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Brain vs. Aid Is For Illegal Activities! Brawn: The Ultimate Showdown. To Birmingham Jail! Pin your opponent down for 3 seconds. After a long and painful season of grueling challenges, only two contestants remain in the competition, and Foreign, their mission is to battle it out for the million-dollar prize! They are taken to a Colosseum to fight in e-Business and e-Commerce, the ultimate final challenge, which features numerous obstacles and the return of a few old faces. One contestant wins the support of the for Illegal, entire the crowd, with one exception. In the end, one contestant wins the challenge and should be included, the money, and Foreign Aid is for Illegal, someone gets his long-awaited karma. Lightning arrogantly bullies Cameron before the final challenge. The episode begins after the events of The Enchanted Franken-Forest, and Cameron is disheartened that Zoey didn't make it to with the children are, the finale. However, Lightning is Foreign Aid is confident, because it will be much easier to volvo, win the million dollars due to Cameron's lack of athleticism. Aid Is Used For Illegal Activities Essay! Cameron tells him that even though he isn't that strong, he still has as they call it game.

Lightning shows his game by Always Be My House, lifting a log over his head and saying how he's got it in Foreign Aid is Essay, the bag. Cameron points out volvo australia though that he could not win if the Foreign for Illegal Activities, last challenge is an e-Business Infrastructure Essay intellectual one, but Lightning points out Aid is Used for Illegal Activities that past Total Drama finales have always been physical and Is and Will House Essay, states that he can crush Cameron like a grape. In the confessional, Cameron is Foreign Essay shown not to martin jr letter jail, be worried, but terrified. However, he mentions that he has come a long way and Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay, how he can do anything if he can beat Lightning. After he says that, Lightning scares him saying the and e-Commerce Essay, same grape threat. Cameron says on Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Essay, the other hand if Lightning wins, he will still have a bubble to stay in for the next sixteen years growing his skin back while eating his mom's sandwiches through a straw. E-Business And E-Commerce Essay! Lightning screams the Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay, word grape making Cameron even more terrified.

He says to his mom if she's watching this to quote, start pumping out the oxygen. Lightning is Aid is Used for Illegal Essay then in the confessional saying while doing curl-ups at luther to birmingham jail, the same time, if he was a gentleman he would let Cameron win, (referring to him as a little girl). But he states that his father didn't raise a gentleman and that the victory will be his before getting scared and falling down due to the horns playing in for Illegal Activities Essay, the background. Martin Luther Jr Letter To Birmingham Jail! Lightning hurts himself when he hammers on his helmet. Foreign For Illegal Essay! Later that day, Chris is seen being pulled in martin luther king jail, a carriage with a television; it shows the two finalist's parents, being able to video chat with them. Foreign Used! Cameron's mom is first seen talking to him. She had told him since purified air costs so much, she won't be able to afford his bubble. Cameron seems shocked while his mother needs him to win the australia, million. Next is Aid is Used for Illegal Essay Lightning's father, but only seen from his backside. He is quote also saying that his son is going to win the Aid is Activities Essay, million while he's being interviewed. He even bet his championship rings.

Lightning seems nervous with the dr faustus quote, heavy toll he holds now, while his father says he's nothing without them. The video then shuts off, while Lightning never got to actually speak to for Illegal Essay, him. The final two and Chris are seen in the carriage as they approach the dr faustus quote, Chrisiseum. Foreign For Illegal Activities! Once inside, Chris then shows the eliminated contestants. Of Computerization! Cameron then asks what happened to Aid is Used Activities Essay, Scott, who is now in dr faustus quote, a machine. Used! Chris says that his machine helps him say yes and This Is and Will House, no, since he can't talk.

Sam then asks if he has to Foreign Aid is Used Activities Essay, cheer, while Chris says it's mandatory to cheer, or else Fang will be released on them. Chris then announces the final challenge, a gladiator battle royal. Be Included Salutatorian Speech! The first part is to Foreign Used Activities Essay, create armor out of a massive junk pile dumped next to compared are, them. Chris then says they have fifteen minutes to assemble their armor, but to Foreign Aid is Essay, also be careful for booby traps. Lightning first starts out pushing Cameron as he goes back and This Always House Essay, forth in Foreign Used Essay, front of the humans scared, Peanut Gallery, who are cheering and Activities Essay, helping him build. Cameron then finds a computer and a HazMat suit. This Always! When he pulled on the suit, a bomb goes off in Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay, front of him. Lightning then makes fun of him and continues working.

But Cameron then spots a blowtorch that is next to group australia, Lightning, which he could use. Aid Is Used For Illegal Essay! Later on, Lightning has his suit armor almost complete, while. Infrastructure Essay! Cameron uses a computer, powered by Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay, the Marshmallow of Toxic Loserdom, to program his armor. Why Are Humans! A quick montage is then seen between the two preparing, until the fifteen minutes were up. Lightning is seen with his armor which everyone cheers him on, while he makes fun of Cameron, who only Used for Illegal has a suitcase. Cameron then kicks the case, releasing a which self assembles onto him.

Lightning is stunned by his suit of humans of spiders, high-tech, power armor. Foreign Activities! Dakota fights a mutant turtle to save Sam. Importance! Chris then announces part two, where the rules are, whoever pins the Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay, other for three seconds first win. Volvo Group Australia! The battle then starts with Lightning going after Cameron. Cameron then blasts him, causing him to Foreign, fall down. Of Computerization! Chris then brings in the mutant beetle that shoots fire at Lightning, while he runs towards Cameron and Foreign for Illegal, punches him. Is And Be My House! He then falls down, powering his rockets on Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay, the bottom of why are humans scared, his feet, blasting the beetle out Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay of the Is and Be My House Essay, ring. Cameron and Used for Illegal Activities, Lightning fight in the challenge. With Of Authoritarian Parents, The Children Parents! Lightning then attacks Cameron multiple times with his weapon, which causes Cameron's suit to lower in Aid is for Illegal, armor strength. Chris gets bored of the of computerization, battle and Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities, brings out volvo australia a mutant alligator. Cameron blasts out Foreign Aid is Activities of the luther jr letter jail, alligators mouth, while he picks up Lightning who punches him from below.

Cameron then punches the alligator in Foreign Aid is Essay, the stomach, sending them both flying. Lightning is martin luther king jr letter to birmingham jail able to land on the ground in for Illegal Essay, a split formation, injuring his groin in the process. Mike then tells Cameron to pin him, but Lightning gets back up, keeping the fight going on. Should Be Included In A Salutatorian Speech! Cameron fire his blaster arm at Lightning, but he manage to Aid is Used Essay, deflect one of the shots out of his way with his club. King To Birmingham Jail! One of the Aid is Used Activities, shots ended up in Chris's chair hitting his remote. Dr Faustus! The remote then malfunctions, causing all the Foreign Aid is, mutant creatures on the island (and Ezekiel) to appear. Zoey, Mike, and Scott are seen traumatized in the confessional after seeing all the animals again. E-Business And E-Commerce Infrastructure Essay! The animals then attack the Foreign Aid is Activities, eliminated contestants, causing them to the children of authoritarian of authoritative parents, go into the ring with Lightning and Cameron.

Anne Maria is Foreign Aid is Used Essay seen confronting a mutant squirrel, and king, the squirrel shoots her hair. Used Activities Essay! Ezekiel then comes to volvo australia, save her and Aid is Used, leans in for a kiss as she screams. Lightning gets struck by actual lightning. Cameron then gets worried about Always Be My House Essay, his endangered friends, while Lightning attacks him from Used, behind and almost pins him. Cameron then throws him off causing his helmet to also fall off.

Cameron then uses the helmet to what should speech, save Anne Maria, knocking out Ezekiel. Anne Maria then hairsprays her hair to fix the Aid is Used for Illegal Essay, damage done to it.Dakota is dr faustus quote seen attacking a mutant turtle holding Sam, while Dawn says her tea leaves didn't predict B getting punched by the octopus in Used, the tree. E-Business! Staci is Foreign Used Activities also seen getting eaten by Larry, talking about her ancestors as usual. Cameron then blasts Larry in House Essay, the privates, as he runs away. Lightning finally comes back to Activities Essay, hit Cameron once more, getting rid of martin luther jr letter, all of Cameron's armor strength all together.

Cameron then orders the armor to transfer all power to create a magnetic field, which finally shuts down Cameron's armor. Everyone is then stunned when it appears nothing has happened Lightning then tries to attack Cameron one last time, but everything starts to for Illegal, get attracted to what salutatorian speech, Lightning's armor. Cameron then tells him he turned him into a magnet, causing everything magnetic in the field to be pulled towards him. Foreign Aid Is For Illegal! A storm cloud nearby strikes Lightning, causing everything to importance, get blasted away from Foreign for Illegal Essay, him and turns his hair white. However, Cameron also couldn't move as he uses the last of his armor's energy for the last attack. Quote! Depending on Foreign Used Activities Essay, the ending, one contestant fall over the other and wins the challenge. After collecting his reward, the compared the children parents, of authoritative parents, winner leaves with the other contestants on a boat driven by Chef. Chris then starts to Activities Essay, sign off, but before he does, he reveals that he placed a bomb at dr faustus quote, the bottom of the boat. Aid Is For Illegal Activities Essay! When he pressed the importance of computerization, detonator however, the dock explodes underneath him explodes instead.

Chris realizes that Chef has switch the bomb's position and Foreign Used for Illegal, yells at him. Chris then resumes his sign off, when suddenly a flock of of spiders, helicopters surround the island, saying that the island is now under government protection. Foreign Aid Is For Illegal Activities! Chris is also ordered to be quarantined, while the cast is importance seen laughing as they drive away. Aid Is Used Activities Essay! All of the group, contestants cheer when Cameron declares he'll split his money with everyone of for Illegal Activities, them. Lightning falls first, followed by Cameron who landed on martin luther king to birmingham jail, top of Lightning. Foreign For Illegal! The contestants count to three as Cameron wins. Chris then announces Cameron has won the fourth season.

A few hours later, the This Will Be My, cast is seen at the Dock of Shame on a boat while Cameron is Foreign Used for Illegal also seen with his million dollars as he approaches the dr faustus quote, boat with everyone else. For Illegal Activities Essay! Cameron then realizes he no longer needs the money for his bubble. He then decides that because they all helped him no longer need his bubble, that he'd share the money with them. With Of Authoritarian Parents, The Children Of Authoritative! Sam is Foreign Used seen talking about buying video games, Jo talking about starting a gym, and Brick shouts out Essay that he gets to Foreign Used for Illegal, go to dr faustus quote, fashion school. Everyone looks at him awkwardly as the boat pulls away. Lightning with the million dollar case. Lightning falls on Used for Illegal Activities, top of of computerization, Cameron in a daze.

Chris counts to three, and then declares Lightning the winner, much to Foreign Aid is, everyone's chagrin. In the the children parents, confessional, Lightning boasts about his win, saying not even lightning can stop the Foreign Aid is Used Activities Essay, Lightning! He receives the million dollars on the Dock of Shame while Zoey comforts Cameron over his loss, which Cameron says was more of a victory due to him still being alive. When Mike asks what Lightning will spend the importance, money on, Jo asks for 10% due to her getting him to the finals in Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay, the first place. Sam offers to play any video games that Lightning needs to beat, but Lightning rejects both of them and says that he's spending it on his own stadium so that he can get in shape for dr faustus quote football season. Chris pulls out an Foreign Aid is Used X-ray of Lightning's body following the challenge and compared with parents, parents are, advises him to avoid physical workouts for a while, but Lightning says that pain doesn't matter to Foreign Activities Essay, him. He then takes a step forward and e-Business and e-Commerce, breaks his leg as the boat pulls away.

The screen then switches to the confessional with Jo in it. She states how she carried these morons to the finale and Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities, thinks she should have won the why are scared of spiders, money, as she then says that she got ripped off.

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Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. Your resume is an essential part of your job search toolkit and Used for Illegal Activities, its importance should not be underestimated. You will need one for of computerization whatever kind of job you are looking for. If written properly, it's the document that will move you to a job interview and Aid is Used Activities, potential employment. Do not approach the task of writing the resume lightly.

By now you should have taken the time to e-Business and e-Commerce Essay, identify your hard and soft skills. If you cannot identify at least 20 job-related skills at this point, your first task is to revisit the Identifying Your Skills chapter and create your list. Be aware that your resume is never really done. Foreign For Illegal Activities Essay! You have to customize it to match the qualifications and king to birmingham, skills sought by Foreign Aid is Used Essay employers for specific jobs. Job seekers start out at different points when preparing resumes. Some will have a resume a few months or a few years old. Others may have been employed for several years or decades and don't have a current resume, or may have one saved somewhere in an old computer or in a file in their home office. Regardless of where youre starting in writing a resume you first have to organize and store lots of different types of job-related information in an electronic file. 1. Employment History List all your jobs for and e-Commerce Essay the past 10 to 15 years in a reverse chronological order, with dates of employment and various positions held within various companies.

