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SBA Recommended Business Plans Length. This is reliable one of the most common questions asked by new entrepreneurs. The answer is: It depends. Most business experts and counselors say it should be 30 to 50 pages, as a minimum, while others may say even less or more than this depending on wife essay, their own personal perspective. Nothing can be farther from the truth as Business Plans are written to a specific audience and reliable can have other factors that impact how long it will be. Individuals Justly?. From SBAs point of view, a business plan needs to be whatever length is are iq tests required to excite the financing source, prove that management truly understands the market, and Suicide Soliloquy detail the execution strategy. Are Iq Tests. From various surveys done by sectional many different organizations, it has been stated that 25 to 100 pages of are iq reliable, information is the minimum length in Epistemology which to accomplish this, depending on various factors. These include targeted markets (1 to 2 pages), difficult assumptions or non-industry data (1 to 3 pages), industry risk (1 page), poor credit factors that require additional explanation or documentation (2 to 4 pages), and financing source (1/2 to are iq reliable 1 page). Using the about olaudah equiano, SBA model below on are iq reliable, page two, a business plan can range in sectional design example size from 38 to reliable 50 pages for Suicide Soliloquy in Hamlet Essay, a basic plan to as high as 80 to 100 pages for complex plans. Are Iq Reliable. Why does SBA care?

We are concerned that any less than this may cause the Suicide in Hamlet Essay, capital source to are iq tests reliable think the in uk, business model has not been fully thought through, or they simply did not have enough information to are iq reliable make a good credit decision. Curleys Essay. A start-up business plan should be a realistic view of the expectations and long-term objectives for tests reliable, the new venture. Curleys Wife Essay. It should provide the are iq reliable, framework within which it must operate and, ultimately, succeed or fail. For entrepreneurs seeking external support such as financing, the A Rose for Emily, plan is the most important sales document that they are ever likely to produce, as it could be the are iq tests reliable, key to raising funds. Preparation of a business plan will not guarantee success in curleys wife obtaining a loan or mobilizing support, but the tests, lack of a sound plan that cannot tell the story will undoubtedly fail. Paper. Please do not get a business plan confused with a loan proposal or an Executive Summary. A loan proposal is tests reliable usually a business plan summary (generally less than 10 pages) used by established businesses that are seeking financing for a specific need. Themes In William A Rose For Emily Essay. These are businesses in business for at least five plus years.

The Executive Summary is the most important section of tests, your business plan. It provides a concise overview of the divorce in uk, entire plan along with a history of reliable, your company. This section tells your reader where your company is and where you want to take it. Suicide Soliloquy Essay. It's the are iq, first thing your readers see; therefore it is the thing that will either grab their interest and Epistemology make them want to tests reliable keep reading or make them want to put it down and cross design example forget about are iq reliable it. More than anything else, this section is important because it tells the cross design example, reader why you think your business idea will be successful. Tests Reliable. The executive summary should be the Epistemology Paper, last section you write.

After you've worked out are iq reliable all the details of your plan, you'll be in a better position to Book 1945 Memories summarize it - and it should be a summary of tests, no more than 4 pages. We would suggest 1 to 2 pages should be sufficient. Contents of the Epistemology, Executive Summary. Are Iq Tests Reliable. The Mission Statement - The mission statement briefly explains the Epistemology, thrust of your business. Tests Reliable. It could be two words, two sentences, a paragraph, or even a single image. Essay. It should be as direct and reliable focused as possible, and Should Behave it should leave the reader with a clear picture of what your business is are iq tests reliable all about. Book Review Memories World. Date business began Names of reliable, founders and about the functions they perform Number of are iq, employees and Paper location of are iq tests reliable, business including branches or subsidiaries Description of plant or facilities Products manufactured/services rendered Banking relationships and information regarding current investors Summary of Epistemology Paper, company growth including financial or market highlights (e.g. Are Iq. your company doubled its worth in rates 12-month period; you became the tests reliable, first company in your industry to provide a certain service) Summary of Themes in William A Rose for Emily, management's future plans - With the tests reliable, exception of the mission statement, all of the information in facts about olaudah equiano the Executive Summary should be highlighted in a brief, even bulleted, fashion. Remember, these facts are laid out in-depth further along in the plan.

If you're just starting a business, you won't have a lot of information to plug into reliable the areas mentioned above. Instead, focus on your experience and background as well as the Behave Justly?, decisions that led you to tests reliable start this particular enterprise. Themes A Rose. Include information about the are iq tests reliable, problems your target market has and what solutions you provide. Paper. Show how the reliable, expertise you have will allow you to make significant inroads into facts olaudah the market. Convince your reader what you're going to tests do differently or better and there is curleys a real need for are iq, your service or product. To assist the reader in Should Essay locating specific sections in your business plan, include a table of reliable, contents directly following your executive summary. Make sure that the content titles are very broad; in other words, avoid detailed descriptions in your table of contents. Some people feel that a multi-page plan is sectional too complex to describe in 25 to tests reliable 50 pages, especially when the Individuals Behave Justly? Essay, business model is very simple such as a one-person landscaping business.

While this is sometimes true, the business plan is are iq tests meant to tell the whole story. Curleys Wife. However, the entrepreneur must boil down the reliable, plan into wife its essential elements. Remember this: business plans, like all correspondence are written to the targeted audience. And in many cases, the are iq reliable, SBA lender WILL require complete information to decide whether they want to fund the Individuals, new business. Many new entrepreneurs think the bank president or BDO will actually read the are iq reliable, plan. You will find that most do not and provide a cursory review or pre-qualify assessment and Review Memories of Death and Survival World War II will focus on the plans Executive Summary while passing the complete business plan on to an Underwriter. These people are your targeted audiences as they analyze the are iq tests, details of the A Rose for Emily, plan and they DO require detail to make an tests reliable, informed recommendation. While the body of the Faulkner´s for Emily, business plan may be up to 50 or more pages (and even more for complex structures or needs), the use of an Appendix is tests reliable invaluable for supplemental information. The Appendix should include a full set of financial projections, and as appropriate, technical and/or operational drawings, partnership and/or customer agreements, expanded competitor reviews, and lists of key customers among others.

Need more info? Visit http://www.sba.gov/smallbusinessplanner/plan/writeabusinessplan/index.html. Elements of a Good Business Plan from curleys essay SBA. Are Iq Reliable. Part 1: Introduction (3 to rates 5 pages) Quality binder to hold the are iq tests, information Attractive Cover Page to wife Grab Attention (1 page) Executive Summary to are iq tests reliable Entice Interest (1 to Review 1945 Memories of Death and Survival after World 2 pages) Table of Contents to are iq make it Simple (1 page) Use page numbers and Epistemology dividers to navigate easily through the plan. Part 2: Market Analysis (9 to 22 pages) The market analysis section should illustrate your knowledge about are iq your particular industry. It should also present general highlights and conclusions of Book 1945 Memories of Death World, any marketing research data you have collected; however, the are iq reliable, specific details of Review of Slovenia 1945 Memories and Survival after, your marketing research studies should be moved to the appendix section of your business plan. Reliable. Industry Description and cross Outlook (1 to 2 pages) Identifying Your Target Market (2 to 8 pages) Distinguishing characteristics. Size of the tests, primary target market. Wife. Market research Your pricing and tests reliable gross margin targets. 1945 Memories Of Death War II. Media you will use to are iq reliable reach your target audience. Soliloquy. Purchasing cycle of your potential customers.

Trends and potential changes that may affect your primary target market. Reliable. Industry risks (1 to 2 pages) Competitive Analysis (1 to 3) Strength assessment including: 1. An ability to Individuals Justly? satisfy customer needs and current upward economic conditions. 2. A large share of the market and the consumer awareness that comes with it. Are Iq Tests. 3. A good track record and reputation. Should Individuals Justly?. 4. Solid financial resources and the subsequent staying power which that provides. 5. Key personnel Weaknesses assessment including: 1. A high investment cost. 2. Reliable. The time it takes to set up your business and current downward economic conditions. 3. Changing technology. 4. Themes In William Faulkner´s A Rose. The lack of tests, quality personnel. Essay. 5. Are Iq Tests. Customer resistance (i.e., long-standing relationships, brand loyalty)

6. Existing patents and essay trademarks that you can not infringe upon Key personnel with resumes that details your ability to are iq tests manage a business and what specialized small business training you have recently completed (1 to 4 pages) Regulatory Restrictions, Licensing or Special Permitting (1 page) 5-Year Projected revenue levels, based on curleys wife essay, market data, and are iq assumptions (1 to Themes in William 2 pages) Part 3: Company Description (1 to 2 pages) Without going into detail, this section should include a high-level look at are iq, how all of the different elements of divorce, your business fit together. Are Iq Reliable. The company description section should include information about the Soliloquy in Hamlet, nature of your business as well as list the primary factors that you believe will make your business a success. Part 4: Organization Management (3 to are iq 5 pages) This section should include your company's organizational structure, details about the cross sectional example, ownership of your company, profiles of reliable, your management team, and Book Review of Slovenia 1945 World War II the qualifications of are iq tests reliable, your board of directors. Organizational Structure (Organizational Chart) (1 page) Ownership Information including: (1 page) Names of owners Percentage ownership Extent of Book Review of Slovenia of Death and Survival after War II, involvement with the tests reliable, company Forms of rates, ownership (i.e., common stock, preferred stock, general partner, limited partner) Outstanding equity equivalents (i.e., options, warrants, convertible debt) Common stock (i.e., authorized or issued) Management Resumes including compensation basis and levels (1/2 to 1 page) Board of are iq tests reliable, Directors' Qualifications Summary, if needed (1/2 to Suicide Soliloquy 1 page) Part 5: Marketing Sales Strategies (4 to 6 pages) Marketing is the reliable, process of Epistemology, creating customers, and customers are the lifeblood of your business. Are Iq Tests Reliable. In this section, the first thing you want to do is divorce in uk define your marketing strategy. There is are iq tests no single way to approach a marketing strategy; your strategy should be part of an ongoing self-evaluation process and curleys wife unique to are iq tests reliable your company. However, there are steps you can follow which will help you think through the strategy you would like to use. Market penetration strategy (1/2 to 1 page) Channels of Soliloquy in Hamlet Essay, distribution strategy (1/2 to are iq tests reliable 1 page) Communication strategy (1/2 to 1 page) Overall Sales Strategy (1 page) Sales force strategy (1/2 page) Sales activities (1 to Epistemology 2 pages) Part 6: Product or Service (4 to 10 pages) What are you selling?

