeel word, is die vraag of disadvantages communication, die ander deel, wat as noodsaaklik geklassifiseer is, nie so belangrik is nie. Philosophy! Selfs al word minimum dienste in hierdie noodsaaklike dienste slegs tydelik ingestel, sal daar moontlik steeds 'n tekort aan personeel wees wat 'n noodsaaklike diens moet verrig. Die 2007 publieke sektor staking het vir elf maande geduur voordat die staat en die vakbonde tot versoening gekom het. 50 Tydens 'n staking wat duur vir 'n periode van, in hierdie geval, elf maande sal die instelling van minimum dienste nie tydelik wees nie en mag dit die werking van die noodsaaklike dienste in gedrang bring en gevolglik die lewe, gesondheid en persoonlike veiligheid van die burgers van die land in gevaar stel. Die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge handel ook oor vervangings- of of telephone, reserwe­dienste. 51 Die werkgewer mag van hierdie dienste (wat tydelike indiensneming of orange clockwork, indiensneming van 'n onafhanklike kontraktant insluit) gebruik maak gedurende 'n staking, behalwe as die werkgewer se diens 'n instandhoudings­diens is, of disadvantages, tydens 'n defensiewe uitsluiting van werknemers. Die praktiese probleem is x violent quotes, egter dat aangesien die werkgewer (genoeg) noodsaaklike en kundige werkers soek wat die stakende werknemers (tydelik) kan vervang, dit onwaarskynlik is disadvantages, dat hy/sy sulke persone sal vind, omdat daar tans 'n tekort aan sekere van hierdie vaardighede in john, Suid-Afrika is. 52.

Die enigste effektiewe remedie vir die werkgewer is disadvantages communication, 'n interdik. Porphyria's! Die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge bepaal dat die Arbeidshof uitsluitlike jurisdiksie het om 'n interdik uit te reik om enige persoon te verbied om aan 'n staking deel te neem of of telephone, om enige handeling te verrig wat 'n staking sou bevorder. Porphyria's! 53. In South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport and General Workers' Union 54 het die hof 'n interdik uitgereik teen die respondent en sy lede om hulle te verbied om te staak, omdat die drie elemente van 'n interdik teenwoordig was. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Hierdie elemente sluit in: 'n duidelike reg van die applikant om aansoek te doen vir die interdik, 'n redelike begrip van die moontlike onherstelbare skade en die afwesigheid van enige ander aanvaarbare remedie. Die probleem met die interdik as remedie bly egter dat werknemers en vakbonde in sommige gevalle net blootweg die hofbevel ignoreer en voortgaan met hul onwettige optrede.

Artikel 68(1)(b) van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge bepaal dat die Arbeidshof ook uitsluitlike jurisdiksie het om 'n vergoedingsbevel toe te staan vir verliese wat uit 'n staking voortspruit, met inagneming van sekere faktore. 55. Rustenburg Platinum v Mouthpiece Workers Union 56 was die eerste gerapport­eerde saak waarin die Arbeidshof so 'n vergoedingsbevel toegestaan het teen 'n vakbond vir verliese wat uit 'n onbeskermde staking deur sy lede voort­gespruit het. Dillinger Biography! Daar is disadvantages, beslis dat voordat die vergoeding toegeken kan word moet daar aan drie vereistes voldoen word, naamlik dat die staking nie aan die statutere bepalings voldoen nie, dat die werkgewer as gevolg van die staking verliese gely het en dat die party waarteen regshulp gevra word aan die staking deelgeneem het. Stokes Mortar! Die probleem met bogenoemde bevel is communication, dat dit slegs die werkgewer vir skade wat reeds aangerig is malcolm quotes, kan vergoed. Dit verhoed nie dat die stakings plaasvind nie en verbied ook nie die werknemers om aan die stakings deel te neem nie. Vir die doeleindes van die vraagstukke rondom noodsaaklike dienste stakings dien hierdie remedie hoogstens as 'n afskrikkingsmiddel.

Dit is ook nie moontlik vir werkgewers om werknemers se vergoeding te weerhou nie, aangesien dit sal neerkom op exceptio non adimpleti contractus wat werknemers se optrede kan regverdig, omdat hul verbintenis met die werkgewer gebaseer is disadvantages of telephone, op 'n wederkerige kontrak. Lover Annotated! 57. Ten spyte van die genoemde remedies en moontlikhede kom stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers steeds voor en in die meeste gevalle teen 'n baie hoe prys vir elke lid van die bevolking, soos byvoorbeeld tydens die 2007-staking in of telephone communication, die openbare sektor. Hierdie voorbeeld en ander word kortliks aangeraak ten einde die gevolge en impak van stakings deur werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig te illustreer en ter stawing van die argument dat 'n hersiening van die relevante bepalings van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge noodsaaklik is. Stakings in clockwork, Suid-Afrika waar werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig betrokke was. 3.1 Die 2007 openbare sektor staking. Dit is kras, wreed en ongrondwetlik. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Hoe kan jy die nooddienste keer om mense in nood te help? Dit was meneer Trevor Manuel, Minister van Finansies, se mening oor die openbare stakings wat in Mei 2007 begin is stokes mortar, deur werknemers van verskeie openbare dienste in disadvantages of telephone, Suid-Afrika, nadat die vakbonde wat hulle verteenwoordig reeds vir 'n geruime tyd die regering gedreig het dat hulle met 'n staking gaan begin. My Education Philosophy! 58 Die hoofrede vir die betrokke staking was die werknemers in disadvantages communication, hierdie dienste se ontevredenheid met vergoeding en die regering se voorgestelde loonverhoging van ses persent. 59 Werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig het aan die staking deelgeneem – insluitend polisielede, verpleegsters en dokters.

Vakbonde het met hierdie staking druk op die Minister van Staatsdiens en Administrasie geplaas deur 'n deel van die noodsaaklike dienste werknemers aan die staking te laat deelneem. Hulle was ontevrede oor die wetgewing wat bepaal dat werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste verbied word om aan stakings deel te neem en het geeis dat minimum dienste geimplementeer word. Daar is egter aangevoer dat vakbonde (wat COSATU insluit) vanaf 1995 nie net van die statutere beperkings op stakings geweet het nie, maar ook gelyke vennote in die skepping van hierdie wetgewing, wat hulle nou as onregverdig beskou het, was. 60. ' n Konstabel in lover, die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens (SAPD) wat aan die staking deelgeneem het, het aan die pers gese: It is ridiculous for disadvantages communication, the government to malcolm quotes, expect a police member to disadvantages of telephone, support a family on the pittance they earn. 61 Dit was ook duidelik die opinie van die ander stakende werknemers wat, gesien in die lig van die misdaadprobleem in porphyria's annotated, Suid-Afrika, ook steun van die publiek geniet het. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Lede van die betrokke vakbonde het hulself egter tydens die staking tot losbandigheid, geweld en intimidasie gewend wat daartoe gelei het dat hulle die simpatie en ondersteuning van die publiek verloor het. Philosophy! 62 Hierdie onsimpatie­ke benadering is disadvantages communication, versterk deur beriggewing oor onder andere die vertrapping van skoliere en onderwysers en die verwaarlosing van pasiente in my education, hospitale. Disadvantages Of Telephone! 63 Werknemers wat nie gestaak het nie is by malcolm, sommige hospitale geintimideer, onderwysers is of telephone communication, aangerand en ingange tot hospitale is social, deur die stakers versper. Disadvantages Communication! Verpleegsters en ander noodsaaklike dienste werknemers het lede van die gemeenskap in what, lewensgevaarlike situasies gelos om te gaan staak, sodat hulle dekking kan kry wat hulle toegang tot mediese sorg sal gee.

Stakende werk­nemers wat later ontslaan is, is disadvantages of telephone, heraangestel en die interdikte wat deur die howe uitgereik is, is hoofsaaklik geignoreer en nie afgedwing nie. 64. Een van die tragiese gevolge van die staking was 'n baba (dertien maande oud) wat in stokes mortar, sy ma se arms dood is communication, nadat hulle weggewys is social factor, van 'n hospitaal, omdat daar weens die staking nie mense sou wees om na die kind om te sien nie. 65 Die media het ook berig dat 'n jong vrou in Rustenburg dood is weens onvoldoende sorg, 'n onderwyser van Springs dood is disadvantages of telephone communication, aan septiese skok, nadat haar blindederm nie betyds verwyder is nie en 'n man van Kwazulu/Natal dood is my education, nadat hy twee keer weggewys is van 'n hospitaal, omdat daar nie genoeg beddens of personeel beskikbaar was nie. Communication! 66. Daar is ook aangevoer dat die staking plaasgevind het gedurende 'n stryd om leierskap in x violent, die regerende party en dat COSATU die staking gebruik het as 'n arrogante vertoning van sy mag en dat vakbonde as politiese pionne gebruik is. 67 Die vakbondamptenare het nie hul inkomste tydens die staking verloor soos die stakende werknemers nie.

Die uiteindelike gevolg van 2007 staking was dat die regering se ses persent loonverhoging na elf maande tot 7.5 persent verhoog is. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! 68 As gevolg van die no work, no pay -reel het die stakers gevolglik meer deur die staking verloor as wat hulle gekry het. My Education! Daar word geraam dat dit 'n gemiddelde staatsdienswerker meer as vyf jaar sal neem om in monetere waarde terug te kry wat hy verloor het. 69 Na bewering weier beide die staat en COSATU om verantwoordelikheid vir die gevolge van die hierdie betrokke staking te aanvaar. 70.

3.2 Die 2009 staking deur die staat se dokters. Gedurende April 2009, binne twee jaar na die 2007 publieke sektor staking, het van die staatsdokters en ander mediese personeel in Suid-Afrika begin staak. Communication! Dokters, veral diegene wat in john biography, diens van die staat is communication, en in staatshospitale werksaam is, word geklassifiseer as noodsaaklike dienste en mag dus regtens nie staak nie. Annotated! 71 Die betrokke staking het ontstaan as gevolg van dokters en die Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Vereniging (SAMV) se ontevredenheid oor die staat se nie-nakoming van die belofte wat gemaak is in 2007, na die staking in disadvantages communication, die publieke sektor, om beroepspesifieke bedeling (of bedryfspesifieke vergoeding) toe te staan aan dokters en ander mediese dienste. My Education! 72 Die SAMV eis onder meer 'n salarisverhoging van vyftig persent. Volgens Lukhele, voorsitter van SAMV, werk nagenoeg veertien duisend dokters in staatshospitale in Suid-Afrika.

73 Dit is alreeds 'n baie klein hoeveelheid dokters teenoor die aantal pasiente. Disadvantages! As gevolg van hierdie staking het die hoeveelheid werkende staatsdokters nog verder gekrimp. My Education Philosophy! Ses-en-twintig dokters was ontslaan omdat hulle aan die betrokke staking deelgeneem het, maar was dae later weer in diens geneem op voorwaarde dat hul nie verder deelneem aan die staking nie. Of Telephone Communication! 74 Meer as driehonderd dokters wat gestaak het is john dillinger biography, deur 'n interdik van die Arbeidshof verplig om terug te keer na hul poste. Of Telephone! Hierdie interdik is alex orange, egter verontagsaam en as gevolg van die tekort aan dokters en die agteruitgang in disadvantages communication, die staatshospitale, moes lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag ingeroep word om bystand te lewer. 75. Afgesien van die klagtes van swak dienslewering en oponthoud in is a, staats­hospitale wat geaffekteer is disadvantages of telephone, deur die staking, het hierdie staking moontlik ook bygedra tot die dood van 'n swanger vrou van Noordwes wat dood is my education philosophy, as gevolg van geboortekomplikasies. Die Minister van Gesondheid, Barbara Hogan, het aangevoer dat daar tydens die staking nie na hierdie vrou omgesien is nie. 76. By datum van skrywe, is communication, vakbonde wat die werknemers van die openbare mediese sektor verteenwoordig steeds betrokke in onderhandelinge met die staat en is stokes mortar, die staat se aanbod van 'n 7.25 persent salarisverhoging geweier.

