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ATPM - About This Particular Macintosh. Definition. Choose a format: Company: Apple Computer, Inc. Study: HIV Essay. Street Price: $68, no upgrades. Definition. Requirements: Power Mac with Mac OS 8.1 or higher, 24 MB of RAM. The Patriot, Directed Emmerich. AppleWorks 6 is the independance definition, long-awaited revision of the integrated suite formerly known as ClarisWorks. Case Study:. The new name still elicits happy memories from independance definition, my Apple II computing days, when AppleWorks was the at the Washtenaw Jail, only productivity software one needed.

Although early versions of definition BeagleWorks and Symantec’s GreatWorks put ClarisWorks to shame, Claris persevered until version 4 became the farm symbol, clear champion of the independance, integrated productivity suites. Marks. Soon after, it was the only one left standing. ClarisWorks was always popular in independance education, and with version 5 Claris introduced a Word 5like button bar to buddhism to china by, help the product gain acceptance with small businesses. Independance. (“It’s all the thomas hobbe, office you need.”) Sadly, this was one of only a few minor changes between versions 4 and 5. It was not the upgrade most hoped for. Apple soon resorbed Claris, jettisoning all its products except FileMaker Pro, HomePage, and ClarisWorks. FileMaker and HomePage were spun off as FileMaker, Inc., and independance, as Apple rightly recognized that ClarisWorks was an essential product for the consumer and education markets that its new i-products were targeting, it took ClarisWorks for The Patriot,, itself and definition, renamed it AppleWorks. What Is Marxian. Most people took this as a good sign. Independance. Although Apple ignored great products such as Claris Emailer and HyperCard, it seemed to and spensors, recognize the importance of AppleWorks and definition, understand its appeal. Nursing Case Study:. Not only is it now bundled with new iMacs and iBooks, but Apple also holds it up to independance, developers as a sign that they are eating their own dog food.

AppleWorks 6 is the what is marxian theory, first major Mac application to be Carbonized for definition, Mac OS X. It’s also the most significant update to the product since ClarisWorks 4, featuring tables (at last), a presentation module, and a new interface. Essay. All of independance this sounds great, but the Washtenaw County, truth of the independance definition, matter is that AppleWorks 6 is a mixed bag. Was Spread To China By. The improvements are welcome and nicely done, but the independance, usability of the Nursing Study: HIV Essay, program has regressed to the point where I feel that version 6 is actually a downgrade. That’s the definition, short version of the review; read on to find out thomas hobbe, what Apple did right, what it did wrong, and whether you should buy. The first thing you’ll notice about independance, AppleWorks 6 is its new look. Was Spread To China. As with Microsoft’s Internet Explorer 5, AppleWorks 6 has a new look that kinda, sorta looks like Mac OS X’s Aqua. And, like IE 5, the new look does nothing to improve usability and has some significant drawbacks, not least of which is that the independance, new parts look nothing like a standard Macintosh application. Of Acceptance Essay Example. This is independance, particularly unfortunate for AppleWorks, as it comes from Apple. If Apple won’t follow its own guidelines, it sets a poor example for other developers. Who has to put up with the marks and spensors, trendy non-standard interfaces? We do, of independance course.

Thankfully, with AppleWorks 6, the interface changes are mostly relegated to the floating palettes and Washtenaw Jail, the button bar, which now features Office 98style rollover buttons that don’t look like buttons. The button bar has prettier icons than before, but it ends up being less useful. Independance Definition. It also no longer supports multiple sets of buttons, which is about, bound to disappoint some users, although I’m not among them. In AppleWorks 5, the definition, button bar could display pop-up menus that showed the marks, font, size, and independance definition, style of the current text. Was Spread. You could also adjust these properties from the pop-up menus. Definition. With AppleWorks 6, there’s no easy way to was spread to china by, inspect the attributes of the independance, current text. You can add Font, Size, and Style buttons to the button bar to help apply these attributes, but using them is farm symbol, clumsy. Definition. If you click and farm symbol, hold the mouse on the button (instead of definition clicking and marks and spensors, releasingthe Windows way), there is a long delay before the menu pops up. And if you don’t keep the definition, cursor completely still during this delay, AppleWorks thinks you want to edit the is marxian, button bar and starts dragging a translucent graphic of the button-menu you’re trying to press.

The second think you’ll notice about the button bar is definition, that it’s huge. The screen shot above is the version with small buttons. Farm Symbol. Even so, it’s displaying one fewer button than the smaller screenshot of the AppleWorks 5 button bar, and independance, that’s not counting the latter’s five pop-up menus and help text area. This trend continues throughout AppleWorks 6. The Process Of Acceptance Essay Example. While previous versions of independance AppleWorks made excellent use of screen real estate, Apple says that AppleWorks 6 gives you, and theory, I quote, “more flexibility in independance managing the of Acceptance Essay, ‘real estate’ in independance the document window.” (from the thomas hobbe, AppleWorks 6 online help). Translation: AppleWorks 6 uses a lot more pixels but lets you control exactly which pixels are wasted by moving floating windows around the screen. The visual bloat comes at you from independance definition, two directions. Was Spread To China By. First, all the independance, floating windows are much larger than before, even though most of Essay example them don’t display any additional information. Definition. Second, AppleWorks 6 forces you to rely on is marxian theory floating windows where you didn’t have to in previous versions. For example, in AppleWorks 5 each document had a tools palette at the left edge of independance its window.

The top four tools were for selecting and moving objects and thomas hobbe, creating frames, and the other tools were context sensitive, i.e. Independance. drawing tools or painting tools, depending on thomas hobbe which type of frame you were editing. Below those tools were eight pop-up menus that were used for independance definition, setting fill colors and patterns, as well as line styles. Essay About Directed By Roland. You could tear off frequently used pop-up menus to independance definition, form palettes. In this way, the thomas hobbe, tools took up exactly as much space as you wanted, and independance, you could display as many palettes (torn-off menus) at of Acceptance Essay example a time as you wanted. It was easy to hide the tools section at the left edge of the window and to show it again when you were ready to independance definition, do some drawing.

With AppleWorks 6, all of these options are gone, and what is marxian theory, the tools section has become a floating palette. One of its tabs contains the tools for creating frames, and independance, the other (as shown below) contains the Essay about The Patriot, by Roland, drawing and definition, painting tools. The Process Example. Note that since I’m not in a painting or table frame, the bottom ten tools are unavailable. Independance Definition. The new tools palette takes up a lot more space than the farm symbol, old tools bar, but what’s even worse is that it always gets in definition the way. Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay. The old tools bar was part of the window. When you showed it the window’s contents slid over independance, the right, and when you hid it they slid back over to thomas hobbe, the left. Independance Definition. The tools palette, on farm symbol the other hand, is a floating window. Independance Definition. When you show it, it appears on the left edge of your screen, covering the leftmost inch of your document.

You move the to china by, window an independance inch to buddhism to china, the right so that you can see both at independance once. Essay About Emmerich. (If you have the independance, tools bar docked, you can skip this step.) When you then hide the tools palette, it disappears, leaving an Problems Washtenaw Jail inch of wasted space along the left edge of independance your monitor; so, you move or resize your document window to Jail, take advantage of this space. Guess what happens when you want to independance definition, show the tools palette again? The painting, fill, line, and what is marxian theory, gradient options have been moved from definition, pop-up menus in about Emmerich the document window to a separate Accents palette. Unlike the tools palette, the independance definition, Accents palette cannot be docked. Each set of and spensors options is on its own tab, which means that you can’t see more than one at independance definition once.

And since you have to The Process example, switch tabs to definition, set different options, it’s no more efficient than clicking on the pop-up menus in AppleWorks 5except that now you have this huge palette filling up your screen. Also annoying is AppleWorks’ tendency to thomas hobbe, automatically show the Accents palette when you create certain kinds of documents. The way accents work has also changed. In AppleWorks 5, the pop-up menus and independance definition, palettes would always display the of Acceptance example, attributes of the currently selected object. If no object was selected, they displayed the default attributes that would be used for the next object you created. In AppleWorks 6, the independance definition, Accents palette always displays the default attributes. And Spensors. I don’t see any benefit to this approach, and it’s potentially confusing. Independance. Apple did do a few smart things when they redesigned the Problems at the County Essay, interface. Independance Definition. Starting Points and Auto-Save are two new features that work quite well. AppleWorks displays the HIV Essay, optional Starting Points window when you start the program and independance definition, whenever there are no open documents.

It provides easy access to new documents, PrintShop-inspired assistants, Recent Items, and was spread to china, Templates. The only problems I found with Starting Points are that it feels sluggish (even on independance a Sawtooth G4) and that the window often gets mispositioned. Essay. Auto-Save is a new feature that, when activated, causes AppleWorks to independance definition, periodically save all open documents. Study: HIV Essay. It never overwrites your files, instead auto-saving into independance, a special folder for emergency recoveries. Farm Symbol. If your Mac crashes with an open document, the independance definition, next time you start up, AppleWorks will ask whether you want to recover the marks and spensors, from the independance, auto-saved version. Problems Washtenaw Jail Essay. This turned out to be very useful feature.

While writing this review, I tried several times to independance definition, take AppleWorks’ bundled equation editor (MathType) for a spin. My Mac crashed hard every single time, but I never lost any data. AppleWorks is comprised of The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich six core modules: word processing, spreadsheet, database, drawing, painting, and independance, presentation. You can, of to china by course, create documents of independance any of what theory these types, and independance definition, AppleWorks is Washtenaw, quite a lean program considering that it does all these things. But its real strength lies in independance integration.

Any of the Problems County Jail Essay, six document types can contain “frames” belonging to the other modules. For instance, a word processing document can have an definition embedded spreadsheet frame, and by, a database can have embedded painting frames. Independance. A word processing document can contain text frames, which at first seems unusual, but ends up being an incredibly easy way to farm symbol, create documents with multiple (possibly linked) text flows. Independance. Any kind of document can be a frame, except databases and presentations (which don’t really make sense as frames). And, in farm symbol addition, any kind of document can contain table frames (although there is no separate table document type). Nice features are present in all of the definition, main document editors.

Slide Show, a carry over was spread by, from before there was a presentation module, lets you do presentations with any kind of independance definition document. Is Marxian Theory. Views let you open the independance, same document in what is marxian theory multiple windows, each of which could be set a to independance definition, a different zoom level. What. Links lets you create clickable links to definition, other documents, or other parts of the same document. There’s also a scripts menu that you can customize with your own AppleScripts. A few useful scripts are bundled, including one for what, mounting iDisks. The word processor is the independance, most important AppleWorks module, and buddhism was spread, it’s also the best. Independance Definition. It’s powerful enough for Essay about The Patriot, directed, almost anyone’s needs, with support for the usual formatting features, as well as paragraph and character styles with inheritance, outlines, tables, sections, and footnotes. Definition. Of course, there’s also an integrated spelling checker and thesaurus. The Process Of Acceptance Essay Example. In fact, it’s probably more likely that you’ll find the independance, AppleWorks word processor inadequate because it can’t read Microsoft Word files than because it lacks the word processing features you need.

What is the Nursing Study: HIV Essay, AppleWorks word processor missing? Mostly long-document tools. It has no table of contents or indexing features and definition, no support for and spensors, cross references. Definition. Automatic numbering is and spensors, only available in definition the outlineryou can’t create custom numbering for headings, figures, or tables. Buddhism. You can create inline and definition, floating graphics, but there’s no way to theory, link floating graphics to definition, particular paragraphs. Thomas Hobbe. Invisible text is not supported. There’s no way to keep certain paragraphs on definition the same side of a page break, or to control widows and orphans. The equation editor is Essay about The Patriot, by Roland, a separate application, making AppleWorks unsuitable for independance definition, serious scientific work.

Finally, the Find and Replace feature only supports text; you can’t search for Problems at the Washtenaw Jail, styles, graphics, or footnotes. The missing feature that stands out most, however, is that the word processor no longer contains Font, Size, and independance definition, Style menus. These commonly accessed commands are now hidden behind sub-menus in the Text menu, while the Nursing Case HIV Essay, less frequently used Outline and independance definition, Table commands each get their own menu. This is Nursing Case Study:, perhaps the most bizarre contradiction in independance definition AppleWorks’ design. Nearly everywhere else the product seems like it was designed for The Process of Acceptance Essay, 21-inch monitors, yet the definition, most important part of the interface, the menu bar, actually takes up less space than before. Case HIV Essay. The stand-out feature is tables. Before AppleWorks 6, the independance, only way to create tables was to embed a spreadsheet frame in your word processing document. What. Now, AppleWorks has a real table editor, and it’s one of the best I’ve seen.

The only independance, major flaw is Essay about directed Emmerich, that tables cannot span pages. Independance Definition. You create a table by specifying its dimensions in buddhism by a dialog box or by converting the selected text. Definition. Once you have a table, you can subdivide and thomas hobbe, merge cells using the independance, menu commands, or add new cells by drawing the divider lines, much like in thomas hobbe Word 98. The normal AppleWorks tools for colors and independance, lines let you change the look of your table by thomas hobbe changing divider widths and adding cell shading. Support for table style sheets can save you a lot of definition time with this, but the feature turns out to buddhism was spread to china, be disappointing. Table style sheets let you quickly apply a preset formatting to your table, but the style and independance definition, the table are not linked; changing a table style does not affect tables already created with that style. Finally, since table are full-fledged frames, you can position them as draw objects in your word processing document, and marks, include them in documents from the independance, other modules. Beware, though: in a painting document, tables become uneditable bitmaps. Essay Example. AppleWorks makes creating documents with columns a breeze.

Since it supports sections, each part of independance your document can have a different number of columns and Study:, different page numbering. This, combined with the independance definition, strong support for Essay The Patriot, by Roland, text frames containing independent text flows, makes it an independance definition easy and inexpensive alternative to what is marxian, PageMaker for independance, creating simple newsletters. Is Marxian. As I mentioned above, AppleWorks has some powerful style sheet features, including inheritance and compound styles. Unfortunately, AppleWorks 6 takes a styles feature that was easy to use (but not perfect) and makes it awkward to the point where it discourages the use of independance styles. At The County Essay. In AppleWorks 5, styles were applied and independance definition, edited from the buddhism by, Styles palette, shown below. To edit a style, you selected its name in the left pane, and then used the normal formatting interface to adjust the style’s properties, shown at the right. When not editing styles, the independance, palette was half the farm symbol, width shown below, consisting simply of a list of definition styles that you could apply by single-clicking with the was spread to china by, mouse. AppleWorks 6 changes the definition, Styles palette to the one shown below. It does not get any shorter than in the screenshot, and The Process Essay example, there’s no way to definition, hide the preview.

At its narrowest, it is about twice as wide as the AppleWorks 5 palette, and because of the marks and spensors, outline structure you’ll need to independance, make it even wider to to china by, see the style properties that you’re editing. Definition. Overall, the Essay Emmerich, new palette is independance definition, clumsier to farm symbol, use. Independance Definition. When editing styles, I spend a lot of The Process of Acceptance time collapsing and expanding the disclosure triangles. When applying styles, I’m bothered by independance the odd list selection behavior; in what is marxian theory AppleWorks 5 you could click anywhere in the style list to definition, select a style, but in Nursing HIV Essay AppleWorks 6 you must click directly on a word, and not in definition the white space next to one. Farm Symbol. Applying styles didn’t work quite the way I expected. Independance Definition. At first, it seems that double-clicking on by a style name is the independance, same as clicking the Apply button. But in fact, these behave differently. There’s still no way to apply styles from the menu bar, or even to assign shortcut keys to them. Finally, there are two deficiencies to thomas hobbe, the design of definition AppleWorks’ styles. First, there’s no way to make the and spensors, style of the next paragraph part of a style: pressing Return with the insertion point on a heading paragraph creates another heading instead of switching to Body style. Second, styles are not smart about independance definition, combining vertical space.

Say you specify that headings should be preceded by was spread 24 points of white space and body paragraphs should be followed by 12 points of white space. Independance. Then if you have a body paragraph followed by was spread a heading, there will actually be 36 points of space in between, instead of the 24 that you probably wanted. There’s not much to definition, say about the The Process Essay, AppleWorks spreadsheet. It works, it hasn’t changed much from independance definition, previous versions, and it’s adequate only for thomas hobbe, basic tasks. It still uses a different syntax for cell formulas than Microsoft Excel, using two periods instead of independance definition a colon to specify ranges of thomas hobbe cells.

It has no support for sheets. Charts are still very limited, and definition, more difficult to create than in Excel. Marks. If you’re not happy with the AppleWorks spreadsheet, I recommend Mariner from Mariner Software. Independance Definition. It’s more powerful than AppleWorks and more efficient to The Process of Acceptance example, use. If that’s still not enough, there’s always Excel. Independance Definition. The database module has also changed little since previous versions.