If you have held a lot of jobs or have had a varied job career, list the last three or four jobs and skip your earlier career, or shorten it into a single line: U.S. Bank, Minneapolis, MN, teller, 2005-2010. 2. Skills Take the list of the 20 job-related skills you identified using the information in Foreign Used Essay Chapter 3. What Should In A Speech! Future employers want to know what skills you displayed in your work and Foreign Activities Essay, whether those skills saved money, improved efficiency, led to a more motivated workforce, or whatever. The Children Parents! Ask yourself these questions: What skills did I use in my previous positions? Are they important to Aid is Essay, the employers or jobs that I am considering? 3. Compared Parents, Of Authoritative! Accomplishments/Achievements Penelope Trunk, the job search author, encourages you to look at your past jobs and Foreign Aid is Activities Essay, list achievements, not job duties anyone can do a job, but achievements show you did the job well. A case in point is dr faustus when a job seeker writes: Managed two people and created a tracking system for marketing. Instead, consider this: Managed the team that built a tracking system to decrease marketing costs 10 percent. The second example obviously sounds more impressive. Using accomplishment statements helps the hiring authority understand how you made a positive impact on business operations or outcomes. Mark Zappa, who works at the Minnesota WorkForce Center, points out Foreign Used for Illegal Essay, that an compared with the children parents, are, accomplishment can be an actual testimonial from a supervisor a nice break from the usual standard resume information.

An accomplishment statement might read: Identified learning resources and developed productive partnerships within a closed, individual-driven department. 4. Job Search Goals Establish clear objectives for Aid is for Illegal your search. What kind of company do you want to work for? What size? In what field?

What sorts of jobs are you seeking? After you complete these steps, youll have a list of your previous job titles, dates of employment, the employers name and address and a list of at least 20 of your job-related hard and soft skills. A good resume has critical content elements that must be complete and compelling. There are a few general guidelines for showcasing your experience and skills on just one or two pages of text. Dr Faustus! Resumes are fairly predictable in features and Aid is Activities, information, but some choices have to be made. They are not typically documents used to show off your innovative design or creative writing skills.

The one exception to this rule might be if you're pursuing work in a creative field. Yet even then these resumes must remain cautiously creative. Now we're going to deconstruct a resume, section by section, and even line by line. We'll start at the top, end at the bottom. Don't worry about the final look or format of your resume just yet. Start with the core content. After you have this core information, you can fine tune or customize each resume for each job opening. This is called targeting your resume. There are two types of fonts, serif and sans serif.

Serif fonts have tails or feet and sans serif fonts do not. Should Salutatorian Speech! Use a serif font for your name because that style often looks more prominent. Aid Is Activities Essay! For the rest of your resume, pick a font that's easy to read in print and online. Resumes that use a sans serif font may scan better and to birmingham, subsequently look better when the employer retrieves them from their applicant tracking system database. Put your full first and Foreign Activities, last names on importance its own line at the top of the page. Choose your favorite professional-looking font.

For ideas, look at the list to your left of common, readable fonts that work well for resumes. Your name can be in a different font than the body of the resume. Type your name in bold or CAPITAL LETTERS to make it stand out, and make it larger point type than the body of the Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities, resume. Your address should not contain abbreviations. Include all 10 digits of your landline phone or mobile number. It should be a number where you can be reached at all times. Use a professional personal email address. Some job seekers have an email address that is solely used for martin luther their job search. If applicable, also include your LinkedIn profile address.

You may hyperlink these links to make it easy for Aid is Used Activities an employer to contact you by email. 1443 HireMe Lane. Employmentville, Minnesota 55555. Include an objective when you are pursuing a specific job goal and when you know the dr faustus, exact title of the position you are applying for. The objective statement helps target your resume. When applying for a specific job, use the Foreign Aid is for Illegal, title in your objective and should in a, even add the Foreign Activities, name of the company as in the following example: Objective: Landscape Design Specialist at Creative Environments Inc. Some online job application forms and job posting websites require an importance of computerization, objective statement.

Here are a few examples of objective statements that indicate precisely what kind of position the job seeker wants. Customer service representative Manufacturing sales representative Office manager Senior admissions and enrollment officer. Your resume should include an effective Summary Section that briefly highlights your recent work experience (including industries you've worked in), applicable certifications, achievements and skills that best match the Foreign Aid is Used, position for and e-Commerce Infrastructure which you are applying. That means you'll have a customized Summary Section for each job you apply for. The summary should be slightly longer than the objective statement, containing two to four lines or a series of Aid is Used Essay, phrases and can be used instead or combined with an martin, objective statement. Name this section Professional Summary, Professional Profile, Summary of Qualification, Career Summary or Career Profile. Used! Below are two examples: Objective: Landscape Architect. Summary: Certified and innovative Landscape Architect with extensive knowledge in be included construction, engineering and design. Recognized for Used Essay creatively solving design and sustainability challenges, reducing project management expenses by 25 percent and having a positive, customer-focused attitude. Certified Nursing Assistant with over two years long-term care experience caring for elderly and vulnerable adults.

Excellent client care; works well with bedridden, physically-challenged and memory-impaired residents. Commended for of computerization superior safety and attendance record. Foreign Aid Is Used Activities! Friendly, caring and compassionate, with excellent interpersonal communication skills. Flexible: available days, evenings, weekends and holidays. Maintains confidential information. Include a skills section to quickly and effectively communicate your experience and make yourself stand out from This Is and Always Will other applicants. Match your skills (used in volunteer and paid positions) from the list you have already created with the Aid is Activities Essay, requirements and what should in a salutatorian speech, preferences included in Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay the job posting. Formats for skill lists include: 1. Bullet Point List with Results.

Format your skill section as a list of bullet points- that is three lines to importance, five lines long. Limit each entry to Foreign Used Essay, two lines. Choose action verbs that demonstrate responsibility. For example, managed, coordinated or designed. Vary the action verbs that you choose. This helps make your abilities sound more diverse and importance of computerization, adds depth to your resume. Foreign Aid Is! Use the list of action verbs provided in this chapter and in the job opening itself for ideas.

Review your list of accomplishment statements to This Is and Always Will, quantify your results. 2. Grouping Skills by Topic. Consider grouping your skills as job-specific qualifications below headlines such as Accounting Qualifications, Consulting Qualifications or Teaching Qualifications. Relate your skills and Used Essay, work within that profession, with perhaps a general skill or two. This format is often used to list your competency using computers. Employers presume that applicants are proficient with word processing, spreadsheet usage and email applications, but if these skills are listed in the job opening, include them on dr faustus your resume, Consider listing specific names of business applications (such as Excel 2010, SharePoint 2013 or Salesforce) or industry specific skills (such as CNC machine tools or types of CAD software). Use a bulleted list, three to five lines long. List your most recent employment first. A general standard is to chronologically list in reverse order the last three to Foreign Aid is Activities Essay, four jobs or those you have had over the past 10 years.

Name the employer, location, your official position and the years you worked there. If you have worked for only one employer in the last decade or more, show your recent promotions. If your job title did not change in the last decade you can still show job progression by showcasing how you took on more complex job tasks and increased responsibilities. How much information should you give about your past jobs? Focus on what you did and your accomplishments in various positions. Essay! Make your employment history sound more impactful by Foreign Aid is Used using action words such as maintained, led, worked, performed, developed, directed, established, functioned, monitored and trained. Use bullet points and make your sentences one line. Sentence fragments like specialized in of computerization training employees to use proprietary software that resulted in a 15 percent reduction in data entry errors work fine.

List no more than four to six bullet points in describing your last job. Then use two to Used Activities Essay, three points for subsequent positions. Although contact information is compared with of authoritarian parents, of authoritative parents are typically given on an application or reference sheet, many resumes still list the employer name, city and state. Other job seekers might limit this information to Foreign Activities Essay, keep the resume focused on skills, accomplishments and qualifications that best match the job opening. The choice is yours.

There is Will House Essay no single standard that fits all situations. If you are a first-time job seeker or re-entering the workforce after a gap in employment, use this section to Foreign for Illegal Activities, emphasize professional capabilities, but still include some past employment or volunteer history. Job seekers with established job search goals often seek out a volunteer opportunity that is a close match to the paid job that they want. If more of your skills and experience come from employment, list employment first and education last. E-Business Infrastructure Essay! List education first if you are a student, recent graduate, or pursuing a career with educational emphasis. Include the name of the institution, location (city and state), graduation date or projected graduation date, degree(s) earned, field of study and GPA (if over 3.0).

If you haven't been to school in years, you can list education after your professional experience and skip the year you graduated to avoid potential age discrimination. You also can list relevant training or certifications that might impress employers or relate to the position you're applying for. For job seekers who did not graduate from undergraduate or graduate programs, a simple disclosure is best: Attended the University of Minnesota, 2010-2013. It shows you have ambition even though you didn't graduate. If you never went to college or finished high school you can list yourself as a high school graduate as long as you have a GED or another type of high school equivalency certificate. List the name of the school, school district or state where you earned the GED or high school equivalency certificate.

Do not include an education section if you did not finish high school and Used for Illegal Activities, had no formal training either in school or from an employer. Individuals currently taking classes or pursuing a degree related to their job goal should include that information. List the and e-Commerce Infrastructure, skills acquired, academic accomplishments and Aid is Activities Essay, the projected date of completion. List organizational memberships related to the children of authoritative parents are, your job goal. Avoid using non-employer-related or controversial organizations. Don't mention specific religious or political affiliations or other potentially controversial groups unless they directly relate to the job you want. Include military experience on your resume as part of your work history. If you are targeting a job within the defense industry, feel free to Used for Illegal Essay, use military jargon. House Essay! The defense industry likes candidates who understand the lingo. If you are targeting a job outside of the defense arena, you will need to civilianize your military language to show that your skills and Aid is Used for Illegal Essay, experience match the employer's needs.

See the Transferring Military Skills document for a list of military-to-civilian job skills. Volunteer experience can fill in any gaps in employment. It can demonstrate responsibility and help highlight skills that may not have been used in your work career. Served as an officer of the PTA? Or a coach at your children's school? That shows leadership, even if your career may not have offered you any opportunities in leadership roles. Include hobbies and personal interests if they're employment-related, not controversial, and show skills and experience. Do not include your references or the martin luther jr letter to birmingham jail, phrase references available on request on the actual resume. Foreign Aid Is Used Activities Essay! It is assumed by employers that you will provide this information if requested. Dr Faustus! Once an employer asks for your references, provide the names and Foreign Aid is for Illegal, contact information of three to with the children parents, five people who can speak favorably about Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay your attributes. Let the This Is and Will, employer know of any awards or recognition you have received (employee of the month, industry awards, and so forth).

Those are accomplishments worthy of mention. Targeted resumes are a necessity for Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities most job openings. Why? Busy employers and networking contacts plus improved technology have changed the Is and Always Will House Essay, way resumes are written and Foreign Aid is Used Essay, used in a job search. Your resume has to communicate a lot of information in the 10-second glance it gets from a networking contact or a prospective employer. If the martin king, employer uses an applicant tracking system (ATS) it first has to successfully pass electronic screening and resume ranking before it is Activities Essay read by of computerization the hiring authority. Your resume might be in for a rocky trip before you are selected for an interview for a job opening. Used Activities Essay! It takes more time to speech, write a targeted resume that includes important keywords, but it is well worth the effort. Use keywords such as industry jargon and words commonly found in titles of jobs for positions you are applying for. The keywords in your targeted resume will help you stand out in Aid is Used for Illegal Activities an ATS because it's set up to identify specific skills of e-Business and e-Commerce Infrastructure, applicants. These software programs help an employer identify individuals with certain traits and backgrounds that fit job openings.

Many of these systems accept more resume copy than you typically can fit on a one- or two-page resume. Foreign Aid Is For Illegal Essay! Use this opportunity to luther king jr letter to birmingham, include more of your relevant experience and Foreign for Illegal Essay, skills. Avoid putting keywords in white around the margins of your resume because eventually, your ATS resume will be read by hiring decision makers. An ATS allows companies to avoid having to look at hundreds of resumes, many from people poorly qualified. If the targeted position is unavailable, your resume may be stored in another section of the ATS database called a Talent Management System. Highlight your desire for a specific job and to be considered for other related openings in your cover letter. That gives your resume a chance to be found in the Talent Management System later and indicates the flexibility many employers seek.

You have all the core content to be included in a, build an Activities, attractive and multipurpose targeted resume. Use any one of a number of the children of authoritarian the children of authoritative, resume templates to create a visually pleasing and easy to read resume document. After you have completed the resume, you will have the flexibility to distribute your resume in plain text, save it as a PDF, send it as an email attachment, cut and paste sections of it for online job applications, or print it for networking meetings, postal-mail job applications or an interview. Your targeted resume with keywords should be used when you have a networking contact meeting or cold-call prospective employers. If you have worked in an industry, your resume will showcase your knowledge of that industry's keywords. If you are changing careers, looking for an entry-level job or re-entering the workforce, you'll need to research a specific employer's or an Foreign for Illegal, industry's needs. Sources of information include company websites, position descriptions, employer profiles on social media sites, industry publications, other networking contacts and informational interviews. Use this information to dr faustus quote, adjust your skills and Foreign Used for Illegal, experience content to martin luther, fall within the needs of the employer or industry.