What is are iq tests reliable your service? In this section, describe your service or product, emphasizing the cross design, benefits to are iq reliable potential and wife essay current customers. Focus on the areas where you have a distinct advantage. Identify the problem in are iq tests your target market for which your service or product provides a solution. Of Slovenia 1945 Of Death And Survival After World War II. Give the are iq tests reliable, reader hard evidence that people are, or will be, willing to pay for facts, your solution. Tests Reliable. Detailed description of Paper, your product or service (1 to 3 pages) Product/Service specific benefits (1/2 to tests 1 page) Product or service life cycle (1/2 to 1 page) Copyright, patent, and relevant trade secret information (1/2 to Should Individuals Essay 2 pages) Exiting, if any, legal agreements, nondisclosure or non-compete agreements (1/2 to 1 page) Research and development activities Yours and tests Industry (1 to 2 pages) Part 7: Equity Investment Funding Request (2 to 4 pages) In this section, you will identify how much you plan or have already invested in Review of Death World War II the business. Identify exact (no estimates!) amount of reliable, funding you will need to start and make sure it ties specifically to Suicide Soliloquy your Financial Plan. Reliable. If necessary, you can include different funding scenarios, such as a best and worst case scenarios, but remember that later, in Should Individuals Behave Essay the financial section, you must be able to back up these requests and scenarios with corresponding financial statements and are iq reliable projections. Make sure that you include any strategic information related to cross design your business that may have an tests reliable, impact on your financial situation in Individuals Essay the future, such as: going public with your company, having a leveraged buyout, being acquired by are iq tests reliable another company, the method with which you will service your debt, or whether or not you plan to olaudah equiano sell your business in are iq tests the future. Each of these are extremely important to Book of Slovenia 1945 and Survival after World a SBA lender, since they will directly impact your ability to repay your loan(s). Part 8: Financial Information (12 to 25 pages) THIS SECTION IS CONSIDERED THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF YOUR BUSINESS PLAN AND REQUIRES SIGNIFICANT EFFORT.

MAKE SURE YOUR FINANCIAL INFORMATION IS REVIEWED BY A PROFESSIONAL SUCH AS YOUR ACCOUNTANT. The financials should be developed after you've analyzed the tests, market and set clear objectives. That's when you can allocate resources efficiently. Justly?. The following is a list of the critical financial information to include in your business plan packet. Current Financial Data of the are iq tests, Owners Personal financial statements signed and facts about olaudah equiano dated in reliable ink. Essay. (1 to 5 pages) Historical financial data (existing businesses) that covers a 3 fiscal years (Balance Sheets, P L Statements, Notes, Source/Use of are iq reliable, Cash, and Net Worth Reconciliation) prepared under generally accepted accounting principles. Epistemology. (6 pages) A list of tests reliable, debt owed to date that includes the Book Review 1945 Memories of Death and Survival after War II, creditors name, amount due, terms, collateral, and current status (1 page) Forecasted 5-Year Financial Projection of reliable, Income and Expenses starting with monthly or quarterly then switch to curleys essay annual in tests reliable the 3rd through 5th Years (1 page) 24-Month cash flow budget using a beginning and ending cash balance (1 to Themes Faulkner´s for Emily 2 pages) Financial Assumptions and reliable Footnotes to in Hamlet financial information ( 1 to 4 pages) Short analysis of are iq, your financial information that includes a ratio and Review of Slovenia 1945 Memories of Death World trend analysis for all of your financial information (1/2 to 1 page) Charts and reliable Graphs since pictures speak louder than words, add graphs of equiano, your trend analysis (1 to 3 pages) Certification letter or Review letter by a 3rd-Party financial advisor indicating the reliable, information complies with GAAP (1 to rates in uk 2 pages) Make sure that your projections match your funding requests as all possible credit sources will be on are iq tests reliable, the lookout for cross example, inconsistencies and are iq reliable few, if any, will allow you to in William Faulkner´s A Rose for Emily correct problems they have uncovered. Are Iq. It's much better if you catch mistakes before they do and can mean the difference between approval and Should Individuals decline. Are Iq Reliable. Make sure your assumptions for the projections provide sufficient detail and sectional design example source information to reliable stand-alone. Example. This means the are iq reliable, lender can easily identify the Paper, income or expense source, why this amount was generated, what is the are iq, basis for Soliloquy in Hamlet Essay, the item , and NOT leave the reader guessing what you mean.

Often the banks guess is significantly different from yours and could cause them to decline the tests, loan.

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Le traitement litteraire du conte africain : deux exemples chez Bernard Dadie et Birago Diop. 1 Parmi les tres nombreux types de relation que la culture orale africaine a pu entretenir avec la production ecrite, notamment la fixation des ?uvres quelle execute oralement en des livres de langues africaines comme europeennes, il est un cas sur lequel nous aimerions nous arreter un instant dans ce volume. Are Iq Reliable. Cest celui de la transposition en francais ecrit, par un ecrivain reconnu et ayant des pretentions litteraires, d?uvres orales dites originellement dans une langue africaine. In Uk. Dans lhistoire litteraire de lAfrique francophone, une telle pratique a surtout concerne deux genres : dune part, lepopee (par exemple, celle de Soundjata librement adaptee pour lecrit respectivement par Djibril Tamsir Niane et par Camara Laye1), dautre part, le conte, cest-a-dire deux genres essentiellement narratifs. Tests Reliable. Il est bien entendu que dans un cas comme dans lautre, loperation dont nous parlons ne consiste pas en une traduction, fut elle enjolivee.

Il sagit bien plutot dune veritable creation dauteur a partir de la connaissance de classiques que cet auteur a de sa propre culture et quil recompose librement dapres son souvenir. Soliloquy In Hamlet. Il est interessant, a la lumiere des acquis de la narratologie des quarante dernieres annees, depuis au moins Genette et le fameux n 8 de Communications sur lanalyse structurale du recit en 1966, de voir ce qui, au cours de ce processus de transposition, evolue dans lappareil narratologique en termes de catalyses, de fonctions indicielles relatives au decor ou a la psychologie des personnages. 2 Compte tenu des dimensions limitees de la presente communication, nous avons choisi de ne nous interesser ici quau cas du conte, cest-a-dire a un genre de recit bref a propos duquel il est plus facile de proposer une analyse en un volume reduit. Are Iq. Parmi les exemples relativement nombreux qui pouvaient soffrir a nous, nous avons choisi de retenir deux contes extraits de deux recueils tres connus et toujours disponibles en librairie : il sagit de Le b?uf de laraignee dans Le pagne noir (Presence Africaine, 1955), de lecrivain ivoirien Bernard Dadie et de Les mamelles dans Les contes dAmadou Koumba (Presence Africaine, 1961) de lecrivain senegalais Birago Diop. Review Of Slovenia Memories And Survival War II. Nous allons confronter la version ecrite en francais de ces deux contes, connus dans la culture traditionnelle de chacun des deux auteurs, avec une de leurs versions orales, recueillie par des chercheurs et publiee chacune dans un recueil de contes dorientation plus ethno-folkloriste (on trouvera ces versions en annexe). 3 Avant daborder lanalyse comparee des versions de chacun de ces deux contes, il convient de resituer la pratique de la transposition litteraire ecrite et en francais des contes oraux africains dans un certain contexte socio-litteraire. Tests. Les deux recueils concernes datent des annees cinquante/soixante et de fait, cest a cette epoque, cest-a-dire en pleine periode de triomphe du mouvement de la Negritude que cette pratique sepanouit. Divorce Rates In Uk. Il sagit pour beaucoup decrivains et dintellectuels africains (J.

Malonga, J. Tests. Brahim Seid, Boubou Hama, etc.) de faire, par le moyen dune langue de large diffusion, la promotion exogene de la culture orale traditionnelle en Afrique, a partir de leurs repertoires ethniques, a une epoque ou lignorance et larrogance de lOccident pouvait encore donner a croire quune telle culture nexistait qua peine ou que de telles pratiques ne pouvaient etre qualifiees de culturelles que par indulgence condescendante. Sectional Design. Il est, de ce point de vue, assez significatif de constater que ce type de transposition litteraire des contes oraux sous forme de recueils sest assez vite eteint et na guere survecu au mythe de la Negritude . Are Iq Tests Reliable. Cest donc sans oublier un tel contexte ideologique que nous allons examiner nos deux recueils, puis entreprendre la comparaison des deux versions des contes retenus. 4 Le recueil de Dadie sintitule Le pagne noir , titre qui est aussi celui dun conte du volume (le deuxieme), comme il est dusage courant dans ce type douvrage. Should Individuals Behave Justly?. Cela dit, le choix de ce titre pour lensemble du recueil est significatif. Tests. Le pagne est, avec le boubou, un vetement emblematique du continent africain tel quil est vu par lOccident, comme le sari peut par exemple letre pour lInde. Book Review And Survival After World. Sa qualite meme dobjet textile renvoie en outre par metaphore a lidee de texte on are iq tests reliable sait quil sagit de la meme etymologie dautant quil existe aussi en plusieurs cultures locales des analogies symboliques entre le deroulement de la parole et le tissage. Justly?. Ce nest dailleurs sans doute pas par hasard si de son cote Birago Diop, dans sa preface, a recours lui aussi a la metaphore textile, quil file justement avec dexterite : Dans la trame solide de ses contes et de ses sentences, me servant de ses lices sans bavures, jai voulu, tisserand malhabile, avec une navette hesitante, confectionner quelques bandes pour coudre un pagne (souligne par nous) sur lequel grand-mere si elle revenait, aurait retrouve le coton quelle fila la premiere ; et ou Amadou Koumba reconnaitra, beaucoup moins vifs sans doute, les coloris des belles etoffes quil tissa pour moi naguere. 5 Quant a ladjectif noir du titre de Dadie, il renvoie implicitement a lensemble du continent subsaharien suggere comme etant un ensemble culturellement homogene : le monde noir. Are Iq Reliable. Il sagit bien entendu dun mythe, meme si le conte est un genre qui voyage beaucoup et dont on example retrouve souvent les types et les motifs dune societe a une autre.

Alors que precisement le repertoire de culture orale a un tres fort ancrage ethnique, celui-ci se trouve gomme dans le titre. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Et, dans la mesure ou il ny a pas de preface chez Dadie, rien nindique quelle est la source culturelle precise de ces contes qui sont presentes au lecteur. Themes In William. Il faut attendre la quatrieme de couverture pour induire quil sagit dun repertoire baoule : Avec evidence, ces textes manifestent la rencontre heureuse dun ecrivain avec son monde, cette Afrique du pays Baoule (sic) recreee a travers le merveilleux de la fable [] 6 Une recherche ethnolinguistique un peu serieuse permet pourtant dattester quil sagit bien la dun repertoire typiquement agni-baoule, mais cet aspect est en loccurrence occulte au profit dune pretendue universalite continentale : lAfrique noire. 7 La mise en page de la couverture du recueil de Birago Diop est elle aussi interessante par rapport a la visee de louvrage. Reliable. Sur un dessin colorie representant des habitations villageoises africaines (toits coniques en chaume) et des animaux anthropomorphises , le texte se presente ainsi : en haut de page, la mention Les contes dAmadou Koumba sur deux lignes, le nom dAmadou Koumba se trouvant sur la deuxieme ligne ecrit en gros caracteres et en rouge. Epistemology Paper. En bas de page, dans la meme couleur mais en caracteres plus petits et sans majuscules, figure la mention de lauteur du recueil : birago diop. Are Iq Tests. Du point de vue semiotique, une telle politique nest pas innocente. Divorce Rates In Uk. Lorsque le lecteur apprend dans la preface quAmadou Koumba est un griot , cest-a-dire un artiste de la parole, sorte de pendant symbolique de lecrivain dans la culture ecrite, et que cest lui qui, apres sa grandmere, a raconte a lauteur les contes qui figurent dans le recueil, on are iq reliable comprend mieux la relation entre les deux noms, de meme couleur qui figurent sur la couverture.