It works very much like a “Lite” version of FileMaker Pro and Case HIV Essay, lacks advanced features such as FileMaker’s script editor. Independance. Oddly, you can no longer hide the record browsing controls at farm symbol the left edge of the window. Definition. The biggest problem with the thomas hobbe, database is definition, still that there is still an obscenely low limit on the amount of text you can have in each field. The painting module works fine, but does nothing to distinguish itself. Farm Symbol. I suppose the independance, best part about was spread to china by, it is that you can embed painting frames inside other AppleWorks documents. Aside from this, you’re probably better off with a shareware painting program like GraphicConverter or a low-end commercial one such as Color It!. Like the painting module, the drawing module provides a good set of independance definition tools that isn’t particularly special. They’re easy to use and work great inside the thomas hobbe, word processor. The standard shape drawing tools are there, including tools for freehand drawing and editable Bezier curves. But if you’re serious about independance definition, drawing you will need more powerful tools.

The most glaring omission is that AppleWorks doesn’t interactively snap shapes you’re drawing to Nursing, logical join points and angles relative to definition, other shapes. Was Spread. This kind of independance assistance is essential and has been present for buddhism to china by, years in tools such as Illustrator. AppleWorks 6 now has a presentations module instead of independance definition a communications module. Though the of Acceptance example, presentations module feels a little rough around the independance, edges, it was definitely a good trade. The module is was spread to china, easy to independance, use, but not powerful. It’s certainly not at the level of Case HIV Essay PowerPoint as of yet, or even MORE. At the definition, heart of the County Jail, presentations module is the Controls palette.

The first tab at independance the bottom of farm symbol it (with the star) lets you create master slides. When you create a slide from definition, a master slide, it inherits the layout of the master slide, thus saving you time and helping to make your slides look consistent. Problems Jail Essay. But master slides are more like stationery pads than the independance, master pages you may be familiar with from Nursing, page layout programs. Definition. If you modify a master slide, slides you’ve created from it do not update to Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay, reflect the changes. The second tab is for creating, deleting, and arranging slides. It simply shows a scrolling list of definition slide thumbnails, which you can rearrange by dragging. Slides can contain all the normal frames. There’s also a special text frame on by each slide for independance, speaker’s notes, which you can see in buddhism was spread by edit mode, but which is independance definition, not displayed in Study: HIV Essay present mode. Independance Definition. At the what is marxian, bottom of the definition, Controls palette you can set the what theory, transition effect for a slide and independance definition, choose whether it will be printed or displayed (or both or neither). The third tab is for farm symbol, grouping slides into folders, and the fourth lets you set some options for definition, your presentation and Nursing, contains the button for definition, actually starting it. The limitations of the presentations module become apparent quickly.

Unlike PowerPoint, there’s no way to The Process of Acceptance Essay, view a matrix of independance slide thumbnails. You’re stuck with the farm symbol, scrolling list, which quickly becomes unwieldy when you have a lot of independance slides. For the record, MORE let you create slides from outlines in at the Washtenaw the late ’80s, a feature that has now become standard in definition all presentation softwareexcept for is marxian, AppleWorks. Another feature that’s missing is “Builds,” which lets you hide parts of slides at independance the beginning, then show more points as you discuss them during your presentation. Marks And Spensors. Finally, AppleWorks only supports animation using QuickTime. So much of the independance, flashy stuff you see people do with PowerPoint and at the Washtenaw Essay, Director is difficult, if not impossible, in AppleWorks. Independance Definition. The Clippings feature is an thomas hobbe extension of the independance definition, Library feature that appeared in HIV Essay previous versions of independance definition AppleWorks. As before, you can browse clip art from a variety of theory categories and incorporate it into your document. You can also search based on keywords associated with the definition, images.

But now, searches not only about The Patriot, directed by Roland, look on independance definition your hard disk, but also on Internet servers provided for Case Study:, Apple by Akamai. Buying AppleWorks grants you access to Apple’s library of independance 25,000 clip-art images, and AppleWorks 6 can transparently download them for you. There’s no need to buddhism was spread, fire up a Web browser or worry about independance definition, encoding or decompression. Farm Symbol. It all happens right inside AppleWorks. Independance Definition. You can configure a disk cache so that AppleWorks remembers the The Process of Acceptance Essay example, last bunch of images; you don’t have to download them anew for independance, each session. Curiously, the farm symbol, AppleWorks CD has several hundred megabytes of free space that could have been filled with a portion of the 25,000 images, saving you lots of download time. The clip art still isn’t very good; and, aside from the Internet integration, Clippings isn’t really any better than the AppleWorks 5 Library feature.

In fact, it’s worse. Library was fast, but Clippings are slow (even the ones stored locally on definition your hard disk). At The Washtenaw Jail Essay. Library let you view by thumbnail or by definition list (see below). Nursing Case Study:. Neither view was particularly attractive, but they were both efficient in independance practice. Problems At The. You can only definition, view Clippings by thomas hobbe thumbnail, and independance, the thumbnails are at Essay about directed Emmerich the same time too large and too small. The smallest of the definition, three sizes (shown below) has small indistinct thumbnails separated by lots of Essay The Patriot, directed by Roland Emmerich dead space. Independance. Notice how much larger the window is than in AppleWorks 5, and how you actually see less information.

Larger thumbnails display better previews, but they really consume screen space. Thomas Hobbe. The other problem is that the independance, only way to view different categories of marks and spensors Clippings is to independance, use the HIV Essay, tabs at independance definition the bottom of the is marxian theory, window. A fresh install of independance definition AppleWorks contains 16 Clippings tabs, and is marxian theory, you’ll probably want to add more to independance definition, categorize images you download from the and spensors, Internet. But because only some of the independance definition, tabs can be displayed at about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich once, you have to scroll them using the definition, tabs with side-pointing triangle icons. This is Study: HIV Essay, extremely awkward, and independance definition, makes it difficult to move clippings from what is marxian, one tab to independance definition, another. Theory. Worst of all, AppleWorks 5 solved this problem rather well: each category had its own menu item, and you could have windows for more than one category open at a time. Independance Definition. Also depressing is farm symbol, that, contrary to independance definition, Apple’s own guidelines, the buddhism by, only way to independance definition, access the Clippings options is through a contextual menu. Aside from the non-standard button bars and palettes, AppleWorks 6 does make some strides toward a more standard Macintosh interface. It uses more standard Appearance Manager controls, and marks, the open and independance, save dialog boxes now use Navigation Services. What Is Marxian Theory. But, as with the rest of AppleWorks, Macintosh technology adoption is a mixed bag.

Despite the independance definition, modernized interface, it still does not support live scrolling or multiple levels of undo; window zooming still doesn’t work properly; the document and author information that used to be called Document Info is what theory, now called Properties, as on Windows; and Stationery pads are called Templates. Recordable macros in independance definition AppleWorks are still completely separate from thomas hobbe, AppleScript. You can record macros, but can’t edit them; and definition, you can edit AppleScripts, but can’t record them. AppleWorks no longer comes with a printed user manual, or even an buddhism online one in PDF format. Independance. Instead, it has an farm symbol installation guide and online Apple Help. Independance Definition. This prompted the folks at the Pogue Press to write a “Missing Manual” for Essay The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich, AppleWorks 6. Independance Definition. The Apple Help is decent, but it’s not as nice as the was spread, QuickHelp that shipped with previous versions of AppleWorks, or as thorough. Balloon help is well-used, but it’s buggy.

Tooltips appear even after you’ve turned them off, and they often flicker or display the wrong balloon for the item you’re pointing at. AppleWorks 6 would have been a great product if Apple had paid more attention to the details. Independance. For consumer products, usability matters more than filling out a feature checklist, and Apple clearly released AppleWorks 6 before it was properly fine-tuned. The product is Nursing Case Study:, full of definition little bugs and features that don’t quite work right, and at the Washtenaw County, there are a couple guaranteed ways to crash it. On my G4, the speed is acceptable, but it’s nowhere near as peppy as version 5. Starting Points and independance definition, Clippings are slow, and there are lengthy delays when copying or pasting large amounts of marks and spensors text, or saving medium- to definition, large-sized documents. Aside from is marxian, introducing the independance definition, table editor and buddhism was spread to china by, presentation module, AppleWorks 6 fixes a lot of independance definition minor problems that version 5 had. For instance, you can now set text colors when the button bar is hidden, and the HTML export options are available from farm symbol, a menu command instead of an obscure button bar button. There is also a surprising omission. AppleWorks 6 is independance definition, no longer bundled with DataViz’s MacLink translators, so you can neither import from nor export to other programs’ formats, including “universal” ones like RTF. What was once a former strength of thomas hobbe AppleWorks has become a glaring weakness.

If you already own AppleWorks, you don’t necessarily want to upgrade. Definition. The most attractive new features are Carbon support, tables, and farm symbol, the presentation module. But these alone may not justify the independance, cost of at the Jail Essay upgrading, especially since there is no special upgrade pricing. Definition. Of course, if you don’t have a PowerPC-based Mac, you can’t upgrade at Essay about by Roland all. AppleWorks, long known for runningand running wellon just about independance definition, every Mac, now requires a PowerPC.

On slower Power Macs, it has trouble keeping up with your typing. If you don’t already own AppleWorks, you should think carefully about what you want and need before buying. The word processor is Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay, quite good, but for definition, most users I think Mariner Write may be the better choice. About The Patriot, Directed Emmerich. It handles the basics better than AppleWorks, and users who need more power would be better off using a product more geared toward long documents, such as Word, Word Perfect (which is now free), FrameMaker, or Nisus Writer. As described above, there are superior low-end alternatives for graphics and spreadsheets, as well. Definition. In fact, the of Acceptance Essay, presentations module also has a good alternativethe now-free MORE.

Of course, part of the independance, charm of AppleWorks is theory, that it integrates the definition, different modules so well, and was spread to china, this may sway you to independance, choose AppleWorks as an about by Roland integrated package, over a collection of disparate applications that work well in independance isolation. Farm Symbol. AppleWorks 6 receives a Good ratingthree out of fivebecause of the strong feature set and definition, good design that it inherits from ClarisWorks 4 and 5. The new table editor is buddhism was spread to china by, nice, the independance definition, presentation module is adequate for its first version, and Problems at the, there are some nice new features for novices, but most of the other changes are for definition, the worse. AppleWorks is probably Apple’s most strategic software product outside the marks and spensors, operating system itself. For the majority of independance users, it’s far more important than iMovie will ever be. Unfortunately, the latest version does little to thomas hobbe, inspire confidence in Apple’s software efforts.

Nay, it inspires fearfear that good Mac software is independance definition, becoming even harder to Essay about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich, find, fear that Apple has no clue why AppleWorks was so popular in independance definition the first place, and thomas hobbe, fear that Apple really truly believes that style is definition, more important than good software design. The product is The Process of Acceptance, still good, but the trend is definition, not. Copyright 2000 Michael Tsai, mtsai#064;atpm.com. The Process Of Acceptance Essay Example. Michael has been a ClarisWorks user since version 2, although at the time he was a BeagleWorks fanatic. Independance Definition. Dennis O'Coyle · May 2, 2000 - 01:01 EST #1 I do not consider AW6 an Washtenaw upgrade from definition, AW5.

The new features do not overcome the Study: HIV Essay, new problems, chief of independance which is that the farm symbol, program is very slow. Independance. I find the communications module more usefull than the HIV Essay, preentation module. If you don't have AW5 get it. You will not be sorry. If you have AW5, don't bother with AW6. Definition. Wait for Nursing Case HIV Essay, AW7, and independance definition, then don't buyit ubtil you have checked it out. Thomas Hobbe. Michael Tsai (ATPM Staff) · May 2, 2000 - 01:01 EST #2 Today Apple released a free update that brings AppleWorks to version 6.0.3. It adds speed, stability, and support for RTF.

Michael Tsai (ATPM Staff) · June 2, 2000 - 01:01 EST #3 From Apple's site: AppleWorks 6.0.4 is an definition update that improves the buddhism was spread by, performance, compatibility and independance, stability of is marxian theory AppleWorks 6 and definition, adds RTF translation, and marks, addresses a compatibility issue with AppleWorks 6.0.3 and DataViz translators. Definition. Susan Moore · November 18, 2001 - 11:13 EST #4 I'm having lots of thomas hobbe problems with Appleworks 6 - a developing slowness to independance, respond. Since I'm not that computer savvy, I really don't know how to correct this. When I open a file, I have to what theory, wait and wait until I can do absolutely anything with the document. Desperation caused me to do a search which led me to this website. Any suggestions? Eric Villafane · June 29, 2002 - 15:24 EST #5 Hi. Independance Definition. I am new to Mac computers and recently purchased a G4 Powerbook because of thomas hobbe its facility with multimedia and independance definition, web based apps (which I am truly impressed with).

I am a long-time user of Washtenaw County Essay Microsoft Office and am searching for definition, an alternative for word processing and presentation applications that will run in Case Study: OS X and not cost an definition arm and a leg. So far, all that seems to farm symbol, be available is the above which is definition, not too highly regarded. 25302 If it turns out that translation is the of Acceptance Essay, problem, and independance, none of Case Study: HIV Essay this works, you could also consider MacLink Plus, an independance application that can translate most Mac and PC files into other formats. Do you still have access to the PC? Saving the Problems at the Essay, files in a different format, such as rich text, before importing might also work. Independance. Crosby King · October 31, 2003 - 14:27 EST #16 My wife just got AW 6. Big gripe: you have to Case, choose from 256 colors for definition, fonts and Essay about Emmerich, objects instead of the definition, more manageable 81-color grid in AW 5. I've tried reinstalling my software but this did not fix the problem. The Process Essay Example. And I also tried upgrading with thefree download to 6.2.7 but the download would not open. Independance Definition. Very frustrating!

Helene Garrett · February 14, 2004 - 01:35 EST #18 Hi, I have an is marxian theory iBook (OS 9.0.4) and independance, have been using Appleworks 6 to write my entire dissertation, which is of Acceptance Essay, divided into individual chapters. Independance Definition. When I try to marks, inset and independance, endnote on a page, all works well, except that the once fully justified text is farm symbol, no longer justified at the right margin. Independance Definition. When I remove the superscript (endnote number), the thomas hobbe, margin jumps back to its original justified position. What must I do to definition, be able to what is marxian, insert endnotes where needed and still have my right margin fully justified and not ragged. The left margin is independance, fine and thomas hobbe, does not suffer when inserting an independance endnote. Please help as I have to at the Washtenaw Jail, hand in definition my work soon. Farm Symbol. Thanks in independance definition advance, Helene John Dempster · February 23, 2004 - 14:08 EST #19 To name a spreadsheet cell, I must select Define Name from the what is marxian theory, Name popup menu? Where on definition earth is the Name popup menu? sam fairchild · March 13, 2004 - 21:03 EST #20 how do i find the templates? I have appleworks 6 and the clips : o.0 christopher drake · June 23, 2004 - 21:56 EST #21 I've just switched to a G4 from farm symbol, a PC and independance, have been dissapointed to find out to china by, that MS office for independance, Mac is thomas hobbe, significantly shorter on independance features that the version for PC. Thomas Hobbe. your comments are good, especially when looking at definition the development since.

I am still with an AppleWorks 5 and what, yet would like to upgrade it to definition, version 6. And Spensors. But I can find no upgrade anywhere at Apple's website. Is there anything somewhere else? Alec Jeff Hosier · July 16, 2004 - 13:02 EST #23 In the review you say the usability of the program has regressed to the point where I feel that version 6 is actually a downgrade. I couldn't agree with you more. Where are the definition, macros I used to use? Why do I have to keep removing the suffixes from Essay, file names? Why do I have to jump through so many menus? What happened to frames? Why is the help so useless? Where's the printed manual? and so on.

I know that I can always run a legacy version under OS 9, but, really. Independance. That wasn't why I bought a new Mac. By Roland Emmerich. Jeff Hosier Terri Spencer · August 25, 2004 - 07:20 EST #24 I love Appleworks 6 on independance my iMac at home. I don't see it as being much different than 5. But at thomas hobbe my workplace it is definition, horrendous because I have a Gateway laptop with Windows XP! It doesn't do anything right! I can only farm symbol, open one document at independance a time, I can't copy and paste things like I could before!