Your targeted resume will quickly and effectively communicate your experience, skills and job search goals to a networking contact or prospective employer. Giving networking contacts your resume containing targeted content helps your contacts better understand what they can do for Foreign Aid is Used Activities Essay you. These contacts are pipelines to what is called a warm referral - that personal connection to quote, another contact or an employer who has a job opening. Networking is Aid is for Illegal strongly advocated by job search experts because personal contact has a history of leading to a new job. When applying for a job, you will fine tune your targeted resume to mirror the requirements of that specific job opening. Is And Always Will House Essay! Your content must include not only your relevant experience and Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal, skills that the employer wants, but the keywords used in the job opening announcement. Your job is to compared with of authoritarian the children of authoritative are, show that your qualifications and experience match what the Aid is Used for Illegal Essay, employer is seeking because employers look for e-Business Infrastructure resumes where the Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay, applicant has all (or nearly all) of the qualifications and experience that are in the job posting.

Start by carefully reading the job posting. Job postings tend to follow a pattern. Importance! Employers usually summarize the Aid is Activities, job responsibilities followed by king jr letter jail the required and preferred qualifications for Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay all applicants. Look for the most important requirements at the top of the job posting and the least important at This Is and House the bottom. Foreign For Illegal Essay! Targeted resumes that use the same words that the employer used to summarize the job responsibilities, qualifications and skills have a better chance of martin luther jr letter jail, moving forward through an ATS or a manual candidate screening process. Resumes should be sent to a specific person. Foreign Used! Use their name.

Avoid sending the resume to a job title such as Production Manager. It will take extra effort, but do your research and find out the e-Business Infrastructure Essay, name and title of the Aid is for Illegal Activities, appropriate person to whom your resume should be sent. If asked, send your resume to human resources. Then also send a resume to the person in charge of the dr faustus, department in which you want to work. Aid Is Used Essay! Most of the time, human resources do the compared with the children parents, of authoritative parents, screening, but it's the department manager who is the final hiring authority. When mailing your resume, always send it with a cover letter. Mass-mailing your resume to employers does not work.

The statistics are that for Aid is Used for Illegal Activities every 1,000 resumes you send to employers you can expect to get two interviews. Target a smaller pool of compared with of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents, employers instead of Aid is for Illegal, haphazardly mass mailing to martin jr letter to birmingham jail, a random list of Aid is Used, names. Follow up your resume submissions with a phone call to the employer. Be courteous, professional and persistent about selling your qualifications. Be sure to ask for an interview. When directly contacting employers, always have a copy of your resume available and take the initiative to offer it to importance, them. Always bring extra copies of your resume when directly contacting employers. When applying for Aid is for Illegal Activities a job with a paper employment application, attaching your resume is a good idea. The resume will add impact and should complement the application. If you're asked to fill out an application, never write on it See resume. Filling out the entire application is still required.

Give a copy of your resume to your references. It provides them with information about you and will help them to talk to an employer about your qualifications. Hand or send emailed copies of your resume to all networking contacts. With The Children Parents, Are! It's an excellent ice breaker to use the resume as a center for discussing your qualifications. Ask your contacts to critique your resume. Finally, follow-up, follow-up, follow-up. Foreign Aid Is Used Activities Essay! It's no use mailing resumes if you don't take the time to try to compared the children parents, parents, directly speak to companies. The true test of an effective resume is that you're offered interviews. If you aren't getting responses or interviews from your resume, you may want to Aid is Essay, re-evaluate it.

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Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Share this article. Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Is it really possible to completely eliminate homework or at least to Foreign Used for Illegal, assign it rarely, only when it#8217;s truly needed even in high school? We keep hearing from Will House Essay educators who say it#8217;s not only possible but preferable to Foreign Activities Essay, do so. Some of these folks were influenced by the arguments and data contained in with the children of authoritarian parents, parents are The Homework Myth , while others came to realize on their own that it simply isn#8217;t necessary to make students work a #8220;second shift#8221; after a full day in school.

One example, whose comments are included in the book, is Phil Lyons, a high school social studies teacher. He noticed that homework contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to an end #8220;a way to accrue points.#8221; Homework typically consists of tasks that are #8220;time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in Aid is Used Activities Essay students,#8221; Lyons says. Of Computerization. Interestingly, he confesses having assigned a lot of homework at the beginning of his career #8220;as a crutch, to compensate for poor lessons. Foreign Aid Is Used For Illegal. . . . But as I mastered the material, homework ceased to be necessary.#8221; And so he assigned less and less of it as the years went by. Today he assigns none at all, even to his A.P. classes. #8220;In addition to reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for homework I also do not assign reading to be done at home,#8221; says Lyons. #8220;Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Infrastructure Essay. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over Used Essay, 100 college-level articles in the course of the year. Using class time enables us to go over the information collectively and immediately.#8221; And the importance of computerization result? #8220;Each year my students have performed better on the [A.P.] test#8230;.I would feel justified encroaching on students#8217; free time and I#8217;d be willing to do the grading if I saw tangible returns, but with no quantifiable benefit it makes no sense to impose [homework] on them or me.#8221; However, Lyons did notice one clear difference after eliminating homework: #8220;Students come in all the time and hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. Foreign Aid Is Used Activities. When intrigued by a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out more knowledge.#8221; Academically speaking, then, the absence of homework #8212; even in a high-level high school course #8212; created absolutely no problems.

Intellectually speaking, it has been positively beneficial. Yet, Lyons observes, the prospect of questioning homework leads some people to react in what be included in a salutatorian much the same way that creationists do #8220;when you try to Foreign Aid is, explain evolution to importance, them.Despite all the for Illegal logical arguments, they refuse to believe less homework can lead to more and better learning.#8221; But he quickly adds that, even in the sorts of communities where high school is regarded mostly as a source of credentials for dr faustus quote the purpose of admission to selective colleges, people can be successfully invited to reconsider their assumptions: I#8217;ve encountered a lot of hostility from parents who think their children are being shortchanged because they came home and said they didn#8217;t get any homework. But after I explain, most turn quite friendly and supportive of the Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal policy. Adults freely admit that they can#8217;t remember anything about the election of 1876 from their high school U.S. History class, and that other skills and experiences were more important.

Once I explain that those important skills and experiences are better served without repetitive homework assignments, they usually concur. Testimony from other teachers has been rolling in to birmingham jail since The Homework Myth #8216;s publication. To wit: #8220;For the past month of the final term I assigned no outside homework. Foreign Used Essay. I teach English, so all reading and writing was done in class. This Always Be My Essay. I had to Foreign Aid is Used Essay, plan more carefully and navigate those times when the quicker readers or writers finished earlier. There are many positives that resulted. The kids were better rested, more interested in what we were doing in This Will House Essay class, and Used for Illegal Activities Essay, the quality of the work they did in class was better. I thought I might have some parent calls, but the only feedback I got was a few parental remarks that they were glad to see their kids not so stressed. [The students#8217; written] reflections convinced me that homework has a long-term detrimental impact on be included salutatorian, student learning. Foreign For Illegal Essay. More importantly it seems to with the children of authoritarian parents, the children, harm them in other ways, emotionally, developmentally, socially, etc. I regret not having done this earlier in the year. I plan to Aid is for Illegal Activities, go homework-free next year in all my classes except AP Literature.#8221; #8212; Jim Drier, English teacher, Mundelein (IL) High School. #8220;I#8217;ve assigned homework once this semester.

That was Geometry. In Algebra, I#8217;m not sure I#8217;ve assigned any [I believe] students need a certain amount of practice for each new concept. That amount certainly varies by the children parents, the children of authoritative, the student, however. [And] if my kids evaluate and graph forty points over a class period, why would I send them home with any more?#8230;.The issue for most math teachers, I believe, is Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities, one of time management. The only year I assigned homework with any regularity was during my student-teaching, when my class management plainly sucked. By assigning whatever practice we didn#8217;t finish [as] homework, I was transferring the cost of my poor teaching onto my students.#8221; [Mr. This Always House Essay. Meyer investigated this issue for his Masters thesis and found no statistically significant difference in achievement between students who were and were not assigned homework. Students#8217; attitudes about learning, and about math, were much lower for those who got homework, however.] #8212; Dan Meyer, high school math teacher in Used Activities CA [from his blog] #8220;I always felt weird about assigning specific books for kids to read.

How could you possibly find a book that is at all 34 kids#8217; reading levels. Not to mention the martin luther to birmingham fact they would all have to be excited about reading the book! . . . [With most homework, students] do what they already did in class, and Essay, the ones that get it waste their time doing it again and the ones that didn#8217;t just get discouraged and struggle through it. It particularly would break my heart when parents would tell me. . Luther Jr Letter To Birmingham. . how nights would be ruined. How could any teacher not feel bad about that? Then I would correct it and put it in their files and then they would stuff it in Aid is Activities Essay their backpacks never to what be included salutatorian, be looked at Used again.

Not to mention the inequity of some kids#8217; parents being able to help and some not. . . Infrastructure. . I have gone from Foreign Aid is Activities Essay assigning pre-arranged one-size-fits-all drill homework to virtually none now.#8221; #8212; Richard Coleman, San Diego teacher. E-Business And E-Commerce Infrastructure. #8220;Assigning homework was something I did without really thinking because it was something that had always been done. Not assigning homework has drastically cut down on Foreign Aid is Essay, the amount of time I spend mindlessly grading student homework and has increased the luther jr letter to birmingham amount of Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Essay time I spend preparing for lessons . . . looking for e-Business Infrastructure Essay interesting activities and finding #8216;real world#8217; examples of mathematics#8221; #8212; Kate Degner, math teacher, Williamsburg (IA) High School. [from her Master#8217;s thesis] #8220;I first read The Homework Myth while trying to get my daughter through a middle school that was obsessed with making kids do 2-3 hours of Aid is Used for Illegal Activities homework every night. We have since moved her to a great alternative school where homework is minimal, and she is making great progress. After reading your book, I thought about compared with of authoritarian parents, parents, how I was teaching my [college] classes #8212; lecture, then assign pages in the text workbook to Activities, be turned in at the next class.

I realized that what I needed to do was more #8216;hands on#8217; teaching in the classroom. I eliminated most of the homework assignments (except for major projects), and had the students do the exercises in class while I walked around giving help where needed. I told the students that the few assignments I would give are for the purpose of giving me feedback #8212; #8216;Are they getting it?#8217; This has made for importance of computerization a lot less busywork for me and for the students, and Foreign Used for Illegal, has brought me into closer contact with the students and how they are learning.#8221; #8212; David Moore, music theory teacher, Univ. of Tulsa. #8220;Many kids are burned out on martin to birmingham jail, school and learning before they leave 3rd grade due to Aid is for Illegal Essay, the increasing amount of homework being demanded of them. Having read your book this summer, I decided to try doing very limited homework in dr faustus my 2nd grade classroom. What I#8217;ve found is Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities, that the kids are less confused in math [as a result]. I encourage reading, studying math facts, and with the children of authoritarian parents, parents, let parents know that the kids are responsible for learning any missed spelling words. (I think they are putting more effort into writing the words correctly so as to avoid taking them home.) My parents are all happy and other 2nd grade teachers are trying it.#8221; #8212; Carol Tuveson, elementary school teacher, Stratham (NH) Memorial School.

We#8217;ve also heard about whole schools that have virtually eliminated homework rather than merely adjusting the amount or tweaking the details of Foreign Used for Illegal Activities Essay its implementation: #8212; After Christine Hendricks, the principal of Grant Elementary School in Glenrock, WY, implemented a no-homework policy, a survey of parents revealed that children had more time to play, sleep, read, and eat dinner with their families and spent less time watching TV. Dr Faustus. Children also had an Foreign Used Activities Essay, improved attitude towards going to school and parents found themselves in martin luther to birmingham fewer conflicts with their children. [Source:] #8212; Banks County Middle School in Homer, GA, a lower-income, rural, public school, has eliminated virtually all homework. Principal Matthew Cooper explained: #8220;First, I want our students to have the Foreign for Illegal Activities opportunity to be kids. If they cannot learn what they need in seven hours, something is wrong. A #8216;No Homework#8217; policy actually results in better classroom instruction. It puts more responsibility on teachers to maximize class time. Second, homework was setting many of our students up for jr letter failure.

It resulted in lower grades and lower self-esteem. Homework also creates an adversarial relationship between the teacher and students. Foreign Aid Is Activities. In short, homework does not create happy students, nor does it create happy teachers. And it definitely does not create successful students.#8221; The abolition of what should be included salutatorian homework, he reports, has had a positive effect even when judged by conventional measures such as grades and for Illegal Activities, the number of students meeting state standards. This Is And Always Be My House. [Source: personal communication from Matthew Cooper] #8212; #8220;Oak Knoll Elementary in Foreign Essay Menlo Park [California] has mostly banned homework, except reading, occasional projects or catch-up work. Addison Elementary in This Essay Palo Alto and Foreign Aid is Activities, the Berryessa School District in San Jose are discussing the compared of authoritarian parents, parents are issue.

Since Bubb Elementary School in Mountain View relaxed its homework regimen, fourth-grader Elyse Fitzsimons has been reading on Activities Essay, her own, #8216;devouring books,#8221; said her mother, Renee Fitzsimons. The new policy also allows the family more time together in what salutatorian speech the evening, she said.#8221; [Source: San Jose Mercury News February 25, 2007] ( For more examples of teachers who have eliminated homework, and Foreign Aid is Activities, suggested strategies for parents who are concerned about the toll homework is should in a, taking on their children, please see the Aid is Used book The Homework Myth and of computerization, the DVD No Grades + No Homework = Better Learning.)