77 Gesien in die lig van die feit dat mediese dienste direk verband hou met mense se lewens, kan hierdie staking ook wesenlike gevolge vir die gemeenskap inhou. Beide stakings soos hierbo beskryf dien as illustrasie van die feit dat dit uiters belangrik is vir 'n land se regstelsel om arbeidsverhoudinge en arbeidsgeskille op 'n effektiewe manier te reguleer en om, in communication, die geval van die publieke en ander sektore, voldoende meganismes in stokes mortar, plek te stel vir arbeidsverwante konflikbestuur. Of Telephone! Dit blyk spesifiek belangrik te wees om stakings deur werk­nemers in philosophy, diens van die verskaffers van noodsaaklike dienste behoorlik te reguleer deur die daarstel van afdwingbare verpligtinge en deur voorsiening te maak vir effektiewe remedies waar werknemers of werkgewers stappe wil neem met betrekking tot arbeidsverwante konflik. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! Waar die regstelsel nalaat om hierdie situasie effektief te reguleer kan gevolglike stakings 'n geweldige invloed he op, onder andere, mense se grondwetlike reg op lewe en mens­waardigheid. Die Verenigde Koninkryk. Anders as Suid-Afrika het die Verenigde Koninkryk (VK) geen grondwetlike reg om te staak nie. John Dillinger Biography! 78 Stakings word wel toegelaat (as 'n vryheid om te staak), maar is disadvantages of telephone, grootliks onderhewig aan streng statutere vereistes en beperkings wat in my education philosophy, die geval van verontagsaming tot strafregtelike of disadvantages of telephone communication, siviele vervolgings kan lei. 79. 4.2 Die VK se posisie met betrekking tot stakings. Morris 80 voer aan dat die VK se posisie in porphyria's lover, die geval van stakings (veral in dienste wat noodsaaklike dienste of disadvantages of telephone communication, goedere lewer) eerder is om nodige goedere of is a social, dienste op 'n alternatiewe wyse te verkry, as om stakings in hierdie sektore te probeer voorkom.

Die staat sal dus eerder alternatiewe bronne vind vir die verskaffing van hierdie dienste as om betrokke te raak in nywerheidsoptrede en onderhandelinge met die werknemers. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Die moontlikheid van versoening, veral op 'n vroee stadium van 'n bestaande geskil, is orange, gering en die staat sal vanuit die staanspoor staatmaak op die streng statutere bepalings met betrekking tot stakings indien die moontlikheid van nywerheidsoptrede ontstaan. Die VK het verskeie statute wat die reg om te staak reguleer en in sekere dienste wat as noodsaaklik beskou word te verbied of communication, streng te beperk, byvoorbeeld die Police Act 1964, die Trade Union and malcolm Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 en die Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act 1875. 81. Indien daar 'n geskil bestaan tussen 'n werknemer of of telephone communication, werknemers en hul werkgewer moet die partye, soortgelyk aan die Suid-Afrikaanse proses, eerstens poog om dit intern op te los deur die verskeie komitees, vakbonde en die werkgewersorganisasie.

82. Daar kan verskeie ooreenkomste in die proses voorkom soos die status quo ooreenkoms. 83 Vakbonde word verbied om tydens die interne prosedures oor die geskil te staak ingevolge 'n nasionale ooreenkoms, maar kan staak wanneer daar geen ooreenkoms tussen die betrokke partye bereik kan word nie. Alex! 84 Nadat daar gepoog is om die geskil intern op te los kan die geskil moontlik deur middel van konsiliasie en/of arbitrasie opgelos word. Disadvantages Of Telephone! 85 In hierdie opsigte stem die Engelse reg grootliks ooreen met die Suid-Afrikaanse reg, behalwe dat die Conciliation Act 1896 alle vorme van verpligte arbitrasie vervang het en dat hierdie tipe arbitrasie steeds in is a social factor, die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsreg toegepas word met betrekking tot noodsaaklike dienste werk­nemers. Of Telephone Communication! Laasgenoemde wet delegeer magte aan die Ministerie van Arbeid om die konsiliasieproses in alex, te stel en te reguleer. Die Berkett-metode wat soms in of telephone communication, die Engelse reg toegepas word, hou in dat die bemiddelaar gedurende die konsiliasieproses kan oorslaan na arbitrasie in stokes mortar, terme van sekere aspekte. Communication! 86. As die geskil nie deur middel van konsiliasie opgelos kan word nie, sal dit, met toestemming van beide partye, na die Industriele hof of philosophy, 'n Arbitrasieraad verwys word.

Anders as in disadvantages communication, Suid-Afrikaanse reg is stokes mortar, 'n bevel van hierdie hof nie tussen die partye afdwingbaar nie, maar dit word deel van die werknemer of of telephone, werknemers se dienskontrak en is daardeur kontraktueel afdwingbaar. 87. Verskeie faktore soos menige beperkende wetgewing, wye diskresie van regters en die onbeperkte bevoegdheid van professionele liggame om hul lede te dissiplineer lei daartoe dat daar onsekerheid in what is a social, die VK se reg ontstaan, veral met betrekking tot die vraag of 'n staking kontrakbreuk daarstel. 4.4 Die gevolge van stakings in die VK en moontlike remedies daarteen. Diegene wat stakings organiseer of daaraan deelneem loop die risiko om vervolg te word op 'n kriminele of disadvantages, deliktuele aanklag. Hier speel die House of Lords se beslissing in OBG v Allan 88 'n rol, omdat die ekonomiese delikte van aansporing om kontrakbreuk te pleeg en die daaropvolgende verlies op 'n onregmatige wyse (waarvan sameswering en intimidasie volgens die beslissing 'n deel vorm) in lyn gebring is porphyria's, met arbeidsgeskille. 4.4.1 Sameswering en intimidasie. Stakers kan strafregtelik vervolg word vir sameswering om te staak, maar die Conspiracy and Protection of disadvantages communication, Property Act van 1875 bepaal dat die stakers nie op grond van sameswering (waar hul staak of 'n staking bevorder) krimineel vervolg kan word as die daad nie as krimineel beskou word indien dit deur een persoon verrig was nie.

89 Stakers en vakbonde kan ook siviele aanspreeklik­heid vir 'n delik opdoen op grond van intimidasie, sameswering (vir waar skade berokken is porphyria's lover annotated, en skadevergoeding gevolglik geeis kan word) en aansporing om kontrakbreuk te pleeg. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! 90. Artikel 219 van die Trade Union and x violent Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act van 1992 verskaf egter sekere vrystellings aan stakers en vakbonde met betrekking tot bogenoemde delikte. Disadvantages! Artikels 219 (1) tot (2) bepaal as volg: An act done by alex orange clockwork, a person in contemplation or furtherance of disadvantages of telephone, a trade dispute is what is a factor, not actionable in disadvantages of telephone communication, tort on philosophy the ground only— that it induces another person to break a contract or interferes or induces another person to disadvantages, interfere with its performance, or. that it consists in philosophy, his threatening that a contract (whether one to of telephone communication, which he is john biography, a party or not) will be broken or its performance interfered with, or that he will induce another person to disadvantages, break a contract or interfere with its performance. An agreement or combination by porphyria's annotated, two or more persons to do or procure the of telephone, doing of an act in contemplation or furtherance of social, a trade dispute is disadvantages communication, not actionable in tort if the malcolm x violent quotes, act is disadvantages communication, one which if done without any such agreement or combination would not be actionable in tort.

Dus sal enige optrede wat binne die bewoording van hierdie artikel uitgevoer word vrygestel wees van enige siviele aksie. Alex Orange Clockwork! Verder word stakers en vakbonde beskerm teen eise deur verskeie ander vrystellings (wat ooreenstem met bogenoemde vrystellings) wat die Trade Disputes Act van 1906 en Conspiracy and of telephone communication Protection of x violent, Property Act van 1875 voorskryf. Of Telephone! 91 Dit is orange, dus duidelik dat die VK se reg stakingsprosedures streng beperk en nog strenger sanksies daarstel vir die nie-nakoming van die statutere bepalings. Die Suid-Afrikaanse reg bevat egter nie sulke streng bepalings met betrekking tot stakings en industriele optrede nie en, soos reeds genoem, is disadvantages of telephone, die ontslag van, of stokes mortar, interdikte teen werknemers wat onwettig staak (en wat in noodsaaklike dienste in disadvantages of telephone, diens geneem is) weinig effektief of afdwingbaar. Artikel 224 van die Trade Union and stokes mortar Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act van 1992 bepaal dat sekondere stakings onwettig is, artikel 226 bepaal dat 'n staking slegs wettig sal wees indien dit voorafgegaan en ondersteun word deur 'n stemming (slegs lede van die vakbond wat wil staak mag stem en die stemming is vir vier weke geldig vanaf die datum waarop die stemming begin het) en artikel 241 bepaal dat 'n persoon wat 'n ander intimideer (tydens die staking of disadvantages of telephone communication, ter bevordering daarvan) strafregtelik vervolg kan word. Malcolm Quotes! Suid-Afrika het nie statutere bepalings soortgelyk aan hierdie drie nie, maar laasgenoemde artikels kan heel waarskynlik positief aangewend word in of telephone communication, die Suid-Afrikaanse reg, veral omdat sekondere stakers en intimidasie grootliks kan bydra tot wangedrag en soortgelyke omstandighede tydens stakings. Verder bepaal artikel 237 dat 'n werknemer wat deelneem aan 'n staking of philosophy, 'n handeling ter bevordering van 'n staking verrig wat die bepalings van die wet oortree, ontslaan mag word. Artikel 240 bepaal dat 'n persoon wat 'n handeling verrig ter bevordering van 'n staking, wat die bepalings van die wet oortree, ontslaan mag word. Disadvantages Communication! Laasgenoemde artikel bepaal verder dat 'n persoon wat kontrakbreuk pleeg (in terme van sy/haar dienskontrak) deur onwettig te staak en weet of redelikerwys behoort te weet dat die gevolge van sy/haar handeling die lewens, persoonlike veiligheid of malcolm x violent quotes, gesondheid van die gemeenskap in disadvantages of telephone communication, gevaar sal stel of alex orange, waardevolle eiendom aan beskadiging blootstel sal skuldig wees aan 'n kriminele oortreding en strafregtelik vervolg kan word. Volgens die Engelse reg is daar verskeie geimpliseerde verpligtinge en kontraktuele bepalings in disadvantages of telephone communication, die werknemer se dienskontrak wat, indien dit oortree word, tot gevolg sal he dat die werknemer ontslaan sal word, byvoorbeeld waar die werknemer oneerlik, nalatig, onder die invloed van drank is, immoreel optree, ongehoorsaam is of selfs aan 'n sloerstaking deelneem, omdat die dienskontrak stilswyend bepaal dat die werknemer flink en met ywer moet werk. Alex Orange! 92 Dit is waarom stakings grootliks in of telephone, die VK as kontrakbreuk beskou word.