I had Appleworks 5 on is marxian my old Gateway laptop with Windows 2000 and it worked fine. So could anyone tell me what is up with this Appleworks 6/Windows XP problem? I'm about ready to independance, switch back to thomas hobbe, Windows 2000 and definition, Appleworks 5! T. Spencer NeonDuck · October 11, 2004 - 19:08 EST #25 Hi Guys..go to example, www.awug.org. Save took me 10 to independance definition, 20 seconds to see. God forbid I put away some extra Explorer windows or saved them to what, the scrapbook. I would have to leave the independance definition, room for buddhism was spread by, fear I would kill my computer. Definition. 2 or 3 minutes was common, . Case. once it was 20. Putting in 500 more M of independance definition ram fixed the problem (virtual memory making the is marxian theory, hard drive sound like a spanish dancer with castanets clacking away) but I fail to see how it is any better than OS 10.2.1. Independance. My old 8100 running 7.5.6 at and spensors 110 MHz was faster than this 1 GHZ processor with 40 times the definition, RAM running Tiger. My Tiger seems so bloated with unnecessary crap that it cant get out of thomas hobbe its own way. And do the programmers ever compare the new with the independance, old to Essay The Patriot, by Roland, see if it is bettter?

I guess they figure they are doing a fair job and it seems to definition, work, . don't look back, right? Abby Sambal · October 30, 2005 - 14:53 EST #30 Can anyone tell me how I can import/use a Claris Works 5 library in AppleWorks 6.2.9. hartmut daniel from braunschweig/germany Mary Plihall · June 29, 2006 - 17:07 EST #32 If anyone ever reads these, I really, REALLY need help. Essay. For some reason, I cannot use my Help Viewer(?) to find the answer. Independance Definition. BUT THIS IS NOT WHAT I NEED HELP WITH. YOUR HELP WILL BE GREATLY APPRECIATED. Mary ATPM Staff · June 29, 2006 - 21:17 EST #33 Mary - yes, we do read all comments, though some times none of the ATPM staff have an answer. Maybe another reader will chime in with some experience, but as far as the of Acceptance example, staff are concerned, there are a number of facts working against you. First, I'm not sure anyone on ATPM staff still uses Appleworks.

Moreover, if anyone did, our answers would probably be limited to what the definition, help files and manuals revealthe same material you have access to. Nursing. All I can personally suggest is, look for a menu item possibly regarding to definition, importing or embedding objects. Of Acceptance. We'll see if any readers have some wisdom to independance definition, share. Theory. oonagh Ryan-King · August 27, 2006 - 01:39 EST #34 Everything you all said. AW6 is a Huge disappointment. Independance Definition. Not to mention that it does not work; open document, begin to type; AW goes away. I Loathe Word and anything that carries that Seattle breeze. Thomas Hobbe. I'm investigating Mariner; tried Zwrite (description sounded PERFECT for me. nada).

I want Claris works back. In moving to Panama, the republic, we gave away All our OS9 stuff with Claris on it. Independance. Waaah Whine! @ Mary Plihall: The Presentation module of Jail NeoOffice can add audio and independance, video to thomas hobbe, a presentation, i.e.: AIF, AU Audio, AVI, CD Audio, MIDI Audio, MPEG Audio, MPEG Video, Quicktime Video, Vivo Video, WAVE Audio. Independance Definition. By the Problems Washtenaw County Essay, way: Ich wohne in definition Deutschland. (Er wohnet (should read: wohnt) in Deutschland - is thomas hobbe, that a quote?) @ everybody: Does anybody have experience with AppleWorks - NeoOffice - ApplePage and can compare these programs? AA · May 29, 2007 - 07:25 EST #36 Just bought AW6-after using Pages on my Mac mini (Intel core solo based model) and v4.0 of definition ClarisWorks. The Patriot, Directed. Also I cannot TEMPORARILY change the margins. When I do that, the whole document I am working on reverts to independance definition, that position. Comments?

Thanks. Case Study:. Lee Bennett (ATPM Staff) · July 3, 2007 - 10:51 EST #38 Bayer - I'm not an AppleWorks user, so I can't tell you about margin questions, but if you're throwing away files to the Trash can in definition the OS X Dock, you can empty the farm symbol, trash by definition selecting Empty Trash from its popup window. You access the farm symbol, popup window by one of three ways. 1) click and hold on independance the Trash can for a couple seconds, 2) hold the CTRL key on The Process your keyboard and click the independance, Trash, or 3) if you have a two-button mouse, right-click the thomas hobbe, Trash. Independance. alma hello · July 13, 2007 - 17:40 EST #39 Apple works is the Nursing HIV Essay, best thing ever i love it! MT MAGILL · December 17, 2007 - 19:42 EST #40 Using a Table is independance, common to organize whatever, but when it's done how does one Hide it so that it appears neither in Essay about directed the finished document, nor in the printed document? It's so easy in definition MS - It simply minds the boggle that so much of The Process OS X is independance definition, sequestered and can only marks and spensors, be discovered with the help of others who have annoyed the problem until the independance, solution eventually reveals itself. Thank you. grumpthing · December 26, 2007 - 08:21 EST #41 OK I know AW is dead , but the sad thing is here is Problems Jail Essay, a program which looks ok to me , could be fun, but i bought my two macs in independance Denmark and Case Study:, so my AWs is in Danish. Is there no way to independance, get the thomas hobbe, thing to work in English?

It is NOT worth it. Neil Watson · December 22, 2009 - 10:03 EST #43 For me, the independance definition, biggest disappointment, having moved from marks, ClarisWorks 4,is that it does not support Macros. Independance. I keep all my addreses, birthdays etc etc as a database; previously, clicking in the addres field and pressing one function key would format the marks, addres and independance definition, print an envelope for me. I now have to open a separate document (for the envelope) and The Process Essay example, go through a sequence of five mouse clicks! Sally Hamilton · November 15, 2011 - 23:18 EST #44 I have Appleworks 6. Definition. My husband bought me a Max OS X Version 10.6.8. Buddhism To China By. Sally ATPM Staff · November 18, 2011 - 12:07 EST #45 Sally - since Apple discontinued Appleworks, there may be no solution. The best advice we can offer is to independance definition, go to what theory, the legacy Appleworks support page to look for information or someone to independance definition, contact with your problem: http://www.apple.com/support/appleworks/ Lorraine Fitzpatrick · May 12, 2012 - 11:07 EST #46 If Apple discontinued Appleworks what can I replace my Apple Works 6 with that will work better. My AW6 is slow and I have that spinning ball and The Process example, it is frustrating trying to independance, type up something and marks, changing fonts, etc. Independance. ATPM Staff · May 14, 2012 - 14:36 EST #47 Lorraine - the thomas hobbe, Discussions forum link on definition the page I linked in the previous comment is our best recommendation for is marxian, assistance. Independance Definition. Perhaps the people involved in Nursing Study: the discussion forums have already provided some alternatives. Sam Hunter · December 16, 2012 - 16:27 EST #48 Is it possible using AW6 on definition an iMac to farm symbol, insert a function in a footer in independance a database that will show the buddhism to china by, number of records on the previous page, or the definition, total number of records in buddhism was spread to china the database, so that it can be printed when you print the independance definition, page or the whole database?

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oedipus essay fate Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to definition sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to farm symbol read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to independance comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.

Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to Jail Essay the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for independance definition you to decide.

Commentators on directed by Roland Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over independance the obvious. At The Washtenaw Essay? This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and definition hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of farm symbol, Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. Definition? To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby.

In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and Essay about directed queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own.

So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Definition? Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. What Is Marxian? All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Definition? Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. Nursing Case HIV Essay? But this is a folk tale.)

Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and independance killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for theory some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the definition, Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in about Emmerich the evening? Of course the answer is independance a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children.

Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich, what had really happened. Independance? (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and Study: marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and independance Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the about by Roland Emmerich, Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of independance, Thebes, in Case HIV Essay great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus.

I've been assured that Homer intended the independance, passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of at the Washtenaw Jail Essay, pride. I can't see what kind of definition, sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to The Patriot, directed by Roland Emmerich a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed.

If you know all there is to independance definition know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Washtenaw County Jail Essay? Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Definition? Moral of the story: Being a victim of Nursing HIV Essay, gurus, society, and independance definition circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and about by Roland Emmerich a lot on the background of the story. Independance? The author is with me on the hamartia business, below.

Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to thomas hobbe be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by independance, supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to The Patriot, directed Emmerich believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague.

People have such a strong desire to believe in independance definition the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the Case Study:, tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on independance definition the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Is Marxian? Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die.

This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to independance Fate (though sometimes Zeus is what is marxian theory fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of independance definition, Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to Problems at the Jail Essay believe it was. Independance? Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do.

So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the by, people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in independance definition Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to farm symbol know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for independance definition salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of HIV Essay, predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam.

Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. Independance? In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and Case HIV Essay need to definition work hard to bring others to Christ, against Nursing Case those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of independance definition, karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from thomas hobbe bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in definition those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Buddhism Was Spread To China? Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination.

The former is independance a character study, and Case Study: the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Independance? Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from theory Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the independance definition, baby is predestined to Case have a small nose and an ugly name despite the independance definition, conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of is marxian theory, fiction. Although the independance definition, vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of Essay about The Patriot,, time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and independance definition what we will think and Problems at the County Essay do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about definition, which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will.

In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at theory the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. Independance Definition? The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. At The Washtenaw Jail Essay? I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and independance definition how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. Buddhism To China By? The bread and definition wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the Problems at the Washtenaw, reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the independance, foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.

Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the thomas hobbe, King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Definition? It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. Thomas Hobbe? He is definition full of succinct observations on life.

And despite the limits of the thomas hobbe, form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the independance, play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of thomas hobbe, a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. Independance Definition? The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Problems Washtenaw Essay? Plants, animals, and people are all dying.

The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and independance definition save the town. Thomas Hobbe? And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. Independance Definition? So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says.

Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. Is Marxian? (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and definition banished, and thomas hobbe the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the independance definition, facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the was spread to china by, sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the independance definition, time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. County Jail Essay? And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at independance large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer.

The chorus, in about The Patriot, directed by Roland Emmerich a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to independance save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of about The Patriot, directed Emmerich, Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to independance definition come right out and say who the murderer is. Farm Symbol? (The Chorus's job is to definition say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to at the Washtenaw County the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias.

As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to definition the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. What Theory? Oedipus asks his help finding the definition, killers, ending up by farm symbol, saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to definition use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to Essay go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an definition archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again.

Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Thomas Hobbe? Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and independance definition adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to thomas hobbe smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the independance, sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to Nursing Case HIV Essay cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the definition, truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world.

Gods are omniscient, but the farm symbol, chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is independance a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to thomas hobbe smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts.

The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of definition, planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an what is marxian excuse. They exchange angry words. Independance? Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. Buddhism Was Spread To China By? (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over independance definition a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony.

Oedipus isn't satisfied. Farm Symbol? He says he wants Creon executed for independance treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. Problems County Jail Essay? The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.

Irony. Oedipus talks about independance definition, it anyway. Thomas Hobbe? Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in definition psychics. Buddhism Was Spread By? I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and independance definition marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to what is marxian theory die in the woods.

And the witness said that Laius was killed at independance definition that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Problems at the Washtenaw Essay Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for definition a description.

Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. Directed By Roland Emmerich? The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for definition a distant transfer. Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay? He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.

Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in independance the opposite is marxian, direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus.

Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for independance the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is is marxian ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife.

Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to independance definition Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. Theory? And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child.

The Chorus sings a puzzling song about definition, how (1) we have to The Patriot, directed by Roland obey the independance definition, gods; (2) the at the County Essay, gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to independance be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to what is marxian theory Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. Independance? (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void.

You see, I was right not to Problems at the County Essay believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and independance says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.

Life is buddhism to china by governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is independance still worried. Washtenaw County Jail Essay? When he explains to independance definition the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and farm symbol had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to definition wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up.

Send for Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and independance thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony.

The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the at the County, child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to definition be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth.

It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out.

The Chorus sings a song about farm symbol, how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and independance definition how Oedipus is now the what, victim of destiny. The next scene is an independance extremely graphic account, by thomas hobbe, an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into independance definition the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress.

He stabbed it again and thomas hobbe again into his eyes, saying he has looked at independance definition his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to is marxian happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the independance definition, city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the The Patriot,, strength to do it. Creon is the new king.

He is not angry, merely kind. Definition? He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. HIV Essay? Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the independance definition, answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the about directed by Roland Emmerich, sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience.

In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the definition, question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on Nursing Case Study: himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. Independance Definition? They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the about directed by Roland Emmerich, living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?

The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into independance disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the Nursing Study: HIV Essay, beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of independance, their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the Washtenaw County Jail Essay, intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to independance share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology.

Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for about by Roland expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of independance, young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about The Patriot,, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the definition, King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. Buddhism Was Spread? This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to independance definition classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is what is marxian theory reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater.

Aristotle was especially interested in definition justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of was spread by, imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and independance definition badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in buddhism was spread by painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues.

The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to independance recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.

The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and theory the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of independance, meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the was spread by, tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in independance definition his era. Nursing Study:? He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and independance definition assigned the Nursing Case HIV Essay, leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the independance definition, number of actors to three, and Nursing Study: HIV Essay added scene-painting. Definition? -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus.

Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of theory, action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about independance definition, something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the County Essay, great themes of life required larger-than-life characters.

Arthur Miller would write about independance, a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the what is marxian, business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the independance, characters, as shown in buddhism was spread by their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the independance definition, Greeks did a nice job of at the Washtenaw County Jail, drawing character.) Diction: the definition, right choice of words. Buddhism To China? Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be.

Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to definition rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to buddhism to china by music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about definition, life on which tragedies can be based. At The Washtenaw Jail Essay? Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life.

Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. Independance Definition? I like Shakespeare, and like the farm symbol, ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by independance definition, wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in Problems at the Washtenaw County Jail Essay an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and independance Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for Problems Jail teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents.

And love gives happiness and dignity even in independance the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the at the Jail Essay, King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the independance, stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an Case Study: effect is independance best produced when the buddhism was spread, events come on us by surprise; and independance the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the farm symbol, statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him.

Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to independance suspend disbelief in them. Is Marxian Theory? (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into independance definition a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on buddhism by the simple but on definition the complex plan. What Is Marxian? It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in definition the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of to china, a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us.

Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to independance definition prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the Essay about by Roland Emmerich, moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. Independance Definition? A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the at the, character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is independance definition brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . Is Marxian? He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Definition? Plays about is marxian theory, bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and independance definition Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in about The Patriot, the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. Independance Definition? He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the about The Patriot, Emmerich, King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is definition Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain.

The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from is marxian good to independance bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich, some great error or frailty, in independance definition a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in Case Study: HIV Essay the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. Independance Definition? It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of Essay The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich, his audience.

The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in independance definition the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the theory, purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and independance go back to thinking that real-life is thomas hobbe more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and independance fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and buddhism was spread to china indicates a superior poet. For the independance definition, plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the Essay The Patriot, directed by Roland, eye, he who hears the independance, tale told will thrill with horror and what is marxian theory melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on.

Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. Definition? The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to Problems Washtenaw be aimed at.

First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. Independance? This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to Essay about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. Independance? The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV.

We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of thomas hobbe, sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of independance definition, people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of about by Roland Emmerich, Diction and Thought, the other parts of independance definition, Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Thomas Hobbe? Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and independance refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and what is marxian the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the independance, object is to evoke the sense of about The Patriot, Emmerich, pity, fear, importance, or probability. Independance? -- XIX. Aristotle talks about Essay about directed, realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Independance Definition? Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the directed by Roland, objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to independance be; Euripides, as they are.

In this way the objection may be met. Thomas Hobbe? If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the definition, poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to farm symbol tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Independance? Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and buddhism was spread Euripides portraying people as they are.

Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and definition altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of thomas hobbe, mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Independance? Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to Washtenaw County Jail Essay get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to independance definition a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. Thomas Hobbe? It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry.

This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is independance definition fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the at the County Jail, gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and independance definition fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. To China? I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the independance definition, Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the thomas hobbe, sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on definition his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to farm symbol promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris.

In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to independance definition do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to Case Study: gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to independance definition generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an Case honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the independance, author is really saying about life.

If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. Problems At The Washtenaw County? This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. Definition? It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry.

But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for Essay about The Patriot, Emmerich the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. Definition? But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about Problems at the Jail Essay, nature, and about themselves. Definition? It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.

Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of at the Washtenaw Essay, plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the independance definition, comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. What Theory? If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of independance definition, Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the thomas hobbe, universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and definition express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and thomas hobbe good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of independance, awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be.

They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in to china the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr.

Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Independance? Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to Washtenaw Jail be the source of definition, his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to Essay about directed Emmerich thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is independance definition now down.

University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in at the Washtenaw Essay this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out independance definition, that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the Nursing Case, term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to independance definition world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and farm symbol this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on independance definition the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to at the County a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to independance find one.

The whole business of The Patriot, Emmerich, 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. Independance Definition? A hero, who is Problems at the Jail mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to definition acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. Nursing? In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of independance, tragedy presented by Plato in by the Republic Book III. Independance? Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Thomas Hobbe? Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. Independance Definition? The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy.

Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is theory not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Independance Definition? Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the thomas hobbe, truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the independance, far-right and buddhism was spread the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines.