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Jews in the American Labor Movement: By Bennett Muraskin. German-speaking Jews who arrived in Aid is Used Activities, the US in the mid-19th century spread across the US and tended to be merchants and shop keepers. Yiddish speaking Jews from Eastern Europe who arrived in the US beginning in the 1880s settled in of computerization, the big cities and tended to be workers. The conditions they faced were daunting. Low wages, long hours, unsafe workplaces and overcrowded and unsanitary tenement housing were the norm. Most of these Jewish immigrants came from small towns and were not prepared for the noise, dirt, congestion, disease and crime rampant in the great American cities of Foreign Aid is Activities Essay, that period. Some even turned to crime and prostitution. Martin Luther King To Birmingham. However, they were free of the anti-Semitic laws and Foreign Used for Illegal, violence that plagued them in Eastern Europe. Their children were entitled to martin luther jail, a free public education and once they became citizens, they could vote and participate in the political process.

At first, many were pre-occupied with earning enough money to send for relatives they left behind in Europe. From the Aid is beginning, Jews gravitated to with parents, parents are, the garment industry in part because they had experience as tailors in Eastern Europe. It did not take long before they began to see trade unions as the Used for Illegal Activities Essay path their economic and social progress. However, before going any further, it is necessary to recognize one of the most important Jewish personalities in the history of the American labor movement, Samuel Gompers. Gompers came to US from England in 1863. Dr Faustus. His parents came from Foreign Aid is Essay Holland, with ancestry dating back to jr letter to birmingham jail, Spain. In other words, he was a Sephardic Jew. Gompers became a cigar maker and was one of founders of Cigar Makers Union back in 1870s. He was integral to the founding of the American Federation of Aid is for Illegal Activities, Labor in the 1880s and led it until 1924, but he did not share language, culture or politics of East European Jews. Gompers is considered a conservative influence because of his devotion to craft unionism, hostility toward socialism and opposition to immigration.

By 1888 there was already a Jewish labor movement called the United Hebrew Trades, originally conceived by Russian-speaking Jewish intellectuals and revolutionaries who frowned on Yiddish as inferior language of the shtetl. Some actually came to the US to established farms run on a socialist basis--a back to the land movement. But these projects soon fizzled and they moved to the big cities among other Jewish immigrants. As committed anarchists and socialists, they sought to organize the Jewish working class, but in order to do so, they first had to master Yiddish. At this early stage, Yiddish was a means to an end, not an should be included, instrument for cultural development. Aid Is Used. Their propaganda, though, used religious imagery to inspire the workers--passages from the importance of computerization Prophets on social justice, references to Aid is for Illegal Essay, modern day Pharoahs and to dr faustus quote, the Israelites liberation from Used for Illegal Essay Egyptian slavery etc.

Abraham Cahan, later the editor of the Yiddish newspaper, the socialist daily Forvertz, was one of these early revolutionaries and was the first to use Yiddish to reach Jewish workers. To aid in this campaign, he translated the Communist Manifesto into Yiddish. The earliest Jewish unions were, of course, in the garment industry, but also among cigar makers, bakers, printers, painters---and surprisingly, actors. These were semi-skilled or skilled workers in sectors where Jews were not only the workers, but often the owners too. The owners were typically German Jews who arrived in the US a few generations earlier and who had become successful businessmen--by exploiting the importance of computerization East European Jews who came after them. In 1886, even before the formation of the Foreign for Illegal Activities United Hebrew Trades, Jewish labor unions, although very small at this time, participated in a national wide general strike to achieve the eight hour day. They supported the dr faustus quote campaign to elect social reformer Henry George mayor of NYC. He lost to the Democratic candidate, but beat out the Republican, the Aid is Essay young Theodore Roosevelt.

Another early Jewish labor leader who was also of Sephardic origin---Daniel DeLeonwas the dominant figure in the first major socialist organization in the US--the Socialist Labor Party. An immigrant from Curacao, a Caribbean island ruled by the Dutch, he was, for king jail, a brief period, a popular figure among East European Jewish workers in the US, although he was not openly Jewish. In the 1890s there were 25 Yiddish-speaking branches of the SLP and in Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay, NYC over 30% of the This House Jewish vote went to SLP candidates. Who were Jewish labor leaders role models and their mentors? Not other Jews, but German American anarchists and socialists who came to Foreign Activities, the US in the mid-19th century and dr faustus quote, the German Social Democratic Party, then the largest socialist party in the world. Many Jewish immigrants who arrived in the late 1880s or early 1890s were radicalized by the famous Haymarket Affair (1886) in Chicago, which resulted in the hanging of Aid is Used for Illegal Essay, four anarchists all but one German immigrants, for allegedly throwing a bomb that killed police who were breaking up a rally in martin luther king jr letter jail, favor of the eight hour day. Alongside the Jewish labor movement there arose the Yiddish socialist and anarchist press. Not just journalists, but poets, novelists and short story writers, who worked by day and wrote by night and Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay, whose creative work ardently reflected their support for martin king jr letter jail, the Jewish labor movement. In 1892, for example, Di Zukunft ( The Future) a literary journal began publication as a means to Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay, propagate socialism among Yiddish speaking Jews. Within a few years Yiddish poet Morris Winchevsky, considered the original sweatshop poet was contributing poems with both Jewish and labor oriented themes. The best known sweatshop poet Morris Rosenfeld, who arrived in this country from London in 1886, but grew up in compared parents, the children parents are, Poland, wrote this verse:

The sweatshop at midday--I will draw you a picture; A battlefield bloody; the conflict at rest; Around and Aid is Used for Illegal Activities, about me the corpses are lying; The blood cries aloud from the luther king jr letter to birmingham jail earth's gory breast. A moment. and hark! The loud signal is sounded, And dead rise again and renewed in their fight. They struggle, these corpses; for Foreign for Illegal Activities, strangers, for House, strangers! They struggle, they fall and they sink into the night.

Not only were poems like this widely read, they were put to Aid is Activities Essay, music and sung by of computerization Jewish workers. In a way that can scarcely be imagined today newspapers played a large role in the lives of working people. Immigrant Jews, who were highly literate and politically active, founded one of the for Illegal most influential newspapers--the Yiddish Forvertz --edited by Abe Cahan. It began publication around the turn of the 20th century and attained a peak daily circulation of 250,000 in e-Business Infrastructure Essay, the 1920s. The Forvertz building on the Lower East Side featured engravings of Foreign Aid is Essay, Marx and Engels and the phrase Workers of the World Unite appeared on its masthead.

The two other most influential labor-oriented newspapers were the Frei Arbeter Shtimme , with an anarchist perspective and the Freiheit , the Yiddish communist paper, a rival to the Forvertz that emerged in the early 1920s. In addition to This Is and Be My House Essay, advocating for socialism, unionism and Jewish secularism, the Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay Forvertz featured human interest stories and its famous advice column known as bintl brief. Short stories by Yiddish writers appeared in serial form. After 1905, the Jewish labor movement was invigorated by the immigration of Bundists, i.e. The Children The Children Of Authoritative Parents. Yiddish speaking socialist activists from Czarist Russia, escaping the repression that followed the failed revolution. They wasted no time in rising to the leadership in the unions, the for Illegal Essay Socialist Party, the fraternal orders, the socialist press and what be included salutatorian speech, kindred organizations.

By far the most dramatic and memorable event in the post-1905 Jewish labor movement was the Uprising of the 20,000. For four months over the winter of 1909-1910, Jewish and Italian women, and a few men involved in the manufacturing of women's shirtwaists in NYC, led by the International Ladies Garment Worker Union (ILGWU,) conducted a general strike against Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Essay sweatshop conditions. These include long hours, piece work, abusive supervisors, poor ventilation, and no job security. Strikes had already broken out in what be included in a speech, various shops. Foreign Used Essay. At a mass meeting, Clara Lemlich, a young Jewish woman who had already been arrested many times by martin jr letter to birmingham the police and Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay, beaten up by thugs came to compared with the children of authoritarian the children, the platform and called for a general strike. Aid Is Used. Benjamin Feigenbaum, the chairperson of the meeting, a well known Jewish atheist, took Lemlich's hand and held it up. He asked if the crowd was ready to take the old Jewish oath, which says If I forget thee O Jerusalem, may my right hand wither from the Always House Essay arm I raise. Foreign Aid Is Used For Illegal. But he changed a few key words. Instead he said, If I turn traitor to what should in a, the cause I now pledge, may my right hand wither from the arm I raise. Foreign Aid Is Used Activities. Every arm in the hall went up and martin luther jr letter jail, this is Used Activities Essay how the general strike began. Four months later--four winter months later--after many arrests and picket line violence, the union won.

A general strike of tens of thousands more workers in martin luther king jr letter jail, the cloak and Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay, suit industry, most who whom were men, followed in dr faustus quote, 1910 which was also successful. A similar victory was achieved in Chicago in 1912-13, in a mass strike led by a young Sidney Hillman and Used for Illegal Activities, Bessie Abramowitz, who later became his wife. Clara Lemlich who became Clara Lemlich Shavelson after she married, became, along with her husband, a founding member of the Communist Party in 1919. As a house wife during the Depression, she organized rent strikes and boycotts over high meat prices. She also participated in the Emma Lazarus Clubs founded by Jewish communist women to fight for social justice and support left wing Yiddish institutions. These strikes pitted East European Yiddish speaking workers against German Jewish employers. Should Be Included Salutatorian. But many of the wives of the German Jewish employers and other upper class and middle class gentile women were involved in the Womens Trade Union League and as such, supported the Foreign Used for Illegal strike and actually joined the picket lines. The big makhers in the Jewish community were so disturbed that they eventually pressured the employers to agree to luther jr letter to birmingham, mediation by a young Louis Brandeis, later the Aid is for Illegal Essay first Jewish Supreme Court justice appointed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and a prominent Zionist. In a document called the Protocols of Peace, covering 339 shops. workers won a 50 hour week, a union shop, and end to what should in a speech, piecework, equal division of work during slack season, a limit on forced overtime, paid holidays and the arbitration of Foreign Activities, grievances. An even larger strike of This Always Essay, cloakmakers in Aid is Used Activities Essay, New York and Chicago in 1910 was also successful. Gains of this nature were not won by other industrial workers for another 25 years!

In the midst of this strike wave, there occurred a great man-made tragedy---The Triangle Fire on March 25, 1911 that killed 146 mostly Jewish and Italian girls in a shop that had managed to resist the union tide. The entire Lower East Side was grief struck and what be included in a speech, the general public horrified. After the Aid is Used Essay strike, impartial investigations were conducted and the New York State legislature enacted various safety codes. The garment workers unions took advantage of the justified hostility toward the garment manufacturers to luther king jr letter to birmingham, renew their organizing drives. These strikes made the ILGWU and the Chicago based Amalgamated Clothing Workers into powerful unions with deep roots in the Jewish community. Other unions with high Jewish membership and leadership formed among furriers, hat and cap makers, bakers, printers and painters. The Jewish union federation known as the Foreign United Hebrew Trades grew to 250,000 members by 1913. It did not happen all at dr faustus, once, but the big garment workers union's pioneered what became known as SOCIAL UNIONISM. Some of for Illegal Activities Essay, its features were: health clinics sanatoriums for TB pensions day care centers cooperative housing like the salutatorian speech Amalgamated Houses and Penn South in NYC vacation resorts/summer camps (e.g, Camp Nit Gedayget or No Worries) adult education and lectures cultural activities etc. first in Yiddish, later in English banks (one still exists in Used, NYC) labor solidarity and support for industrial unionism.

Since not all Jewish workers were in unions and not all pro-labor Jews were workers, there was a need for broader institutions. The same generation of left-leaning immigrant Jews working class Jews who founded the dr faustus quote Jewish labor unions, also founded the Arbeter Ring/Workmen's Circle, known for its insurance plans, health care programs, old age homes, Yiddish schools, summer camps, sports teams, womens clubs, reading circles, choruses, orchestras and much more--all with a strong emphasis on Yiddish, socialism and labor solidarity across ethnic lines. Socialist Zionists and later Jewish communists established parallel institutions. Another pivotal event in the history of the Jewish labor movement was the election of Meyer London to Congress from the Lower East Side in 1914 who served two more terms until 1922. He was a Jewish labor lawyer, an immigrant fluent in Yiddish and Essay, English, who ran as a candidate for compared the children parents, the children of authoritative, the Socialist Party, which was the Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Essay majority party among Jewish workers in these years. His election was a great source of e-Business and e-Commerce Infrastructure Essay, pride for the immigrant Jewish working class of NYC. He joined another Socialist member of Aid is Used for Illegal, Congress, Victor Berger, a German Jew from Milwaukee, then a socialist stronghold due to the children parents, the German population, more Gentile than Jewish. Other immigrant Jews were elected on the Socialist Party line in Foreign Aid is Activities Essay, New York to the state legislature. E-Business Infrastructure Essay. On the federal level, Jews in the labor movement voted Socialist too, most notably for Eugene Victor Debs before WWI and to a lesser extent for Norman Thomas in the 1920s and early 1930s.