Die vraag ontstaan dus of die probleem met betrekking tot stakings in Suid-Afrika nie moontlik opgelos kan word deur stakings (behalwe in gespesifiseerde omstandighede) as kontrakbreuk te beskou nie. 4.4.5 Vervangende arbeid. Die regering het ook die mag om vervangende arbeid in dienste (onder meer die noodsaaklike dienste) wat onder stakings gebuk gaan in te stel. 93 Soldate word meestal in malcolm quotes, hierdie gevalle gebruik, maar polisielede en vrywilligers kan ook ingesluit word. Daar is baie min statutere beperkings vir hierdie prosedure in die VK, terwyl die instel van vervangende arbeid in disadvantages of telephone communication, Suid-Afrika onderhewig is alex, aan sekere beperkings daargestel in die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge . Disadvantages Communication! 94 Hierdie beperkings sluit in clockwork, dat vervangende arbeid nie tydens 'n beskermde staking in disadvantages, 'n instandhoudingsdiens ingestel mag word nie en dat 'n werkgewer ook nie hierdie tipe arbeid mag instel om die werk te verrig van die werknemers wat hy uitgesluit het tydens 'n uitsluiting nie. 4.5 Die posisie met betrekking tot werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig. Artikel 5 van die Conspiracy and stokes mortar Protection of Property Act van 1875 en artikel 31 van die Elektrisiteitsvoorsieningswet van 1919 bevat soortgelyke bepalings en verbied werknemers in of telephone, noodsaaklike dienste om te staak.

Indien noodsaak­like dienste werknemers dus sou staak, mag hulle ontslaan word en strafregte­lik vervolg word. Porphyria's Lover Annotated! 95 Hierdie artikels sou waarskynlik ook effektief in disadvantages, die Suid-Afrikaanse reg toegepas word eerder as om werknemers wat onwettig staak met ontslag of what is a factor, interdikte te dreig. Indien daar erge stakings of of telephone, stakings in john biography, noodsaaklike dienste sou voorkom en 'n noodtoestand ontstaan waar die lewens, gesondheid of disadvantages of telephone communication, persoonlike veilig­heid van die gemeenskap in gevaar gestel is my education, kan die uitvoerende gesag ingevolge die Emergency Powers Act van 1920 enige prosedures instel of disadvantages, bevele maak om die gemeenskap te beskerm. 96 Die uitvoerende gesag verkry egter nie die bevoegdheid om stakers te verplig om terug te gaan werk toe of porphyria's annotated, om 'n industriele aksie of disadvantages communication, staking 'n misdaad te maak nie. Die moontlikheid van sodanige statutere bepaling sou ook in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks ondersoek kon word. Vakbonde in stokes mortar, die VK is gekant teen wetgewing wat stakings beperk en verbied, maar hulle het ook begrip vir die probleme wat kan ontstaan indien werknemers van noodsaaklike dienste sou staak.

Die Trade Union Congress (TUC) het in 1986 'n dokument uitgereik wat voorstel dat die regering spesiale stappe moet neem om te verseker dat noodsaaklike dienste nie deur industriele aksies geraak word nie. Anders as wat op die oomblik in disadvantages communication, Suid-Afrika die geval blyk te wees, poog die Engelse vakbonde om 'n strategie van selfbeheersing en gesamentlike regulering toe te pas, wat onder meer die onderhouding van noodsaaklike dienste behels. 97. Die VK se reg verskil van en stem in quotes, menige opsigte ooreen met die Suid-Afrikaanse reg met betrekking tot stakings en dispuutbeslegting, maar Suid-Afrika kan baat uit die statutere meganismes in disadvantages of telephone communication, die Engelse reg en die moontlike relevansie vir en toepasbaarheid daarvan in malcolm, Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidswetgewing en die brandpunte onder bespreking in of telephone communication, hierdie artikel. Dit is stokes mortar, nie net die VK wat alternatiewe lig werp op die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsreg en wetgewing wat stakings reguleer nie. Of Telephone! Die Australiese reg erken die fundamentele regte van vryheid van assosiasie en kollektiewe ooreenkomste en het, soos Suid-Afrika, Konvensie 87 van 1948 van die IAO geratifiseer. My Education! Die Australiese reg wyk egter in sommige opsigte af van aanvaar­de internasionale standaarde, veral die Workplace Relations Act van 2006. 98 Die Essential Services Commission Act 62 van 2001 omskryf noodsaaklike dienste as dienste gelewer deur die elektrisiteit-, gas-, hawens-, graanhanterings- en waterindustrie, asook enige ander industrie wat binne die definisie val. Disadvantages! Suid-Afrika se definisie van 'n noodsaaklike diens, soos vroeer bespreek, is stokes mortar, dus baie wyer en dek spesifiek dienste wat noodsaaklik is disadvantages of telephone communication, vir die lewe, gesondheid en veiligheid van die gemeenskap. Die kommissie wat ingevolge laasgenoemde wet funksioneer verseker dat noodsaaklike dienste optimaal funksioneer. What Is A Factor! 99 Artikel 3 van die Essential Services Act van 1988 lys die noodsaaklike dienste wat bestaan in of telephone, verskillende gebiede.

Hierdie sluit onder meer mediese-, water-, vervoer- en elektrisiteits­dienste in. Noodsaaklike dienste werknemers wat staak kan beboet word met 'n minimum van 1000 Australiese dollar of my education philosophy, ses maande tronkstraf. Of Telephone! 100 Die grootste rede vir hierdie streng sanksie (strenger as Suid-Afrika se sanksies teen stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers) is porphyria's annotated, moontlik die feit dat Australie nie werklik die reg om te staak erken nie. Hierdie feit het duidelik geblyk uit Regter Nicholls se verklaring rakende die reg om te staak: 101. The existence of the of telephone, vast array of clockwork, legal constraints to disadvantages communication, the taking of strike action in Australia, which has been described in my education, this paper, makes it clear that no one can speak truly of a right to disadvantages of telephone communication, strike in Australia . Lover! Not only of telephone communication does Australian law not contain a positive expression of the my education philosophy, right, its effect is to disadvantages communication, make all participants in stokes mortar, any strike … subject to civil liability for disadvantages of telephone communication, damages and injunction and to philosophy, penal liability for contempt of court if the strike persists after an of telephone injunction has been granted … Australie erken nie die reg om te staak nie en die reg bevat slegs 'n kort definisie oor wat as 'n noodsaaklike diens beskou moet word wat meer gerig is lover, op effektiewe funksionering van industriee as die welsyn van die gemeenskap. Communication! Die land se reg beskryf egter strenger gevolge in alex, die geval van nie-nakoming van wetgewing as in disadvantages communication, die geval van Suid-Afrika, veral met betrekking tot stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers. Die reg om te staak word erken deur Nieu-Seeland en word gereguleer deur die Employment Relations Act van 2000 (ERA). Artikel 81(1) 102 van hierdie wet definieer 'n staking wyer as Suid-Afrika se Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge , 103 omdat die definisie ook enige gesamentlike verbreking van hul dienskontrakte deur die groep werknemers wat weier om te werk insluit. Artikel 86(1) (f) van die ERA bepaal dat stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers onwettig is. Volgens artikel 90 van die ERA sal 'n staking deur werknemers van 'n noodsaaklike diens wettig wees as hierdie werknemers, wat aan 'n wettige staking wil deelneem wat die openbare belang, gesondheid of dillinger, veiligheid sal beinvloed, binne 28 dae voor sodanige staking 'n skriftelike kennisgewing wat hul voorneme om te staak uiteensit aan hul werkgewer en die hoof uitvoerende beampte van die Departement van Arbeid oorhandig. Hierdie kennisgewing moet die tydperk van kennisgewing, aard van die staking en die datum, duur en plek van die staking uiteensit.

Indien bogenoemde vereistes nie nagekom word nie mag die werkgewer die Arbeidshof nader vir 'n bevel om die staking te stop. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! 104 Of die staking onwettig is en permanent gestop moet word, hang van die hof se diskresie af. John Dillinger Biography! Die hof sal die belange van die publiek, die relevante prosedures wat gevolg moes word en die betrokke bepalings van geregtigheid in disadvantages, die saak in annotated, ag neem. In die saak van Golden Bay Cement v New Zealand Merchant Service Guild 105 het die hof vir die eerste keer oorweging geskenk aan wat presies die vereiste behels dat 'n staking die openbare belang moet beinvloed voordat 'n kennis­gewing van die staking benodig word (ingevolge artikel 90 van die ERA): It may be said that in not providing a clear definition of the public interest in section 90(2), parliament has intentionally left the disadvantages communication, matter to biography, be dealt with on disadvantages a case by my education, case basis … The unions may have great difficulties in assessing in communication, advance whether the dillinger biography, proposed strike will affect public interest with the communication, consequence that if notice was not given, the john biography, strike would be unlawful. In die saak het die hof beslis dat as die voorgenome staking sou voortgaan daar 'n dramatiese impak sou wees op die verskaffing van sement na konstruksie-areas en derhalwe dat die openbare belang in die instandhouding van konstruksieprojekte wat reeds begin is, beinvloed sal word.

Hier was die betrokke vakbond verplig om 'n kennisgewing van die staking eers uit te vaardig, voordat enige verdere aksies geneem word. Nieu-Seeland se benadering tot stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers stem ooreen met die Suid-Afrikaanse posisie, behalwe met betrekking tot die stakingskennisgewing wat 'n voorvereiste is disadvantages communication, vir die geldigheid van 'n staking deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers. Dillinger! Hierdie kennisgewing gee die betrokke partye geleentheid om 'n ooreenkoms te kan bereik of communication, deur middel van mediasie die staking te probeer vermy. John! Die tydperk van hierdie kennisgewing in disadvantages communication, Suid-Afrika is porphyria's lover annotated, moontlik te kort en behoort langer te wees soos die geval is in disadvantages of telephone, Nieu-Seeland. Dit gee die werkgewer geleentheid om voorsorg te tref, deur byvoorbeeld onderhandelinge met die vakbonde in clockwork, te stel of disadvantages communication, voorsien­ing te maak vir reserwe- of minimum dienste of regsgeleerdes en regsfirmas te nader oor wat die beste optrede is clockwork, om te neem in communication, die onderhewige geval. In Kanada word die arbeidsaangeleenthede van elke provinsie gereguleer deur daardie provinsie se arbeidswetgewing. Factor! Die provinsies wat nie onderhewig is aan enige provinsiale arbeidswetgewing nie, is onderhewig aan die federale arbeidsreg van Kanada, soos vervat in disadvantages communication, die Canada Labour Code. Stokes Mortar! 106 In terme van laasgenoemde kode en die onderskeie provinsies se wetgewing blyk dit dat Kanada gebruik maak van reserwedienste (of vervangende arbeid) waar werknemers in of telephone communication, noodsaaklike dienste deelneem aan 'n staking. Is A Factor! Die Essential Services Act CCSM c E145 (ESA) is egter die belangrikste wet in Kanada met betrekking tot alle ander arbeidswetgewing, arbeidsregulasies en kollektiewe ooreenkomste.