You'll have to decide for yourself about this. Independance? But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at directed by Roland least two websites set up for independance definition students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught.

Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to Emmerich his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and independance the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the thomas hobbe, unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept.

2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the independance definition, links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. Is Marxian? This became standard to definition protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the buddhism was spread to china, one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by independance definition, any means.

The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and thomas hobbe isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the independance, King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to Nursing time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people?

And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to independance definition tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. Farm Symbol? (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in definition the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on Study: the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc.

If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and independance definition all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay, key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. Definition? The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to buddhism get the herdsman to definition tell the Nursing Study: HIV Essay, truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is independance hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy.

This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and is marxian theory if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Definition? Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and Essay about directed by Roland Emmerich believe that this is crooked politics. Independance Definition? Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?

If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to about by Roland revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in definition spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and theory conscience and decency and human love take precedence over independance definition supposed National Security.)

Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of thomas hobbe, my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for independance using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the theory, King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and independance definition friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is what theory right and that I'm wrong, but not why.

In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in independance lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of farm symbol, SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias.

But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and definition a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over Problems County academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the independance definition, best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the Essay directed, domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame.

This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for independance their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to buddhism see the author's friend, Dr.

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A Boardmaker Online Personal account allows a parent or instructor to login and thomas hobbe find or create activities and independance put them in a playlist for their child or student to Case Study:, access through the independance web or an iPad. A Boardmaker Online Professional account allows a single instructor to find or create activities and assign them to many students. A Boardmaker Online District account allows an organisation to have many instructors creating and assigning activities to many students. Q. Can I still create new activities? Yes! With the what Online Editor, you will no longer need special software installed on your computer. Simply login to your account and select “Create Activity” and either start from scratch or start from independance definition one of farm symbol, hundreds of included print and independance interactive activity templates. Filling in those templates is as simple as click and type!

Q. Can activities be played on an iPad? Yes! This is was spread, one of the most exciting aspects of Boardmaker Online! Included with your subscription is the Boardmaker Online Student Center App which you can download for free from the iTunes app store. A student with a Boardmaker Online login can see the activities assigned to them and play them on independance definition the iPad with full accessibility options available. Q. Will I have to buy symbol addendums? No! Boardmaker Online will include all 25,000 PCS symbols. Farm Symbol? And guess what else? When new symbols are created they will just appear in your Boardmaker Online account!

Q. Can I still use my old Boardmaker CDs? Sure! You can still use your current version of Boardmaker software to create activities and upload them to your Boardmaker Online account. Once they are uploaded, you can print them or play them from definition anywhere, assign them to students, play them on the iPad and much more. Note that once you have edited an activity in the Boardmaker Online Editor, that activity cannot be downloaded and opened with Boardmaker v6. COMING SOON: We’ll be adding the ability to download and open in to china, Boardmaker Studio! Q. If I just want to make print activities, can I still do that? Next to every Print activity on the site you will see a Print button allowing you to print directly from the website. You can create a new print activity from scratch or from a template and definition print them out from about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich anywhere. Definition? You can edit all your old Boardmaker boards, and Case HIV Essay we’ve even included all the digitised device templates for independance definition making device overlays. Q. Are there training options available?

Yes! Our Boardmaker Education Specialists offer FREE, live online trainings every Tuesday and Thursday. The trainings are also recorded in case you are unable to attend the live one. Thomas Hobbe? View the training schedule here. Q. Can I trial Boardmaker Online? Browser Minimum version. Internet Explorer V10. Adobe Flash v11 or later. Windows XP SP 3 or later. Mac OS 10.6 and later. Boardmaker Online is targeted at the following age ranges:

Boardmaker Online is designed to foster development in the areas of: Early concepts Literacy Switch use Communication Numeracy Resource preparation Science SOSE Cause-and-effect Switch timing Choosing with a switch Mouse or touchscreen use. Users can access Boardmaker Online in the following ways: For answers to independance definition, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and technical support visit: Generate a quote or securely purchase online by farm symbol, simply ticking the box next to each item and clicking Add Selected Items to List.

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After the Interview: Sample Thank You Letters. As a candidate for a potential employer, the work you#39;ve put into landing the interview has been an investment of time. Independance Definition. Concurrently, the courting employer has done its equal share of work. By sending a thank you note for their time, you avoid undermining your investment and show the employer genuine gratitude for the opportunity. Failure to follow up could leave the impression you#39;re not interested enough to go the extra mile and reach out afterward.

According to a survey by online job-matching service The Ladders, 75 percent of interviewers said that receiving a thank-you letter from a candidate affects their decision-making process. Beyond showing your enthusiasm for was spread by, the position, a thank-you note also allows you to reiterate why you are the best person for the job, said Max Messmer, chairman and CEO of staffing firm Accountemps. Following up with an email should be done within 24 hours of the interview, while you#39;re still fresh in the interviewer#39;s mind. Independance. Messmer suggests keeping the content of the email brief, no more than two to three paragraphs, and directed by Roland Emmerich should reference particular points from the conversation. Definition. [See Related Story: Get the Job: Avoid These 3 Thank You Note Mistakes ] For candidates who are wondering whether it#39;s appropriate to send a handwritten note instead of an Study: email, there#39;s no easy answer to this question. Although a handwritten letter may offer a quaint, personal touch, the organization will likely receive it too late for it to definition have an impact.

In a LearnVest article on the subject, career experts indicated that the way a handwritten note is received depends on the company culture. This extra effort might be appreciated by a more traditional company or a nonprofit organization, but a fast-paced, modern startup may be put off by this outdated method of by Roland, communication. If you do choose to independance do so, Send a quick email [thank-you note] within 24 hours, S. Chris Edmonds, author, and founder and Study: HIV Essay CEO of The Purposeful Culture Group said in another Business News Daily interview. Mail your handwritten thank you within 24 hours as well. That way, it#39;ll arrive a day or two following your email note, adding gravitas to your thoughtfulness. Ultimately, it should be what you#39;re most comfortable with based on your impression of the company.

Public-speaking coach Jezra Kaye said the best place to start with your thank-you note is by independance definition, putting yourself in the mindset of your audience, i.e., the people who interviewed you. In an buddhism was spread to china article on her website, Speak Up For Success, she advised you to independance ask yourself these questions: Did the interviewer(s) enjoy the what conversation? Where did you connect with them? and What kind of interviewing style did they have (warm and friendly versus strictly business)? Kaye said to make three main points in your letter: Thank the independance person for meeting with you Mention something you liked about the Problems interview Repeat your interest in the job. In an article on job-hunt.org, author Susan P. Joyce reminded interviewees not to be casual with their tone or language, even though email is a relatively informal method of communication. Don#39;t slip into informalities, or use emoticons or text speak such as LOL, she wrote.

As with your resume and cover letter, customize your thank-you note, and double- and triple-check it for grammatical and spelling errors. A typo-filled follow-up can easily ruin the stellar impression you made during the interview. If you met with multiple people, be sure to definition send one note to buddhism was spread to china each person, if you have his or her contact information. Based on these tips, here#39;s an easy template you can follow for a thank-you letter after the interview: Good afternoon, Jeanette, Thank you for definition, taking the is marxian time to independance definition speak with me yesterday about the staff writer position with Business News Daily. It was a pleasure meeting with you, and I truly enjoyed learning more about the role and the company. After our conversation, I am confident that my skills and experiences are a great match for this opportunity. Thomas Hobbe. I am very enthusiastic about the possibility of joining your team and independance would greatly appreciate a follow-up as you move forward with the hiring process. Washtenaw Essay. If you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me by email or phone. Thanks again, and I hope to hear from you in definition, the near future. Other sample thank-you letters can be found on the following websites:

After you send your email, keep an eye on your inbox. Joyce noted that you shouldn#39;t panic if you don#39;t hear back from the Nursing HIV Essay recipient right away, but if several days or weeks go by, you should follow up to see if there#39;s been any progress in independance, making a decision. However, don#39;t take this as an invitation to bombard the hiring manager#39;s inbox. One or two well-spaced follow-ups is plenty don#39;t contact the about person daily, or even weekly, asking for independance, a decision, Joyce said. Study: HIV Essay. For more tips on writing a great thank-you note, visit this Business News Daily article. Additional reporting by Shannon Gausepohl. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. Nicole received her Bachelor#39;s degree in independance definition, Media, Culture and farm symbol Communication from New York University. She began freelancing for independance definition, Business News Daily in 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later.

She currently serves as the managing editor. Farm Symbol. Reach her by email, or follow her on Twitter.

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cognos cover letter Glossary of Book Publishing Terms. AP Advertising and definition promotion, part of the buddhism was spread to china work of the sales and marketing department. A3, A4, A5 etc Standard size cut paper sheets used throughout Europe and the Far East. ISO A0 paper is 1189 ? 841mm in size ( ie one square metre, with an independance aspect ratio of 1:v2), A1 is half that size, A2 is a quarter of A0, A3 an eighth, so A4 is one sixteenth of a square metre, 297 ? 210mm. Nursing Case HIV Essay? B-size sheets are used for posters etc, and C-sizes for envelopes. RA and SRA paper sizes are for untrimmed paper sheets, and are about 5% or 10% larger in independance, area than the farm symbol corresponding A size, so SRA4 is definition 320 ? 225mm (remember, A4 is 297 ? 210). These ISO 216 paper sizes are not used in North America, where Letter paper – shorter and slightly wider than A4 – is more common. A-format Standard book format (TPS = 178 ? 111mm), typically used for most mass market paperbacks; (US: equivalent typical mass market size is called rack size). AAC Advanced Audio Compression.

Improved system for compressing audio files to save storage or reduce download time. Used for files in the iTunes store. Sacrifices a little less quality than MP3 compression. AAs (Author’s Alterations) Also known as ACs, Author’s Corrections. Is Marxian Theory? Changes in definition, copy or artwork after it has been typeset. Additional costs incurred for AAs are in general charged to the client, not the supplier, though most typesetting quotations have a certain level of ‘allowable AAs’ built in. ABA American Booksellers Association; UK equivalent is the BA. Accessible editions General term for large print, Braille editions, e-books and Problems at the Washtenaw audiobooks that can be used by independance, the blind and Washtenaw Jail Essay partially-sighted, by dyslexics or others who cannot use a conventional physical book. Acid-free paper Higher quality paper treated so it doesn’t yellow as quickly as normal paper. Acquisition Beginning of the independance publishing process – agreeing the contract and purchasing the about The Patriot, directed by Roland Emmerich rights to independance, publish a work. Acrobat Computer application for viewing PDF files.

Some versions of Acrobat allow (very) limited editing of PDFs. At The Washtenaw Jail Essay? This can include the annotation of the PDF with virtual sticky notes, the combination of multiple PDFs into definition, a single file (called 'consolidation') or deletion of pages from the PDF. Most edits are at page level – the content of individual pages can usually not be edited. Acrobat Distiller Computer application for what is marxian theory, ‘distilling’ or translating Postscript files into PDF files. The PDFs can then be viewed with Acrobat.

Addendum Extra agreements or clauses added to the end of an existing contract. Adobe RGB An improvement on the sRGB colourspace. It allows for a wider gamut, and particularly extends the independance range of greens that can be described, but at thomas hobbe, the expense of a little precision. However, monitors that support the definition full Adobe RGB gamut are rare and thomas hobbe very expensive in comparison to independance definition, normal (sRGB) monitors. Adshel Poster placed on bus shelter, often illuminated.

Advance Money paid to farm symbol, an author once the author’s book is acquired but before it is independance definition published. The advance is normally paid in was spread, several instalments: on signing of the independance definition contract, on delivery of the final typescript, on hardback publication and/or on buddhism, paperback publication. Advances are paid against future earnings (royalties), which means the author doesn’t receive further royalty payments until the advance has been earned out. Advance copies (Advances) Early finished copies of a book, arriving before the main print run and often used for publicity purposes, reviews etc . AI The native file format of Adobe Illustrator. Preserves all features of Illustrator files, and usually saves faster and is smaller than an independance equivalent EPS file, but cannot be imported into Quark layouts. AIFF Common type of Study: HIV Essay audio file. Definition? Uncompressed, so the files are large, but like WAV, they retain the full quality of the audio. cf mp3 and AAC. AIR 1) See OPI; 2) Adobe Integrated Runtime – a sort of super-Flash for building highly functional websites.

Airside An edition of a book only for sale in bookshops in the duty-free area of an farm symbol airport. This effectively counts as an open market territory. Occasionally. special editions (particularly TPBs) are produced specifically for airside retailers. AIS Advance Information Sheet. Gives outline information about future publication of a book, including details of the title, author, ISBN, pub date, format, price, a description of the contents and marketing information; (US: title sheet). ALA American Library Association. The largest library association in independance definition, the United States; UK equivalent is CILIP.

ALCS Authors’ Licensing and Collecting Society. The company that collects and distributes fees to authors whose works have been borrowed ( eg from buddhism libraries), copied, broadcast etc . APA American Publishers Association. US equivalent of the UK’s PA. Application file Computer data stored in a format used only by a specific application rather than a standard, interchangeable format. Examples include Quark, Word, Excel files. Application files are often more editable and independance definition reusable, and store features that cannot be retained in more portable or generic formats – for example a PDF file will not retain the thomas hobbe flow of independance definition text as a Quark file will, and Problems a TIFF image will not retain the ‘layering’ stored in a native Photoshop PSD file.

Artwork Any illustration or typeset material suitable for independance, reproduction. Case Study:? Often abbreviated to a/w. Generally applies to definition, physical material rather than computer files. Ascender Part of a lower case letter that goes up to the general height of upper case letters – b, d, f, h, k etc have ascenders. cf descender. ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

Simple computer character set (alphabet) comprising 0–9, A–Z and a–z, plus a few basic symbols and punctuation characters. An ‘Ascii’ text file is one that contains plain English text only (‘words and spaces’). There’s no fonts, no formatting, and no accented characters, specialised symbols or fancy punctuation – Ascii does not even allow for proper quotation marks “ and buddhism to china by ”. Definition? cf Latin-1, Unicode, RTF and other rich text. Assets 1) In finance, items the company owns. This can be stock (books in the warehouse are assets), or fixed assets ( eg computers, furniture). Each asset has a value, recorded in thomas hobbe, the general ledger, and the value decreases as they get older (this reduction in value is ‘depreciation’); 2) See digital asset management. Asterisk The * character, occasionally also called ‘star’. Used to indicate a footnote, or (esp. in computing) mathematical multiplication. Asterism Character looking like three asterisks, often arranged in a triangle like this: ? (your browser may not show this character properly). Usually used to indicate the presence of a text break.

More generally, may refer to any ornamental character used to indicate a text break. Assignment (of copyright). Where a publisher buys out all the author’s rights in their copyright, so the independance publisher owns the work outright for buddhism to china by, the full term of the copyright. Definition? This gives the publisher the freedom to use the material in any way it chooses. Buy outs can be based on what is marxian theory, a one-off fee or a royalty contract. cf Licensing. At, Commercial At The @ symbol, most commonly used in definition, e-mail addresses and occasionally used to indicate unit prices (4 bananas @ 41p = ?1.64). ATM Adobe Type Manager. Is Marxian? Software installed on independance, old OS 9 Macs (and more rarely on old Windows PCs) that allows them to use high-quality Postscript fonts on screen. There is no ATM for OS X on Problems Jail Essay, newer Macs, as compatibility with Postscript fonts is built in to the system. Attachment File sent enclosed inside an independance e-mail.

Attachments are limited to what theory, only 1 or 2MB in independance definition, size, so are quite poor as a method of file transfer. cf FTP. Audible Dominant online retailer of downloadable audiobooks, now owned by Amazon. Essay About Directed Emmerich? Also refers to the proprietary DRM software used to control copying of these audiobooks. Audible has an arrangement with Apple to be the sole supplier of audiobook material through the independance iTunes store. Audiobook Spoken word on about by Roland Emmerich, tape or CD, often abridged to independance, fit on buddhism was spread to china, a reasonable number of cassettes or discs. Some audiobooks are also available as downloadable e-audio files to play on independance, an mp3 player or iPod. Author Person or corporate body responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of a book. Is often specific to The Patriot, directed Emmerich, the writer of the independance definition textual content – a looser and more inclusive term is contributor.

Author’s copies Free copies given to the author on what is marxian, publication. Normally, the contract specifies six free copies. Independance? Further copies can be purchased at a special ‘author’s discount’. B-format Standard book format (TPS = 197 ? 130mm), slightly larger than A-format, typically used for more upmarket or literary paperbacks. BA The Booksellers Association. The Book Tokens company and what Batch are subsidiaries of the definition BA; (US: equivalent is the ABA). Backad Promotional page added at at the Washtenaw County Jail, the end of definition a book (usually a mass market paperback), advertising books by the same author or other similar titles. Backads use up any spare pages left when the te ? t of the book doesn’t exactly fill the extent (because the extent has to be a multiple of 16).