En haut, en gros caracteres et avec des majuscules, Amadou Koumba, en bas, en lettres plus petites et sans majuscules, birago diop, qui apparait ainsi comme le modeste disciple du premier. Individuals Behave Justly?. Toujours est-il que, par ce biais, les contes ainsi presentes se trouvent marques dune double authentification auctorale. 8 Or, tout chercheur ayant quelque peu travaille sur les litteratures orales africaines sait bien que, meme si un griot, lartiste des grandes societes ouest-africaines, peut affectionner de dire des contes, cest rarement sa fonction premiere et que le conte, a loppose de beaucoup dautres genres de loralite, est par excellence un genre dont tout le monde peut sapproprier lenonciation. Tests Reliable. Cest bien dailleurs ce que suggere la preface de Diop qui reconnait avoir dabord entendu ces contes chez sa grand-mere et les avoir retrouves ensuite un peu partout, dans diverses bouches, au cours de ses peregrinations de medecin veterinaire en Afrique de lOuest. Individuals Justly? Essay. Il y a donc un tres fort parti pris dans la presentation de la realite culturelle telle quelle apparait sur la page de couverture dun livre publie en francais, chez un editeur, Presence Africaine, dont la denomination met elle aussi en evidence lAfrique comme continent culturellement homogene et dont le siege se trouve en outre a Paris. Are Iq Tests. Dans loptique de promotion culturelle que nous avons evoquee a cette epoque, une telle strategie semble viser dabord un public occidental, de culture ecrite, pour qui une production verbale na de statut culturel veritablement valorise qua partir du moment ou on Essay lui reconnait un createur identifiable. Are Iq Reliable. Cest pourquoi ici les contes sont les contes dAmadou Koumba avant detre ceux de Birago Diop. Book 1945 After. Ils sont presentes comme ayant deja le label dune sorte dauteur reconnu dans la culture orale avant meme de passer a lecrit par les soins de lecrivain. 9 Cest dans un tel contexte quil convient danalyser levolution subie par nos deux contes entre leur version orale originelle et leur version litteraire ecrite.

Commencons par Le b?uf de laraignee de Dadie qui est a examiner en regard de la version orale de ce conte-type, recueillie en pays agni, transcrite et traduite par Marius Ano NGuessan sous le titre Araignee et Bosse ( Contes agni de lIndenie , Abidjan, Imprimerie nationale, 1976). Tests Reliable. Il est evident que la structure des deux histoires est suffisamment similaire pour quon puisse reconnaitre sans aucun doute un meme conte-type dont on Themes in William for Emily peut donner un resume sous une forme susceptible de rendre compte des deux versions dont nous disposons : 10 Dieu a un champ plein de broussailles inextricables et decide de le faire defricher. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Personne ne se presente sauf Araignee2 a qui Dieu promet un b?uf en cas de succes. Cross Sectional Design Example. Araignee sacquitte de la tache et recoit le b?uf en recompense. Reliable. Il veut manger son b?uf seul, refusant de le partager meme avec une mouche. Book Of Death And Survival War II. Pour parvenir a ses fins, il senfonce dans la brousse et defeque regulierement jusqua ce que plus aucune mouche ne vienne se poser sur ses crottes. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Cest la quil abat et prepare son b?uf.

Cest alors quun hote surnaturel lui tombe du ciel et lui demande de le porter au lieu du festin. Suicide Soliloquy In Hamlet. Araignee refuse d'abord mais lautre le rend bossu quand il cherche a fuir. Are Iq. Il lemmene donc et se prepare ensuite a manger son b?uf mais lautre en reclame la totalite quAraignee se voit contraint de lui ceder sous peine de devenir bossu. Paper. A la suite de quoi Araignee met au point un stratageme pour eliminer son adversaire. Are Iq. En bon decepteur, il sarrange ensuite pour quun tiers (le mouton chez Dadie, le toucan dans la version orale) subisse les consequences nefastes engendrees par sa vengeance. 11 Au-dela dun tel archetype, il y a dimportantes variantes qui sont significatives du statut culturel de chacun de ces deux recits. Divorce In Uk. Il serait evidemment tout a fait interessant, de ce point de vue, de sinteresser a levolution de la langue dune version a lautre mais nous ne sommes pas en mesure de le faire avec les donnees dont nous disposons. Are Iq Reliable. La version originelle produite oralement est en effet deja traduite en francais et, pour fidele quelle soit (toutes les phrases dites dans lenonce oral sy trouvent), il est evident que le traducteur a adopte un style tres ecrit, assez peu conforme semble-t-il dailleurs a la tradition poetique du conte. Should Individuals Behave. Le debut du recit, avec lexpression herbes urticantes qui releve plutot du vocabulaire medical que de celui du conte, avec laccord de concordance aboutissant a limparfait du subjonctif, indice dune langue savante ou precieuse, enfin avec lemploi du terme Sire , trop connote dans une culture, est tres significatif a ce propos.

Nous laisserons donc de cote cet aspect pour nous interesser a la structure du recit. 12 On peut remarquer demblee que la version de Dadie est sensiblement plus longue. Are Iq. Cette augmentation du volume tient a laddition dun certain nombre de motifs mais aussi a lexpansion de la fonction descriptive, presque absente de la version orale. Soliloquy Essay. La ou celle-ci disait simplement Dieu avait un champ plein dherbes urticantes ( i. Are Iq Tests. e . Epistemology Paper. de mauvaises herbes), le texte de Dadie nous decrit ce champ sur pres de deux pages, avec une accumulation dadjectifs expressifs et de metaphores qui temoigne dune recherche decriture selon une conception certes assez scolaire du beau style comme on are iq tests reliable pouvait encore en avoir a lepoque : Dieu avait un champ plein de ronces et de broussailles. Epistemology. Ronces et broussailles etaient si emmelees que les serpents eux-memes fuyaient le lieu. Are Iq Tests. []Les epines dressees dans le ciel ressemblaient a de grosses pointes effilees. Suicide Essay. Et ronces et broussailles, sous le soleil et la pluie croissaient sans cesse [].Dans ce champ poussait un fromager peu commun, un gros, gros fromager qui devait etre lancetre des fromagers, tant il etait biscornu, manchot, tordu, boudineux, epineux, massif. Are Iq Tests. Quelque chose deffrayant, de hideux comme arbre. A Rose For Emily. Les oiseaux sur ce champ jamais ne se posaient. Tests Reliable. Le soleil meme glissait tandis que la brise le contournait (p. Themes In William Faulkner´s For Emily. 51).

13 De meme, la recherche de quelquun qui veuille bien se charger de la tache proposee, qui tient en une phrase dans Araignee et Bosse , setale sur pres dune page (54-55) chez Dadie. Reliable. Plus loin, la rencontre entre Dieu et Araignee (7 lignes dans Araignee et Bosse , 2 pages dans Le b?uf de laraignee ), puis le defrichage (2 lignes contre 2 pages) sont egalement beaucoup plus developpees dans la version litteraire qui, en outre, multiplie les indications psychologiques et les modalites indicielles dans les comportements des personnages : chez Dadie, Kacou Ananze (laraignee) cogne avec force et furie (p.57), lenfant de Dieu pleure (p.58), etc. Themes In William Faulkner´s A Rose For Emily Essay. Alors que la version orale, sobre dans le decor comme dans la psychologie, ne connait essentiellement que des noyaux , pour reprendre la terminologie de Barthes, la version litteraire multiplie, sous forme de catalyses, les digressions qui ne sont nullement indispensables a leconomie de lintrigue comme, entre autres cette conversation entre Araignee et Dieu sur la condition humaine (p. Tests Reliable. 55). 14 On va retrouver exactement le meme phenomene entre Les coepouses bossues , conte wolof recueilli par Momar Sall et publie dans Contes et mythes du Senegal (CILF/EDICEF, 1986) et Les mamelles , texte tire des Contes dAmadou Koumba de Birago Diop. Rates In Uk. Le conte populaire oral fait moins de deux pages la ou la version de lecrivain en fait dix. Are Iq Tests Reliable. La non plus, pas de doute cependant quil sagit bien du meme conte-type dont un resume commun peut etre fait aussi facilement que dans le cas precedent : 15 Deux coepouses sont bossues. Individuals Behave Justly? Essay. Lune delle tombe par hasard sur des genies a la danse desquels elle sassocie, a la suite de quoi ils lui prennent sa bosse. Reliable. La seconde, instruite par la premiere, veut faire pareil, mais loin de lui retirer sa bosse, les genies lui ajoutent celle laissee par sa coepouse la fois precedente. 16 Dans la version litteraire, les indications physiques et psychologiques notamment, presque absentes de la version orale, sont tres developpees pour caracteriser les heroines du recit ; la mauvaise : Envieuse, Khary, la premiere femme de Momar letait.

Elle aurait pu remplir dix calebasses de sa jalousie et les jeter dans un puits, il lui en serait reste encore dix fois dix outres au fond de son c?ur noir comme du charbon. Rates. Il est vrai que Khary navait peut-etre pas de grandes raisons a etre tres, tres contente de son sort. Are Iq. En effet Khary etait bossue. Divorce In Uk. Oh ! Une toute petite bosse de rien du tout quune camisole bien empesee ou un boubou ample aux larges plis pouvait aisement cacher. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Mais Khary croyait que tous les yeux du monde etaient fixes sur sa bosse (p.

33). 17 comme la bonne : Cependant Koumba etait bossue elle aussi, mais sa bosse depassait vraiment les mesures dune honnete bosse. Suicide In Hamlet. On eut dit, lorsquelle tournait le dos, un canari de teinturiere qui semblait porter directement le foulard et la calebasse poses sur sa tete. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Koumba, malgre sa bosse, etait gaie, douce et aimable. Epistemology Paper. Quand on reliable se moquait de la petite Koumba-Khoughe du temps ou elle jouait, buste nu, en lui demandant de preter un instant le bebe quelle avait sur le dos, elle repondait en riant plus fort que les autres : Ca metonnerait quil vienne avec toi, il ne veut meme pas descendre pour teter. Divorce In Uk. Au contact des grandes personnes plus tard, Koumba qui les savait moins moqueuses peut-etre que les enfants, mais plus mechantes, navait pas change de caractere. Reliable. Dans la demeure de son epoux elle restait la meme (p. Themes In William Faulkner´s. 35). 18 Ces exemples montrent bien comment le recit proprement dit est interrompu par ces longues digressions descriptives dont nous navons donne quun abrege et qui nous font entrer avec limparfait dans une epaisseur temporelle qui est plus le fait de la narration romanesque que de celle du conte qui, en principe, ne sort que rarement et brievement du temps du recit. Are Iq Tests. On remarquera en outre que les personnages qui etaient anonymes dans le conte dorigine orale ont tous recu des noms dans la version de Birago Diop, trait qui lui aussi caracterise plutot un recit de type romanesque. 19 Outre ces phenomenes dexpansion indicielle, dans Les mamelles , le recit se trouve egalement interrompu par des considerations generales, selon lopposition desormais classique entre discours et recit, et qui, linguistiquement parlant, sont reperables par le present gnomique comme temps principal. Paper. Ces parentheses discursives, generalement inconnues des contes oraux, donnent au texte de Diop une sorte de dimension philosophique par la portee generale de ce qui est avance : Lorsquil sagit depouses, deux nest point un bon compte.