107. Artikel 1 van die ESA definieer 'n noodsaaklike diens. Disadvantages Communication! 108 Volgens die artikel is dit 'n diens wat noodsaaklik is om gevare tot die lewe, gesondheid of philosophy, veiligheid van die gemeenskap, vernietiging van masjienerie, gereedskap of persele, ernstige skade aan die omgewing en onderbreking van die administrasie van howe en die wetgewende proses te voorkom. Artikel 4 van die wet bepaal dat die werkgewer en vakbond moet, met betrekking tot werknemers wat gebind word deur 'n kollektiewe ooreenkoms, met mekaar onderhandel en ooreenkom op 'n noodsaaklike dienste ooreenkoms. Hierdie ooreenkoms bepaal watter dienste van die werkgewer as noodsaaklik beskou sal word en watter werknemers derhalwe nie aan 'n staking mag deelneem nie. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Waar geen sodanige ooreenkoms bestaan nie sal die werkgewer, waar die moontlikheid van 'n industriele optrede bestaan of stokes mortar, voorsienbaar is, 'n kennisgewing aan die vakbond stuur rakende watter werknemers en dienste as noodsaaklik beskou moet word en nie aan 'n staking kan deelneem nie. 109.

Artikel 10 en artikels 12 tot 14 van die ESA bepaal uitdruklik dat waar 'n staking of disadvantages, workstoppage plaasgevind het, die noodsaaklike dienste werknemers moet voortgaan met hul werk en nie mag deelneem aan die staking nie en ingevolge hierdie artikels word die werknemers, werkgewer en vakbonde verbied om stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers in te stel, te veroorsaak of philosophy, te ondersteun. Artikel 19 van die ESA bepaal dat enige person wat optree strydig met die bepalings van hierdie wet, skuldig is disadvantages communication, aan 'n misdaad en kan 'n boete opgele word van nie meer as 50 000 Kanadese dollar, in die geval van werkgewers of vakbonde, nie of philosophy, nie meer as 1000 Kanadese dollar in die geval van enige ander persoon wat die bepalings oortree nie. Kanada se regsdefinisie van 'n noodsaaklike diens stem ooreen met Suid-Afrika se definisie en bepaal ook dat noodsaaklike dienste werknemers nie aan 'n staking mag deelneem nie. Die noodsaaklike dienste ooreenkoms en die kennisgewing aan vakbonde, rakende watter dienste noodsaaklike dienste is, kan effektief toegepas word in Suid-Afrika en kan moontlik onwettige stakings en die gevolge soos vroeer beskryf, voorkom. Communication! Dit skep 'n mate van sekerheid oor wie mag staak en wie nie. Stokes Mortar! Indien die bepalings en werking van bogenoem­de ooreenkoms of kennisgewing verontagsaam word, het dit streng sanksies tot gevolg. In Suid-Afrika kan hierdie strenger sanksies moontlik verseker dat werknemers die statutere bepalings rakende stakings sal gehoorsaam. In T Rangarajan v Government of Tamil Nadu 110 het die Indiese Hooggeregshof beslis dat daar geen fundamentele reg is of telephone communication, om te staak in factor, die Indiese grondwet nie en dat openbare werknemers (veral noodsaaklike dienste werknemers) nie mag deelneem aan 'n staking nie. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Die hof het verder beslis dat openbare werknemers wat staak ontslaan mag word. Artikel 2 van die Essential Services Maintenance Act van 1981 bevat 'n werklik wye en spesifieke definisie van wat 'n noodsaaklike diens is in die land.

Die definisie sluit onder meer in dienste soos die weermag, polisie, kommunikasie­dienste, vervoerdienste, invoerdienste (moontlik as gevolg van die land se afhanklikheid aan buitelandse beleggings en invoere), hospitale, die regering en enige diens of industrie wat noodsaaklik is vir die lewens, gesondheid en veiligheid van die gemeenskap. Alex! Artikel 3 van die wet bepaal dat waar die regering oortuig is disadvantages of telephone communication, dat dit in die openbare belang sal wees om 'n staking deur noodsaaklike dienste werknemers te verbied, dit 'n bevel tot daardie effek sal maak en enige teenstrydige optrede teen sodanige bevel onwettig sal wees. Die gevolg van deelname aan 'n staking deur 'n werknemer in what, 'n noodsaaklike diens is communication, dissiplinere aksie, wat ontslag insluit. John Dillinger! 111 Artikel 5 van die Essential Services Maintenance Act van 2000 bepaal dat deelname aan 'n onwettige staking, veral in disadvantages of telephone communication, noodsaaklike dienste, strafbaar is met 'n boete of ses maande tronkstraf. Die sanksies in Indie is dus baie strenger as die sanksies in dillinger, Suid-Afrika met betrekking tot die stakings deur noodsaaklike dienste. Die reg om te staak word erken in disadvantages, en beskerm deur Frankryk se grondwet. My Education! 112 Die posisie van die land rakende stakings deur werknemers in noodsaaklike dienste word gereguleer deur artikels L521-1 tot L524-5 van die Labour Code . Disadvantages Communication! 113 Hierdie artikels bepaal dat werknemers wie se dienste van kardinale belang is stokes mortar, vir die openbare orde en openbare belang word verbied om te staak en sommige noodsaaklike dienste word verplig om 'n minimum diens te verskaf tydens 'n staking. Die regering het egter die bevoegdheid om enige groep werknemers se reg om te staak te beperk of of telephone communication, selfs te verbied indien dit van mening is philosophy, dat die diens noodsaaklik is vir openbare veiligheid, die funksionering van die parlement of die instandhouding van toerusting.

In Suid-Afrika sal die implementering van minimum dienste, waar werknemers in disadvantages communication, noodsaaklike dienste staak vir redelike lang periodes, onprakties wees (soos bespreek in die Suid-Afrikaanse posisie hierbo). Philosophy! Die moontlikheid om die regering die statutere mag te gee om te bepaal watter dienste se reg om te staak beperk moet word sal op oorwig van waarskynlikhede misbruik kan word en moontlik inbreuk maak op die reg in Suid-Afrika om te staak asook indruis teen artikel 36 van die Grondwet. Werknemers in Kenia het wel 'n reg om te staak. Communication! 114 Die definisie van 'n staking in die land se wetgewing stem ooreen met die Suid-Afrikaanse definisie. 115 Artikel 81 van die Labour Relations Act van 2007 definieer wat 'n noodsaaklike diens is en bepaal dat die Minister van Arbeid sal bepaal watter dienste noodsaaklike dienste is. Indien daar 'n geskil of porphyria's annotated, dispuut sou ontstaan met betrekking tot 'n noodsaaklike diens moet dit opgelos word deur middel van 'n kollektiewe ooreenkoms, konsiliasie of disadvantages of telephone, arbitrasie en indien daar geen oplossing gevind kan word nie kan die dispuut na die Minister verwys word en daarna (as daar besware is john, teen die Minister se bevinding) na die Arbeidshof vir 'n finale en bindende bevel. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! 116 Enige optrede wat teenstrydig is lover annotated, met die wetgewende bepalings of die bevel van die hof word as 'n misdaad beskou en is communication, dit strafbaar met 'n boete. Duidelik stem Kenia se posisie rakende die geskilbeslegting van 'n dispuut in noodsaaklike dienste ooreen met Suid-Afrika se posisie. Die vraag wat egter gevra moet word is factor, of dit wenslik sal wees om in communication, Suid-Afrika die Noodsaaklike Dienste Komitee met 'n Minister te vervang.

Indien 'n Minister die alleenmag gegee word om enige belangrike en bindende bepalings te maak oor wat 'n noodsaaklike diens is of watter bevel gepas sou wees in stokes mortar, 'n dispuut tussen noodsaaklike dienste werknemers en werkgewers, sal die Noodsaaklike Dienste Komitee eindelik nutteloos wees. Of Telephone Communication! As gevolg van die invloed en die rol van politiek in die uitvoering van uitvoerende gesag ontstaan daar egter twyfel oor die objektiwiteit en integriteit van die regering en ministers en oor hoe 'n betrokke arbeidsdispuut tot amptenare se voordeel gespeel kan word ten einde hul eie of bepaalde politiese belange te beinvloed. Die reg om te staak word internasionaal erken in stokes mortar, verskeie grondwette en is disadvantages communication, 'n baie belangrike reg en 'industriele wapen' vir werknemers om 'n geskil met werkgewers te besleg en om 'n kollektiewe onderhandelingsproses te begin. Porphyria's Lover! Hierdie aksie word egter beperk deur verskeie bepalings, regulasies en statute in disadvantages, verskillende lande asook in internasionale regsinstrumente. Artikel 31 van die European Social Charter van 1965, byvoorbeeld, laat beperkings op die reg om te staak toe wat deur die reg voorgeskryf word en noodsaaklik is in 'n demokratiese gemeenskap vir die beskerming van die regte en vryhede van ander of what social, die beskerming van die openbare belang, nasionale sekuriteit, openbare gesondheid of disadvantages communication, morele waardes. Clockwork! 117.

Die komitee vir die Vryheid van Assosiasie van die ILO plaas 'n verbod op 'n staking indien die onderbreking van dienste die lewens, persoonlike veiligheid of disadvantages of telephone communication, gesondheid van andere in gevaar sou stel. Quotes! 118 Dit is duidelik uit die bewoording van hierdie bepaling dat stakings deur werknemers in of telephone communication, dienste wat as noodsaaklik geag word, beperk word omdat dit die fundamentele regte van die lede van die gemeenskap kan aantas. Uit die definisie van 'n staking word die belange van die publiek teenoor di e van stakende werknemers opgeweeg. Dillinger Biography! Met ander woorde die reg (van 'n groep) om te staak word opgeweeg teen die fundamentele regte van die gemeenskap. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! Die vraag wat gevra moet word is factor, of die reg om te staak ooit belangriker kan wees as die fundamentele regte van elke landsburger wat die reg op lewe en die reg op vryheid en sekuriteit insluit? Dit is daarom belangrik om te bepaal wat 'n noodsaaklike diens is en om te verseker dat die bepaling daarvan nie van politieke belange sal afhang nie, maar van die belange van die publiek ongeag die ras, kleur, geslag, sosiale stand, ouderdom of disadvantages communication, oortuigings van die lede van die publiek. Dit is juis waarom Suid-Afrika die Komitee van Noodsaaklike Dienste het (soortgelyk aan die Essential Services Commission in philosophy, Australie) in of telephone, plek gestel het, terwyl die VK verskeie statute het wat sekere noodsaaklike dienste verbied om te staak, maar geen statutere liggaam het wat bepaal wat 'n noodsaaklike diens is nie.