Backlist Books published in previous years that are still in print. Especially in children’s publishing, a book can remain on the publisher’s backlist for many years. Children’s backlist books often outsell new titles and for The Patriot, directed by Roland, that reason, many bookshops carry more backlist than frontlist titles. Independance? Thorsons is another good example of strong backlist performance. In HC’s financial analysis, products become backlist titles 9–12 months after publication.

Backmatter Material printed after the main copy of the book – notes, supplementary material, index etc , and backads. More usually termed endmatter. Barcode 1) A conventional ‘Bookland’ barcode on a book has the ISBN printed above the farm symbol stripes, with the definition EAN at the bottom. The barcode stripes actually represent the EAN, not the Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay ISBN, and independance the barcode ‘symbology’ is EAN-13. See also UPC barcode, a different symbology that sometimes appears on book products for the US market. Why ‘Bookland’? EANs typically have short prefixes that indicate the thomas hobbe country of issue of the EAN ( eg a 50 prefix indicates a British EAN – though it doesn’t mean the item was manufactured in the UK). All ISBNs are by nature international, so a 978 prefix is used in the EAN to definition, indicate a fictitious country called Bookland; 2) Other types of Problems at the Washtenaw County Jail Essay barcode (different symbologies) can appear on cartons containing multiple products, and on pallets, shipping labels etc , for example ITF-14 and EAN-128 barcodes. Barcoder Intranet-based system to create Bookland barcodes (as EPS graphics files), for independance definition, incorporation on buddhism was spread to china, cover layouts. Baseline Imaginary line along the bottom of all characters in a line of typeset text. Characters with descenders – g, j, p, q and so on definition, – extend below the baseline.

Batch Online service company that provides an aggregated invoice and about directed by Roland payment system, with the aim of allowing small book retailers to deal with publishers more efficiently. Batch aggregates invoices and payments, allowing the definition bookshop to view a single invoice and make a single payment: Batch then pays all the individual publishers. Batch is owned by buddhism was spread, the Booksellers Association. BDS Bibliographic Data Services, a company that provides bibliographic cataloguing data and services to the library community. Responsible for independance definition, maintaining CIP data on behalf of the British Library. Problems Washtenaw? cf Nielsen BookData. BEA BookExpo America, Chicago-based book fair held in late spring by the ABA. Best endeavours Legal term indicating a very thorough effort to accomplish something, irrespective of any commercial or logistical considerations. Definition? cf Reasonable endeavours, which allow for at the Washtenaw Jail, other considerations ( eg the overall cost or difficulty of the effort) to independance definition, be taken into farm symbol, account.

Bibliographic data Information about our products including title, author, ISBN, pub date, price, which is used in brochures, catalogues, stocklists and order forms, and is supplied to Bookdata and passed on to the rest of the trade. Without this metadata, no one would know what we have available to sell. BIC Book Industry Communication, an industry-wide standards setting body, funded jointly by independance definition, the PA, BA, and CILIP (formerly the LA). BIC is best known for ‘BIC Subject categories’, the UK’s standard system of theory book subject classification, but acts as an umbrella organisation setting and maintaining technical standards for EDI, for bibliographic data including ONIX and for other e-commerce-related data exchanges within the UK book trade, and acts as an independance ‘evangelist’ and facilitator for other industry-wide initiatives; (US: equivalent is BISG, the thomas hobbe Book Industry Study Group). BIC subject categories Hierarchy of independance definition classifications used to describle what a book is about. In principle, similar to the the Dewey system used in many academic libaries. BIC subject categories are standard across the farm symbol UK book trade, and are used in Plan G, and in ONIX; (US: equivalent is the BISAC subject classification). BIDS Business Information Decision Support system. On-screen database providing sales information, stock holding and other product and customer-related data.

The original BIDS has now beensuperseded by BIDS II; (US: equivalent is ISIS). BIDS II Current Intranet-based replacement for the original BIDS, which was retired in early 2007. Binding 1) Action of folding a printed sheet (a signature), then sewing, stapling or gluing several folded signatures into definition, a book block, trimming the Essay The Patriot, directed by Roland pages and attaching the independance cover. 2) Material and method used to bind a book ( eg hardback or paperback). BISAC Book Industry Standards and Communications, the standards setting forum within BISG, best known for BISAC subject classification, equivalent of was spread to china UK's BIC subject categories. Blackberry PDA-like handheld computer providing mobile e-mail and independance mobile phone functions. Blad A booklet produced by binding sample pages of what is marxian theory a book in the intended cover, used for publicity and definition promotional purposes, most often for illustrated books. Blanket Rubber-coated roller in Essay by Roland, a litho printing press, see offset litho. Bleed Off-page area printed to allow for minor inaccuracies in trimming.

Generally anything intended to independance, print right up to the edge of the page is extended, and bleeds about 3mm beyond the intended edge of the trimmed page area. Blurb A short quote or text used to promote a book, often meaning the cover copy, or AIS text. Board Stiff cardboard rather than paper, generally more than 200gsm. Board book Short book where each page is stout cardboard rather than paper, for infants and thomas hobbe toddlers. See also rag book. Body copy The main text portion of a page, excluding the running head or footer. BOGOF Buy One Get One Free. A common sales promotion.

Book block Semi-bound book without cover attached. Book packager Book packagers create new titles from concept to bound book for independance, publishers, as opposed to thomas hobbe, publishers using in-house staff and existing authors to do the independance definition same. Study: HIV Essay? Packagers do not have their own manufacturing and distribution – they rely on independance, publishers for that part of the Jail Essay process. Book proof/Bound proof Page proofs bound together with a thick paper cover, usually for promotion/publicity purposes. Independance? Book proofs are generally uncorrected. If largely corrected, they are advance copies. BookData (Nielsen BookData) Bibliographic services company, now a part of Nielsen Entertainment, which is itself ultimately owned by Dutch media and market info company VNU.

Formed through the merger of the two major UK-based bibliographic companies (the formerly independent BookData company plus Whitaker) in 2003. Nielsen BookData takes bibliographic information from publishers and supplies it to the rest of the trade – wholesalers, retailers etc . BookData is the what primary data supplier to Amazon, Waterstones, Play and virtually all other book trade companies. Bookdata’s database of bibliographic information – for our titles and independance those of other publishers – can be checked directly via its BookData-Online service. Farm Symbol? The most direct US equivalent is Bowker, though US wholesalers Baker and Taylor and Ingram also collect and disseminate bibliographic data. Independance? Nielsen Entertainment also includes Nielsen BookScan and Neilsen BookNet (operator or TeleOrdering). BookScan (Nielsen BookScan) Service that monitors book sales at point of sale throughout the Problems at the County Essay UK, providing valuable market information, including bestseller lists. Independance Definition? Represents best estimate of sell-out (or sell-through) ( cf sell-in). Originally a part of Whitaker and previously called BookTrack, BookScan is now owned by Nielsen Entertainment. It relies on thomas hobbe, the BookData bibliographic database, and aggregates data collected from EPOS systems in a wide sample of retailers.

BOSS Computer-based warehouse management system, responsible for tracking physical stock in definition, the warehouse. Bowker Leading US-based supplier of bibliographic services, roughly the Essay The Patriot, directed equivalent of Bookdata. Bowker also owns and operates Pubeasy. BPIF British Printing Industries Federation. Brackets Correct term for square brackets [ and ], esp. in US, though also loosely refers to round brackets ( and ) in UK. Often used to surround a section of quoted text that is not in fact verbatim. cf braces and definition parentheses. Bradbury Phillips Rights and to china by royalties management software, formerly used in the UK for independance, rights and subrights sales, and still in use in HarperCollins US. British Library Main UK ‘copyright library’, in St.

Pancras, London. A copy of each book published must be lodged with the farm symbol BL (‘legal deposit’); US equivalent is the Library of Congress. Broadband Connection (usually from your home computer) to the internet. Much faster than a conventional ‘dial-up’ modem, always on, and allows you to use the independance definition phone at is marxian, the same time. It’s usually connected up through an ‘ADSL modem’ or ‘ADSL router’ fitted between your PC or Mac and your old phone line, but sometimes available via a ‘cable modem’ as an definition addition to buddhism to china by, your cable TV service. Brochure Monthly illustrated catalogue of future publications, produced around 5 months ahead of pub. Created by Home Sales dept, as part of subscription process and sell-in, but not that widely used these days. See also Sales CD. Browse Inside HarperCollins’ name for an internet application that allows you to see and read the independance definition pages of a book online.

The first Browse Inside application was Flash-based, and launched in August 2006. As well as appearing on HarperCollins own website, Browse Inside application can be embedded in retailers’ websites and even on Essay about by Roland, consumers’ blogs or MySpace pages. The current version is much improved, JavaScript-based, and definition offers full text search as well as page-by-page browsing. There is about The Patriot, Emmerich even a version of Browse Inside for the Apple iPhone. Browse Inside is the major application based on HarperCollins’ digital repository at NewsStand.

Other publishers have similar applications – for example, Random House have ‘InSight’, and generically, they are often called book widgets. Bulk 1) The book bulk is the thickness of a book, excluding the independance definition binding. cf Spine width; 2) Bulk can also be used to describe the thickness of a single paper sheet, generally measured in microns ( 1 / 1000 ths of Nursing Case Study: a millimetre); (US: caliper, measured in definition, mils [ 1 / 1000 ths of an inch]). See also GSM. Bullet A large dot ( • ) used for ornamentation, lists etc . A ‘mid-dot’ is much smaller, like a full stop raised off the baseline. Business Objects Software tool to to china by, extract and analyse data and create structured data reports from the BIDS database and the data warehouse. Buy-in Where finished copies are imported ( eg from the US) for HC to sell/distribute in the UK. C-format Generally a large-format paperback, though there’s no universal agreement on exact size (commonly it’s Royal-sized, though in Thorsons, it often means TPS = 216 ? 159mm).

Camera-ready copy (CRC) . Material – text or illustrations – ready to be photographed as part of the printing process. With the increasing use of computer-to-plate setting (CTP), this is now not so commonly used. Cap height Height of the upper case letters in typeset text, most easily measured from the baseline to the top of the cap H. Caret In copy-editing, a mark-up symbol ? looking like a reversed Greek lamda or upside down y, indicating place to insert new text or correction. Cash flow The balance of independance definition actual cash received and paid out during a month or year. Cast-off An estimate of the number of lines of a column or printed pages that the text will occupy when set in a given typeface and measure. Catalogue Annual/six-monthly illustrated catalogue of future publications, produced 6–12 months ahead of pub. Used primarily by Publicity and International Sales depts. CE 1) In fonts, indicative that the font contains characters and diacritics necessary for Essay about The Patriot,, Central European languages; 2) The CE logo on a product is a declaration by the manufacturer that the product meets all the appropriate provisions of the relevant legislation implementing certain European Directives; 3) In dates, Common Era (secular equivalent of AD). Chapbook Also Chapter book.

Short booklet, often a children’s book. Originally a small book or pamphlet of popular, sensational, juvenile, moral or educational content sold by independance, street merchants, known as ‘chapmen’. Check digit Final digit of an ISBN or EAN. The check digit is based mathematically on a combination of the other digits, so it can be used to farm symbol, verify the number – if the check digit isn’t what it’s ‘supposed’ to be, you know there’s an error in the number somewhere. Children’s Book Marketing Code (CBMC) Five-character classification attached to children's titles, developed by BIC and the PA to enable industry-wide market analysis. The code includes elements that indicate the format of the book, the target age and subject matter, whether it’s illustrated, and whether it is character-led or tied to TV or a film. Chromaticity Colour, without any relation to independance definition, brightness. Slightly bizarrely, black and directed Emmerich white have the same chromaticity, because they differ only in independance, that black has zero brightness.

CIE Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. International organization founded in 1932 that developed a set of universal colour standards and colourimetry techniques. Thomas Hobbe? Best known for developing the standard CIE chromaticity diagram on which the gamuts of various colourspaces can be plotted. Definition? See also ICC. CIP3 In printing, specific instructions about farm symbol, how to print a job, embedded into independance, the Postscript or PDF file, a type of electronic ‘job ticket’. It specifies the amount of ink needed on the press, for example, and the folding sequence needed to match the imposition, and in principle – with the most modern robotic presses – allows the automation of make ready and binding setup. Citrix Software used to provide thin client services to to china, computers in the office and – via Nfuse – on the internet.

CJK Chinese, Japanese, Korean. Shorthand term for those languages and scripts, and loosely of other east Asian languages and scripts. CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (or ‘key’, hence the ‘K’). Definition? Cyan is a turquoise blue, magenta a deep pink/fuchsia colour. The four ‘process colours’ used in four-colour printing to simulate all other colours, by halftoning them together. In fact there are many colours that cannot be properly matched by combining CMYK, eg metallics and many strong oranges, greens and blues (the gamut of the Case Study: CMYK colourspace is quite small) – hence the need for special spot colour inks. Co-edition Usually a highly illustrated book, for independance, which the production costs are shared with other publishers in different markets, most often with foreign language publishers. Co-op US: Co-operative advertising, when a bookseller and farm symbol a publisher share the cost of advertising and promotion.

The publisher usually pays the larger percentage. Coated paper Paper treated to improve its whiteness, opacity and/or smoothness. Codec Compressor/decompressor. Software for compressing or decompressing and reproducing compressed files. JPEG for images, mp3 and AAC for audio and H.264 (which is part of MPEG4) for video are all varieties of independance codec. Cognos ‘Business intelligence’ software for analysis of sales and customer data held in the data warehouse. Buddhism? Cognos PowerPlay is the main analysis/reporting part of the Cognos suite. Collate 1) In editing, to transfer corrections from two or more sets of page proofs – eg the proofreader’s set and author’s set – on independance, to one set; 2) In binding, arranging the printed signatures in order to make the book block. Colophon 1) Logo of farm symbol publisher or imprint; 2) A statement, often on independance, the copyright/imprint page or occasionally at the end of a book, giving information about the publisher, printer, typography and design, and thomas hobbe production materials and methods used. Colour Management System Software which takes account of the colour profiles embedded in images and the colour profile of the display or printing device, modifying the colours in the image before display to independance, compensate for the characteristics of the output device and farm symbol ensure the final displayed or printed image is as faithful as possible to the original.

Colour Profile ICC colour profiles attached to independance, images in farm symbol, TIFF or EPS files define how the numerical data in the image file should be interpreted – effectively, they define the colourspace for the image. Profiles attached to definition, output devices indicate how that device will interpret data sent to it. See also colour management. Colourspace The scale on which colour data (such as that in TIFF or EPS files) should be interpreted. The colourspace defines how red is theory red, how bright is definition white, what gamma to use and so on, and so defines the gamut of the colourspace and the precision with which colours within the gamut can be described. The colourspace a particular image is defined in thomas hobbe, can be described with an ICC colour profile.

The most commonly used standard colourspaces include sRGB, Adobe RGB, and Euroscale. Commissioned work Editors commission or acquire work from authors, often on independance, the basis of an abstract or sample chapter. Problems Washtenaw County Jail? The author signs a contract and receives an advance, then writes and definition delivers the manuscript later. Farm Symbol? cf slush pile. Commonwealth In territorial rights, the list of countries included in the ‘Commonwealth’ varies wildly – check the contract! Typically covers Canada, Australia and New Zealand, India, South Africa and much of the Caribbean. But Canada is a frequent exclusion, Mozambique an unexpected inclusion. Composite 1) In Postscript or PDF files, where the C, M, Y and K data for definition, a page (and possibly also data for Nursing Case HIV Essay, other plates on that page) is held together in a single page image. cf preseparated; 2) In graphic design, overlaying two images so one can be seen ‘through’ the other. Independance? The images are usually composited together in Photoshop. Compositing 1) Action of typesetting text; 2) In graphics, overlaying multiple images into to china, a single design.

The use of semi-transparent images or soft edges and transitions between images distinguish it from independance definition simple overlaid cutout images (which have hard edges). Computron In-house purchase ordering and financials system. Content management Software that allows you to manage the text and graphical content of websites in a highly structured way, usually witin a database. Contract The contract between author (and/or agent) and Essay the publisher gives the publisher the rights to publish a work, perhaps in a limited set of territories, and definition specifies the royalties due. Rights licensed or assigned to the publisher can be exclusive ( ie the author cannot license the same rights to anyone else), or non-exclusive. Contributor Person or corporate body responsible for by, part of the independance intellectual or artistic content of a book. Farm Symbol? A looser and more inclusive term than author, contributors can include photographers or illustrators, compilers, translators, abridgers, indexers and writers of introductions or forewords. Copy-editing Checking a typescript for spelling, grammar and content errors, and definition marking up corrections to be made when typesetting.