Jewish socialists were so enamored with Debs, a gentile, that they named a New York City radio station after himWEVDeven though most of Foreign Used for Illegal Activities Essay, its programming was in Yiddish. The third most prominent Jewish candidate for public office was Morris Hillquit, #2 man in the Socialist Party next to Debs. Hillquit, who was also a labor lawyer, won 22% of the vote running for mayor of NYC in 1917 and 33% in 1932, during the depths of the Depression. The most radical union in be included, this period, i.e between 1905 and US entrance into World War One in 1917 was the Industrial Workers of the World. It did not have many Jewish members because the Aid is for Illegal IWW did most of its organizing among industrial workers, agricultural workers, miners and lumberjacks, where Jews were rarely worked. But in their forays into the East, most notably the 1912 Lawrence, Mass. Martin Jr Letter To Birmingham. textile workers strike and the 1913 Paterson, NJ silk workers strike, thousands of for Illegal Activities Essay, Jewish workers participated, including Hannah Silverman, a Paterson mill worker, who became an important strike leader. Matlida Robbins, born Tatiana Rabinowitz, led a strike of textile workers in Little Falls, NY in dr faustus quote, 1912 and was hired by Foreign Used the IWW as one of two paid female organizers. The best known Jewish Wobbly was Frank Tannenbaum, who organized unemployed workers in New York City to demand food and shelter from churches during the bitter cold winter of 1913-14. He was falsely accused of inciting to martin luther to birmingham jail, riot and served a year in Foreign Used Essay, a notorious city prison where he organized a strike of inmates against harsh conditions.

Tannenbaum later dropped out of the labor movement to pursue a higher education. He earned a PhD from Columbia University and become a scholar specializing in race relations, criminology and Latin American history. The Jewish-dominated labor unions constituted the left wing of the AFL, along with a few others unions where Jews were not a factor. In 1919, when an organizing drive led to what in a, a mass strike among steelworkers, the Aid is for Illegal Amalgamated Clothing Workers donated nearly 40% of the funds raised by the entire labor movement, even though the number of Jewish steelworkers was miniscule. The Forvertz covered this and other strikes by non-Jewish workers for its Yiddish readership, not only for their news value, but to encourage labor solidarity. It was not all great deeds, though. Women in the union shops did not receive equal pay for equal work, or the better jobs, and were also kept out This Is and Will of the union leadership.

One of the few exceptions, Rose Pesotta, eventually became so disillusioned with the inferior status of women in Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay, the ILGWU that she resigned. Fellow organizer Fania Cohn suffered a similar fate. In some instances, the ILGWU engaged gangsters to fight both employers and internal union dissidents. Corruption and dr faustus quote, nepotism were not unknown. Nevertheless Jewish women, including Pesotta, Fania Cohn, Rose Schneiderman, Pauline Newman, Bessie Abramowitz and Rose Pastor Stokes achieved far greater prominence than their Gentile counterparts. It was Schneiderman who eloquently stated in Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities, 1912 that the worker must have bread, but she must have roses too. The phrase bread and roses actually comes from a poem written by a Jewish poet James Oppenheim in compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children are, 1911 honoring the Aid is Used for Illegal Essay sacrifices and dignity of women workers. Put to music, it has become a labor anthem. (The 1912 Lawrence textile strike has gone down into history as the bread and roses strike, because of the reported use of the phrase on picket signs, but some historians dispute this claim.) The difference that Jewish labor unions and their network of affiliated institutions made in improving lives of the Jewish working class in be included in a speech, the material and spiritual sense was outstanding. A typical Jewish worker in this period could easily belong to a Jewish labor union and/or a mutual aid organization like the Workmens Circle, read the Yiddish Forvertz , send their child to a socialist/Yiddishist after-school program and summer camp, live in cooperative housing, attend lectures by Yiddish and socialist speakers and vote for Foreign for Illegal Essay, the Socialist Party. The only other immigrant communities that established comparable networks of labor, social welfare, political, cultural and educational institutions were left-wing German Americans, who, as previously noted, were the and e-Commerce Infrastructure Essay original role models for the Jewish labor movement and, for that matter, the Workmen's Circle and Foreign Aid is Activities Essay, Forvertz . But their heyday was in the 19th century.

Finnish immigrant socialists, who were mainly concentrated in quote, Minnesota and Wisconsin, were organized along the Activities Essay same lines, but were far less visible than Jews. Among the bulk of the non-Jewish immigrant populations, the be included salutatorian speech Catholic Church played a comparable role in terms of providing social services and childrens education, but with a profoundly conservative philosophy. The Church may have accepted trade unionism of the more bread and Foreign Used, butter variety, but were fiercely opposed to secularism, socialism and a prominent role for women. What was most distinctive about the immigrant Jewish working class, in the broadest sense of the term, was its desire for of computerization, education. Foreign Aid Is Used Activities Essay. Many immigrants of all nationalities attended night school to learn English, but Jewish labor activists also established study groups, libraries, schools and lecture programs first in Yiddish and later in English, not just to teach the principles of anarchism, socialism, communism, labor unionism etc., but to teach literature, economics, science and civics. A Jewish Workers University connected with the dr faustus quote Communist Party existed from 1926 to 1941 teaching a variety of courses, exclusively in Yiddish.

The socialist ILGWU had its own Workers University. The best known adult schools were the socialist Rand School of Social Science (founded in Foreign Aid is Activities, 1906) and the communist Jefferson School of Social Science (founded in 1944), both located in New York City. The Children Of Authoritative Parents Are. They were non-sectarian, of course, but the majority of Aid is, their students were Jewish. The Womens Trade Union League sponsored a summer school for should salutatorian, women workers at Bryn Mawr College that continued from 1921 to 1938. A preponderance of students were Russian Jewish immigrants. The children of these radical Jewish workers flocked to public colleges in higher numbers than any other ethnic group and were integrally involved in Foreign Aid is Used, New Left of the 1960s and 1970s including the civil rights, anti-war, feminist and luther king jr letter jail, gay liberation movements. The notorious Palmer raids associated with the post-World War One Red Scare caused the arrest and in some cases deportation of non-citizen radicals, many of them Jewish. Social activism and union membership shrunk in the 1920s due to government repression, but some of the harm done to Used for Illegal Activities, the Jewish labor unions was self-inflicted. A schism in the Jewish labor movement developed in compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative, the early to mid-1920s after the communists seceded from the Socialist Party to form the Communist Party. The issues in dispute were the appropriate attitude toward the new Soviet Union and the assessment of revolutionary prospects in the US.

The pro-Soviet Jewish communists and anti-Soviet Jewish socialists went to Foreign Used Activities Essay, war over and e-Commerce, control of the ILGWU and became bitter rivals throughout the Jewish labor movement. The communists lost after a very ugly battle, but gained control over the Furriers Union. The split went far beyond the Foreign for Illegal Activities labor movement. Jewish communists established a new newspaper, the Freiheit to rival the Forverts. By the late 1920s, Jewish communists had formed their own radical fraternal mutual aid, cultural and educational organization, known as the Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order to compete with the Arbeter Ring/Workmans Circle. The JPFO was affiliated with other pro-communist ethnic constituencies in the International Workers Order, but the Jewish branch was by far the This Always Be My Essay largest. Aid Is For Illegal Activities Essay. The JPFOs devotion to the Stalinist Soviet Union knew no bounds, but it was also committed to progressive causes and Yiddish culture. The linke (left wing) and rekhte (right wing) Yidn battled it out in quote, their press, in the unions and meeting halls and in the streets. According to Irving Howe, author of World of Our Fathers , there was nothing in the whole Jewish immigrant experience to match the civil war between the Jewish left for sheer ugliness. There was no doubt that the communists were left wing, but only in Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay, the context of quote, bitter factional rivalry could the socialists be described as right wing.

The entire labor movement took a beating in the 1920s and in the early years of the Great Depression. Revival in all industries and trades came with the New Deal. In 1937, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was formed to organize millions of industrial workers in Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay, the mining, auto, steel, rubber, oil, electrical and maritime industries, in Infrastructure Essay, which there were very few Jews, but three out of the eight American Federation of Labor unions that split away to form the CIO were the Jewish unions: the ILGWU, the Used Activities ACW and the Hat Makers and Milliners Union. As organizers, Jewish socialists and compared of authoritarian the children of authoritative, communists played a significant role in the mass strikes the CIO conducted among largely non-Jewish workers in basic industry. A small CIO union, called Local 1199, led by Jewish communist Leon Davis, organized the mostly Jewish pharmacists and Aid is, other drug store employees in New York City during the Depression and World War Two. In the late 1950s, it branched out into organizing Black and Puerto Rican hospital workers in New York City and achieved success by engaging in This Is and Always Be My Essay, very militant strikes, first in New York and later in Essay, other states. Jews were also prominent as attorneys for the CIO unions. Lee Pressman was general counsel to the CIO during the late 30s and compared the children parents, the children of authoritative parents are, 40s; Maurice Sugar general counsel to the United Auto Workers and John Apt general counsel to Aid is Activities Essay, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers from 1938 to 1946 and a top advisor to its president Sidney Hillman. Arthur Goldberg served as general counsel to the United Steel Workers in the late 40s and early 50s. He went on to become Secretary of e-Business Infrastructure, Labor under JFK and Foreign Aid is Used Activities Essay, a Supreme Court justice under LBJ. In 1939, Morris Ernst represented the e-Business Infrastructure CIO in a landmark civil liberties case before the Aid is Used Activities US Supreme Court that established its right to freedom of assembly in Jersey City, NJ.

As an attorney for the American Newspaper Guild, an AFL union, Ernst also won a case before the US Supreme Court guaranteeing the right of newspaper employees to organize under the National Labor Relations Act. Although one step removed from the labor movement, Jews were also prominent among labor arbitrators and mediators. Theodore Kheel was widely known as the mediator of choice in settling labor disputes in jr letter, New York City, including the lengthy newspaper workers strike of Foreign for Illegal Essay, 1962-63. On the Is and Be My House Essay cultural front, the Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay ILGWU sponsored a theatrical production called Pins and Needles which ran for 3.5 years on Broadway from 1937 to dr faustus quote, 1940. It took the form of a review consisting of songs, sketches and satire and Foreign Activities, included rank and file workers in the cast. The most socially conscious of all Broadway musical plays, The Cradle Will Rock, was also a product of the Depression era--and the New Deal's Federal Theater Project . It told the story of an organizing drive among steelworkers. Both music and lyrics were written by Mark Blitzstein, an avowed communist. The epitome of pro-labor theater during the 1930s was Clifford Odets Waiting for Lefty (1935) whose final scene consists of New York City taxi drivers chanting Strike, Strike, Strike! Odets too was a Jewish communist.

There was also a genre to and e-Commerce Infrastructure, proletarian literature during the 1930s and 40s suffused with radical themes. Among Jewish writers, Michael Gold stands out for for Illegal Activities, his fictionalized autobiography Jews Without Money (1930) about an impoverished child growing up in king jr letter, the Jewish ghetto of Manhattan whose experiences led him to embrace communism. Howard Fast, a much more successful writer, best known for Spartacus (1951) and Foreign Aid is Used, decades later The Immigrants (1977), also wrote Clarkton (1947) about a factory workers strike in Massachusetts. On the and e-Commerce Infrastructure Essay political front, in 1936 the more conservative wing of the Socialist Party, whose base was the Jewish labor unions, collaborated with the Communist Party in for Illegal Essay, forming the American Labor Party (ALP), which despite its name was limited to New York State. It supported FDR and other New Deal Democrats, but also ran its own candidates against Tammany Hall, the dr faustus Democratic machine. Its greatest triumph was electing Italian American Vito Marcantonio to Congress, representing Harlem. He served for six terms and was influential in New York left wing circles from the Foreign Aid is Activities late 1930s to of computerization, the early 1950s. The ALP also elected a Jew, Leo Isaacson, who served only one term in Congress, and some local and state legislators.

The bulk of its funding, until the socialists split in 1944 to Aid is Used Activities, form the Liberal Party, came from the Jewish labor unions. ILGWU President David Dubinsky was an important figure in of computerization, the Jewish labor movement during the 1930s and 40s, but the most influential on the national political scene during the New Deal and Foreign, up through WW II was Sidney Hillman, the President of the left-wing Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Along with the of authoritarian the children ILGWU, it formed the backbone of the American Labor Party. In the 1940s, Hillman became an FDRs top advisor on labor issues and head of the CIO's political action committee. Activities. In 1944, FDR uttered his famous Clear it with Sidney remark, giving Hillman a role in selecting the Vice Presidential candidate.

His role, however, was limited. Parents, The Children Parents. The sitting Vice President Henry Wallace was his and the CIOs first choice, but Wallace was dropped from the ticket by the party bosses. Hillman got to choose between two remaining candidates and approved the selection of Harry Truman over a more conservative contender. Although Hillman died young in 1946, Dubinsky continued to lead the ILGWU until the Foreign Used Essay mid-1960s. The ILGWU attained a peak membership of 450,000 under his leadership.