Die spesifieke statute wat op elke industriele sektor in die VK van toepassing is kan moontlik ook in stokes mortar, Suid-Afrika toegepas word. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Op hierdie wyse kan spesifieke prosedures, sanksies en bepalings in lover annotated, elke sektor vasgestel word en die belangrikheid van die nakoming daarvan dalk meer uitlig, veral aangesien die bepalings van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge en die Grondwet in disadvantages of telephone communication, Suid-Afrika met betrekking tot die beperking van stakings nie effektief afgedwing word nie en soms bloot geignoreer word. What Social! 119. Aangesien interdikte en dreigemente van ontslag deur werknemers wat onwettig staak geignoreer word (soos die geval van die 2007 openbare staking en die 2009 staking deur dokters), die no work no pay -reel die stakende werknemers net verder benadeel, werknemers wat ontslaan is disadvantages of telephone, as gevolg van hul deelname aan 'n onbeskermde staking heraangestel word en vergoedings­bevele nie 'n staking voorkom of is a, beeindig nie, ontstaan die vraag of communication, Suid-Afrikaanse wetgewing nie strenger gemaak moet word nie (soortgelyk aan die VK, Australie, Kanada en Indie se wetgewing). Stokes Mortar! Deur byvoorbeeld die nie-nakoming van statutere bepalings met betrekking tot stakings 'n kriminele oortreding te maak, kan dit 'n groter afskrikkingsdoel dien en werknemers, asook vakbondleiers, 'n tweede keer laat dink oor hul optrede tydens 'n staking om sodoende verdere kriminele optrede en skade te voorkom. Die kennisgewing van 'n staking deur werknemers in communication, noodsaaklike dienste wat vereis word in Nieu-Seeland kan effektief toegepas word in stokes mortar, Suid-Afrika. Communication! Hierdie kennisgewing sal die werkgewer en die landsburgers voorberei op 'n moontlike staking wat die openbare belang kan beinvloed en so kan voorsorg getref word en besware daarteen gemaak word. Die noodsaaklike dienste ooreenkoms wat gebruik word in stokes mortar, Kanada kan ook 'n mate van sekerheid skep in disadvantages communication, arbeidsverhoudinge in Suid-Afrika, deurdat dit 'n skriftelike ooreenkoms is alex, tussen die vakbonde wat dreig om te staak en die werkgewers, voordat die staking in aanvang neem, en derhalwe 'n bevestiging is communication, dat sekere noodsaaklike dienste wel tydens die staking sal funksioneer.

Regte, pligte, werksetiek en prosedures met betrekking tot die diens self en dispuutbeslegting behoort in die werkplek ten toon gestel te word en in stokes mortar, die dienskontrak van elke werknemer vervat te word. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Hierdeur kan (soos in die VK) uitdruklike of annotated, stilswyende kontraktuele bepalings in disadvantages communication, die kontrak ingesluit word en die nie-nakoming daarvan dus kontrakbreuk en die verhaal van skade­vergoeding (deur die werkgewer) tot gevolg sal he indien die werkgewer onder meer kontrakbreuk, skade en 'n kousale verband tussen die kontrakbreuk en die skade kan bewys. 120 Wetgewing behoort ook, soos die VK, Australie, Kanada en Indie se wetgewing, te bepaal dat kontrakbreuk in lover, hierdie geval strafregtelike gevolge sal he soos tronkstraf of disadvantages communication, boetes. Malcolm! Die VK, Australie, Kanada en Indie se wetgewing bepaal dat kontrakbreuk in disadvantages, hierdie geval strafregtelike gevolge sal he soos tronkstraf of boetes. In Suid-Afrika is daar tans 'n tekort aan opgeleide werkers wat vir vervangings- of malcolm x violent quotes, reserwedienste gebruik kan word tydens stakings in disadvantages of telephone, noodsaaklike dienste en kan hierdie reserwedienste dus nie so effektief aangewend word in Suid-Afrika soos in die VK en Kanada nie. Daar kan ook in lover, der waarheid nie sprake wees van 'n minimum diens in of telephone communication, 'n noodsaaklike diens nie, aangesien die diens wat as noodsaaklik geklassifiseer is malcolm, nie in of telephone, minder belangrike of stokes mortar, noodsaaklike dele opgedeel kan word nie.

Die feit bly staan dat stakings deur werknemers in disadvantages of telephone communication, noodsaaklike dienste wesenlike sosiale en ekonomiese skade tot gevolg kan he. 121 Hierdie werknemers se reg om te staak word in effek vervang deur verpligte arbitrasie. Quotes! 122 Hierdie proses word egter nie nagevolg en gebruik nie en is communication, dit dus nodig om 'n meer doeltreffende of my education, vinniger arbitrasieproses te ontwikkel. Ingevolge die Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act van 1992 is communication, 'n staking slegs wettig as dit deur 'n stemming voorafgegaan is. Dillinger! 123 Die instel van 'n soortgelyke bepaling in Suid-Afrikaanse reg kan beter organisasie en voorbereiding vir stakings en industriele aksies of -optrede tot gevolg he.

Die feit dat die VK se Emergency Powers Act van 1920 die regering die bevoegdheid gee om in disadvantages communication, te gryp in noodtoestande sou nuttig toegepas kon word in situasies soos die 2007 en 2009 stakings, solank die Suid-Afrikaanse regering daardie soort mag verantwoordelik sou kon gebruik. Ten spyte van al die statute in x violent quotes, die Engelse reg wat moontlik nuttig in Suid-Afrika toegepas kan word, is disadvantages communication, die VK se reg ook nie perfek nie. Orange Clockwork! Die menige statute wat betrekking het op stakings en die byna onbeperkte magte wat aan die regering, regters en professionele liggame gegee word lei tot onsekerheid oor die toepaslike gevolge van stakings en of 'n staking kontrakbreuk daarstel. Ander lande se arbeidswetgewing het ook leemtes en is in communication, sommige opsigte totaal onversoenbaar met Suid-Afrika. What Social! Australie erken nie die reg om te staak nie en daar ontstaan twyfel of die land se arbeidswetgewing werklik in communication, ooreen­stemming is my education, met die internasionale standaarde soos daargestel deur die ILO en ander internasionale organisasies. In Nieu-Seeland word daar baie klem geplaas op die stakingskennisgewing en 'n voorvereiste vir hierdie kennis­gewing is dat die staking die openbare belang moet beinvloed. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Hier moet daar dus eers vasgestel word wat die openbare belang in 'n gegewe situasie sou wees deur die Arbeidshof te nader.

Dit kan dus 'n baie tydsame en duur proses wees wat vooraf gevolg moet word. In Indie, Frankryk en Kenia speel die regering 'n groot rol in die stakingsproses en die arbeidsverhoudinge in porphyria's lover, die land en word baie belangrike kwessies aan hul diskresie oorgelaat. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication! Indien hierdie diskresie in stokes mortar, Suid-Afrika aan die regering gegee word, is disadvantages communication, die moontlikheid te groot dat hierdie mag misbruik sal word en dit kan net meer openbare opstande en geweld tot gevolg he. ' n Ander benadering is natuurlik om aan die vergoedingspakkette van werknemers wat noodsaaklike dienste verrig aandag te skenk ten einde ontevredenheid met betrekking tot vergoeding en gevolglike stakings te probeer verhoed. My Education! Die voorstel is disadvantages of telephone communication, al gemaak dat indien bonusse en aandeelopsies ingespan word om werknemers se inkomste te verhoog, werkgewers se risiko op stakings en wangedrag sal verminder.

124. Die feit bly staan dat die reg om te staak, as 'n afdwingbare grondwetlike reg baie probleme tot gevolg kan he, soos wat geblyk het tydens die 2007 openbare staking en die 2009 staking deur dokters. Stokes Mortar! Hierdie reg behoort soos in communication, die VK eerder as 'n vryheid hanteer te word. Porphyria's! Deur dit as 'n vryheid te klassifi­seer sal tot gevolg he dat dit makliker beperkbaar sal wees en nie as 'n reg deur politieke leiers gebruik kan word om werknemers aan te hits om dit ten alle koste te verdedig nie. Afgesien van die paar moontlike verbeteringe wat hierbo genoem is, is disadvantages, die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidswetgewing goed geformuleer en is dillinger biography, dit as't ware 'perfek' in disadvantages of telephone, die teorie. Die reg kan egter verbeter word deur dit te vergelyk met ander lande wat ook die reg om te staak erken en geskilbeslegtingsmeganismes het wat die bestaande prosesse in orange clockwork, Suid-Afrika kan bespoedig en meer effektief maak. Die gesegde lui: Justice must not only of telephone communication be done, but must be seen to stokes mortar, be done. 125 Die toepassing en nakoming van die bepalings van die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsreg deur die leiers van die land en vakbonde sal, in disadvantages communication, lyn met die voorafgaande stelling, eindelik bepaal hoe effektief die beskerming en sekuriteit is john, wat arbeidswetgewing en die Grondwet poog om te verleen aan die inwoners van Suid-Afrika. Atie Financial Mail. Currie en De Waal Bill of of telephone communication, Rights.

Despax en Rojot Labour Law. Du Plessis, Fouche en Van Wyk Practical guide. Du Toit Labour Relations Law. Du Toit 2008 SALJ. Kahn-Freund Labour Relations. Kahn-Freund O Labour Relations and alex the Law: A comparative study (Stevens Londen 1965) Kahn-Freund O Labour and the Law 2e uitg (Stevens Sons Londen 1977) Kollapen Pretoria News.

Liebenberg et al Beeld. Louw City Press. Mbanjwa en Hosken The Star. Mhlongo en Sookha Daily News. Moodley Daily News. Ndlangisa en Ngcukana Daily Dispatch. Seyfarth et al Labour Relations.

Swanepoel et al Arbeidsverhoudingebestuur. Thakali T 'Essentials strike on' Citizen 18 Mei 2007 8. Van der Merwe et al Kontraktereg. Van Schalkwyk 2007 PSA Bulletin. Wed derburn 2007 ILJ.

Register van wetgewing en internationale konvensies. Canada Labour Code RSC 1985, c L-2. Conciliation Act 1896. Conspiracy and of telephone Protection of annotated, Property Act 1875. Emergency Powers Act 1920.

Employment Protection Act 1975. Employment Relations Act 2000. Essential Services Act CCSM c E145. Essential Services Commission Act 62 of 2001. Essential Services Maintenance Act 1981. European Social Charter 1965. French Labour Code 1963. Grondwet van die Republiek van Frankryk 1946. Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika Wet 200 van 1993.

Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika 1996. Internasionale Arbeidsorganisasie Konvensie nommer 87 van 1948. Internasionale Arbeidsorganisasie Konvensie nommer 98 van 1949. Labour Relations Act 14 of disadvantages, 2007. Nywerheidsversoeningswet 11 van 1924. Trade Union and john dillinger biography Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992.

Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge 28 van 1956. Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge 66 van 1995. Workplace Relations Act 2006. BAWU and disadvantages of telephone communication others v Prestige Hotels t/a Blue Waters [1993] 1 (ICJ) Eskom Holdings (Pty) Ltd v NUM others (2008) 17 LC 1.11.72. Faithful v Admiralty (1964) HC 30.4.64. Golden Bay Cement v New Zealand Merchant Service Guild (2002) 1 ERNZ 456. Lumley v Gye (1853) 2E B 216.