Pour qui veut seviter souvent querelles, cris, reproches et allusions malveillantes, il faut trois femmes ou une seule et non pas deux. Are Iq Reliable. Deux femmes dans une meme maison ont toujours avec elles une troisieme compagne qui non seulement nest bonne a rien, mais encore se trouve etre la pire des mauvaises conseilleres. Divorce In Uk. Cette compagne, cest lEnvie a la voix aigre et acide comme du jus de tamarin (p.33 ). 20 On retrouvera de meme plus loin (p.36) de longues considerations sur les vertus et les dangers du tamarinier qui nous font sortir completement de lhistoire et qui ne trouvent leur justification que parce que, dans lintrigue, cest aupres dun tamarinier que Koumba recevra dune vieille femme-genie la revelation de ce quelle doit faire pour perdre sa bosse. 21 Les mamelles revelent aussi un autre procede qui est celui de lenchassement du recit, en loccurrence le conte, dans un contexte enonciatif plus vaste qui renvoie a dautres lieux et qui justifie la convocation de ce conte particulier. Are Iq Reliable. Le premier de ces lieux est la France en hiver dou le narrateur est cense parler, alors quil est plein de nostalgie. Design. Le fait que ce soit dans un tel contexte affectif que remontent a lui les contes de son pays est une facon de mettre en evidence la puissance emotionnelle de cette culture orale et son efficacite. Are Iq. Dans cette evocation on Paper retrouvera dans lecriture, avec labondance des adjectifs et le recours aux images, la meme recherche de beau style que nous avions deja notee chez Dadie, indice probable, pour lauteur, du parler litteraire : Quand la memoire va ramasser du bois mort, elle rapporte le fagot quil lui plait3 Lhorizon bouche mencercle les yeux.

Les verts de lete et les roux de lautomne en alles, je cherche les vastes etendues de la savane et ne trouve que les monts depouilles, sombres comme de vieux geants abattus que la neige refuse densevelir parce quils furent sans doute des mecreants Mauvais tisserand, lhiver narrive pas a egrener ni a carder son coton ; il ne file et tisse quune pluie molle. Are Iq Reliable. Gris, le ciel est froid, pale, le soleil grelotte ; alors, pres de la cheminee, je rechauffe mes membres gourds Le feu du bois quon a soi-meme abattu et debite semble plus chaud quaucun autre feuChevauchant les flammes qui scintillent, mes pensees vont une a une sur les sentiers qui bordent et envahissent les souvenirs (p. Review 1945 Of Death And Survival War II. 31). 22 Alors donc que, dans ce premier lieu, il regarde les flammes de la cheminee, va surgir un souvenir. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Le narrateur se rappelle un voyage en bateau tandis quil revient au Senegal. Cross Example. Sur ce bateau, il rencontre une Francaise qui fait la moue en apercevant les Mamelles , deux petites montagnes de la pointe des Amaldies, ainsi baptisees parce quelles ressemblent a des tetons emergeant de leau. Are Iq. Cest ce souvenir qui appelle le conte comme le lecteur le comprendra retrospectivement. Suicide Soliloquy In Hamlet Essay. En effet, chez Birago Diop, ce recit a une valeur etiologique, puisquil est cense expliquer lorigine de ces deux minuscules montagnes : elles seraient lemergence des deux bosses de la coepouse depitee qui sest jetee de honte dans la mer. Are Iq Tests. Ce procede demboitement successif qui fut tres en vogue au XVIIIe et au XIXe siecle (voir, entre autres, Maupassant) est encore un indice typique de litterarite, totalement ignore du conte populaire et qui, en loccurrence, permet en outre a Birago Diop de dedier son conte a cette Francaise qui devient ici en quelque sorte la metonymie de son lectorat occidental : Ma memoire, ce soir au coin du feu, attache dans le meme bout de liane mes petites montagnes, les epouses de Momar et la timide et blonde Violette pour qui je rapporte, en reponse, tardive peut-etre, a son ironique question, ceci que ma conte Amadou Koumba (p.

33). 23 Mais precisement, on Book Review of Slovenia 1945 War II voit bien, chez Dadie comme chez Diop, que beaucoup de procedes stylistiques (syntaxe recherchee, adjectifs, metaphores) ou rhetoriques (longues descriptions du decor, du physique et de la psychologie des personnages, alternance du recit et du discours, procedes demboitement) correspondent a des strategies decriture consistant a habiller le conte oral africain selon des normes litteraires de la scripturalite qui le rendent plus consommable et qui le valorisent aux yeux dun lectorat occidental cense etre habitue a certaines conventions propres a la litterature romanesque. 24 Cette evolution, impliquee par le passage de loral a lecrit litteraire ne consiste dailleurs pas seulement a multiplier les indices de litterarite romanesque, dans le style comme dans la morphologie narrative, mais elle modifie aussi la fonction culturelle de ces contes, changeant assez radicalement ce quon appelle generalement leur morale . Are Iq Reliable. Si, par exemple, on cross sectional design revient sur le conte-type mettant en scene Araignee et Bosse, on are iq tests peut sarreter sur plusieurs differences notables qui en changent la perspective. 25 Dans la version populaire orale, Dieu na pas mis de condition particuliere au defrichage de son champ et Araignee ne triche pas en accomplissant sa tache. Cross Design. Il semble donc avoir legitimement merite le b?uf promis.

En revanche, dans la version de Dadie, Dieu met une condition a labattage de larbre monstRueux. Tests. Il ne faut pas labattre avec une hache ni un quelconque objet tranchant, mais avec ca que le lecteur, compte tenu des suggestions contextuelles appuyees, na aucun mal a identifier comme etant le sexe masculin. Divorce. Le motif de larbre que le heros doit abattre avec son penis existe bien en de nombreux repertoires de contes africains, mais il est en principe associe a un autre conte-type, celui de la quete dune epouse, et cest une epreuve proposee par le beau-pere aux pretendants. Are Iq Tests Reliable. On comprend dailleurs mieux dans ce contexte le sens dune telle exigence puisque lepreuve apparait alors comme un moyen de garantir la virilite du futur epoux. Soliloquy In Hamlet. En outre, cette condition est generalement formulee de facon beaucoup plus directe et crue : le texte du conte dit tout simplement et sans ambage que le pretendant doit abattre larbre avec sa verge. Tests. Les raffinements et les jeux euphemiques de Dadie dans le recit quil a lui-meme redige, indices dun souci de bienseance, sont donc typiquement lies a lidee quil se fait dune certaine culture occidentale ou les themes galants sont a loccasion apprecies dans la bonne litterature a condition detre plaisamment allusifs. Soliloquy In Hamlet Essay. Cette formulation euphemique, dans le cadre dune sorte de jeu subtil avec le lecteur, a peut-etre aussi pour fonction de contribuer a contredire le stereotype colonial selon lequel le negre, souvent associe a une sexualite primaire et grossiere, est incapable de telles finesses. 26 Dadie semble donc avoir amalgame ici des elements de deux contes-types pour nen faire quun seul. Reliable. Il a dailleurs emprunte dautres motifs classiques de contes ouest-africains comme celui du decepteur qui, pour accomplir un mefait ou une tricherie, envoie sa dupe naive puiser de leau dans une corbeille tressee, tache impossible qui permet de leloigner pour un bon moment et de donner tout son temps au decepteur pour arranger sa duperie. Should Justly?. Il nest certes pas impossible que Dadie ait lui-meme entendu une version orale de ce conte-type qui presentait de tels elements, dans la mesure ou loralite est soumise a la variabilite et ou il ne faudrait pas commettre lerreur grossiere de considerer la version orale dont nous disposons comme un modele fige. Tests. Dans toutes les cultures, le conte est un meccano , selon lexpression de Georges Jean, et les contes-types peuvent saccommoder de plusieurs variantes, dont il nest pas possible de dire quune est plus legitime que lautre.

Cependant, celui qui connait un peu le repertoire des contes ouest-africains et en particulier agni, ne peut pas ne pas avoir le sentiment dune tendance, dans Le b?uf de laraignee , a proposer un conte enrichi delements de plusieurs autres, afin de presenter un texte plus dense, offrant en quelque sorte une synthese culturelle. 27 En outre, cette addition dune condition mise par Dieu au defrichage du champ modifie le sens de la mesaventure vecue ensuite par Araignee. Cross Example. Dans la version populaire orale, si Araignee a acquis son b?uf de facon legitime, sa punition ne peut venir que de son comportement posterieur a cette acquisition. Are Iq Reliable. Il ne veut partager son b?uf avec quiconque, pas meme avec une mouche. Individuals Essay. Et cest cet egoisme foncier, symptomatique dune ideologie individualiste contraire aux valeurs communautaires de partage et de solidarite pronees dans la societe agni-baoule comme en beaucoup de societes africaines, qui semble la cause du chatiment transcendant (Bosse tombe den haut) quil recoit, sous forme de la privation du festin tant convoite. Reliable. Et, bien sur, comme Araignee est le decepteur dans ce repertoire de contes, il se venge a son tour de celui qui la depouille de son b?uf et il fait subir a un autre les consequences de son mefait. 28 Une telle lecture est toujours possible dans la version de Dadie ou Ananze (Araignee) manifeste le meme comportement individualiste, toutefois elle est concurrencee par une autre interpretation qui relativise la premiere et la fait passer au second plan. Paper. Ananze a triche pour obtenir son b?uf, puisque, au lieu de labattre avec son sexe comme le voulait la prescription de Dieu, il la tranche a la hache, mystifiant lenfant de Dieu delegue pour le surveiller. Tests Reliable. Sil est donc par la suite prive de sa recompense, cest aussi a cause de la tricherie et de la tricherie a legard de Dieu, ce qui motive singulierement le caractere transcendant du chatiment dont le texte nous precise la encore quil tomba du ciel (p.60) et quil est bien interprete par le heros comme un envoi de Dieu. Book Memories Of Death After. Une telle lecture est encore favorisee par le chant quentonne Ananze apres setre vu remettre le b?uf : Dieu, dieu, mais on are iq peut le tromper. Il suffit davoir du cran. Essay. [] (p.59).

29 La lecon du conte populaire, liee a une morale ethnique et peut-etre plus largement africaine, pronant des valeurs de solidarite communautaire et condamnant lindividualisme, selargit donc, dans la version litteraire en francais, a une morale plus universelle sur lhonnetete ( Bien mal acquis ne profite jamais ) et prend une coloration nettement metaphysique puisquil est plus precisement question de bonne foi vis a vis de la transcendance. Reliable. Le fait que, dans cette version, lagent du chatiment soit justement la Mort (avec une majuscule) au lieu de simplement Bosse comme dans la variante dorigine orale, renforce evidemment cette lecture metaphysique du conte. Behave Justly? Essay. Le texte de Dadie voit donc saccentuer, pour un lectorat plus vaste, sa portee philosophique generale. 30 Le conte des deux coepouses offre la meme possibilite de glissement interpretatif, avec, semble-t-il, les memes objectifs. Are Iq. Dans la version dorigine orale, il nest pas question dune bonne et dune mauvaise coepouse et rien nest dit sur leurs qualites morales respectives. Suicide Essay. Si lune reussit sa quete implicite en perdant sa bosse et si lautre echoue en se voyant ajouter a la sienne la bosse de la premiere, ce ne peut donc en aucun cas etre interprete comme une recompense de la bonte de la premiere et une sanction de la mechancete de la seconde. Reliable. La seule chose qui differe entre les deux, cest leur comportement lorsquelles participent a la danse des genies.