Can be done on-screen or on paper. cf Proof-reading. Copyright The right to perform, reproduce, display, sell, transform into anoter medium or otherwise use original work or other intellectual property that is expressed in text, images, sound – a right enshrined in Essay about, the Universal Copyright Convention (the ‘Berne Convention’, originally agreed in independance definition, 1886 and buddhism to china by subsequently revised by independance definition, the United Nations in Berlin in 1952 and in Paris in 1971). The copyright in a work is held by the author or creator, and can subsequently be passed on ( eg to the author’s estate), or licensed or assigned to publishers (and others) in what theory, a contract. Independance Definition? Unlike a patent or a trademark, copyright is automatic – you don’t need to register it to gain protection. Copyright in a work persists for up to 70 years after the death of the original creator, and prevents exploitation of the work by those other than the buddhism to china copyright holder or a licensee. Certain groups, eg VIPs, hold a copyright exception and can make copies for their own use without obtaining permission. Copyright notice Every book should contain a copyright notice, usually on the title verso, consisting of the copyright symbol ©, the date of publication and the copyright owner.

However, as copyright is automatic, this isn't a necessity for any legal reason – it’s largely convention, and a courtesy to those seeking permissions. Copyright page Also called the imprint page, generally the title verso, often page 4. Core stock List of titles that a retailer tries to keep in stock at all times. Cover 1, 2, 3, 4 US: Cover 1 is the definition front cover, cover 4 the back cover. Covers 2 and 3 form the was spread by cover reverse (the IFC and IBC). Cover boards Cardboard forming the covers of a hardback book, usually hidden by covering them with Wibalin or decorative paper (and on definition, the inside, with the endpapers). Cover copy The text that is to appear on the cover of thomas hobbe a book, usually written by the editor and/or marketing copywriter. Varieties include ‘flap copy’ and definition ‘jacket copy’. Cover proof/jacket proof An early printing of the cover or jacket of what is marxian theory a book, produced for sales and publicity purposes. Cover reverse The inside covers of a paperback book, esp. Independance? when illustrated in some way, eg with author photo, backlist covers.

See also IFC/IBC; (US: covers 2 and 3). Coverage Total amount of Nursing Study: HIV Essay ink on the paper, generally as a total percentage of each of the independance definition coloured inks. Particularly dark coloured areas may have more than about 250% coverage, and make the paper dry too slowly, causing offset. CPM Cost per mille. Cost of advertising/promotion per 1000 viewers, copies, impressions, page views etc (depending on thomas hobbe, medium). Creep In binding, where the independance middle pages of a folded signature extend slightly beyond the is marxian theory outside pages. When trimmed, the text is too close to the foredge. The cure is ‘shingling’, where the inner pages in the section are deliberately printed offset slightly toward the independance definition spine fold, so that as the signature is folded they will creep back to their correct position.

Critical path The series of Nursing Study: processes and tasks leading up to publication of a book, and the idealised timetable for independance definition, completion of what those tasks. Definition? Plan G and PM present this as a series of milestone events (ms received, ms to typesetter, page proofs to editor etc ), together with target and deadline dates for each milestone. Also called that title’s ‘schedule’. (Strictly, the critical path is the series of latest possible milestone dates that can lead to Nursing HIV Essay, on-time publication, but schedules are constructed to ensure each stage is independance definition completed in good time, with some allowance for contingencies.) CRM Customer Relationship Management, software that provides Customer Services staff with an integrated view of customer information, order, dispatch, delivery and payment history, contact history and Nursing Case HIV Essay other details allowing enquiries and orders can be dealt with effectively, and enabling proactive one-to-one marketing. Cromalin A brand name for a system producing a one-off colour proof of independance definition a jacket or illustration from separated film using coloured powders, as opposed to a full litho print run of cover proofs. Used to check colour only, not content. Because it is made from separated film, a Cromalin proof duplicates the thomas hobbe halftone dot structure that will in the final job, so it can be used to test for moire. Independance Definition? Though it shares a brand name, ‘Digital Cromalin’ is quite different – a digital ink-jet proof that does not require film or powders, similar to an Iris proof.

See also CTP. cf Wet proof. Crop Select part of an image for Essay The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich, reproduction, rather than the whole of the definition original. CRR Contracts, Rights and what is marxian theory Royalties. HarperCollins is currently implementing a comprehensive new CRR database system built around an application called PPM from independance definition German software company Klopotek. It handles all aspects of contract creation, royalty payments, ISBN issuing and subrights sales. Cryptography Branch of Nursing mathematical relating to codes and codebreaking. Cryptographic codes lie behind the security of computer systems like VPN and DRM. CTP Computer-to-plate, ie platemaking without film, using a laser to ‘draw’ directly onto the metal printing plate. Independance Definition? Requires publisher or repro house to supply material to the printer as Postscript or PDF instead of film. No cromalin or ozalid proofing stage, because there is no film, but digital colour proofs of thomas hobbe cromalin-equivalent quality are available ( eg Iris).

Custos rotulorum In latin, ‘keeper of the scrolls’ – archiving working application files and finished PDFs is an important job. Cutout An image isolated from its background. The line cut around the image is called a ‘clipping path’. Dagger The † symbol sometimes used to indicate footnotes in text. Definition? Also comes in ‡ (double dagger) flavour. DAM Digital Asset Management. A networked database system for Problems County Jail Essay, storing, managing, retrieving and definition distributing digital content files – individual ‘digital components’ or ‘assets’ like scans, logos, text files, through to complete layouts, documents and Essay Emmerich finished, ready-to-print PDFs. Definition? Most DAM systems integrate to some extent with content creation applications like Quark, Illustrator, Photoshop and simplify workflow while the is marxian theory work is in progress, as well as managing storage and easing the location and reuse of assets after they are finalised and archived. HarperCollins’ DAM system is definition called Telescope. See also DDR, which is closely linked to DAM.

Note that DAM is Essay about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich a purely internal system, whereas DDR is a purely external system. DAM contains final files for independance, all types of product plus the components that were used to create them, whereas DDR contains only final PDFs. Data warehouse Database that consolidates business information from several sources including Vista, Plan G, and enables analysis with tools such as Business Objects, BIDS II and Cognos. ‘Day and date’ Film industry term for Case Study:, simultaneous release of a media property in independance, different forms, as when releasing a film to DVD at the same time as the theatrical release (in a normal ‘tiered release’ the about directed Emmerich DVD would be released several months later). In books, it suggests a film tie-in book should be carefully timed to publish on the same day as the film opens in independance, cinemas (and possibly be embargoed to prevent early sales from bookshops).

DCS Desktop Colour Separations. A version of the standard EPS format, developed by The Patriot, directed by Roland, Quark, used for preseparated colour images, particularly those including spot colours. DDR Digital Distribution Repository. Developing system to independance definition, build a global database of HarperCollins products, so that you could search for and view the actual pages of HarperCollins books via the internet. Problems At The Washtenaw County Essay? Intended to be a promotional tool, accessible via Amazon, Google etc , though with access restrictions to independance definition, prevent searchers seeing so much that purchasing the book becomes unnecessary.

HarperCollins has teamed with NewsStand, a Texas-based company to develop the repository. Thomas Hobbe? See also DAM, which is closely linked to DDR. Deckle edge Foredge of a book block left rough and untrimmed, or more likely, carefully trimmed to make it look rough and untrimmed. Defamation Any statement, written or spoken, which tends to lower a person’s reputation or expose them to dislike or ridicule. If untrue and intentional, defamation can be either libelous or slanderous. Demy (occasionally Demi) A standard book format (TPS = 216 ? 135mm), usually hardback, often used for library edition hardbacks and more literary hardback fiction ( cf trade paperback). Independance Definition? Slightly smaller than the more common Royal format. Pronounced as in ‘deny’. Die Metal stamp with a raised pattern, used to emboss eg a cover, apply metallic foil, or to cut out an irregular shape in paper or board.

Dingbat A non-alphabetic character such as a bullet, star, tick, arrow or flower, usually relatively simple rather than highly stylised or ornamented. ‘Dingbats’ is the farm symbol name of definition a particular pi font consisting entirely of useful dingbat characters. cf ornament. Discount (retailer discount) Books generally do not have a wholesale price, but are sold to retailers based on a discount from the final recommended retail price. The discount varies from retailer to retailer (bigger retailers get more discount) and from list to list (there’s a bigger discount on farm symbol, mass market fiction than on high-value non-fiction). Definition? See also PPG. Discretionary hyphen (soft hyphen) Hyphen inserted into a word to improve the word spacing on a fully justified line of text.

Distributor Company that holds the primary stock of books, to which the what is marxian printer delivers manufactured books, and from which wholesalers and retailers are supplied. Some publishers (including HCP) act as distributors too. Generally, distributors are exclusive distributors, at least within one territory, whereas wholesalers are not exclusive. DocBook An XML DTD used for structuring book texts. The text of the book contains XML markup that divides it up into parts, chapters, paragraphs, tables, lists, footnotes and so on. Independance Definition? The markup is structural and semantic, rather than having anything to do with how the text content should be presented, and the docbook can be processed automatically to create e-books, large print, conventional print, synthetic audio versions of the book. Similar to OEB format.

DOI Digital Object Identifier. System of alphanumeric identifers for intellectual property, combining identification (like an ISBN) and resolution (like a URL). Unlike ISBNs, they can be applied at any scale – whole works, chapters, paragraphs, illustrations, photos – and provide an electronic way of searching for that asset. Dot gain Printing defect, where the dots in a halftone print larger than they should because the ink spreads a little on the paper, creating darker greys or colours than intended. Printers compensate for dot gain in is marxian, platemaking: if you want a 50% tint of black, they make a plate with eg 45%, and the dot gain on the press brings it back up to 50% ink coverage. DPI Dots per Inch. The resolution – the amount of detail – in a TIFF or JPEG file. Measured in independance, dots (or pixels) per inch. Note that the dpi of a scan should be at what, least twice the halftone screen, so 300 dpi for independance definition, reproduction as a 150 LPI halftone. DPS Double-page spread.

A layout or proof showing a pair of facing pages. DRM Digital Rights Management, software which uses some form of was spread to china encryption to protect intellectual property from independance copyright infringement, and seeks to prevent material being exchanged freely over the internet (as music or film files are with LimeWire or BitTorrent, and once were with Napster). The basic idea is that important files are encrypted so that only what theory one computer can decrypt the file, and it can never be saved in its unencrypted form – so you can freely copy the encrypted data around, but it will only be of any use to the one original purchaser. Drop cap (capital) Large decorative capital letter at independance, the beginning of an opening paragraph. Drop ship Dispatching a book direct from the printer (or perhaps from the distributor) direct to the consumer, without physically passing through the retailer. DTD A Document Type Definition specifies the range of mark-up tags allowed in an XML document.

Dues 1. Buddhism To China? Unfulfilled orders – books ordered by definition, wholesaler or retailer but not yet supplied by thomas hobbe, publisher. Most often this arises before publication, where subscription orders are held as dues – and are also known as ‘forward orders’ – but it also happens when a title is out of stock and independance definition awaiting reprint (RUC); 2. Can also refer to stocks of books in the warehouse that are set aside to supply these unfulfilled orders. Dummy Handmade mock-up of a book, usually folded together or bound from thomas hobbe unprinted pages. Dumpbin Temporary, free-standing decorative box, usually cardboard, produced by independance definition, the publisher to display face-out copies of books in a retail environment. See POS.

Duotone A two-colour halftone reproduction from a black-and-white photograph. Generally used to improve contrast or bring out detail in was spread by, the shadows and highlights. Tritones also exist, but are rare. E-audio Downloadable version of an audiobook. Generally an mp3 file (or similar) with the same audio content as the physical CD or tape audiobook. The file is encrypted with DRM software to independance definition, prevent casual copying of the file. The dominant retailer is buddhism to china Audible. E-book A book that is available in electronic format for independance definition, distribution over the internet and for reading on screen (of a laptop, desktop computer, PDA, or a dedicated e-book reading device). These books are usually available as data files in Adobe Acrobat, Palm format or Microsoft Reader format, but there are many other formats.

All include DRM encryption to stop them from being copied and pirated. E-book reader Handheld electronic device suitable for – or solely dedicated to – viewing e-books. Examples of dedicated devices include the buddhism was spread to china by unsuccessful 2001-vintage Rocketbook and the slightly more successful 2006 Sony Librie e-book reader. Most PDAs, PCs and independance definition Macs can also be used as e-book readers, with appropriate software. Problems At The County? For example Microsoft Reader software runs on Windows Mobile PocketPC PDAs and independance some Windows Mobile phones. Epub One particular standard format of e-book file. Has no wide support as yet (2007) but is likely to become the single standard format, superseding more proprietary formats such as Palm reader or Microsoft Reader format. The standard was developed by the IDPF (replacing its original Open E-book [OEB] format), and Epub files can be read by Adobe Digital Editions software. ERRP Recommended retail price for a downloadable electronic product such as an e-book or e-audio. Generally set at around 70% of the price of an what equivalent ‘traditional’ or physical product on definition, paper, tape or CD.

EAN European Article Number. Now officially called the at the Washtenaw EAN.UCC. The 13-digit number at the bottom of the barcode, which is related to the ISBN. All EANs linked to ISBNs (ISBN-10s) start 978… – the independance 978 prefix identifies a so-called ‘Bookland’ EAN. The Patriot, Directed By Roland Emmerich? Why? Because many other EAN prefixes identify countries. ISMNs and future ISBN-13s start with 979…, and ISSNs link to 977… prefixed EANs. Earn out A book earns out when enough copies have been sold for the royalties to cover the advance.

No actual per-sale royalties are paid until a book earns out independance, (or rather, they have already been paid in advance). EDI Electronic Data Interchange. Method for exchanging business-to-business messages such as orders, invoices, dispatch notes, receipt notes through a computer network. Also used for Essay The Patriot, by Roland, updating BookData, wholesalers and major retailer customers with the latest PA (price and availability) information on our products. EDItEUR International umbrella group coordinating development of technical standards for electronic commerce in the book and independance definition serials industries. BIC and about directed by Roland BISG are affiliates of EDItEUR. Edition A group of books printed without changes to independance definition, the content (originally from a single set of printing plates). A second edition would incorporate significant revisions (and so would need new plates) and should get a new ISBN. Originally one edition meant a single print run, but these days an edition may consist of several separate printings, or impressions. EEA European Economic Area, a free-trade area made up of the 25 EU countries plus a few extra (specifically, three of the about by Roland four EFTA countries, Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein). The EEA agreement provides a ‘uniform internal market’ across these 28 countries – the internal market provides for freedom of movement of people, goods, services, capital, and great uniformity in regulations relating to trade, including social policy, consumer protection, the environment and company law).

In territorial rights, the independance EEA is often what’s meant by ‘Europe’ – at other times Europe implies the continent, which would additionally include Switzerland, the Balkans, EU candidate countries like Romania and Turkey, plus Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and (possibly) the trans-Caucasus (Georgia etc ). EFTA European Free Trade Association – Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (though several other countries were previously members and are now members of the European Union). EFTA countries are not EU members, but all except Switzerland have signed the EEA agreement. ELC Electronic Learning Credit. Earmarked money given to schools specifically to fund purchases of educational software. Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay? To be eligible for purchase with ELCs, products must be registered on independance, the Curriculum On-Line (COL) website. The ELC scheme ends in mid-2008. Ellipsis Three dots ( … ) used to indicate an HIV Essay omission or elision. Em 1) Traditional measurement equivalent to 12 points ( ie approximately one sixth of an inch, or a bit more than 4mm). Independance? Properly called a ‘pica em’, and occasionally termed a ‘mutt’; 2) Less often, a distance equal to thomas hobbe, the point size of the definition type – an is marxian em space in 9pt type is 9 points of space. Independance? Of course, these two meanings are the same, because 12-point type used to what theory, be called ‘pica type’.

Em-dash/Em-rule Long dash character ( — ) about independance, 1 em long, mainly used in the UK for Essay, interrupted sentences (a construction called an anacoluthon). ‘Where was that—Aha, here it is!’ See also en-dash. Embargo Instruction to retailers indicating a book must not be sold before the nominal publication date. Usually an embargo aims to protect the value of a serialization deal. See also Release date, Publication date. En Half an em, traditionally 6 points, or these days, half the point size. Occasionally called a ‘nut’. En-dash/En-rule Dash character ( – ) mainly used for definition, a punctuation dash – like this – normally with a space either side. Usually indicates a parenthetical phrase within a sentence. Also used without spaces, to indicate ranges of numbers, eg 77–85.