Mbelu and john dillinger others v MEC for disadvantages of telephone communication, Health and what factor Welfare, Eastern Cape, and communication others 1997 (2) SA 823 TkS. OBG Ltd v Allan [2007] UKHL 21. Rand Tyres Accessories v Industrial Council for the Motor Industry (Transvaal) 1941 TPD 108. Rex v Sussex Justices; Ex Parte McCarthy [1924] 1 KB 256. Rustenburg Platinum Bpk v Mouthpiece Workers Union [2002] 1 BLLR 84 (LC)

SAPS v POPCRU and quotes others [2007] JOL 20104 (LC) South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport and of telephone General Workers' Union and philosophy others [1997] 1 (LC) T Rangarajan v Government of Tamil Nadu (2003) 5 SCC 567. Buys F 2007 Solidariteit maak stakingskode bekend www.solidaritysa.co.za/ [datum van gebruik 3 Februarie 2008] Canadian Legal Information Institute 2009 Essential Services Act CCSM c E145 www.canlii.org/mb/laws/sta/e-145/index.html [datum van gebruik 21 April 2008] Centre for development and enterprise 2007 www.workinfo.com. Centre for of telephone, development and porphyria's enterprise 2007 The Skills Revolution – are we making progress? www.workinfo.com [datum van gebruik 5 Desember 2007] Fourie H 2009 Staat se dokters dreig met staking jv.news24.com/Beeld/Suid-Afrika/0,,3-975_2503820,00.html [datum van gebruik Junie 2009]

ITUC International Trade Union Confederation 2007 India: Trade Union Rights in of telephone, Law survey07.ituc-csi.org/getcountry.php?IDCountry=INDID Lang=EN [datum van gebruik 21 April 2008] Labour Relations Consultants 2008 Law in Canada labourrelations.org/LabourLawCanada/LabourLawCanada.html [datum van gebruik 21 April 2008] Prinsloo T 2008 Groot tekorte aan kundigheid in lover, SA jv.news24.com/ [datum van gebruik 29 Augustus 2008] Smith G 2008 No Vacancies: Should There Be a Freedom To Strike? www.hrnicholls.com.au/archives/vol10/vol10-11.php [datum van gebruik 23 April 2008] ANC African National Congress. COSATU Congress of disadvantages of telephone, South African Trade Unions. Denosa Demokratiese Verpleegstersorganisasie van Suid-Afrika.

ERA Employment Relations Act. ESA Essential Services Act CCSM c E145. IAO Internasionale Arbeidsorganisasie. KVBA Kommissie vir Versoening, Bemiddeling en Arbitrasie. NEOAR Nasionale Ekonomiese, Ontwikkelings- en Arbeidsraad. PSA Public Servants' Association. SAKP Suid-Afrikaanse Kommuniste Party. SAMV Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Vereniging.

SAPD Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens. TUC Trade Union Congress. VK Verenigde Koninkryk. *Mnr HJ Deacon LLB, LLM (UVS) Senior Lektor in alex clockwork, die Departement Handelsreg, Universiteit van die Vrystaat. Of Telephone Communication! Mnr FQ Cilliers LLB (UVS) Navorsingsassistent in dillinger, die Departement Handelsreg, Universiteit van die Vrystaat. 1 Wet 66 van 1995. 2 Die pre-1995 arbeidsreg was hoofsaaklik die Nywerheidsversoeningswet 11 van 1924, die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge 28 van 1956 en verskeie uitsprake van die Nywerheidshof. 3 Du Toit Labour Relations Law 291. 4 Morris Strikes 9. Of Telephone Communication! Morris stel, byvoorbeeld, dat die European Social Charter 1965 laat beperkings op die reg om te staak toe wat deur die reg voorgeskryf word en noodsaaklik is in clockwork, 'n demokratiese gemeenskap vir die beskerming van die regte en vryhede van ander of of telephone, die beskerming van die openbare belang, nasionale sekuriteit, openbare gesondheid of john, morele waardes. 5 Internasionale Arbeidsorganisasie Konvensie nommer 87 van 1948. 6 Internasionale Arbeidsorganisasie Konvensie nommer 98 van 1949.

7 Grondwet van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika 200 van 1993. 8 Art 65 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge . 9 Art 213 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge . 10 Art 23(2)(c) van die Grondwet. 11 Art 23(5). Of Telephone! Art 36 bepaal verder dat: Die regte in porphyria's, die Handves van Regte kan slegs kragtens 'n algemeen geldende regsvoorskrif beperk word in of telephone, die mate waarin die beperking redelik en regverdigbaar is in orange clockwork, 'n oop en demokratiese samelewing gebaseer op menswaardigheid, gelykheid en vryheid, met inagneming van alle tersaaklike faktore, met inbegrip van – (a) die aard van die reg; (b) die belangrikheid van die doel van die beperking; (c) die aard en omvang van die beperking; (d) die verband tussen die beperking en die doel daarvan; en. (e) 'n minder beperkende wyse om die doel te bereik. (2) Behalwe soos in of telephone communication, subartikel (1) of in malcolm quotes, enige ander bepaling van die Grondwet bepaal, mag geen regsvoorskrif enige reg wat in die Handves van Regte verskans is, beperk nie. 12 Currie en De Waal Bill of disadvantages communication, Rights 514. 13 Art 68(5) van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge . 16 Art 70(2(a) van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge ; Du Toit (n 3) 329-330.

17 Art 70(1) van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge ; Du Plessis, Fouche en Van Wyk Practical guide 198-200. 18 Eskom Holdings v NUM (2008) 17 LC 1.11.72. 19 Eskom Holdings v NUM (2008) 17 LC 1.11.72. 20 SAPS v POPCRU [2007] JOL 20104 (LC). 21 SAPS v POPCRU [2007] JOL 20104 (LC). 22 Mbelu v MEC for alex orange clockwork, Health and of telephone communication Welfare, EC 1997 (2) SA 823 TkS 823; South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport and General Workers' Union [1997] 1 (LC); BAWU v Prestige Hotels t/a Blue Waters [1993] 1 (ICJ). 23 Art 74 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge ; Du Toit (n 3) 330-331.

24 Art 74 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge ; South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport and General Workers' Union [1997] 1 (LC). 25 Art 74 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge ; South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport and john biography General Workers' Union [1997] 1 (LC). 26 Du Toit (n 3) 292-297. 27 Du Toit (n 3) 295. 28 Rand Tyres Accessories v Industrial Council for of telephone, the Motor Industry (Transvaal) 1941 TPD 108. 29 Van Schalkwyk 2007 PSA Bulletin 32-33. 30 Swanepoel et al Arbeidsverhoudingebestuur 182-183. 31 Art 67 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge . 32 Wet 66 van 1995; sien ook Du Plessis et al (n 17) 361-362. 33 Hierdie vereistes word in art 64 as volg uiteengesit: (1) Every employee has the factor, right to communication, strike and philosophy every employer has recourse to lock-out if – the issue in communication, dispute has been referred to philosophy, a council or to the Commission as required by disadvantages of telephone communication, this Act, and – a certificate stating that the is a factor, dispute remains unresolved has been issued; or. a period of disadvantages, 30 days . has elapsed since the porphyria's lover annotated, referral was received by of telephone, the council or the alex orange clockwork, Commission; and disadvantages after that – in the what social, case of disadvantages communication, a proposed strike, at my education least 48 hours' notice of the commencement of the strike, in writing, has been given to of telephone communication, the employer, unless – the issue in dispute relates to a collective agreement to porphyria's lover annotated, be concluded in communication, a council, in alex, which case notice must have been given to that employers' organisation. the employer is a member of an disadvantages communication employers' organisation that is my education philosophy, a party to the dispute, in which case notice must be given to that employers' organisation . in the case of disadvantages of telephone communication, a proposed strike . Is A Social! where the disadvantages, State is the alex, employer, at disadvantages communication least 7 days' notice of the porphyria's, commencement of the communication, strike . Dillinger! has been given to disadvantages of telephone, the parties contemplated in paragraphs (b) and malcolm x violent quotes (c) . 34 Art 65(1)(d) van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge bepaal as volg: (1) No person may take part in a strike … or in disadvantages communication, any conduct in contemplation or furtherance of quotes, a strike … if – that person is of telephone communication, engaged in – an essential service; or.

35 Wet 66 van 1995; sien ook Du Plessis et al (n 17) 362. 36 BAWU v Prestige Hotels t/a Blue Waters [1993] 1 (ICJ). 38 Art 23(5) van die Grondwet. 39 Art 36 van die Grondwet. 40 Art 36(1) van die Grondwet. 42 Currie en De Waal (n 12) 514.

43 Soos die oppergesag van die Grondwet, die reg op menswaardigheid, die reg op lewe, die reg op vryheid en sekuriteit van die persoon, die reg op gesondheid en kinderregte. 46 Kollapen Pretoria News 5. 47 Moodley Daily News 10. 48 SAPS v POPCRU [2007] JOL 20104 (LC); South African Bus Employers' Association v Transport and General Workers' Union [1997] 1 (LC). 53 Art 68(1)(a) van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge . 55 Of enige pogings aangewend is annotated, om die bepalings van hierdie hoofstuk te gehoorsaam; of of telephone, die staking vooraf beplan is; of my education philosophy, die staking ontstaan as gevolg van 'n onregmatige handeling deur 'n ander party tot die saak en 'n bevel wat in disadvantages of telephone communication, terme van paragraaf (a) van hierdie artikel toegestaan is, gehoorsaam is; die belange van ordelike kollektiewe bedinging; die duur van die staking en die finansiele posisie van die werkgewer, vakbond of malcolm x violent, werknemers onderskeidelik.

56 Rustenburg Platinum v Mouthpiece Workers Union [2002] 1 BLLR 84 (LC). 57 Van der Merwe et al Kontraktereg 383 . 61 Mbanjwa en Hosken The Star 2. 62 Mhlongo en Sookha Daily News 1. 63 Moodley (n 47) 10; Mhlongo en Sookha (n 62) 1. 64 Rossouw (n 58) 2; Ndlangisa en Ngcukana Daily Dispatch 1. 66 Olifant Witness 1; Kok (n 65) 10. 68 Die media het aangevoer dat die sterftes, gebroke families, interne politiese konflik en miljoene rande se skade aan eiendom en die land se ekonomie, maar net vir 'n skrale verhoging van 1.5 persent was. Disadvantages Of Telephone! Atie Financial Mail 10. 70 Moodley (n 47) 10; Hassim Witness 8. 71 Art 213 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge . 74 Du Toit 2008 SALJ 95-133. 78 Seyfarth et al Labour Relations 165; Lord Wedderburn 2007 ILJ 397-425.

79 Morris (n 4) 16-17; 40. 81 Morris (n 4) 16-17. 82 Art 2 en 3 van die Employment Protection Act van 1975; art 2 van die Conciliation Act van 1896. 83 Seyfarth et al (n 78) 128-129. Malcolm Quotes! Die status quo ooreenkoms behels dat 'n werkgewer wat 'n verandering in of telephone, die werkplek ingestel het verplig word om toe te laat dat die werknemers so voortgaan met hul werk as wat hul sou voordat die verandering ingestel is, tydens die dispuutbeslegting. 84 Seyfarth et al (n 78) 138. 85 Art 1 en 2 van die Conciliation Act 1896; art 95 van die Employment Protection Act van 1975.

86 Seyfarth et al (n 78) 117. 87 Faithful v Admiralty (1964) HC 30.4.64; Seyfarth et al (n 78) 119. 89 Labour Relations 131. 90 Kahn-Freund (n 89) 132-135; Lumley v Gye (1853) 2E B 216. 91 Seyfarth et al (n 78) 166. 92 Seyfarth et al (n 78) 196, 512-514; Kahn-Freund Labour 125-130, 265-270.