But in 1941, he unfairly denounced a wildcat strike of over a thousand workers against the Maidenform Bra company in Bayonne, New Jersey as communist-inspired. In this case, the owners were Jewish, and the workers mostly Polish and Italian Catholics, although one of the strike leaders was a Jewish radical Archie Lieberman. In 1961, Dubinsky notoriously opposed an organizing drive among his own union staffers. Jewish workers (and Jews in general) idolized FDR, despite his failure to take decisive action to rescue the Jews of Is and Be My House, Europe from Hitler. Most Jewish organizations did not do much themselves, but in 1934, the Jewish socialist unions, together with the Workmans Circle and the Yiddish newspaper Forvertz formed the Jewish Labor Committee, led by Baruch Charney Vladeck, to Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay, sound the alarm about the rise of Nazism, organize a boycott of German exports and bring endangered trade unionists to the US. Working within the conservative AFL, Vladeck convinced that body to issue strong anti-Nazi resolutions. Here is how he appealed to the non-Jewish labor leaders: In the torture chambers of dr faustus quote, fascism, the Aid is Activities Essay Jew occupies a conspicuous and painful place. Importance Of Computerization. One of the most important reasons why all tyrants hate us is because of our long experience resisting injustice. Aid Is Activities. Over 4000 years ago, a Jew by the name of Moses. led the first strike of bricklayers at martin king to birmingham jail, the Pyramids and since then all Pharoahs are our enemies. Vladeck had a storied career.

He was the manager of the Forvertz . Before World War One, he was elected as New York City alderman on the Socialist Party ticket. In 1936, he was elected city councilman as a representative of the American Labor Party in Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay, 1936 and served until his untimely death in 1938. After the war, the Jewish Labor Committee provided relief for importance, Jewish refugees and pressured Congress to pass legislation admitting them to the US. When these efforts were stymied, the Foreign Aid is Activities JLC supported immigration of surviving European Jews to Israel. Music was an king jail, integral part of the left wing of the Foreign Aid is Used Activities labor movement--Jewish and importance of computerization, non-Jewish. Aid Is Essay. Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger (non-Jews) began singing in union halls and picket lines across the country in the late 1930s. After World War Two, Seeger, Lee Hays and two Jewish performers--Ronnie Gilbert and Fred Hellerman---formed the Weavers and packed concert halls in Always Will Essay, major venues, singing folk songs and for Illegal Activities Essay, songs of social justice. But they did not sing in Yiddish. A few Hebrew songs, celebrating the new state of Israel, were part of their repertoire.

Joe Glazer (d. 2006), known as Labor's Troubadour, and Tom Glazer (d. 2003) were also part of this tradition. They both composed and and e-Commerce, performed labor songs, although they came from different political perspectives. Joe was anti-communist; Tom was more sympathetic to communism. The Weavers disbanded in the mid 1950s.

The Glazers, who were not related, continued on Foreign, (separately) until the the children of authoritarian parents, are 1990s . In June 1979, Joe Glazer invited other labor musicians to the George Meany Center for Foreign, Labor Studies in Silver Spring Maryland to share labor-related songs and to discuss the effective use of music, song, poetry and dr faustus, chants in labor activism. The three-day event became an annual event, known as the Great Labor Arts Exchange (GLAE). It still exists today. Historically unions led by Jewish socialists and communists were heavily involved in Aid is for Illegal Essay, fighting racism against Blacks. A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and a leading campaigner against importance employment discrimination had ties to the Socialist Party and Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay, its many Jewish activists. Importance Of Computerization. During the 1930s and Aid is Activities Essay, 40s, Jewish labor unions and labor radicals were the speech most active in supporting equal treatment for Blacks in the workplace and in the union hierarchy.

In the civil rights struggles of the Used late 1940s, Jewish communists stood out in their tireless efforts to integrate baseball. They regularly picketed and handed out leaflets at compared the children parents, of authoritative parents are, baseball stadiums demanding the end to the color bar. One noteworthy Jewish labor activist who consistently fought for racial equality was Harold Shapiro. In 1948, as a President of a Detroit local of the communist-led Fur and Leather Workers Union in Detroit, he helped convince the for Illegal Wayne County CIO to include the UAWs Coleman Young in its leadership. (Young became mayor of Detroit in compared the children parents, of authoritative, 1974). Aid Is Activities Essay. He was also one of the founders of the National Negro Labor Council. In 1954, he was called to called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) where he refused to answer questions about his alleged membership or that of others in his union in the Communist Party.

During the next decade, he organized in what should be included, the South for labor unionism and civil rights, braving arrests and beatings. The post-World War Two anti-communist hysteria aka the McCarthy era, lasting from the late 1940s to the late 1950s caused the AFL and CIO to purge communists from Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities its ranks, including a high proportion of Jewish communists. This had a chilling effect on all forms of labor radicalism. One of the unions expelled from the CIO as communist-dominated was the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, the successor to the Western Federation of Miners, the e-Business union that was originally the backbone of the IWW. In 1954, Jewish screen writer Herbert Biberman's film The Salt of the Earth appeared, based on a bitter 1951 strike conducted by this union among Mexican American miners in New Mexico. Many of the Aid is Used for Illegal miners and their wives appeared in Always Will Be My House Essay, the cast, along with a few professional actors. Biberman was one of the Aid is Used Activities Essay Hollywood Ten, writers and directors, who were blacklisted and jailed for contempt of what be included in a salutatorian speech, Congress in the late 1940s. The Salt of the Earth suffered a similar fate--very few theaters agreed to show it and it was denounced as communist propaganda. Foreign For Illegal Activities. The film was rarely seen until the late 1960s. Since then it has been become an underground classic in martin luther king to birmingham, progressive circles.

Coincidentally 1954 also saw the appearance of Pajama Game , an award winning musical featuring a strike at a pajama factory (enlivened by a love story), with music by Richard Adler and Aid is Activities, lyrics by Jerry Ross, both Jews. After World War Two, the role of Jews in the labor movement was further diminished by Is and Always Will Be My the post war economic boom which lifted Jews into the middle class. Jewish labor movement transitioned to Jews in the labor movement. The Yiddish component and the strong immigrant-based urban communities that sustained and nurtured a specifically Jewish labor movement went into rapid decline. As the number of Jewish garment workers dropped dramatically beginning in the 1950s, the ILGWU leadership remained Jewish, raising allegations that it had become an entrenched bureaucracy discriminating against the new minorities in the union ranks--Puerto Ricans and Blacks--as well as women. Mob control also became a serious problem in Foreign Aid is, some ILGWU locals. The ugliest episode in the post-WW II history of the Infrastructure Jewish labor movement was the 1968 NYC teachers strike led the Foreign Used Essay United Federation of Teachers and its high profile president Albert Shanker. In 1967 the dr faustus Board of Education, with funding from the Used Activities Ford Foundation, chose a predominantly Black Ocean Brownsville school district in Brooklyn for an experiment in community control. The UFT and the elected school board clashed over This Always House Essay, UFT demands to Used, remove disruptive students, the board's appointment of a principal not on the approved civil service list and, especially, the board's decision to transfer 19 teachers and administrators it considered ineffective. In 1968, the UFT launched a series of strikes that closed down the entire NYC school system. The community board accused the Union of racism; the Union accused the community board of union-busting--and anti-Semitism, because the bulk of the teachers it removed were Jewish.

The UFT was ultimately successful, but at the cost of dr faustus quote, inflaming racial tensions. Nevertheless, the UFT was later successful in Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay, organizing mostly minority para-professionals in e-Business and e-Commerce, the NYC school system. On the Used for Illegal Essay bright side, Local 1199, Drug and Hospital Workers Union and AFSCME (the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees) were so active in the civil rights movement that In 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called 1199 my favorite union. King chose Local 1199s Salute to Freedom program as his platform to announce his opposition to the Vietnam War. Later that year, King was assassinated in Memphis where he came to Always Will House, support a strike of black sanitation workers organized by AFSCME. One of King's top advisors, Stanley Levison, was Jewish. Because of his earlier ties with the Communist Party, King was pressured to distance himself from Levison, but he continued to consult with Levison behind the Foreign Aid is for Illegal scenes. Local 1199 (led by Leon Davis), representing drug store and hospital employees, District 65, (led by David Livingston), representing retail and light manufacturing employees and Be My House, the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) (led by Jerry Wurf), representing public employees, were also among the for Illegal Activities few labor unions that opposed the Vietnam War.

The children of martin king to birmingham jail, Jewish workers earned college degrees and Foreign Aid is Used Activities Essay, went on to become professionals. Many continued their parents tradition of social activism in the 1960s by joining the civil rights movement. There was a very large Jewish presence among the Freedom Riders. By the same token, many young Jewish red diaper babies played a major role in the birth of the New Left. Paul Jacobs was one labor activist whose career spanned the martin king jr letter to birmingham pre-war and post-war eras. In the early 1940s, he organized non-Jewish workers in Pennsylvania for the ILGWU in then, in for Illegal Activities Essay, the late 40s and early 50s, represented non-Jewish workers as International Representative for the Oil Workers International Union. In between, he worked for the American Jewish Committee in Always House, exposing racial discrimination within the labor movement. To his discredit, he also led a purge of the pro-communist Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order from the Jewish Community Council in Los Angeles. During the 1950s Jacobs visited Israel as a guest of the Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay Histadrut, the Israeli labor federation and took trips to Eastern Europe where he toured Auschwitz and educated himself about the e Holocaust. While visiting the Soviet Union, he found alive a Yiddish writer thought to be executed by Stalin. In 1961, he covered the Eichmann trial for a Newsday , a New York newspaper, arguing that Eichmann should be tried in importance of computerization, an international rather than an Israeli court.

His last foray into the labor movement was to Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay, write a Harper's magazine article in 1963 indicting the ILGWU for flouting union democracy, refusing to recognize its staff union and e-Business and e-Commerce, excluding Blacks from leadership. Although middle aged, he joined the New Left and became involved in the movements against the Vietnam War and nuclear weapons. In 1976, he co-founded Mother Jones magazine. In 1965, Jacobs wrote a colorful yet little known memoir Is Curly Jewish ? His answer was that he was not quite sure, but there was something very Jewish about his asking the question. Jewish involvement in Used for Illegal Essay, the labor movement received a new lease on This Is and Will House Essay, life with the Foreign for Illegal Essay expansion of the public sector, associated with LBJs War on Poverty in the mid-1960s and similar programs on state and local levels. Collective bargaining rights were generally not won in the public sector until the 1960s and 70s, through legislation and strikes. On the federal, state and local levels, Jews were heavily represented as teachers, librarians, social workers, college faculty and in other professional civil service/white collar positions. Unions such as American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, the American Federation of Teachers and some of the postal workers unions had a significant number of Jews in their rank and file and featured an even higher percentage in leadership and as union staffers and importance of computerization, lawyers. Victor Gotbaum, for example, led AFSCMEs District 37 from 1965 to 1987, as it became a powerful union of NYC civil service employees.

In public higher education, the American Federation of Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Essay, Teachers organized faculty in the New York city college system New York City in Essay, the late 1960s, soon to followed in the state university system, but the Foreign Used Activities groundwork was laid by a protracted and ultimately failed strike at the private Catholic St. Johns University led by Israel Kugler over 1966-67. Martin Luther King. Kugler was also a leader of the Workmens Circle and it contributed heavily to Used Activities Essay, the strike fund. The 1960s saw the massive expansion of women in the labor movement while leadership remained male-dominated. The Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) was founded in 1974 by women unionists affiliated with the AFL-CIO to address womens issues in the workplace. Dr Faustus. Its goals were and remain to: Promote affirmative action in the workplace Strengthen the role of women in unions Organize more women into unions.

At its founding convention in Used for Illegal Activities, Chicago, Myra Wolfgang, secretary-treasurer of the Detroit Joint Executive Board of the Hotel and Is and Will Be My House Essay, Restaurant Employees and Foreign Used for Illegal Activities Essay, Bartenders International Union (HERE), brought the delegates to their feet by declaring, You can call Mr. Meany and tell him there are 3,000 women in Is and Always Will Be My, Chicago and they didn't come here to swap recipes! Wolfgang, a Jewish woman, who later rose to the position of International VP, was one of the Foreign Aid is Essay most influential female labor leaders of her generation. In 1937, at the 23 years of age, she led a sit-down strike of salesclerks and waitresses at one of Detroit's Woolworth five and ten cents stores. Nicknamed the battling belle of of computerization, Detroit, she ran the union's Detroit Joint Council, which represented thousands of cooks, bartenders, food servers, dishwashers, maids, and other hotel and restaurant workers. In the 1960s, she negotiated a contract for the Playboy Bunnies at its Detroit Club. By 1969, HERE had won a national contract covering all Playboy Clubs. Another founding member of Foreign Used for Illegal Essay, CLUW was Evelyn Dubrow. For decades she served as chief lobbyist for This Is and Always Will House Essay, the ILGWU, working for the passage of minimum wage, family and medical leave, civil rights and fair trade legislation. Jewish labor leaders also made their mark in new fields for union organizing.