La premiere reprend tres scrupuleusement les paroles de leur chant, qui dailleurs consiste essentiellement a repeter en wolof le mot de mardi (talaata, terme emprunte a larabe), jour de leur reunion, comme lindiquent les propos de la premiere coepouse lorsquelle revele son secret a la seconde : Si tu te rends la nuit du mardi du cote des toilettes, tu trouveras les djinns en train de jouer dans une vaste cour. Divorce Rates In Uk. . Are Iq Tests. La seconde, en revanche, prolonge a sa fantaisie le chant en enumerant les autres jours de la semaine : mercredi, jeudi, vendredi (Allarba, Alxames, Aljuma). In William A Rose For Emily Essay. Et le contexte montre de facon tres explicite que cest cette invention personnelle de la femme qui conduit les genies a lui ajouter a sa bosse celle de sa coepouse, abandonnee a la seance precedente : Les djinns affoles sinterrogerent : Qui a laudace dallonger notre chanson sans notre autorisation ? Les autres ponctuaient : Cest cette etrangere, cest cette etrangere ; nous nous devons donc de lui doubler sa bosse. Tests. Ils prirent la bosse de la coepouse quils collerent a la sienne en lui disant : Deguerpis ! Tu nas rien a ajouter a notre chanson sans notre autorisation ! 31 On comprend que nous sommes en presence dun conte initiatique indiquant que linitie doit se conformer scrupuleusement aux indications de ses maitres initiateurs. Should Individuals. La premiere reussit son initiation parce quelle agit ainsi, tandis que la seconde echoue du fait quelle na pas une attitude suffisamment respectueuse ni docile. Are Iq Tests. Pas de lecon ici autre quinitiatique. 32 En faisant de ses deux coepouses une bonne et une mauvaise, Birago Diop modifie considerablement la signification du conte, dautant que, dans la rencontre entre Koumba et la vieille femme sous le tamarinier (p. Themes In William A Rose. 37), le texte insiste par prolepse sur le fait que ce qui va arriver a Koumba est une recompense meritee de sa grande bonte : Koumba, reprit la vieille femme, je connais ton bon coeur et ton grand merite depuis que tu reconnais ta droite de ta gauche.

Je veux te rendre un grand service car je ten sais digne. Are Iq. Vendredi, a la pleine lune, sur la colline dargile de NGuew, les filles-genies danseront. In William For Emily. Tu iras sur la colline lorsque la terre sera froide. Reliable. Quand le tam-tam battra son plein, quand le cercle sera bien anime, quand sans arret une danseuse remplacera une autre danseuse, tu tapprocheras et tu diras a la fille-genie qui sera a cote de toi : -Tiens, prends-moi lenfant que jai sur le dos, cest mon tour de danser. 33 Quant a Khary, la mechante coepouse, lorsquelle se rend a son tour a la danse des filles-genies, elle ne semble pas commettre derreur particuliere dans le deroulement du rite. Paper. Par consequent, si elle se voit affublee de la deuxieme bosse, cela ne peut apparaitre que comme une punition transcendante de sa mechancete intrinseque, qui la conduit dailleurs finalement a la mort, de rage, episode qui ne se retrouve pas dans la version orale. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Le conte est donc passe dune lecon essentiellement initiatique a une morale plus ou moins universelle qui veut que les bons soient recompenses et les mechants punis, ce qui gomme lidentite wolof et plus largement africaine du conte au profit de valeurs beaucoup plus familieres au lectorat occidental. 34 A propos de cet episode de la rencontre avec les genies, on Themes in William Faulkner´s for Emily notera aussi, chez Diop, le meme souci de bienseance et deffacement du trivial au profit du poetique. Are Iq Reliable. Alors que dans la version populaire elle a lieu a cote des toilettes4, dans le conte de Diop, elle se deroule a la pleine lune, sur la colline dargile de NGuew (), lorsque la terre (est) froide . 35 En outre, dans la version wolof authentique, la presence des deux coepouses est une donnee de depart du conte : Il y avait une fois deux coepouses bossues , precision qui ne requiert aucun besoin de justification dans la societe agni-baoule ou la polygamie est une pratique normale et courante.

36 En revanche Birago Diop se sent oblige, dans son conte ecrit directement en francais, de presenter les choses un peu differemment. A Rose Essay. Dans Les mamelles , si Momar prend une seconde epouse, cest parce quil est en quelque sorte contraint a le faire : sa premiere femme, Khary est absolument epouvantable et ne remplit pas son office depouse. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Il a somme toute une excuse pour prendre une seconde femme et, en creux, le lecteur est invite a comprendre que si Khary navait pas ete si mauvaise, jamais il naurait eu lidee de prendre Koumba : Las de travailler tout le jour et de ne prendre que le soir un repas chaud, Momar setait decide (souligne par nous) a prendre une deuxieme femme et il avait epouse Koumba. 37 Ce souci, dans la version litteraire, dexcuser la polygamie, en lui trouvant une justification circonstancielle, temoigne encore de la conscience de lauteur davoir a sadresser au moins partiellement a un lectorat qui voit dans la polygamie une pratique de sauvage ou en tout cas une pratique culturellement inferieure. 38 Cette breve analyse de nos deux contes aura donc montre quen passant de la culture orale de leur terroir a une production ecrite en francais, dans le contexte dune certaine epoque, ils ont subi une transformation profonde qui, derriere une apparente fidelite aux grandes lignes de lhistoire, est presque une trahison de leur personnalite originelle, tant du point de vue de la morphologie du recit que de la moralite des contes. Essay. Affirmer ainsi quil sagit dune trahison ne signifie nullement de notre part prononcer une condamnation de lentreprise des deux ecrivains. Tests. Notre propos nest pas ici de nous poser en censeur ni de prendre parti pour louer ou condamner. Paper. La litterature na pas a saccommoder de dogme et toute lhistoire de la creation litteraire est faite, dans lintertextualite, de trahisons parfois geniales. Are Iq Reliable. Il sagit seulement de constater que ces contes litteraires , sils sont bien des ?uvres africaines il ny a aucune raison de leur denier cette qualite -, sont des produits depoque (les annees soixante) marques par le mouvement de la negritude et le souci de promotion exogene de la culture africaine dont les intellectuels du continent voulaient montrer lappartenance au patrimoine culturel universel. Individuals Behave Essay. Pour ce faire, les auteurs les presentaient dabord comme partageant les memes canons et les memes valeurs que celles qui avaient cours en Occident. Are Iq Tests. De telles productions, apres le traitement quelles ont subi, nont evidemment plus grand chose a voir avec les contes oraux qui en ont ete la source.

CAMARA Laye (1978), Le maitre de la parole, Kouma Lafolo Kouma, Plon. DADIE Bernard (1955), Le pagne noir. KOUMBA Amadou, Les coepouses bossues , in 1945 of Death and Survival after War II Contes et mythes du Senegal, CILF, Fleuve et Flamme, 1991. NGUESSAN M.A., Araignee et bosse. NIANE Djibril Tamsir (1960) Soundjata ou lepopee mandingue, Presence Africaine.

SALL Momar, Contes et mythes du Senegal, Fleuve et Flamme, EDICEF, 1991.

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The Five Stages of Small Business Growth. Categorizing the problems and growth patterns of small businesses in are iq, a systematic way that is useful to entrepreneurs seems at first glance a hopeless task. Small businesses vary widely in size and capacity for growth. Themes In William A Rose Essay. They are characterized by reliable independence of action, differing organizational structures, and varied management styles. Yet on closer scrutiny, it becomes apparent that they experience common problems arising at similar stages in their development. These points of similarity can be organized into in Hamlet Essay a framework that increases our understanding of the nature, characteristics, and problems of businesses ranging from a corner dry cleaning establishment with two or three minimum-wage employees to a $ 20-million-a-year computer software company experiencing a 40 % annual rate of growth.

For owners and managers of small businesses, such an understanding can aid in assessing current challenges; for example, the need to upgrade an existing computer system or to hire and train second-level managers to maintain planned growth. It can help in anticipating the key requirements at reliable, various pointse.g., the inordinate time commitment for owners during the start-up period and the need for in William A Rose for Emily Essay, delegation and changes in their managerial roles when companies become larger and more complex. The framework also provides a basis for reliable, evaluating the impact of present and proposed governmental regulations and policies on Themes in William Faulkner´s for Emily ones business. A case in point is the exclusion of dividends from double taxation, which could be of great help to a profitable, mature, and stable business like a funeral home but of no help at all to reliable, a new, rapidly growing, high-technology enterprise. Finally, the framework aids accountants and consultants in diagnosing problems and matching solutions to smaller enterprises.

The problems of a 6-month-old, 20-person business are rarely addressed by divorce rates in uk advice based on a 30-year-old, 100-person manufacturing company. For the former, cash-flow planning is paramount; for are iq tests reliable, the latter, strategic planning and budgeting to achieve coordination and operating control are most important. Developing a Small Business Framework. Various researchers over the years have developed models for examining businesses (see Exhibit 1). Should Behave Justly?. Each uses business size as one dimension and company maturity or the stage of growth as a second dimension. While useful in many respects, these frameworks are inappropriate for tests, small businesses on at least three counts. Exhibit 1 Growth Phases. First, they assume that a company must grow and pass through all stages of development or die in the attempt.

Second, the models fail to capture the important early stages in a companys origin and growth. Third, these frameworks characterize company size largely in terms of annual sales (although some mention number of employees) and ignore other factors such as value added, number of locations, complexity of product line, and rate of change in products or production technology. To develop a framework relevant to small and growing businesses, we used a combination of experience, a search of the literature, and empirical research. (See the Soliloquy Essay, second insert.) The framework that evolved from are iq reliable, this effort delineates the five stages of development shown in Exhibit 2. Each stage is characterized by an index of in Hamlet size, diversity, and complexity and tests reliable, described by five management factors: managerial style, organizational structure, extent of formal systems, major strategic goals, and the owners involvement in the business. We depict each stage in Exhibit 3 and describe each narratively in Faulkner´s A Rose Essay, this article. We started with a concept of are iq tests reliable growth stages emanating from the work of Steinmetz and Greiner. We made two initial changes based on our experiences with small companies. The first modification was an in William A Rose for Emily Essay extension of the independent (vertical) variable of reliable size as it is used in the other stage modelssee Exhibit I to include a composite of value-added (sales less outside purchases), geographical diversity, and complexity; the complexity variable involved the number of product lines sold, the extent to which different technologies are involved in Individuals Behave Essay, the products and the processes that produce them, and the rate of change in these technologies. Thus, a manufacturer with $ 10 million in sales, whose products are based in a fast-changing technical environment, is farther up the vertical scale (bigger in terms of the tests reliable, other models) than a liquor wholesaler with $ 20 million annual sales. Similarly, a company with two or three operating locations faces more complex management problems, and hence is farther up the scale than an Book Review of Slovenia 1945 Memories of Death after War II otherwise comparable company with one operating unit. The second change was in the stages or horizontal component of the framework . From present research we knew that, at the beginning, the entrepreneur is totally absorbed in the businesss survival and if the are iq tests, business survives it tends to evolve toward a decentralized line and staff organization characterized as a big business and the subject of most studies. * The result was a four-stage model: (1) Survival, (2) Break-out, (3) Take-off, (4) Big company.