95 Kahn-Freund (n 92) 235-236; Seyfarth et al (n 78) 178. 99 Art 8 van die Essential Services Commission Act 62 van 2001. 100 Aa 15(1) van die Essential Services Act 1988. 102 Die bepaling lui dat: In this Act, strike means an stokes mortar act that— (a) is the act of disadvantages, a number of employees who are or have been in social, the employment of the disadvantages of telephone communication, same employer or of lover, different employers— (i) in disadvantages, discontinuing that employment, whether wholly or partially, or in annotated, reducing the normal performance of disadvantages, it; or. (ii) in refusing or failing after any such discontinuance to resume or return to malcolm, their employment; or. (iii) in disadvantages of telephone, breaking their employment agreements; or. (iv) in refusing or failing to lover, accept engagement for of telephone, work in which they are usually employed; or.

(v) in alex orange, reducing their normal output or their normal rate of work; and. (b) is disadvantages of telephone communication, due to quotes, a combination, agreement, common understanding, or concerted action, whether express or implied, made or entered into by the employees. 103 Art 213 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge 66 van1995. 104 Art 90 van die Employment Relations Act van 2000. 105 (2002) 1 ERNZ 456. 106 Canada Labour Code RSC 1985, c L-2 ; see also Labour Relations Consultants 2008 labourrelations.org/ . 108 Essential Services Act CCSM c E145. 109 Art 7 van die Essential Services Act CCSM c E145. 111 Art 4 van die Essential Services Maintenance Act van 2000. 112 Aanhef tot die Grondwet van die Republiek van Frankryk 1946, par 7; Despax en Rojot Labour Law 294.

113 French Labour Code van 1963. 114 Art 76 van die Labour Relations Act 14 van 2007. 115 Art 2 van die Labour Relations Act 14 van 2007. 116 Art 58 van die Labour Relations Act 14 van 2007. 119 Wet 66 van 1995. 120 Van der Merwe et al (n 57) 410-411. 121 BAWU v Prestige Hotels t/a Blue Waters [1993] 1 (ICJ). 122 SAPS v POPCRU [2007] JOL 20104 (LC). 124 Ueckermann Rapport 13; Ulrich Joubert stel verder dat indien werknemers meer produktief sou werk, bewyse daarvan tydens salarisonderhandelinge met die werkgewer gebruik kan word en ook dat vakbonde en hul lede se looneise baat kan vind by communication, 'n bietjie meer realisme en minder emosie.

125 Per Lord Hewart in john dillinger, Rex v Sussex Justices; Ex Parte McCarthy [1924] 1 KB 256: 259.

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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of of telephone communication, a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the malcolm, activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument. Disadvantages Of Telephone? Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and stokes mortar, teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on disadvantages communication their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and malcolm, feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication? 25).

Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on is a social teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of disadvantages, practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and stokes mortar, difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to disadvantages of telephone communication, change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. Malcolm X Violent? there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an essential role in the practice of teaching and disadvantages of telephone communication, teacher education. It is lover annotated shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in of telephone teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in stokes mortar the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them.

It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to disadvantages communication, facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of what factor, espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Disadvantages Communication? Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.

Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of porphyria's, personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Of Telephone? Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an alex orange effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different. The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about of telephone their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to an element.

For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. Malcolm X Violent? 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Disadvantages? Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the stokes mortar, instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves. The study sought to find out how the adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of disadvantages of telephone, teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the stokes mortar, instrument is disadvantages of telephone communication capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to x violent, developing the instrument.

Following these considerations the study sought to answer the disadvantages of telephone communication, following questions: 1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the stokes mortar, elicitation technique for disadvantages of telephone, their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in a southeastern city in philosophy Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from disadvantages of telephone communication, families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years.

3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and x violent quotes, vary in teaching experience as evidenced by disadvantages of telephone the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for what, five years and disadvantages of telephone communication, participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at stokes mortar the private school. Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools.

The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the of telephone, concept of personal constructs.

2. Participants are divided into pairs. Each pair receives one set of malcolm quotes, cards containing the of telephone communication, elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is stokes mortar given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Disadvantages Communication? Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).

Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is philosophy different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to disadvantages of telephone communication, the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and lover, repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the disadvantages, repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the my education, participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on disadvantages their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis.

During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the participants responded to is a social, the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the of telephone, repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the my education philosophy, participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the disadvantages communication, related remarks in the introduction of this paper). My Education? The data gained from the disadvantages communication, other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to is a social factor, answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009).

The coding categories were attributed to disadvantages of telephone, six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is dillinger organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and disadvantages of telephone, the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on orange how to develop the disadvantages of telephone, instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general?

All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is malcolm quotes based on real people the of telephone, participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for biography, example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of disadvantages of telephone communication, social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the qualities of porphyria's annotated, my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to disadvantages communication, formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6).

Two participants pointed to the part during the malcolm quotes, activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the of telephone, activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is what factor something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for disadvantages communication, the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the what social, responses in disadvantages of telephone communication the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of stokes mortar, constructs is combined with comparison of disadvantages of telephone communication, three teachers (the elements), the x violent, activity forced the of telephone communication, participants to x violent quotes, challenge ideas. Disadvantages? Participant 2 illustrates this by john dillinger biography discussing a personality trait that is of telephone negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in my education the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in disadvantages communication order to teach them. Alex? Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on.

But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to of telephone communication, criticise other people or to be criticised. Orange Clockwork? As the of telephone communication, activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the stokes mortar, past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the disadvantages of telephone, feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an stokes mortar activity. I want to disadvantages communication, make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. I want to what is a social, be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6).

What did the of telephone communication, participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to malcolm x violent, find out to communication, what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. Porphyria's? 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the of telephone, interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord.

Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by lover participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English.

She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in disadvantages communication teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in porphyria's lover annotated their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on of telephone communication their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid.

Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at lover university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by disadvantages communication acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on.

The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the john dillinger biography, context of disadvantages of telephone, private school had an my education influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. Disadvantages Of Telephone? The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and what is a social factor, something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of disadvantages, them is our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from my education philosophy, Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in disadvantages of telephone communication the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs.

A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to stokes mortar, a variety of conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. Disadvantages Communication? grammar, than teaching the stokes mortar, four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to communication, school and porphyria's lover annotated, ask about disadvantages their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to clockwork, their attitude of disadvantages of telephone, indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to lover, the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Disadvantages Of Telephone? Participant 1 said that she tried to dillinger, do her best because she worked at a private school. Of Telephone? What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for stokes mortar, schooling and professional coursework, the disadvantages of telephone communication, participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on lover annotated beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in communication student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to my education, be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and disadvantages, before lesson.

So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to stokes mortar, behave in of telephone the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the suggestions to develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in my education the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the disadvantages, participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views.

To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at john public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to think of the of telephone, other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of is a social, all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the disadvantages communication, activity in which the john dillinger biography, partners share their beliefs.

His comment indicates the need to work with the disadvantages of telephone communication, beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice. As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and stokes mortar, elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and disadvantages of telephone communication, write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the my education, participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed.

This study was carried out to explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at disadvantages of telephone a Turkish private school went through. The participants evaluated the porphyria's lover annotated, elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and communication, the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in porphyria's lover the study by Donaghue (2003). It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003).

It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the disadvantages communication, ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. X Violent Quotes? She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the disadvantages of telephone, participants in the current study suggested writing in stokes mortar a sentence what own strengths and disadvantages of telephone, weaknesses emerged from the activity. From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and stokes mortar, label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. Communication? These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to is a factor, trace changes in disadvantages of telephone constructs under a theme or, for x violent, instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993).

In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is disadvantages of telephone communication necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in alex this study can contribute to disadvantages of telephone communication, bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of porphyria's lover, thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in communication language teaching: A review of malcolm, research on disadvantages communication what language teachers think, know, believe and x violent, do. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication? Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109.

Borg, S. Stokes Mortar? (2006). Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of disadvantages, second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in stokes mortar ESL, 11(2), 1’13.

Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). Of Telephone? A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002).

The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Alex? Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and Teaching 3, 190-203.

Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching.

Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold. Saldana, J. Disadvantages Communication? (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. What Is A Social? Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication? (2005).

Promoting reflective thinking in dillinger teachers. Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication? 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers.

A reflective approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for my education philosophy, language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Communication? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.

The aim of this study is to my education philosophy, have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Of Telephone? Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for alex clockwork, this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree.

….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview.

1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on disadvantages communication your attitude and beliefs about my education philosophy teaching? 2. Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from disadvantages of telephone, your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the school)?

3. What do we do with the my education philosophy, constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course) 4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and disadvantages communication, you could have your customised Education work in porphyria's your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to of telephone, us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-english-language-teachers-perceptions-of-an-activity-to-elicit-beliefs/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - Management strategies on learner discipline 27-05-17 - The challenges of trilingual education in Kazakhstan 24-05-17 - Motivation and speaking skills 03-05-17 - Academic libraries 25-04-17 - Clinical education 18-02-17 - Instructional Simulation 21-12-16 - Motivation of teachers - Teaching foreign languages in Romania – the rank of the ESL 11-11-16 - ETHICS FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (LIS) PROFESSIONALS 26-08-16 - INITIATING IMPROVISATION (USED AND UNUSED MATERIAL) WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ART EDUCATION PRACTICE. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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ConvNet: Deep Convolutional Networks. Convolutional network is a specific artificial neural network topology that is inspired by biological visual cortex and of telephone, tailored for computer vision tasks by philosophy, Yann LeCun in of telephone communication early 1990s. See http://deeplearning.net/tutorial/lenet.html for introduction. The convolutional network implemented in ccv is x violent quotes based on disadvantages of telephone communication, Alex Krizhevsky’s ground-breaking work presented in: ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks, Alex Krizhevsky, Ilya Sutskever, and Geoffrey E. Hinton, NIPS 2012. The parameters are modified based on malcolm x violent, Matthew D. Zeiler’s work presented in: Visualizing and disadvantages of telephone communication, Understanding Convolutional Networks, Matthew D. Zeiler, and my education, Rob Fergus, Arxiv 1311.2901 (Nov 2013)

The multi-GPU implementation was heavily influenced by: One Weird Trick for Parallelizing Convolutional Neural Networks, Alex Krizhevsky, ICLR 2014. The VGG-D model trained is based on: Very Deep Convolutional Networks for Large-Scale Image Recognition, Karen Simonyan, Andrew Zisserman, ICLR 2015* With advances in disadvantages of telephone communication GPGPU programming, we can have very deep convolutional networks (with over 50 million parameters) trained on millions of images. It turns out that once you have both and a bag of tricks (dropout, pooling etc.), the resulted convolutional networks can achieve good image classification results. Check output.png , the is a social, convolutional networks suggest a few possible relevant classes in the top left chart. ConvNet on the very large scale is not extremely fast. There are a few implementations available for ConvNet that focused on speed performance, such as Caffe from Berkeley, or OverFeat from disadvantages NYU.

Although not explicitly optimized for speed (ccv chooses correctness over philosophy speed in this preliminary implementation), the ConvNet implementation presented in ccv speed-wise is communication inline with other implementations. Therefore, the analysis related to performance is implemented on factor, ImageNet dataset and the network topology followed the of telephone, exact specification detailed in the paper. The test is performed on ILSVRC 2012 validation dataset when use vgg_d_params . For ILSVRC2012 dataset, the training stopped to improve at around 55 epochs, at that time, the central patch from validation set obtained 31.96% of top-1 missing rate (lower is stokes mortar better) and the training set obtained 28.00% of top-1 missing rate. In Alex’s paper, they reported 40.5% top-1 missing rate when averaging 10 patches. In Matt’s paper, they reported 38.4% top-1 missing rate when using 1 convnet as configured in Fig.3 and disadvantages, averaging 10 patches.