En-dashes are longer than normal hyphens, but shorter than em-dashes (see -, – and —); (US: parenthetical phrases are usually typeset using an farm symbol em-dash without spaces, where UK typographical usage would be an en-dash with spaces). Endmatter Printed material found in the back of a book after the main text, eg notes, appendix, bibliography, index; (US: backmatter). Endnotes Notes that come after the main text of the book or at independance, the end of each chapter. cf footnotes. Endpapers In a hardback book, a folded sheet, one half of Case HIV Essay which is pasted to the front or back of the cover boards. The other half, the definition flyleaf, is pasted along the folded edge to the first or last page of the book block. HIV Essay? Endpapers can be plain, coloured or illustrated.

Epigraph A quotation in the prelim pages or at the beginning of a part or chapter. EPOS Electronic Point Of Sale. Point-of-sale computer systems used in bookshops – essentially cash tills linked to a computer. Can also cover retail systems that keep track of what’s in independance definition, stock in the shop and what has to be ordered/reordered from the Washtenaw County Jail Essay distributor or wholesaler. EPS Encapsulated Postscript file. Computer image data consisting of a set of lines, shapes and text described in independance, Postscript. EPS files come in several different ‘flavours’, depending on Problems at the Washtenaw County Jail Essay, the version of Postscript, whether or not they also contain a ‘preview’ for on-screen viewing and so on.

EPS files are often used when saving data from Illustrator as they can be imported directly into Quark layouts, in contrast to independance, AI files. Epson 1) Brand of by ink-jet printer, generally quite cheap and cheerful; 2) See ink-jet proof. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning. Computer system covering all commercial applications – financials, stock control, sales order processing, warehouse management etc . Independance? During 2007–09, HarperCollins will be installing J D Edwards ERP software to replace its various Vista sales order processing applications in Nursing Study: HIV Essay, Canada, USA, UK and definition Australia. Errata A loose sheet in which the errors found in a printed book are listed. EU The 27 countries of the European Union: UK, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Malta, Cyprus plus from 2007, new members Romania and Bulgaria. Croatia and Turkey are candidates for accession in the future. Euro The ˆ symbol represents the currency used across many of the Nursing Case HIV Essay countries of the EU. Unfortunately, not every typeface contains a proper ˆ symbol, so it doesn’t always print properly (you may not even be able to see it on independance definition, screen…).

Euroscale 1) Set of industry-standard specifications for buddhism was spread to china, inks, separations, proofing, and process colour printing in general use in Europe. Definition? Derived from standards set by thomas hobbe, FOGRA (the Graphic Technology Research Associations of definition Germany). cf SWOP; 2) A CMYK Colour profile that describes the colour gamut and characteristics of buddhism was spread to china by a press conforming to independance, Euroscale standards. Excel Microsoft Excel is the thomas hobbe de facto standard application for creating spreadsheets. There are versions for both Mac and Windows PCs. Exchange The e-mail/diary/contacts system HarperCollins uses. Definition? You read your e-mails, calendar etc with Outlook, but the central server is Microsoft Exchange. Expert set Supplemental font software containing extra, more rarely used characters ( eg lining figures or small caps), variations of shape for normal characters ( eg swashed capitals) and extra ligatures. Extent The length of a book in terms of number of farm symbol pages.

Usually a multiple of independance definition 16, because the book block is made up of is marxian theory several 16-, 32- or 48-page sections or signatures bound together. Extranet Range of HarperCollins computer services provided to external customers or suppliers via the internet. Examples include Plan G and independance Pubeasy. cf Intranet. Fair use Limited exception to copyright, allowing others to use short excerpts or quotations from a copyrighted work without formal permission or payment. FIBF Frankfurt International Book Fair, held in the autumn. cf LIBF. Filemaker Software application to manage simple databases. Essay The Patriot, By Roland? Generally used to access Plan G. Film Stage in making a plate where individual pages of independance a/w are photographed (or these days, more likely to be drawn by laser in an imagesetter) onto transparent film. Can be single pages or imposed signatures. Film is used to what is marxian theory, make a cromalin or ozalid proof, and/or a printing plate. Firewall Barrier protecting the connection between the company’s internal computer network and the global internet.

The firewall controls messages crossing the border, preventing unwanted outsiders getting into independance definition, the system. A home broadband connection should also be protected with a firewall, with either a hardware firewall built into the ADSL modem/router or firewall software running on what, your PC or Mac (or both). Flash Graphic file format developed by independance definition, Macromedia for Problems at the Washtenaw County Jail Essay, the web. Macromedia is now owned by Adobe. Independance Definition? Uses vector graphics, and is capable of simple animation and (generally low quality) video too. cf SVG. Flattening The process of Nursing Study: HIV Essay reducing a layered, composited document or image (typically a PSD) down to a single layer (which could be a TIFF, for example). This gets rid of any transparency in the image. Flattening should be left as late as possible in any workflow.

Flyleaf The half of the endpaper not glued to the cover board. Independance Definition? The flyleaf forms the first (but generally unnumbered) leaf of the what theory book. Foil Coloured and/or metallic foil used (esp. to highlight lettering) on independance, covers and HIV Essay jackets. Foil blocking Process for stamping a design on a book cover or jacket, or simple lettering on a hardback spine, using coloured foil with pressure from independance a heated metal block known as a ‘blocking die’. Folio 1) the printed page number on a book’s page; 2) a sheet of typescript. Font 1) See typeface; 2) Computer file(s) which must be licensed and installed on your system to use a particular typeface on screen or in printouts. Macs and Washtenaw County Jail Windows PCs can use both Truetype and Postscript fonts, though most Windows PCs stick to independance definition, just Truetype as they don’t have the necessary ATM software to use Postscript fonts. Postscript printers – despite the name – always support both flavours of font software. At The Washtenaw County Essay? OpenType is a new font file format that is not as yet widely used. The range of characters or glyphs available in a font may be limited to independance, just plain Ascii characters, or even just upper case letters, but more usually it will cover the whole Latin-1 character set or more.

A related Expert set (which is a separate font, but not a separate typeface) may extend this range. The most modern fonts – especially OpenType fonts – may use Unicode and contain a wide range of expert and multi-language glyphs in a single font file. Font library The complete set of fonts available or licensed for thomas hobbe, use on independance definition, a Mac or PC. HarperCollins licenses the Linotype font library, and supplements this with fonts licensed from other suppliers. Font Reserve Font management application for Mac OS, allows individual fonts to thomas hobbe, be activated or de-activated at independance, will, so that HarperCollins’ full library of thomas hobbe several thousand fonts does not need to be active at the same time.

Home Macs may use the Suitcase application, which is similar. Footer (Running footer) . Text running across the bottom of every page. Usually just a folio number. Footnotes Notes that appear at the foot of a page, as opposed to Endnotes. Force Majeure Legal term, French for ‘greater force’, used in contracts to define a circumstance when something is out of the control of either party to the contract and may prevent them from independance definition delivering some part of their contractual obligations – things like flood, fire, war etc . In general, force majeure relieves the party (at least temporarily) of the duty to carry out that obligation. Foredge The outer vertical edge of the page or book, away from the spine. Format 1) Loosely, the trimmed page size of a book, but can sometimes instead mean the what theory physical form – hardback, paperback etc . See A-format, B-format; 2) Used to indicate the definition readability of computer discs or data – ‘PC-format discs’, ‘Mac-format discs’, ‘that file is in farm symbol, Word format’, ‘Epub e-book format’. Four-colour Almost the full range of colours can be simulated by mixing the four CMYK process colours using halftoning.

Some Pantone colours cannot be adequately matched using four-colour process. FPO For Position Only. A low-quality placeholder image, often used in a Quark layout where using the full quality, high-resolution image – potentially a very large file – would slow your computer down too much. See also OPI. Free software Computer software that can be used by definition, anyone, modified and redistributed to others (generally without restriction, or with certain well-defined restrictions that must pass down to derivative software). Free as in The Patriot, directed Emmerich, ‘freedom’, not necessarily as in ‘free of charge’. Also called ‘open source software’ as the programming code is definition available to anyone, or ‘GPL software’ after the General Public Licence that is used to place some restrictions on derivative works.

Free stock Stocks of books held in the warehouse that is available to supply customer orders. Buddhism By? cf reserved stock and frozen stock. Frontispiece An illustration facing the title page, or more generally anywhere before the first page of the definition main text. Frontlist Books published or due to be published in the current year. cf Backlist. Frozen stock Stocks of books in the warehouse that are not to be dispatched or used at all. Generally, they are being reserved for a particular customer or deal in negotiation. FSC Forest Stewardship Council, international organization promoting responsible management of the thomas hobbe world’s forests. It provides accreditation and certification standards for forest management and forest products such as pulp and paper. FTP File transfer protocol, a good method for transferring large computer files across the internet, without the size limitations of definition e-mail attachments. See Porter. Full-colour Colour throughout a book, not just in a small section. G3, G4, G5 Types of Apple Mac produced from 1999–2006, G5 being the most recent and fastest, though now eclipsed by the latest Intel-based Mac Pros.

Galleys/Galley proofs Typeset text proofs that have not yet been divided into pages; (US: ‘galleys’ is often used for what we would call page proofs – which are divided into at the County Essay, pages). Gamma Loosely, how bright is a 50% grey? Adjusting the independance gamma of a display or printer brightens or darkens the midtones of the Nursing Study: image without affecting the shadows and highlights. See also colour profile. Gamut The whole range of colours that can be produced by a device or a process.

RGB monitors can only produce a part of the independance definition gamut that can be perceived by the human eye, and CMYK printing can reproduce an even smaller gamut. Gamuts are described using the CIE chromaticity diagram. Gem Collins’ range of small reference books. Also used to mean the size of Gems (not all that useful, since this has varied over the years). General ledger Combines the purchase ledger (money the farm symbol company owes to independance definition, suppliers), the HIV Essay sales ledger (money the company is owed by customers), plus a record of the company assets (stuff we have bought and paid for, or made, and independance definition still own, plus cash or bank deposits) and farm symbol liabilities ( eg loans, or other future commitments we have already been paid for). Definition? Taking the purchase ledger and liabilities as negative numbers, and farm symbol the sales ledger and assets as positive, the total of the independance four amounts is the ‘net book value’ of the company. GIF Graphic Image File. Pronounced as in ‘gift’. Low-quality raster image file, suitable only for Essay The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich, use on independance, the web. See TIFF and JPEG for Essay about The Patriot, directed Emmerich, higher quality image file formats.

Glyph Loosely, a letter or other character in a particular font. Definition? Technically, a single glyph may represent more than one letter: a ligature is one glyph but two or more characters. GRN Goods Received Note. Process within Computron purchasing system that authorises payment for thomas hobbe, goods ordered and received. GSM Grams per square metre, a measure of the ‘weight’ of definition paper or cardboard; (US: paper weight is measured differently, in pounds per ream – but the size (‘basic size’ or ‘basis size’) of the Essay about by Roland Emmerich sheets in the ream varies according to the type of paper.

60gsm paper for independance, the text pages of a book is approx 40lbs per buddhism by ream, and 230gsm cover board is approx 85lbs). See also bulk. Nothing to do with GSM mobile phones… Gutter Blank space between two columns of type or, more often, the blank margins in independance definition, the fold between left and right pages. HJ Hyphenation and Justification. HJ rules control how text is typeset into farm symbol, lines of type, how words are broken at independance definition, line ends and whether the column edges are ragged or straight (justified). Half-title Normally in a hardback book, the first printed page, containing only the title of the book.

Can also be used for a similar page appearing later in the prelims. Can also mean a page separating major parts of a book (generally each part would comprise several chapters). Half-title verso The page following the half-title. It often contains a list of other books by the same author. Halftone 1) An illustration in which the original’s continuous variations of was spread to china by tones are reproduced by patterns of varying sizes of dots. Black ink can be used to simulate a range of definition grey shades, or CMYK to simulate almost the full range of colours.

The (usually photographic) original is termed a ‘contone’. Theory? A halftoned illustration is also called a screened illustration. The dots are generally around 1 / 150 th inch apart (150 lpi or ‘150 screen’) though this depends on the quality of the paper, and they vary in size. Big dots give dark grey, small dots give pale grey. cf Line drawing; 2) The pattern of dots can also be used to print a pale colour with a dark ink ( eg a grey area printed with black ink). Hard copy Material that is on paper rather than on disk. Hard return A permanent return that is typed at the end of a line of text and marks the end of a paragraph ( cf soft return, which starts a new line but not a new paragraph). The method of independance definition typing a soft return varies. Hash The # character, occasionally called ‘gate’, often an abbreviation for Problems Washtenaw, ‘number’; (US: # is often called the independance ‘pound’ sign. That’s pound avoirdupois , not ? Sterling – it really doesn’t help that # and ? often share a key on the keyboard…). Head/tail band A narrow decorative strip of plain or striped material stuck to the top and/or bottom of the spine of a hardback book block. Header (Running header) The heading set at the top of each page of some books, often the title of the book or chapter, and Essay about The Patriot, directed Emmerich the author’s name. cf footer.

Hi-fi colour A printing process using more than the four basic CMYK process colours. For example Hexachrome, which uses two additional process inks, a bright orange and a bright green, to definition, create a wider and richer range (or gamut) of printed colour. Hi-fi colour systems require FM screening, because using conventional AM screening with more than four colours would produce unacceptable moire patterns. Thomas Hobbe? Hi-fi colour is used mostly in fine-art printing – it’s expensive and rare in book work. Hi-res (High resolution) Full-quality scanned image, usually a TIFF, required for independance definition, any image manipulation ( eg retouching, compositing, colour correction). If no image manipulation is required, a lo-res FPO can be used in place of the farm symbol hi-res, relying on OPI to put the independance hi-res in place later. Holding fee Fee paid (usually to a picture library) for Essay about directed Emmerich, keeping loaned material beyond the agreed date. Holographic laminate Thin transparent matt or gloss film incorporating a hologram pattern, to give a sparkly 3D or metallic effect to a cover or jacket.

Home market ‘Home market rights’ generally comprise the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) plus the Republic of Ireland. House style 1) A guide for definition, spelling, punctuation, grammatical style and usage produced by a publisher to help maintain consistency in Problems at the Washtenaw County Jail, copy-editing and definition proof-reading; 2) A standard text or cover design, also called a series style. HTML Hypertext Markup Language. The system of mark-up used in documents and websites on the internet. ICC International Colour Consortium. Essay The Patriot, Emmerich? Industry body set up in 1993 to create standardised colour management software, building on the work of the CIE. Definition? ICC colour profiles are used in software such as Quark XPress or Adobe Photoshop to enable consistent colour across different applications, computers, monitors, scanners and printing equipment. IDPF International Digital Publishing Forum, formerly the OeBF (Open eBook Forum), a trade and standards association for the e-book and digital publishing industry. Developed the Epub e-book file format.

IFC/IBC Inside Front/Back Cover. The ‘back’ of the front cover, and farm symbol the ‘front’ of the back cover. See also endpapers and cover reverse; (US: Cover 2 and Cover 3). Illustrator Adobe Illustrator, application software for drawing maps, diagrams, logos and independance other complex mechanical illustrations. These are saved as AI files, or as EPS files for is marxian, incorporation into page layouts. There are versions for both Macs and Windows PCs, though the Mac version is far more widely used in professional publishing. Imagesetter (filmsetter) Type of RIP which uses a laser to independance definition, expose photographic film. In CTP, being superseded by ‘platesetters’ which draw directly onto the printing plate. Imposition Pages (esp. Buddhism Was Spread? pages of film) arranged so they can be folded together to create part of definition a book.

Page 3 will not be imposed next to page 2, but will sit next to it after folding (folding is part of binding processs). Page 1 will be printed on the back of sheet where page 2 is printed. While pages 2 and 3 are a ‘reader’s pair’ or a ‘spread’, in that they lie together after folding – pages 2 and 15 could be a ‘printer’s pair’ in that they lie together in is marxian theory, the imposition. See also signature. Imposition of Postscript or PDF files implies modification of the files so that the text and graphics in the files are rearranged into definition, an imposed pattern.

Impression A single print run of a book, as in ‘third impression’, the third batch of thomas hobbe copies to be printed and bound. The impression number is usually marked on definition, the copyright/imprint page, often with a sequence of numbers such as ‘4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3’, where the lowest number indicates the impression (in this case, the third). All books in what, an impression are manufactured at the same time and are identical. There can be several impressions in an edition, all sharing the same ISBN. Imprint ‘Brand name’ used for a range of books, eg Voyager, Flamingo.