In 1966, professional baseball players chose Marvin Miller, a Jewish labor economist, to represent them. Over the next 16 years, he led the Aid is Used Activities players through a number of successful strikes and negotiated their collective bargaining agreements. The consensus among players, sports journalists and fans is that Miller belongs in the Hall of Infrastructure Essay, Fame, but opposition from the owners has kept him out. Other unions of professional athletes have chosen Jewish leadership as well. In 1979, Norma Rae, a major Hollywood film appeared about a dramatic organizing drive among Southern textile workers that ended in victory for the Union. Aid Is For Illegal. It was based on the true story of workers, led the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, who fought a protracted struggle to win union recognition and This Always, collective bargaining rights at JP Stevens, a North Carolina textile manufacturer.

The heroes of the movie were Norma Rae Webster, a scrappy non-Jewish woman who worked in the mill until she was fired for union organizing, played by Foreign Aid is Used Activities Essay Sally Field, and a union organizer from the North named Rueben Warshowsky, played by Ron Leibman. It was certainly true to life that one of the king jr letter chief union organizers, Bruce Raynor, was Jewish. In fact, it was Sol Stettin, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, who, as president of the Aid is for Illegal Essay Textile Workers Union, began the organizing drive at compared with of authoritarian parents, of authoritative, JP Stevens and engineered a merger with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union during the struggle that is Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay considered to be the key factor in the union victory. Stettin went on to found the American Labor Museum/Botto House in Haledon, NJ, a historic site connected to the 1913 Paterson silk workers strike. He also taught labor studies at compared with of authoritarian of authoritative, William Paterson College and Rutgers University where he was honored as the first labor leader in residence. Norma Rae s director was Martin Ritt, a Jewish leftist who has been blacklisted during the 1950s. Foreign Aid Is For Illegal Essay. Nu? What did you expect? Unions are imperfect organizations. They can become undemocratic, corrupt and in the worse cases, mob-controlled. The single pro-labor organization that has relentlessly campaigned for union democracy the aptly named Association for Union Democracy.

It has been described as a civil liberties organization that focuses on what should be included, the rights of members in their union to free speech, fair elections, due process and Used for Illegal Activities, fair hiring. Through education, legal action and organization, it has defended union dissidents and helped bring democratic reforms to unions including the United Mine Workers, the United Steelworkers and the Teamsters. Since its inception in 1969, its leader and guiding spirit has been Herman Benson, who turned 100 in dr faustus, 2015. He entered politics as a young socialist back in the 1930s, transitioned through the Trotskyist movement, then back to the Socialist Party before founding the AUD. His memoir, Rebels, Reformers and Racketeers: How Insurgents Transformed the Labor Movement, chronicles his fascinating career. The entire labor movement is in the doldrums, but Jews are still part of it. Not so much in the rank and Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal, file as in leadership or in related fields. Needless to say, you do not find Jews anymore in the garment industry, except perhaps in management. In fact, Jews were never found in large numbers in the mass production industrial unions, the building trades (except the painters union) or in the transportation sector (except for taxicab drivers). But Jews can still be found in compared with parents, the children of authoritative are, white collar public sector unions, especially in Aid is for Illegal Activities, education or higher education and in luther, unions in the entertainment industry, like Actors Equity and in the medical field, like the Committee of for Illegal Essay, Interns and Residents. Martin To Birmingham. It is perhaps inevitable, that their numbers are diminishing as other minorities move into these fields and young Jews choose different occupations. On personal note, I am employed as a staff representative for the Council of New Jersey State College Locals, affiliated with the Aid is Used Activities Essay American Federation of Teachers.

We represent over 9,000 full time and adjunct faculty, professional staff and librarians in the New Jerseys nine state colleges and universities. When I was hired in compared the children parents are, 1988, six out of the for Illegal nine local presidents were Jewish. Today, only two out of eleven are Jewish. And E-Commerce Infrastructure Essay. Our union delegates and rank and Used, file have also become less Jewish over the years. When I attended a massive labor rally of importance, public employees in Trenton a few years back, I joined Arieh Lebowitz, long time staffer for the Jewish Labor Committee and a few other JLC members in holding up signs. Union activists around us appears pleasantly surprised to Used, see this small organized Jewish presence. Years ago, I think a Jewish presence would have been taken for compared with parents, the children are, granted. Now Jews are assumed to be middle or upper class.

There are still, however, many Jews among American labor leaders. They include: Stuart Applebaum (openly gay)President of Retail Wholesale Department Store Union now a/w United Food and Commercial Workers and Essay, also President of the Jewish Labor Committee Randi Weingarten (openly gay)President of American Federation of Teachers Larry Cohen----until very recently, President of Communication Workers of America (CWA) Matthew LoebPresident of International Association of Theatrical and Stage Employees Eric SchwerzerExecutive Director of the Committee of Interns and Residents Hetty RosensteinCWA director for NJ and related to the founders of the progressive Puffin Foundation. There are also many union staffers, but rather than rise through the ranks, they come to the labor movement as college educated professionals. I am one of Is and Will, them. Jewish labor lawyers abound, but there may be just as many on the management side. Prominent Jewish labor leaders in recent years included Bruce Raynor, former president of UNITE/HERE and Andy Stern, former president of the Service Employees International Union, who attracted a lot of publicity for his success in organizing low wage workers in the 1990s and 2000s and as the prime mover behind the for Illegal Activities Essay Change to Win labor federation formed in 2005. The Jewish Labor Committee continues in Infrastructure Essay, its role as the Aid is Used advocate for labor causes in the Jewish community and Jewish causes in the labor community.

It has organized many Labor Seders across the country to introduce non-Jewish labor leaders to the social justice theme embedded in the Passover holiday. In the pursuit of social justice, there a few Jewish organizations worthy of mention including the New York based Jews For Racial and Economic Justice (NYC), the Washington D.C. based Jews United for Justice and a national organization, Bend the of computerization Arc (formerly known as Jewish Funds for Justice). Occupy Wall Streets Jewish participants organized public High Holiday services. Social activist rabbis include, Jill Jacobs, author of Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay, There Shall Be No Needy (2009) and director of Truah: Rabbinic Call for Human Rights, Michael Lerner, editor of Tikkun magazine and Arthur Waskow, founder of the Sholem Center. In the field of cultural arts, Bread and Roses founded by Jewish labor activist Moe Foner, as a project of Local 1199 Drug and Hospital Workers in importance, 1978, lives on. His brother Phil was a major historian of the American labor movement. Foreign Used For Illegal Essay. Contemporary Jewish labor historians include Stanley Aronowitz, David Brody, Melvyn Dubofsky, Nelson Lichtenstein and the youngest, Tony Michels whose latest book is Jewish Radicals: A Documentary History.

What accounts for the large role Jews played in compared of authoritarian the children are, the American labor movement, especially its progressive wing? Most of Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Essay, these Jews were immigrants from importance Czarist Russia. There Jewish men were doubly oppressed as Jews and workers. Jewish women were triply oppressed. Both tended to be more literate and urban than other immigrants to America. As perennial outsiders, Jews were positioned to take a critical of the status quo and Foreign Aid is Used Essay, more receptive to radical ideas.

Although Jewish clergy were conservative, they did not exercise the type of control imposed on Christians by the Russian Orthodox or Catholic Church. Living as minorities in many countries, Jews had a broader and more critical perspective on of computerization, the world than the Gentiles that surrounded them. Commenting on the presence of Jews in left wing movements Marxist historian Isaac Deutscher observed: I do not believe in the exclusive genius of any race. Yet I think that in Used for Illegal Essay, some ways, they were very Jewish indeed. They had in themselves something of the quintessence of Jewish life and of the Jewish intellect. They were a priori exception in that as Jews they dwelt on the borderlines of This Always Will House Essay, various civilizations, religions and Foreign Aid is Activities Essay, national cultures. Of Authoritarian The Children Of Authoritative Parents. They were born and brought up on the borderlines of various epochs. Aid Is For Illegal Activities Essay. Their minds matured where the most diverse cultural influences crossed and fertilized each other. They lived on the margins or in the nooks and crannies of their respective nations. They were each in society and yet not in it, of it and yet not of it.

It was this that enabled them to rise in thought above their societies, above their nations, above their times and generations and to strike out mentally into wide new horizons and far into the future. It has been suggested that some of the 613 mitzvot (commandments) that deal with economics and the prophetic teaching of social justice have also played a role in promoting Jewish progressivism. In my opinion, this is with the children parents, the children of authoritative parents wishful thinking. Those who study these Bible most rigorously have never been in the forefront of the struggle for social justice. However, there may be something to Foreign Used Activities Essay, the theory that Judaism's emphasis on collective responsibility rather than original sin and individual redemption helps explain Jews attraction to movements that stress social solidarity and the common good.

Finally, the Jewish tradition of arguing with God and with of authoritarian of authoritative parents are, debating points of Jewish law, applied to Foreign for Illegal Activities, the secular world, may have given Jewish men the chutzpah ---and the dr faustus analytic tools---to envision greater possibilities for Foreign Aid is Used Essay, social progress. American Jews have come a long way from the sweat shops and the urban ghetto of the Lower East Side. We are no longer on the margins of society. (Three sit on the Supreme Court and many more in corporate and bank boardrooms and in executive positions in law firms and the media.) Although the poor are still among us, Jews are, in fact, among the wealthiest demographic. Jews still have their Bernie Sanders and Robert Reichs and the labor leaders cited in compared with parents, of authoritative are, this essay, but we also have our Walter Annenbergs, Sheldon Adelsons and Bernard Madoffs. As Jews shrink as a percentage of US population, and right leaning orthodox Jews growing in number, it is Foreign Used Essay uncertain whether Jews will continue to distinguish themselves as advocates for what should in a, the labor movement and social justice. To quote a quondam progressive Jew, The answer is blowin' in the wind. American Social History Project, Who Built America: Working People and the Nation's History, Vol. Foreign For Illegal. II. Antler, Joyce, The Journey Home: Jewish Women in America.

Baum, Charlotte, Hyman, Paula and Michael, Sonia, The Jewish Woman in America. Buhle, Paul, Encyclopedia of the with parents, parents are American Left (numerous entries) Deutscher, Isaac, The Non-Jewish Jew and Other Essays. Dubofsky, Melvin, When Workers Organize: New York City in the Progressive Era. Foner, Henry, A History of the Foreign Activities Labor Movement in the United States. Goldberg, Itche and Rosenfeld, Max, Morris Rosenfeld: Selections from His Poetry and Prose. Howe, Irving, World of of computerization, Our Fathers.

Howe, Irving and Greenberg, Eliezer, Voices from the Yiddish. Jacobs, Paul, Is Curly Jewish? Jones, Thai, More Powerful Than Dynamite. Josephson, Matthew, Sidney Hillman: Statesman of American Labor. Laskin, David, The Family. Levin, Nora, While Messiah Tarried: Jewish Socialist Movements, 1871-1917. Michels, Tony, A Fire in their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York. Moore, Debra Dash and Hyman, Paula, Jewish Women in Foreign for Illegal, America.

Muraskin, Bennett, Let Justice Well Up Like Water: Progressive Jews from Hillel to Helen Suzman. Rischin, Murray, The Promised City: New York's Jews, 1870-1917. Sachar, Howard, A History of Jews in America. Schappes, Morris, The Jews in the United States: A Pictorial History. Sorin, Gerald, The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals 1880-1920. Stolberg, Benjamin, Tailor's Progress. Shuldiner, David, Of Moses and Marx: Folk Ideology in the Jewish Labor Movement of the United States.

Von Drehle, David, Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. The Jewdayo feature in Jewish Currents magazine is an excellent source of Infrastructure, information on this subject. Cobble, Dorothy Sue, The Labor Origins of the Next Women's Movement New Politics (Summer 2005) Kahn, Mark L, Profile of A Labor Activist: Harold Shapiro Michigan Jewish History , (Fall 2000, p. 37-42) Kugler, Israel The 1966 Strike at St.

John's University: A Memoir, Labor's Heritage , 9:2 (Fall 1997) Malmgreen, Gail, Labor and the Holocaust: The Jewish Labor Committee and the Anti-Nazi Struggle, Labors Herit age 3:4 (October 1991) Popper, Nathaniel, New Labor Leaders Take a Page from History, Forward , April 23, 2009. Copyright 2017 Congress of Foreign Used Activities Essay, Secular Jewish Organizations.

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How to Teach Introduction to Applied Ethics. Version 1 (June 18th, 2004) This, in my experience, is how the typical introduction to Foreign Aid is, applied ethics goes: At the beginning of the semester, the instructor faces a roomful of students who are sceptical about the value of the enterprise, if they are not completely indifferent to it. The class usually begins with a review of normative moral theory. That is, the importance of computerization class will read a bit of Mill (or a substitute) and Essay, a bit of Kant (or a substitute). E-Business And E-Commerce Essay? They will learn to associate Mill with a moral perspective which takes consequences to be fundamental to moral appraisal and Kant with one which takes rights or duties or autonomy or respect to be fundamental. And either explicitly or implicitly, the Foreign Aid is Activities Essay instructor will convey the impression that the task of applied ethics consists in mechanically applying these normative theories to importance, whatever subject matter comes up for Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay review. The brief survey of normative theory completed, the class then rushes through eight or nine or ten different moral problems (abortion, euthanasia, affirmative action, etc. etc. etc.), none of importance of computerization which are discussed with (much of) any reference to for Illegal Essay, the other.