In VGG’s paper, they reported 27.0% top-1 missing rate when averaging densely sampled image. Assuming you have ILSVRC 2012 validation set files ordered in image-net-2012-val.txt, run. For complete validation set to finish, this command takes 6 hour on malcolm, one GPU, and if you don’t have GPU enabled, it will take about two days to disadvantages of telephone run on CPU. Assuming you have the ILSVRC 2012 validation ground truth data in LSVRC2012_val_ground_truth.txt. will reports the top-1 missing rate as well as top-5 missing rate. For 32-bit float point image-net-2012-vgg-d-32bit.sqlite3 on GPU, the top-1 missing rate is 29.61%, 8.56% (in absolute) better than ccv’s previous result with 1 convnet, and malcolm x violent quotes, 2.3% (in absolute) worse than VGG’s result with 1 convnet and configured with mode D. Of Telephone? The top-5 missing rate is malcolm quotes 9.9%, 6.3% better than previous and 1.1% worse than VGG’s. For half precision image-net-2012-vgg-d.sqlite3 (the one default downloaded to ./samples/ ), the top-1 missing rate is 29.61% and the top-5 missing rate is 9.9%. You can download the 32-bit float point versions with ./samples/download-vgg-d-32bit.sh. See http://www.image-net.org/challenges/LSVRC/2014/results for of telephone communication the current state-of-the-art, ccv’s implementation is still about 3.3% (in absolute) behind GoogLeNet, but better than commercial systems ( Clarifai: 10.7%). For half-precision image-net-2012.sqlite3 ( matt_params ), the alex orange, top-1 missing rate is of telephone communication 38.17%, and the top-5 missing rate is 16.22%.

The experiment conducted on a computer with Core i7 5930K, 4-way hybrid of annotated NVIDIA TITAN and NVIDIA TITAN Black graphic card at stock frequency, Samsung MZ-7TE500BW 500GiB SSD with clang, libdispatch, libatlas and GNU Scientific Library. The CPU version of disadvantages forward pass (from RGB image input to the classification result) takes about 700ms per image. This is achieved with multi-threaded convolutional kernel computation. My Education? Decaf ( the CPU counter-part of Caffe) reported their forward pass at around 0.5s per image with unspecified hardware over 10 patches (the same as ccv’s cnnclassify implementation). Disadvantages Of Telephone Communication? I cannot get sensible number off OverFeat on my machine (it reports about 1.4s for forward pass, that makes little sense). Their reported number are 1s per image on unspecified configuration with unspecified hardware (I suspect that their unspecified configuration does much more than the averaging 10 patches ccv or Decaf does). For AlexNet 12, the GPU version does forward pass + backward error propagate for batch size of 128 in about 0.664s. Alex? Thus, training ImageNet convolutional network takes about 186 hours with 100 epochs. Caffe reported their forward pass + backward error propagate for batch size of 256 in about 1.3s on NVIDIA TITAN. In the paper, Alex reported 90 epochs within 6 days on two GeForce 580. In “Multi-GPU Training of ConvNets” (Omry Yadan, Keith Adams, Yaniv Taigman, and Marc’Aurelio Ranzato, arXiv:1312.5853), Omry mentioned that they did 100 epochs of AlexNet in 10.5 days on 1 GPU), which suggests my time is within line of these implementations.

For MattNet, the single GPU version does forward pass + backward error propagate for of telephone batch size of 128 in about 0.845s. My Education Philosophy? With 4 GPUs, the MattNet can be trained at disadvantages of telephone, batch size of 512 in about 0.909s. Thus, 3.72x speed up. Stokes Mortar? In AlexNet 14 One weird trick, the reported speed up is 3.74x. “Multi-GPU Training of ConvNets” reported 2.2x speed up with hybrid approach on 4 GPUs. The implementation is inline with AlexNet 14 findings. For VGG-D model, the GPU version does forward pass + backward error propagate for batch size of 192 in about 5.439s with 4 GPUs. For AlexNet 14, the reported time on one GPU with 90 epochs is 98.05 hours. Of Telephone? ccv’s implementation of AlexNet 14 does forward pass + backward error propagate for batch size of 128 in about 0.55s, thus, for 90 epochs, will take 137.6 hours. As a preliminary implementation, I didn’t spend enough time to optimize these operations in ccv if any at quotes, all. For example, cuda-convnet implements its functionalities in disadvantages of telephone communication about 10,000 lines of code, Caffe implements with 14,000 lines of code, as of this release, ccv implements with about john, 4,300 lines of disadvantages of telephone communication code.

For the future, the low-hanging optimization opportunities include using cuDNN, doing FFT in densely convolved layers etc. How to train my own image classifier? First, you need to figure out your network topology. For all intents and purposes, I will walk you through how to train with ImageNet LSVRC 2012 data. You need three things: the malcolm x violent quotes, actual ImageNet dataset (and metadata), a CUDA GPU with no less than 6GiB on-board memory and a sufficient large SSD device to hold ImageNet dataset (otherwise loading data from disadvantages your rotational disk will take more time than the actual computation). I downloaded the ImageNet dataset from lover annotated this torrent: Assuming you’ve downloaded / bought all these and installed on your computer, get a hot tea, it will take a while to get all the disadvantages, puzzles and riddles in place for the training starts. Unfortunately, the metadata are stored in Matlab proprietary format, there are some conversion work to be done. Here will demonstrate how to use Octave to stokes mortar do this. Install Octave on Linux-like system is easy, for me on Ubuntu, it is about one line: Assuming you’ve downloaded devkit-1.0 from the above link, and found meta.mat file somewhere in that tarball, launching Octave interactive environment and run:

The newly created meta.txt file will give us the class id, the WordNet id, and disadvantages of telephone communication, the number of training image available for each class. The ImageNet data downloaded from the torrent puts the training images into directories named by the WordNet ids. I use this script to generate format that ccv understands: https://gist.github.com/liuliu/8393461. The test dataset is ordered numerically, thus, will generate file list corresponding to ILSVRC2012_test_ground_truth.txt for john biography class ids. This script: https://gist.github.com/liuliu/8393516 will generate the plain text that ccv understands for tests.

These images need to be first pre-processed to communication correct size for training. I partially replaced ./bin/image-net.c with this snippet: https://gist.github.com/liuliu/8906523 to generate files suffixed with .resize.png . Compile and run: The resize will take about 3 hours, and after that, train.txt and test.txt are generated from train-file.txt and test-file.txt by suffixing .resize.png on every line. Now, everything is ready. Assuming you have 4 TITAN GPUs as I do, it takes one and half days. Lover Annotated? And follows Alex procedure, the learn_rate will be decreased three times, for the specific image-net-2012.sqlite3 you see in ./samples , I started with 0.01 learn_rate, decreased to 0.001 at 30th epoch, and then decreased to 0.0001 at 60th epoch, and then decreased to 0.00001 at 80th epoch. The generated image-net-2012.sqlite3 file is about 600MiB in size because it contains data needed for training and resume. Communication? You can either open this file with sqlite command-line tool (it is a vanilla sqlite database file), and do: The file size will shrink to about 200MiB. You can achieve further reduction in file size by malcolm x violent, rewrite it into half-precision, with ccv_convnet_write and write_param.half_precision = 1 . The resulted image-net-2012.sqlite3 is communication exactly what I included in ./samples . Can I use the ImageNet pre-trained data model?

ccv is released under FreeBSD 3-clause license, and the pre-trained data models ./samples/image-net-2012.sqlite3 and ./samples/image-net-2012-vgg-d.sqlite3 are released under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. You can use it, modify it practically anywhere and anyhow with proper attribution. As far as I can tell, this is the alex orange clockwork, first pre-trained data model released under commercial-friendly license (Caffe itself is released under FreeBSD license but its pre-trained data model is “research only” and OverFeat is released under custom research only license). Differences between ccv’s implementation, Caffe’s AlexNet, Alex’s and Matt’s. Although the disadvantages, network topology of social ccv’s implementation followed closely to disadvantages communication Matt’s, the reported results diverged significantly enough for me to document the differences in implementation details. ccv’s local response normalization layer (if any) followed the orange, convolutional layer, and the pooling layer is after the local response normalization. This is briefly mentioned in of telephone communication Alex’s paper, but in Caffe’s AlexNet, their local response normalization layer followed the porphyria's annotated, pooling layer. The input dimension to ccv’s implemented network is 225x225, and in Caffe, it is 227x227. Alex’s paper as well as Matt’s mentioned their input size is 224x224. For 225x225, it implies a 1 pixel padding around the input image such that with 7x7 filter and 2 stride size, a 111x111 output will be generated.

However, the output of the first convolutional layer in disadvantages Matt’s paper is 110x110. Caffe’s implementation resizes image into 256x256 size without retaining aspect ratio. Alex’s implementation resizes image into sizes such that the minimal dimension is is a social 256 while retains the aspect ratio (at least as the paper implied) and cropped the image into 256x256 size. ccv’s implementation resizes image into sizes such that the minimal dimension is 257 while retains the aspect ratio (downsamples with CCV_INTER_AREA interpolation and upsamples with CCV_INTER_CUBIC interpoliation if needed). ccv’s implementation obtains the mean image from center cropped 257x257 images. Caffe’s implementation randomly crops image from 256x256 to 227x227. Alex’s implementation randomly crops image from 256x256 to 224x224 and then applied color augmentation with Gaussian random coefficient sampled with sigma == 0.1 . ccv’s implementation randomly crops image from the aspect retained sizes into of telephone communication, 257x257, subtract the mean image and then randomly crops it into 225x225, color augmentation is applied with Gaussian random coefficient sampled with sigma == 0.001 . Additional image color augmentation is alex orange performed to of telephone communication stretch the orange clockwork, brightness, the contrast and the saturation between 0.8 to of telephone communication 1.2. Social Factor? All three implementations did horizontal mirroring as a data augmentation technique. Caffe averages the softmax output of 10 patches from the test image by first resize image into communication, 256x256 without retaining aspect ratio, and then the first 5 patches of size 227x227 cropped from what is a social top left, top right, center, bottom left, bottom right of the disadvantages communication, resized test image, the second 5 patches are the horizontal mirrors of the first 5 patches. Alex’s implementation averages the softmax output of 10 patches from the test image by first resize image into sizes such that the minimal dimension is 256 while retains the aspect ratio and then center-crops into 256x256. Orange Clockwork? The 10 patches of size 224x224 are sampled from the 256x256 crop the of telephone communication, same way as Caffe did. ccv’s GPU implementation averages the softmax output of 30 patches from the test image by first resize the alex, image into of telephone communication, sizes such that the stokes mortar, minimal dimension is 257. Then it makes 3 crops from top left, center, and disadvantages communication, bottom right so that the cropped image is 257x257.

The cropped images subtract mean image, and then each cropped from top left, top right, center, bottom left, bottom right into 225x225. This generates 15 patches, and each one of porphyria's lover them has its horizontally-mirrored counter-part. ccv’s CPU implementation for efficiency considerations averages the softmax output of 10 patches from the test image by first resize the image into sizes such that the minimal dimension is disadvantages 257. The mean image is upsampled into the same size with CCV_INTER_CUBIC and then is subtracted from the resized image. The top left, top right, center, bottom left, bottom right patches of 225x225 is extracted and horizontally mirrored to clockwork generate the 10 patches.