To test the model, we obtained 83 responses to a questionnaire distributed to 110 owners and managers of successful small companies in the $ 1 million to $ 35 million sales range. Soliloquy. These respondents participated in a small company management program and had read Greiners article. They were asked to are iq tests reliable, identify as best they could the phases or stages their companies had passed through, to characterize the major changes that took place In each stage, and to describe the events that led up to or caused these changes. A preliminary analysis of the questionnaire data revealed three deficiencies in our initial model: First, the for Emily, grow-or-fail hypothesis implicit in tests reliable, the model, and those of others, was invalid. Some of the enterprises had passed through the Book Memories of Death after World War II, survival period and then plateauedremaining essentially the same size. with some marginally profitable and others very profitable, over a period of between 5 and 80 years. Second, there existed an early stage in the survival period in which the entrepreneur worked hard just to exist- to obtain enough customers to become a true business or to move the product from a pilot stage into quantity production at an adequate level of are iq tests quality. Finally, several responses dealt with companies that were not started from scratch but purchased while in a steady-state survival or success stage (and were either being mismanaged or managed for profit and not for growth), and then moved into Book Review of Death after War II a growth mode. We used the results of are iq tests reliable this research to revise our preliminary framework. The resulting framework is shown in Exhibit II. We then applied this revised framework to the questionnaire responses and obtained results which encouraged us to Soliloquy in Hamlet, work with the are iq tests reliable, revised model:

* John A. Welsh and Jerry F. White, Recognizing and Dealing With the Entrepreneur, Advanced Management Journal, Summer 1978. Exhibit 2 Growth Stages. Exhibit 3 Characteristics of Small Business at Each Stage of Development. In this stage the main problems of the business are obtaining customers and delivering the product or service contracted for. Among the key questions are the following: Can we get enough customers, deliver our products, and provide services well enough to become a viable business? Can we expand from Book 1945 Memories World, that one key customer or pilot production process to a much broader sales base? Do we have enough money to cover the considerable cash demands of this start-up phase? The organization is a simple onethe owner does everything and directly supervises subordinates, who should be of at least average competence. Systems and formal planning are minimal to nonexistent. The companys strategy is simply to remain alive.

The owner is the tests reliable, business, performs all the important tasks, and is the major supplier of energy, direction, and, with relatives and design example, friends, capital. Companies in the Existence Stage range from newly started restaurants and retail stores to high-technology manufacturers that have yet to stabilize either production or product quality. Many such companies never gain sufficient customer acceptance or product capability to become viable. In these cases, the owners close the business when the start-up capital runs out and, if theyre lucky, sell the business for its asset value. (See endpoint 1 on Exhibit 4). In some cases, the tests reliable, owners cannot accept the demands the business places on their time, finances, and energy, and they quit. Themes Faulkner´s Essay. Those companies that remain in business become Stage II enterprises.

Exhibit 4 Evolution of Small Companies. In reaching this stage, the are iq tests reliable, business has demonstrated that it is a workable business entity. It has enough customers and A Rose, satisfies them sufficiently with its products or services to keep them. The key problem thus shifts from mere existence to the relationship between revenues and expenses. The main issues are as follows: In the reliable, short run, can we generate enough cash to break even and to cover the Epistemology, repair or replacement of our capital assets as they wear out? Can we, at a minimum, generate enough cash flow to stay in are iq tests, business and to finance growth to a size that is Individuals Justly? Essay, sufficiently large, given our industry and market niche, to earn an economic return on our assets and labor? The organization is still simple.

The company may have a limited number of employees supervised by a sales manager or a general foreman. Reliable. Neither of them makes major decisions independently, but instead carries out the rather well-defined orders of the owner. Systems development is Paper, minimal. Are Iq. Formal planning is, at best, cash forecasting. The major goal is still survival, and the owner is still synonymous with the business. In the Survival Stage, the enterprise may grow in size and profitability and move on to Stage III. Or it may, as many companies do, remain at Individuals Essay, the Survival Stage for some time, earning marginal returns on invested time and are iq tests, capital (endpoint 2 on Exhibit 4), and Book 1945 after World, eventually go out of business when the owner gives up or retires. Are Iq Reliable. The mom and pop stores are in Book Review of Slovenia Memories after World War II, this category, as are manufacturing businesses that cannot get their product or process sold as planned.

Some of these marginal businesses have developed enough economic viability to ultimately be sold, usually at a slight loss. Or they may fail completely and drop from sight. The decision facing owners at this stage is whether to exploit the companys accomplishments and expand or keep the company stable and profitable, providing a base for alternative owner activities. Thus, a key issue is whether to use the company as a platform for growtha substage III-G companyor as a means of support for the owners as they completely or partially disengage from the are iq tests reliable, companymaking it a substage III-D company. (See Exhibit 3.) Behind the disengagement might be a wish to start up new enterprises, run for political office, or simply to pursue hobbies and other outside interests while maintaining the business more or less in Themes Faulkner´s for Emily Essay, the status quo. In the Success-Disengagement substage, the company has attained true economic health, has sufficient size and product-market penetration to ensure economic success, and earns average or above-average profits. The company can stay at this stage indefinitely, provided environmental change does not destroy its market niche or ineffective management reduce its competitive abilities. Organizationally, the company has grown large enough to, in many cases, require functional managers to take over certain duties performed by the owner. The managers should be competent but need not be of the highest caliber, since their upward potential is limited by the corporate goals.

Cash is plentiful and the main concern is to reliable, avoid a cash drain in prosperous periods to the detriment of the companys ability to withstand the inevitable rough times. In addition, the first professional staff members come on board, usually a controller in the office and Suicide Soliloquy in Hamlet, perhaps a production scheduler in the plant. Basic financial, marketing, and production systems are in place. Tests. Planning in the form of operational budgets supports functional delegation. The owner and, to a lesser extent, the companys managers, should be monitoring a strategy to, essentially, maintain the status quo. As the business matures, it and Should Behave, the owner increasingly move apart, to tests reliable, some extent because of the owners activities elsewhere and to some extent because of the presence of other managers. Many companies continue for long periods in the Success-Disengagement substage. The product-market niche of some does not permit growth; this is the divorce rates, case for many service businesses in are iq reliable, small or medium-sized, slowly growing communities and for franchise holders with limited territories.

Other owners actually choose this route; if the company can continue to adapt to Individuals, environmental changes, it can continue as is, be sold or merged at a profit, or subsequently be stimulated into growth (endpoint 3 on Exhibit 4). For franchise holders, this last option would necessitate the purchase of other franchises. If the company cannot adapt to changing circumstances, as was the case with many automobile dealers in the late 1970s and early 1980s, it will either fold or drop back to a marginally surviving company (endpoint 4 on Exhibit 4). In the tests reliable, Success-Growth substage, the owner consolidates the company and Individuals, marshals resources for growth. The owner takes the cash and the established borrowing power of the reliable, company and risks it all in financing growth. Looking Back on Business Development Models. Business researchers have developed a number of models over the last 20 years that seek to delineate stages of corporate growth. Joseph W. McGuire, building on the work of W.W.

Rostow in Soliloquy in Hamlet, economics, * formulated a model that saw companies moving through five stages of economic development: 1. Traditional small company. 2. Planning for growth. 3. Take-off or departure from existing conditions. 4. Drive to professional management. 5. Mass production marked by a diffusion of objectives and an interest in the welfare of society. Lawrence L. Steinmetz theorized that to survive, small businesses must move through four stages of growth.

Steinmetz envisioned each stage ending with a critical phase that must be dealt with before the company could enter the next stage. § His stages and tests, phases are as follows: 1. Direct supervision. The simplest stage, at the end of which the owner must become a manager by learning to delegate to others. 2. Supervised supervision. To move on, the manager must devote attention to growth and expansion, manage increased overhead and complex finances, and learn to become an administrator. 3. Indirect control.

To grow and survive, the company must learn to delegate tasks to Suicide, key managers and to tests, deal with diminishing absolute rate of Suicide Soliloquy in Hamlet Essay return and overstaffing at the middle levels. 4. Divisional organization. At this stage the company has arrived and has the resources and are iq tests, organizational structure that will enable it to Should Justly?, remain viable. C. Roland Christensen and Bruce R. Scott focused on development of reliable organizational complexity in a business as it evolves in its product-market relationships. Epistemology. They formulated three stages that a company moves through as it grows in overall size, number of products, and market coverage: 1. Are Iq Tests Reliable. One-unit management with no specialized organizational parts. 2. One-unit management with functional parts such as marketing and finance. 3. For Emily Essay. Multiple operating units, such as divisions, that act in their own behalf in the marketplace. Finally, Larry E. Tests Reliable. Greiner proposed a model of corporate evolution in which business organizations move through five phases of growth as they make the transition from small to large (in sales and divorce in uk, employees) and from young to mature. || Each phase is distinguished by an evolution from the prior phase and then by a revolution or crisis, which precipitates a jump into the next phase. Each evolutionary phase is characterized by a particular managerial style and each revolutionary period by a dominant management problem faced by the company. These phases and tests reliable, crises are shown in Exhibit 1.

*W.W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1960). Joseph W. McGuire, Factors Affecting the Growth of rates in uk Manufacturing Firms (Seattle: Bureau of Business Research, University of Washington, 1963). §Lawrence L. Steinmetz, Critical Stages of tests reliable Small Business Growth: When They Occur and How to Survive Them, Business Horizons, February 1969, p. 29. C. Roland Christensen and Bruce R. Scott, Review of Course Activities (Lausanne: IMEDE, 1964). ||Larry E. Greiner, Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Growth, HBR JulyAugust 1972, p. 37. Among the important tasks are to make sure the basic business stays profitable so that it will not outrun its source of cash and to develop managers to meet the needs of the growing business. This second task requires hiring managers with an eye to the companys future rather than its current condition.

Systems should also be installed with attention to forthcoming needs. Operational planning is, as in substage III-D, in the form of budgets, but strategic planning is extensive and deeply involves the example, owner. The owner is thus far more active in all phases of the companys affairs than in the disengagement aspect of this phase. If it is tests reliable, successful, the III-G company proceeds into Stage IV. Indeed, III-G is often the Justly? Essay, first attempt at growing before commitment to a growth strategy. If the III-G company is unsuccessful, the are iq tests reliable, causes may be detected in time for Should Behave Justly? Essay, the company to shift to III-D. If not, retrenchment to the Survival Stage may be possible prior to tests reliable, bankruptcy or a distress sale. In this stage the key problems are how to grow rapidly and how to finance that growth. Individuals Behave Justly? Essay. The most important questions, then, are in the following areas:

Can the owner delegate responsibility to others to improve the managerial effectiveness of a fast growing and increasingly complex enterprise? Further, will the action be true delegation with controls on performance and a willingness to see mistakes made, or will it be abdication, as is so often the reliable, case? Will there be enough to satisfy the great demands growth brings (often requiring a willingness on the owners part to tolerate a high debt-equity ratio) and a cash flow that is not eroded by inadequate expense controls or ill-advised investments brought about by owner impatience? The organization is decentralized and, at least in part, divisionalizedusually in either sales or production. Should Justly?. The key managers must be very competent to reliable, handle a growing and complex business environment. The systems, strained by growth, are becoming more refined and extensive. Both operational and strategic planning are being done and involve specific managers. The owner and the business have become reasonably separate, yet the company is still dominated by both the owners presence and stock control.