Because so many topics are treated, they are all treated superficially and in a way that encourages the what should be included in a speech original impression that applied ethics involves the mechanical application of normative theories to particular cases. And that it is useless. Thats a harsh description, but although I make exceptions and even concede that generous plea bargains are in order in some cases, I think it is a fair generalization. (This essay is, in a way, part of my own plea bargain.) And although responsibility for the undercurrent of mutual antagonism running through so many introductory classes (especially, Ive found, introductory applied ethics classes), falls on students and instructors alike, I think we ought to Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay, face the fact that our own lousy teaching is responsible for some of the problems here. But even if it isnt, better teaching is probably the best way out of this mess. This essay describes a few modest steps in e-Business Infrastructure the right direction. As Ive suggested, many instructors, whether they mean to or not, end up perpetuating a narrow understanding of Foreign for Illegal Essay applied ethics.

Usually they dont actually have this understanding of applied ethics themselves. It is only when they get in the classroom and start racing through the material that they find themselves backsliding. I would not suggest that every time we teach a class in applied ethics we should teach a class on normative ethics (or metaethics) in parallel with it. But I do think that we should encourage our students to importance, do applied ethics in a self-reflective way, and that means reflecting on the status of our normative ethical theories as we go along. And because this point is difficult to get across, I think it needs to be emphasized. I intend to emphasize it for my class by putting the point in the syllabus (which is also useful since so many students can be counted on Aid is for Illegal, to miss the first class in the flux that begins a new semester). With apologies for a bit of repetition, here, in martin king to birmingham jail part, is Aid is Used for Illegal Essay what the current draft of the syllabus has to say about quote this: Applied ethics is often distinguished from Foreign Activities, normative ethics. The project of of computerization normative ethics is Aid is Used for Illegal Essay usually regarded as the attempt to importance, discover the moral theory which makes the best sense of our considered moral intuitions.

For example, some normative ethicists believe that our obligation is to do whatever promotes the most pleasure (and the Foreign Aid is Used Activities Essay least pain) for the most people involved in any decision. For other normative ethicists, rights are fundamental. On one way of thinking about applied ethics, applied ethics is rather like applied mathematics. In applied mathematics (or engineering, and so on) we take our mathematical theories - which we know independently of any particular case to be true - and we apply them to concrete problems, such as how much weight a particular bridge will bear given such and such forces acting on Is and Always House Essay, such and such a type of material. If we think of Foreign Aid is for Illegal Essay applied ethics in the same way, we may well imagine that the task of applied ethics is to take our normative theories - which we know independently of any particular case to Always House, be true - and apply them to Activities Essay, concrete moral problems, such as abortion, euthanasia, and so on. In my opinion, this way of thinking about dr faustus applied ethics is seriously mistaken. Essay? For if we consider how we arrive at our normative theories in the first place, it is at the children the children parents are least partly as a result of considering which theories handle specific cases (such as abortion, euthanasia, and so on) most plausibly.

The analogy with applied mathematics therefore threatens to mislead us about the way that moral reflection actually proceeds: Typically, we begin with intuitions about about what is morally right and test these intuitions against Used Essay, difficult cases. When we find a conflict, or an inconsistency, or the theory yields results which seem terribly implausible, we often revise the theory to bring it more in line with our considered views. So when we apply a normative theory to a specific case, such as abortion or euthanasia, as often as not we are testing the theory at the same time that we consider the particular case. A quick example: I taught a class on Just War Theory during the Iraq War. Importance Of Computerization? In that class, I tried to respect the point Ive just made in Foreign Activities Essay two ways. The first way was to emphasize the diversity of Just War theorists. Indeed, I urged students to think more of a Just War Tradition than a Just War Theory. So we would never find ourselves simply applying Just War Theory. Rather, we would need to try to find the of computerization more plausible versions of Just War theory by for Illegal Activities Essay, examining how they handled particular cases. The second point I emphasized was that even after that work in formulating the Is and Will Be My best version of Just War Theory, students might nevertheless be inclined to reject it as inadequate. That is, if our most plausible version of Just War Theory still led us to implausible claims about the Iraq War, it might for all that just be tough luck for Just War Theory. (There would still be lots of work to do, of course: We would need to explain why it was implausible, what alternatives there were, why it might seem plausible, and so on.)

In my experience, not every student is thrilled to encounter such untidyness. Foreign Used Essay? Some will - initially at least - take an even dimmer view of the enterprise of This Will Be My House Essay moral reflection, at least as professional philosophers understand it. And since the Used Activities Essay epistemological committments implicit in this view of moral reflection as a sort of reflective equilibrium are at Is and House Essay odds with the Aid is Used for Illegal Activities Essay intuitive (and largely foundationalist) epistemological sympathies of most undergraduates, teaching applied ethics this way runs the risk of aggravating students natural scepticism. Hold firm, I say. Hold firm because the alternative view (of applied ethics as analogous to applied mathematics) which grows more tempting as the semester wears you down, is, in This Always addition to being seriously misleading, probably more damaging to your case for the importance of moral philosophy than the alternative. And if you can succeed in giving an adequate sense of how moral reflection actually works - if you can pull it off - then you will have vindicated your teaching in Foreign Aid is Used for Illegal Activities a way that is really impossible on the alternative. This way lies possible failure, but also hope. The theory of moral reflection Im pushing here puts reflective equilibrium (as Rawls calls it) at the centre of the quote enterprise. But taking reflective equilibrium seriously means more than simply refusing to depict applied ethics as the Foreign for Illegal rote application of normative theories to particular cases. It also means testing normative theories and basic intuitions across a range of dr faustus cases, with special attention to inconsistencies which come to Foreign Used Activities Essay, light in the comparison of Infrastructure reactions to particular cases.

Many students, for example, will be attracted to Foreign Used for Illegal Activities, general principle X when they consider access to health care, but general principle Y, which is on its face incompatible with X, when they consider affirmative action. What Should Be Included In A Salutatorian? A course which moves from access to health care to affirmative action without noting the larger principles at stake - and the need to refine and choose from among them - is really failing to take either issue seriously. If there is one pedagogical mystery I have encountered in my life as a teaching assistant and student, it is the mystery of how so many intelligent and serious philosophers who have arrived at their own positions through precisely this kind of reflective equilibrium can teach entire classes without referring much (or at all) to the need to sort out the apparently conflicting principles which emerge when we consider our intuitions about particular cases. And even instructors who care to make this point dont do nearly enough to bring out the for Illegal Essay connections between particular topics. In my opinion, the Will Be My House Essay connections between issues are not some sort of Essay optional act that might come on during intermissions - time permitting - to keep us occupied. They are interesting and important in their own right.

In a good class, they often steal the show. A good course tells a story. It has a few related themes which are developed and elaborated over what be included salutatorian, the course of a semster by an instructor who knows how to relate any particular topic back to the broader themes. As Ive tried to Foreign Used for Illegal Activities, show, this is more than sound pedagogy. It is also sound philosophy, since understanding the martin luther relations between particular issues is a basic part of the work of for Illegal Essay philosophical reflection. But there isnt enough time for Infrastructure all that..

Well of course there isnt time if you insist on packing an Foreign Aid is Essay, issue a week onto the syllabus. Once, after taking a torturous graduate class on Kant which had us whipping through most of the Critique and half of the works in Kants moral philosophy, I almost screwed up the courage to martin to birmingham, write on the course evaluation: The course reminded me of galloping on a horse: You dont see much, and after a while you get sore . And so it is with most introductions to philosophy: In general, I think we would accomplish more if we tried to do less. That means that students will be deprived of any chance to learn (in your class) about topics which they might have covered. Console yourself thus: When you cut material out of Aid is for Illegal Essay your syllabus, your students at least have a chance to see how philosophical reflection actually works. Philosophical reflection takes time. It usually requires us to what be included in a salutatorian, dwell on an issue, and especially on Aid is Used Essay, different texts which dwell on should be included in a salutatorian, an issue. Aid Is For Illegal Activities? You cant do that in a week. Or rather, perhaps you can, but I cant, and neither can my students. So stop trying.

So on the one hand we need to think about the importance connections between different topics, and on the other it is Foreign Aid is Used essential to make room for a discussion of the connections between them. My own compromise for next semester is to dr faustus, cover three issues in applied ethics: abortion, euthanasia and Foreign Aid is for Illegal, animal testing. And throughout the course, I will try to draw attention to the various ways that we might be tempted to balance the different rights and interests involved in each of the cases. The point of these cases is that thinking about them together puts pressure on our specific responses to what in a speech, each. For example, each involves, in Aid is a different way, questions about the moral relevance of Infrastructure Essay pain and Foreign for Illegal Essay, autonomy. And each requires us to balance rights and responsibilities attaching to different parties with different capacities and potentials. But as Ive pointed out, part of the dr faustus balancing act in the treatment of each of these issues involves the balancing we do when we realize that we are attracted, for example, to one view of the moral relevance of pain when we consider euthanasia and another when we consider animal testing. Another problem Ive noticed in classes on applied ethics is that instructors are often surprisingly allergic to facts. Philosophers have a habit of bracketing disputes about empirical matters, so that they can focus on conceptual issues: OK, suppose that that is true. What follows? That can be an excellent habit, and Used, one that shows the appropriate degree of humility when were not an expert in the empirical study of the subject. And yet it seems to me that weve gone too far when we spend two weeks on, say, the e-Business and e-Commerce Infrastructure Essay issue of abortion, without ever mentioning how many women get abortions; what their financial circumstances are when they seek them; how many women who get abortions have more than one; whether the number of abortions, per capita, has increased or decreased in Foreign for Illegal Activities Essay recent years; how many women likely sought abortions when it was illegal; how many women would seek an abortion anyway if it became illegal again; how difficult it would be to seek an of computerization, abortion if it were illegal; and whether the difficulty varies with social class; and so on.

I recognize that these are tricky empirical questions, and ones were not trained as philosophers to Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay, address. But if part of the point of studying abortion in an applied ethics class is to Is and Will Be My House, make up your mind about the permissibility of abortion, its difficult to Foreign Aid is Used Essay, see how you can get away with bracketing these issues. They matter, if you think that consequences matter at all (and even if you favour rights-based approaches to the issue they ought to matter to dr faustus, you). For Illegal Essay? And anyway, students will inevitably rely on background assumptions about of computerization precisely these questions when they approach them. So I dont think its something you can get away from. One advantage of scaling back the number of subjects you try to Foreign Used for Illegal Essay, cover in e-Business and e-Commerce Infrastructure a class is that it gives you the chance to spend a class or two establishing some basic factual or technical points that will make the Foreign Aid is Used Essay ensuring discussion much less tentative and conditional. Covering the basic facts about an e-Business Essay, issue in a class also makes the point that responsible moral assessment of an issue often does involve a lot of Aid is for Illegal Essay effort to get clear on the non-moral questions tangled up in the dispute. These are all objections Ive had to the way that applied ethics is often taught. Let me draw back a bit and make a more general complaint. Here is another mistake that philosophy instructors often make: They confuse giving a sense of the philosophical questions involved in an issue with giving a sense of the state of the of computerization philosophical state of the art. Now, look.

Of course if were professional philosophers (or training to Used for Illegal Essay, be professional philosophers) we tend not only to enjoy the philosophical state of the art - we also think, more or less, that it matters. But we ought to understand that the philosophical state of the art is not something that develops by what should salutatorian, some purely philosophical process, responsive only to the unfolding of philosophical reasons in some pure Hegelian dialectic. Aid Is Used Activities? Quite often the jr letter to birmingham philosophical state of the art includes preoccupations which are quite accidental: At some point, one famous philosopher took issue (for possibly very quirky reasons) with another famous philosopher, and it generated a literature that people now feel obliged to take into account - especially because many of the leading lights in the field were trained by one or the other, and writing about the Aid is Used Activities Essay debate is compared with of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are a way of a) working through their own intellectual roots; and b) implying how very respectable those roots are. Fair enough. But dont for Used for Illegal Essay one moment suppose that anyone else is going to be riveted by importance, the to-and-fro here.(1) And - please, please - dont suppose that anyone not riveted by Essay, the to-and-fro is defective with respect to philosophical curiosity. In A? This is scholarly narcissism - and it ruins a lot of introductory classes. Obviously, you can still take all my advice and end up teaching an awful class. I may have myself, once or twice. Aid Is Used? But I think that things go better when we pay close attention to the sorts of things Ive mentioned.

For example, teaching Vlastos (on Plato) in a second year Introduction to Ancient Philosophy. Im sorry, but thats just nuts. Even if - if! - a handful of This Always Will Be My students find Vlastos interesting, they only have so many hours in the week to devote to the class. Foreign Aid Is? As a general rule, any hours spent on Vlastos are hours taken away from Plato. But Plato only makes sense after quite a few hours.

In all but the importance of computerization most exceptional cases, all this does it teach students how to pay homage to an intellectual authority - which may not be what Plato had in mind. This essay will be updated periodically as I think through the issues. Please feel free to link to it or otherwise distribute it under the terms of the Aid is for Illegal Activities Creative Commons license below. Parents? Feedback is Foreign Aid is for Illegal Activities Essay especially welcome. Unless otherwise specified, original content on Christopher Young's website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.