This is divorce rates in uk, a pivotal period in a companys life. If the owner rises to the challenges of tests a growing company, both financially and managerially, it can become a big business. If not, it can usually be soldat a profitprovided the Suicide in Hamlet, owner recognizes his or her limitations soon enough. Too often, those who bring the business to the Success Stage are unsuccessful in Stage IV, either because they try to grow too fast and run out of cash (the owner falls victim to the omnipotence syndrome), or are unable to delegate effectively enough to make the company work (the omniscience syndrome). It is, of course, possible for the company to are iq tests, traverse this high-growth stage without the original management. Often the entrepreneur who founded the company and brought it to the Success Stage is replaced either voluntarily or involuntarily by the companys investors or creditors. If the company fails to make the big time, it may be able to retrench and continue as a successful and sectional design, substantial company at tests, a state of equilibrium (endpoint 7 on Exhibit 4). Or it may drop back to Stage III (endpoint 6) or, if the problems are too extensive, it may drop all the way back to the Survival Stage (endpoint 5) or even fail. Behave Justly? Essay. (High interest rates and uneven economic conditions have made the latter two possibilities all too real in the early 1980s.)

The greatest concerns of tests reliable a company entering this stage are, first, to consolidate and control the financial gains brought on by rapid growth and, second, to retain the advantages of small size, including flexibility of rates response and the entrepreneurial spirit. The corporation must expand the management force fast enough to eliminate the inefficiencies that growth can produce and tests, professionalize the company by use of such tools as budgets, strategic planning, management by objectives, and standard cost systemsand do this without stifling its entrepreneurial qualities. A company in Stage V has the staff and Epistemology, financial resources to engage in detailed operational and strategic planning. The management is decentralized, adequately staffed, and experienced. Are Iq. And systems are extensive and well developed. The owner and the business are quite separate, both financially and operationally.

The company has now arrived. It has the advantages of Faulkner´s for Emily Essay size, financial resources, and managerial talent. If it can preserve its entrepreneurial spirit, it will be a formidable force in the market. Are Iq Tests Reliable. If not, it may enter a sixth stage of sorts: ossification. Ossification is characterized by a lack of innovative decision making and the avoidance of risks. It seems most common in large corporations whose sizable market share, buying power, and Suicide in Hamlet, financial resources keep them viable until there is a major change in the environment. Unfortunately for these businesses, it is usually their rapidly growing competitors that notice the environmental change first. Several factors, which change in importance as the business grows and develops, are prominent in determining ultimate success or failure.

We identified eight such factors in our research, of which four relate to the enterprise and four to the owner. Are Iq Tests. The four that relate to the company are as follows: 1. Financial resources, including cash and borrowing power. 2. Suicide Soliloquy In Hamlet Essay. Personnel resources, relating to numbers, depth, and quality of are iq tests people, particularly at Individuals Behave, the management and staff levels. 3. Systems resources, in terms of the degree of sophistication of both information and planning and are iq, control systems. 4. Business resources, including customer relations, market share, supplier relations, manufacturing and distribution processes, technology and reputation, all of sectional example which give the company a position in its industry and market. The four factors that relate to the owner are as follows:

1. Owners goals for himself or herself and for the business. 2. Owners operational abilities in doing important jobs such as marketing, inventing, producing, and managing distribution. 3. Owners managerial ability and willingness to delegate responsibility and to manage the reliable, activities of others. 4. Owners strategic abilities for looking beyond the present and matching the strengths and weaknesses of the company with his or her goals. As a business moves from one stage to another, the A Rose for Emily Essay, importance of the factors changes.

We might view the factors as alternating among three levels of importance: first, key variables that are absolutely essential for are iq reliable, success and must receive high priority; second, factors that are clearly necessary for the enterprises success and must receive some attention; and third, factors of little immediate concern to Themes in William Faulkner´s A Rose for Emily, top management. If we categorize each of the eight factors listed previously, based on its importance at each stage of the companys development, we get a clear picture of changing management demands. (See Exhibit 5.) Exhibit 5 Management Factors and are iq reliable, the Stages. The changing nature of managerial challenges becomes apparent when one examines Exhibit 5. In the early stages, the owners ability to do the job gives life to the business. Small businesses are built on the owners talents: the ability to Book Review of Slovenia 1945 Memories of Death and Survival after War II, sell, produce, invent, or whatever.

This factor is tests reliable, thus of the highest importance. The owners ability to delegate, however, is on the bottom of the scale, since there are few if any employees to delegate to. As the company grows, other people enter sales, production, or engineering and they first support, and then even supplant, the owners skillsthus reducing the divorce in uk, importance of this factor. At the same time, the owner must spend less time doing and more time managing. He or she must increase the amount of work done through other people, which means delegating. The inability of many founders to let go of are iq doing and to begin managing and delegating explains the demise of many businesses in substage III-G and Stage IV. The owner contemplating a growth strategy must understand the change in personal activities such a decision entails and examine the managerial needs depicted in Soliloquy in Hamlet, Exhibit 5. Reliable. Similarly, an entrepreneur contemplating starting a business should recognize the rates, need to do all the selling, manufacturing, or engineering from the reliable, beginning, along with managing cash and planning the businesss courserequirements that take much energy and commitment. The importance of rates cash changes as the business changes. It is an extremely important resource at are iq reliable, the start, becomes easily manageable at the Success Stage, and divorce, is a main concern again if the organization begins to grow. As growth slows at the end of Stage IV or in Stage V, cash becomes a manageable factor again.

The companies in Stage III need to recognize the financial needs and risk entailed in a move to Stage IV. The issues of people, planning, and systems gradually increase in importance as the company progresses from slow initial growth (substage III-G) to rapid growth (Stage IV). These resources must be acquired somewhat in advance of the reliable, growth stage so that they are in example, place when needed. Matching business and are iq tests, personal goals is crucial in the Existence Stage because the owner must recognize and be reconciled to the heavy financial and example, time-energy demands of the new business. Some find these demands more than they can handle. In the Survival Stage, however, the owner has achieved the tests reliable, necessary reconciliation and Book of Slovenia Memories of Death after, survival is paramount; matching of goals is thus irrelevant in Stage II. A second serious period for goal matching occurs in the Success Stage. Does the owner wish to commit his or her time and risk the tests, accumulated equity of the business in order to grow or instead prefer to Themes in William Faulkner´s, savor some of the benefits of success? All too often the owner wants both, but to expand the business rapidly while planning a new house on are iq Maui for rates, long vacations involves considerable risk.

To make a realistic decision on which direction to take, the owner needs to consider the personal and business demands of different strategies and to evaluate his or her managerial ability to meet these challenges. Finally, business resources are the stuff of which success is made; they involve building market share, customer relations, solid vendor sources, and a technological base, and are very important in the early stages. In later stages the loss of a major customer, supplier, or technical source is more easily compensated for. Thus, the relative importance of this factor is are iq, shown to be declining. The changing role of the factors clearly illustrates the need for owner flexibility. An overwhelming preoccupation with cash is quite important at some stages and less important at others. Delaying tax payments at almost all costs is paramount in Stages I and II but may seriously distort accounting data and use up management time during periods of success and growth. Doing versus delegating also requires a flexible management. Holding onto Epistemology Paper old strategies and old ways ill serves a company that is entering the growth stages and can even be fatal. Even a casual look at Exhibit 5 reveals the demands the Take-off Stage makes on the enterprise.

Nearly every factor except the owners ability to do is are iq, crucial. This is the design, stage of tests reliable action and Themes in William Faulkner´s for Emily, potentially large rewards. Reliable. Looking at this exhibit, owners who want such growth must ask themselves: Do I have the quality and diversity of people needed to Epistemology, manage a growing company? Do I have now, or will I have shortly, the tests, systems in place to handle the needs of a larger, more diversified company?

Do I have the inclination and ability to delegate decision making to Should, my managers? Do I have enough cash and borrowing power along with the inclination to risk everything to pursue rapid growth? Similarly, the potential entrepreneur can see that starting a business requires an ability to do something very well (or a good marketable idea), high energy, and a favorable cash flow forecast (or a large sum of cash on hand). These are less important in tests, Stage V, when well-developed people-management skills, good information systems, and budget controls take priority. Suicide Essay. Perhaps this is why some experienced people from large companies fail to make good as entrepreneurs or managers in small companies.

They are used to delegating and are not good enough at doing. This scheme can be used to evaluate all sorts of small business situations, even those that at first glance appear to be exceptions. Take the case of franchises. These enterprises begin the are iq tests reliable, Existence Stage with a number of differences from most start-up situations. They often have the following advantages:

A marketing plan developed from Suicide Soliloquy in Hamlet Essay, extensive research. Sophisticated information and tests, control systems in place. Operating procedures that are standardized and very well developed. Promotion and other start-up support such as brand identification. They also require relatively high start-up capital. If the franchisor has done sound market analysis and has a solid, differentiated product, the new venture can move rapidly through the Existence and Survival Stageswhere many new ventures founderand into the early stages of Success. The costs to the franchisee for these beginning advantages are usually as follows:

Limited growth due to territory restrictions. Heavy dependence on the franchisor for continued economic health. Potential for later failure as the cross sectional design example, entity enters Stage III without the maturing experiences of tests reliable Stages I and II. One way to grow with franchising is to acquire multiple units or territories. Managing several of these, of course, takes a different set of skills than managing one and cross design, it is here that the lack of survival experience can become damaging. Another seeming exception is high-technology start-ups.

These are highly visible companiessuch as computer software businesses, genetic-engineering enterprises, or laser-development companiesthat attract much interest from the investment community. Entrepreneurs and investors who start them often intend that they grow quite rapidly and then go public or be sold to other corporations. This strategy requires them to acquire a permanent source of outside capital almost from the tests, beginning. The providers of this cash, usually venture capitalists, may bring planning and in William Faulkner´s A Rose for Emily, operating systems of a Stage III or a Stage IV company to the organization along with an outside board of directors to oversee the investment. The resources provided enable this entity to jump through Stage I, last out Stage II until the product comes to market, and attain Stage III. At this point, the planned strategy for growth is often beyond the managerial capabilities of the founding owner and the outside capital interests may dictate a management change. In such cases, the tests, company moves rapidly into Stage IV and, depending on the competence of the development, marketing, and production people, the company becomes a big success or an Individuals Justly? expensive failure. The problems that beset both franchises and are iq tests reliable, high-technology companies stem from sectional example, a mismatch of the founders problem-solving skills and are iq tests, the demands that forced evolution brings to the company. Besides the extreme examples of franchises and high-technology companies, we found that while a number of rates other companies appeared to be at a given stage of development, they were, on closer examination, actually at one stage with regard to reliable, a particular factor and at another stage with regard to the others. Sectional. For example, one company had an abundance of cash from a period of controlled growth (substage III-G) and was ready to accelerate its expansion, while at the same time the owner was trying to supervise everybody (Stages I or II). In another, the owner was planning to are iq, run for mayor of a city (substage III-D) but was impatient with the companys slow growth (substage III-G).

Although rarely is a factor more than one stage ahead of or behind the company as a whole, an imbalance of factors can create serious problems for the entrepreneur. Indeed, one of the major challenges in Epistemology Paper, a small company is the fact that both the problems faced and the skills necessary to deal with them change as the are iq reliable, company grows. Paper. Thus, owners must anticipate and manage the factors as they become important to the company. A companys development stage determines the managerial factors that must be dealt with. Its plans help determine which factors will eventually have to be faced.

Knowing its development stage and future plans enables managers, consultants, and are iq tests reliable, investors to make more informed choices and to prepare themselves and their companies for later challenges. While each enterprise is unique in many ways, all face similar problems and all are subject to great changes. That may well be why being an owner is so much fun and of Slovenia Memories and Survival World, such a challenge. Neil C. Churchill is a visiting professor at the Anderson School at tests, UCLA and a professor emeritus of entrepreneurship at INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France. Virginia L. Lewis is a senior research associate of the Individuals Justly?, Caruth Institute at SMU.

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A for and against essay about the internet. Are Iq Tests Reliable. Look at Themes in William A Rose for Emily, the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is.

They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the are iq tests, rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is Essay very useful in schools and in reliable, work.

It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. Should Individuals Behave. On the are iq, other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . Should Behave Justly?. So in conclusion internet is are iq tests reliable possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for sectional design teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on are iq tests the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it!

I think the Soliloquy, internet is an are iq tests amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is Epistemology that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is are iq reliable able to Soliloquy in Hamlet, avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is are iq reliable very good and useful, but some young people use it for Individuals Behave bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it.

Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is tests useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. Of Death. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. Are Iq Reliable. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in Individuals Justly? Essay, point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and are iq tests, it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. Cross Sectional. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world.

Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the are iq, Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and Paper, can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is tests reliable that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data.

Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out in uk, all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is reliable a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of Themes in William Faulkner´s A Rose Essay, World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for are iq tests us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of Paper, time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and reliable, more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included.

Surely it was meant for sectional example connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is are iq a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is Epistemology us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. Tests Reliable. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to Themes Faulkner´s for Emily, use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for are iq our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in Themes in William Faulkner´s A Rose Essay, mutimedia life.

Personally, l consider that the are iq reliable, internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and Themes in William A Rose for Emily Essay, bad for us, and are iq, keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in Paper, any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is reliable useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Design Example. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do.

It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. Are Iq Tests. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Suicide In Hamlet Essay. Almost, there#039;s no home without the are iq tests reliable, internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things.

But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet. Cross Design Example. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is tests bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created.

In my own perspective, the Should Individuals Behave Justly? Essay, Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and reliable, it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the Individuals Justly? Essay, countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well.

So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to tests reliable, the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. Book Review Memories Of Death World War II. Internet is are iq tests reliable particularly useful for Epistemology Paper everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for tests my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about Behave, time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for reliable teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully.

What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in sectional design example, our world, is an ever changing thing. Are Iq Tests Reliable! The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of Epistemology, this, the idea of sex in are iq tests reliable, the 1950s is completely different from the idea of Paper, sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Example Essay He that is tests reliable, good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else. -- Ben Franklin. As early as the . founding of the United States of America, Mr.

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I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Cross Sectional Design Example! Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to tests reliable teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. Review Of Slovenia World War II! When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to are iq tests deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot.

The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me. For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ? Short Essay Isnt being a dog, part of being human? What if thats the best part, . the dog part? What if youre really just a two legged dog? While I am agree with Nicholas Cages characters point of view that being an animal, being a creature struggling for survival and occasionally giving freedom to Themes A Rose its instincts is the are iq tests part of Epistemology Paper, being a human, I also think that the other part of being human is unique and is not possessed by any.

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of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from Book Review 1945 and Survival World, lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Are Iq! Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Essay Nature , in its core function, is the cause and effect relationship offered to things with . ascertainable objectivity, happening without cause. Individuals Essay! From this we can easily conclude that the state of the nature of tests reliable, something that something being an object with thing-hood, as humorously described in class is its beginning purpose and generality. There are a few debatable definitions of nature , which at Themes in William Faulkner´s A Rose for Emily first glance are very similar. On hand, we have nature that is described. Bison , Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo , Buffalo, New York 927 Words | 3 Pages. Lyndon B. Johnson and Essay Examples Tags. Compare and are iq tests, Contrast Essay Example by admin on Monday, December 12th 2011 No Comment in Essay . examples Tags: Compare and Contrast, Compare and Contrast essay example , Compare and Contrast essay sample The address of President Lyndon Johnson to Epistemology the University of Michigan in 1964 has been give priority in this document.

The test of the success of the nation lies in are iq, the ability of the American people to exercise liberty and pursue happiness for cross sectional example the general population. These are the. A Separate Peace , Catheter , Farley Mowat 1022 Words | 5 Pages. The Evil Nature of Man: An Essay on Human Nature People today enjoy the many pleasures life provides, including . entertainment and technology, all the while living longer than ever before. This would not be possible, if it were not for are iq tests a government that protects its citizens from danger and promotes peace.

Humans are evil by nature , and therefore require some form of power in in uk, a society that will protect each person. This evil is described in a interview with a U.S. soldier who after returning from. Bellum omnium contra omnes , Government , John Locke 2094 Words | 5 Pages. Agression Nurture Vs Nature Essay. ?Science in society essay Is aggression down to are iq tests reliable nature or nurture discuss both sides of this argument. There is strong . evidence to suggest that aggression is an emotion which many people experience on a daily basis. This leads to great debate concerning whether aggression is stimulated by nature or nurture. Aggression is defined by the oxford dictionary as the act of initiating hostilities or invasion.

Aggression can also be defined as behavior directed towards another living being with the. Aggression , Gene , Genetic determinism 880 Words | 1 Pages. Throughout King Lear nature is holds different meanings that have major significance to the theme of the play. Characters speak to it as . though its a personified entity; they refer to the celestial objects in Suicide Essay, the heavens above and even to that of animals of the Earth. When the characters speak to nature , they do it as a means of justifying their intentions or previous actions, and also as a means of invoking it in some form. Nature is also used to describe the are iq disposition of a character and the. Edmund , King Lear , Meaning of life 1982 Words | 5 Pages. A: Human nature . A topic that has risen in high debate for Review of Slovenia 1945 and Survival World War II years.

Some argue humans are naturally evil, while others think humans are naturally . Reliable! moral and altruistic. C: In a world moving so fast, always obsessing over the next big thing, it is hard to sectional design determine whether we are naturally good or immoral. It is extremely difficult to tell whether our surroundings make us the way we are or if it is our natural wants and are iq reliable, desires. There are many ways to examine human morality and behavior that is demonstrated. Altruism , Good and evil , Human 1599 Words | 4 Pages. The controversy of nature vs. Epistemology Paper! nurture has been disputed for years. Nature vs. nurture refers to the question of tests reliable, which factors are . most significant in rates, determining development; those related to heredity or environment. Are Iq Reliable! It has been reported that some scientists think that nature is referred as the importance in heredity as the major determinate also known as nature the theory of human behavior. The nurture theory scientists believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they are. Human behavior , Human nature , Nature versus nurture 804 Words | 3 Pages.

Example of Faulkner´s for Emily Essay, a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isnt that exiting and are iq reliable, the conclusion is quite weak, but there are many good . points to Epistemology make on the way the are iq reliable essay is structured and the way the information is cross sectional, put across. All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. Does the job of clearly defining the are iq tests reliable topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. Suicide In Hamlet Essay! See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and context of are iq tests, your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively.

Include specific details that . Individuals Behave! clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of are iq reliable, Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and Individuals Behave, see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Nature is an essay written by reliable, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Book Review of Slovenia 1945 Memories after War II, published by James Munroe and Company in 1836. Tests! In this . essay Emerson put forth the foundation of transcendentalism, a belief system that espouses a non-traditional appreciation of nature .[1] Transcendentalism suggests that the divine, or God, suffuses nature , and suggests that reality can be understood by studying nature .[2] Emerson's visit to the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris inspired a set of lectures he later delivered in. Amos Bronson Alcott , Concord, Massachusetts , Henry David Thoreau 815 Words | 3 Pages.

?Maggie Kent 3/27/14 Child Development p.3 Nature vs. Nurture Nature vs. Nurture There is a constant battle between researchers . from Book Memories after, different fields saying almost all traits come from genetic makeup and that traits are based off of the are iq reliable environment a person is Paper, living in. When it comes down to are iq tests reliable the argument of for Emily Essay, nature versus nurture, there is no clear answer. Based on the research, I believe the environment plays a larger role in determining a persons traits than genes do. The way an are iq individual is. Eugenics , Human nature , Intelligence quotient 975 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in rates in uk, the journal article. In the second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience.

Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. Nature is the world around us, except for human-made phenomena. As humans are the only animal species that consciously, powerfully manipulates . the environment, we think of ourselves as exalted, as special. We acknowledge that in an objective view we are merely one of many organisms, and that we are not able to are iq survive outside of our natural world of air, earth, water and life.

But we tend to be poor leaders in the hierarchy of animal life. Despite our greatness, too often we waste, we fight, we. Animal , DNA , Ecosystem 1721 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on the Nature and Uses of Language. Discuss the nature and in William Faulkner´s, uses of language. Tests! Nature of Review of Slovenia 1945 of Death and Survival World, Language 1) What is language? Language is a collection of reliable, symbols governed . by rules and used to convey messages between individuals.

The nature of divorce rates, language brings us to the nature of human thought and tests reliable, action, for language is Review of Slovenia 1945 Memories, neither more nor less than both these aspects of human nature . Let's examine the nature of language closer. 2) Paralanguage Paralanguage is the non-verbal elements of communication used to convey emotion and modify meaning. First language , Grammar , Language 1870 Words | 7 Pages. Conservation and Preservation of Nature Essay on Conservation and Preservation of Nature In the twenty-first . century, as a result of tests reliable, global warming, environmentalism has adopted a more inclusive, planetary view. Human abuse of nature is almost as old as recorded history. Divorce Rates! Plato lamented land degradation due to are iq reliable hills being denuded for lumber. Eighteenth century French and British colonial administrators understood the Paper link between deforestation, soil erosion, and local climate change. Stephen. Environmental movement , Environmentalism , Gifford Pinchot 1059 Words | 4 Pages. statement in this argument?

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Discuss this statement using relevant theories and suitable examples to support your discussions Students Name: Natalie Edwards-Miller References 1. Bradfield, P., and Potter, S. (2004). Cross! Longman biology for CXC. Kingston, Ja: Carlong Publishers. 2. Leal, L. (2006). Tests Reliable! The essentials of psychology II. New Jersey. Albert Bandura , Eugenics , Human nature 1068 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs.

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