Imprints are the ‘public face’ of a publishing company, and are much more visible to consumers than the company name. cf list or business unit, which are purely internal to the publishing company. In print The book is definition available, though it may be temporarily out of what stock at the warehouse (awaiting a reprint). Indemnity Contractual agreement which agrees to compensation should a particular situation arise, eg breach of any warranties given in definition, the contract. InDesign Adobe’s InDesign software application is a competitor to Quark XPress, though is theory has a smaller market share. Inferior/Superior In typography and design, archaic (but perhaps more correct) names for definition, subscript and superscript. Ink-jet 1) Printing system where text and graphics are printed by firing tiny drops of liquid ink at the paper, an alternative to buddhism was spread, offset litho; 2) A kind of proof, sometimes also known as an Iris, Digital Cromalin or Epson. Ink-jet can be very high quality, and colour fidelity to the final litho-printed work can be excellent, but they do not reproduce the independance definition halftone dot structure of the final job so cannot be used to judge the likelihood moire, for example. Integrated An integrated book has text and illustrations printed together on the same pages, rather like the Essay page layout of a magazine – as opposed to definition, having illustrations in separate plate sections. Intellectual property A bundle of Problems Washtenaw County Jail Essay rights held over information or ideas, something intangible ( cf property, which is independance a bundle of rights conveying ownership of something tangible). Directed? Intellectual property rights give their owners some exclusive rights to independance, exploit the underlying information or ideas. IP rights can take the form of patents, designs, trademarks and copyrights.

A good overview is Study: given in the recent Gowers Review of Intellectual Property. Internet Worldwide computer network, used for inter-company e-mail, web browsing and FTP. Intranet Collection of computer services available via a web browser to independance definition, staff within the thomas hobbe company ( ie on independance definition, the internal company network). Examples include the Your HC intranet magazine, Plan G, Barcoder. Problems At The Washtenaw County Jail? cf Extranet. IP 1) Intellectual property; 2) In print; 3) Internet Protocol, a technical standard in computer networking. IRI Industry Returns Initiative.

New(ish) set of conventions and processes aimed at simplifying and automating the handling of returns, which have been widely adopted across the independance book trade since 2002. IRI covers the authorisation of returns, the issuing of credit notes, the physical handling of the returned products etc . Iris Brand name for high-quality ink-jet colour proofing system from Scitex. The digital equivalent of a Cromalin, and was spread to china similar to definition, Digital Cromalin. ISBN International Standard Book Number. Unique identifier for a book, or more specifically, of a tradeable item within the book trade. A different ISBN is required not only for each title (or work), but for each edition and binding (or manifestation) eg hardback, paperback, revised second edition all need different ISBNs. Different impressions, however, share the same ISBN. ISBNs use hyphens (or sometimes spaces) to divide the identifier up into Nursing HIV Essay, fields – one field indicates the language group, another the publisher or imprint, and independance definition the last digit is a ‘check digit’. What? See also EAN and barcode, and ISTC. ISBN-10 Old-style ten-digit ISBN, used to distinguish the previous system (pre-2007) from the definition new ISBN-13 scheme. ISBN-13 Revamp of the theory ISBN numbering system introduced in January 2007, where the definition old-style ISBN-10 has been replaced with its equivalent Bookland EAN – 978 EANs as at present, plus a new range of thomas hobbe 979 EANs.

Since EANs are 13 digits, the independance new scheme is called ISBN-13. By convention, the thirteen digit number is called an ISBN-13 or just an ISBN if it is hyphenated, and an EAN if it consists of digits only. ISDN Obsolete type of digital telephone system, used in the past (1990s) to Problems at the County Jail, transfer files from independance definition publisher to about The Patriot, Emmerich, printer. Faster than a home modem, but much slower than today’s home broadband or corporate internet connections. Has generally been replaced by FTP for file transfer. ISMN International Standard Music Number – ISBN-like system for numbering published sheet music. ISSN International Standard Serial Number. Independance Definition? While ISBNs are for monograph publications, ISSNs are their equivalent for was spread to china, serial publications (magazines and periodicals). See also EAN. ISTC International Standard Textual Work Code. Independance? Proposed standard identification scheme for works, will come into Essay The Patriot, directed Emmerich, use during 2008.

ISTCs are 16 hexadecimal digits long (the digits themselves can include 0–9 and A–F). Independance Definition? All versions of a particular work – hardback, paperback, versions by different publishers etc – share an ISTC, whereas their ISBNs vary. Abridgements, translations and revisions (new editions) acquire new ISTCs, but also retain the ISTC of about The Patriot, Emmerich their ‘parent’ work. Italic Slightly sloped type, usually used for emphasis or for foreign words. Oblique is synonymous with italic: serifed typefaces have italic weights, whereas oblique is sometimes preferred with sans serif typefaces. Typically, the independance definition characters in an italic serifed typeface are not quite the same shape as normal roman or upright type. cf Slanted type. Jacket Illustrated dust cover wrapped around a hardback; (US: wrapper). JDE (J D Edwards) HarperCollins’ planned new ERP system, due for rollout in 2007–09. JDE will be a shared system with HarperCollins US, and will replace the Vista order-to-cash system.

JPEG Common data file format for a scanned image. About? It’s compressed, so usually a much smaller file than a TIFF, but sacrifices some quality – JPEG is a ‘lossy’ format, whereas TIFF is ‘lossless’. Definition? JPEG 2000 is buddhism was spread by a completely different and incompatible format for definition, lossy image compression. JPEG 2000 Less common, more modern image file format. Thomas Hobbe? Not many applications can yet read JPEG 2000.

Generally makes smaller files than ordinary JPEG for a given image quality, and does not show the typical ‘quilted’ artifacts that JPEGs are prone to definition, display. Justified (fully justified) Text typeset so that both left and right edges of the column are straight. See also HJ. cf ragged text. Kerning Reducing the space between letters that fit together, to improve the The Patriot, look of the independance definition setting. As in ‘WAVE’, where the A fits nicely between the W and the V, so the three letters can be closed up a little. One of the distinguishing marks of better-quality typesetting is the Essay about by Roland number of ‘kerning pairs’, combinations of independance letters that have been individually spaced like this. cf tracking, which is reducing the space between all letters equally, to reduce the length of a word or line. Key account One of the major retailers or chains – WHSmith, Waterstones, Amazon, Tesco etc . Is Marxian Theory? We generally focus sales effort at independance definition, the chain’s head office rather than upon individual retail branches. Key title One of the most important titles published by thomas hobbe, a division. Definition? A division will publish – at most – a handful of farm symbol Key titles per month, and these will receive significant AP spend, marketing and sales support. Key titles are more critical than Lead titles.

Laid Paper retaining a textured finish from the wires or rollers used in the papermaking process. cf wove. Large print Books printed in bigger than normal type and independance often in a specially-designed typeface, one type of accessible edition intended for Emmerich, visually impaired readers. There is no widely accepted definition of how large the type has to be, as the degree and nature of impairment varies from reader to reader. ‘Traditional’ large print is independance definition often 12–14pt in an open typeface like Plantin, but this is barely suitable for many VI readers and Essay directed by Roland Emmerich is perhaps more properly termed ‘clear type’. The RNIB recommends ‘large print’ is least 16pt in a specially designed, high-contrast typeface like Tiresias LP, which covers most VI reader’s needs (only a very small proportion of VI readers would actually need Braille). Latin-1 ISO-standard for enhanced version of the Ascii computer character set. Independance Definition? In addition to the usual Ascii characters, Latin-1 includes all the thomas hobbe main alphabetic and puntuation characters required for major western European languages such as French, German, Italian, Spanish ( eg a, ?, e, i, o, n, ?), but not for Welsh, Scandinavian, central and eastern European – Latin-2, -3 and definition -4 cover those – or for Cyrillic scripts. Note that many Mac and Windows applications use character sets that are close to but not identical to Latin 1 – MacRoman and Windows-1252. Is Marxian Theory? cf Unicode. Launch 1) External event ( eg party) to mark publication of the book; 2) Internal meeting to brief Marketing and Sales departments on plans for definition, book. Layout The overall design of a page or a cover, including typeface, running heads, page number and at the County graphics, showing how the page will look when printed; a guide for the repro house or junior designer.

Can also refer to the fully-finished page. Creating layouts using Quark XPress is the main work of the independance definition design and thomas hobbe art depts; (US: scamp if only a sketch, comp or mechanical if fully finished). Lead title One of the more important titles published by definition, a division. Typically, a division will publish only a handful of Lead titles per month. Lead titles get significant promotion and publicity effort, but no large AP spend. cf Key title. Leading The (extra) spacing between lines of type. Pronounced ‘ledding’. Typical body copy in a book might be ‘10 on 12 point’, meaning 10 point text with 12 points spacing between lines, measured from baseline to baseline.

In common usage, this is Problems Washtenaw Essay 12 point leading, though strictly it’s just 2 points of leading. Type set without leading ( eg 10 on 10 point) is said to be ‘set solid’ – very rare in books, as it’s difficult to read with a wide measure. Legal, Letter paper Common US paper sizes for office use. Letter is 8 1 / 2 ? 11 inches (or 216 ? 279mm), roughly equivalent to A4 but shorter and wider. The US Legal size is independance 8 1 / 2 ? 13 1 / 2 inches, taller than A4 (and roughly the same as the obsolete ‘foolscap quarto’ beloved of those who also fondly remember pre-decimal currency, the Light Programme, and to china rickets). The difference between Letter and A4 paper can cause problems in formatting and printing documents. LIBF London International Book Fair, held in independance definition, the early spring. At The Jail Essay? cf FIBF, BEA. Libel Publication of an independance definition intentionally untrue statement about a person that will harm their reputation, or tend to Case HIV Essay, make them the target of ridicule, scorn, dislike or contempt. cf slander, which is the oral equivalent. Library edition Book supposedly (or actually) printed on a better quality of paper or with a stronger binding than the standard edition. Often, a hardback edition printed in small numbers at the same time as a mass-market paperback or trade paperback edition, where the hardback is primarily produced for the library market (but is otherwise unremarkable). Library supplier A wholesaler that specialises in definition, selling books to libraries (both academic and public), such as Askews.

Licensing (of copyright). Washtenaw County? Where an author or other copyright holder grants a publisher limited rights to exploit a work, rather than assigning all rights to the publisher. Definition? Licensed rights can be limited by territory, by time period ( eg audio rights are often for seven years only), by farm symbol, format ( eg book rights only, excluding digital or other rights) etc . Ligature Character groups like fi, ffi or fl, redesigned as a single symbol (or glyph), where the conventionally-shaped individual letters may overlap in an ugly way despite careful kerning. The number of ligatures varies from typeface to typeface. Ligatures are much more important in eg Arabic typesetting, where the individual letters change shape radically depending on the letters on either side – as if an ‘s’ at the end of a word was a completely different shape to an ‘s’ in the middle of a word. Limp Limp covers include paperbacks and other flexible bindings in vinyl etc ; not hardback. Line art 1) An illustration that consists of black lines and solid areas, but no greys; 2) You can also have coloured line art, so long as there are no tints – the important factor is that all the process colours are printed solid and it can be reproduced without halftoning. Independance Definition? cf Halftone. Lining figures Arabic numerals of equal height, usually same size as cap X. Numerals also usually have the same width, to make tabular material look neat. cf Non-lining figures. List The books a publisher or imprint has available for at the Washtenaw County Jail Essay, purchase or soon to be published.

Within a publishing house, there are usually separate lists for different types of books. cf Imprint. Literary agent People who represent authors and illustrators for a percentage of their client’s income. Logotype, logo Graphical device, emblem or text used to definition, identify a company, brand, imprint etc , usually printed on the spine or title page. Long grain Paper where the majority of the farm symbol fibres line up parallel to the longest edge of the sheet or web. cf short grain. Lorem ipsum Latin sample text used in an design for a page layout. Traditional versions of the Lorem ipsum text are based on independance, a passage from Cicero, but Quark XPress can produce mock Latin automatically (via a feature called Jabberwocky). Loupe Magnifying glass on small folding stand, generally providing about 5x magnification. Sometimes (and maybe more correctly) called a linen tester.

LPI Lines per inch. The fineness of the screening in a halftone, a measure of how far apart the halftone dots are. Typically images are printed at 133 to 175lpi (depending on the quality of the paper). cf DPI. LZW Lossless data compression technique named after its inventors (Terry Welch, Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv), used in TIFFs, mathematically making files smaller without sacrificing any quality. LZW TIFFs are almost always much smaller than the uncompressed originals, but do not lose any quality. cf lossy compression systems such as that used in is marxian, JPEG or mp3, which sacrifice quality in order to make files smaller. Mac, Macintosh Apple Macintosh computers are widely used in graphic art and independance definition design, particularly to run the three main graphic art and design applications, Quark XPress, Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop.

Macs use Mac OS 9 or OS X as their main system software (‘operating system’), instead of Windows on other PCs. cf MAC (in upper case), 48-bit Ethernet hardware address. Mac OS 9, X The main system software used by Apple Macintosh computers. The OS provides the software framework within which applications such as XPress, Illustrator or Photoshop run. Mac OS X is Washtenaw County Jail very different from its predecessors: not all older Macs can use it and it cannot run all software originally written for OS 8 or 9. Newer Macs (G5s and Mac Pros) will only run OS X. Essentially all Hammersmith and independance Glasgow Macs run OS X; as yet, a couple of Cheltenham Macs do not. OS X comes in versions including 10.3 (‘Panther’), 10.4 (‘Tiger’) and 10.5 (‘Leopard’). These major versions are further divided into thomas hobbe, releases like 10.4.5, 10.4.11 and so on, where the differences are minor and relate mostly to security and bug fixes.

MacRoman Character set used generally by older Mac software applications, similar to definition, Latin-1. Newer OS X applications tend to use UTF-8 instead. Make ready Time spent preparing the printing press for the next job – wash-up (cleaning), changing the Problems at the County Jail plates and adjusting the press to optimise print and colour quality for the new run. Manifestation In the context of intellectual property, technical term for ‘different versions of the same work’. For example, a hardback, paperback and e-book of the same title are all different manifestations. Manuscript Unedited text delivered by an author, these days usually a Word file on definition, disk, but may be typewritten or even handwritten. Abbreviated MS or ms ( pl MSS or mss).

These days, the buddhism was spread to china term is being replaced by independance, Typescript. Mark-up 1) Marks made on at the Jail Essay, a typescript or page proof to indicate typographical instructions, corrections, insertions and deletions. BS-5261 part 2 (1976) describes the standard set of marks to definition, be used for copy preparation and correcting typeset proofs. Download a good reference for the most common marks; 2) tags inserted into text to indicate its structure. What Theory? For example a heading may be surrounded by tags like this: headHere is the independance definition heading/head. See also HTML and XML.

Mass market Small-format paperback edition of a book, usually commercial fiction, intended to thomas hobbe, sell in large numbers. Generally a US term, but is increasingly applied to independance, A-format paperbacks in the UK. Matt laminate Thin film coating used to give covers and jackets a matt finish. Also available in Nursing Case, gloss, and with holographic patterns. cf UV varnish. Measure The width to which a complete line of type is set, or the width of independance definition a single column on multi-column pages.

MECS Marketing Expenditure Control System, computer application for tracking AP costs. Memory In computing, the amount of space within your computer for temporary storage of data while your applications are running. cf storage – note that when people say ‘My computer has run out of memory’, they often mean they have no permanent storage space left. Metadata Literally, data about data. In the context of the book trade, refers to bibliographic data, title, author, ISBN etc , as well as richer, more descriptive data such as found on an AIS. Moire pattern An unwanted striped or checkerboard pattern in halftoned images, frequently caused by halftoning something that already has a halftone pattern. Thomas Hobbe? Akin to the distracting interference patterns seen in rows of railings ( eg on definition, motorway bridges) or when someone on TV wears clothing with a small pattern ( eg a check jacket). Also loosely called ‘screen clash’. Mono (Monochrome) A book published in black and white only, with no colour (though it can still have line drawings and farm symbol halftones). Monograph A publication that’s complete in one part (or occasionally, in a small number of separate parts). Individual books (or occasionally, series of books) are monographs. cf serial publication.

Moral rights protect the author’s integrity and reputation, and are separate from definition copyright which protects the author’s commercial interest. Moral rights include the right to be identified as the author. MP3 Common computer file format containing sound data, for example music or an audiobook – the audio equivalent of JPEG: lossily compressed to Nursing Study: HIV Essay, save storage space or reduce downloading time, but sacrificing quality. Definition? cf AAC. MPEG A range of thomas hobbe data file formats for moving images (video). For example, MPEG2 is the data format used on commercial DVDs, MPEG4 is used in some cable TV systems and on mobile phones. MPEG files are very complex, and definition each version has may different flavours, so an farm symbol MPEG4 file is not just playable on all MPEG4 players – you need to ensure the ‘profile’ and particularly the ‘codecs’ used are appropriate. Independance? Note that mp3 is Essay about directed by Roland not MPEG3 (it's actually subsection 3 of MPEG1). NBA Net Book Agreement, former retail price maintenance agreement to prevent discounting of books. Inoperative since the mid-1990s. Books are now widely discounted from their RRP to encourage sales, albeit at a lower profit per copy.

Net receipts Author’s royalty based on percentage of independance definition publisher’s income, not the retail price. Uncommon for main volume rights, but fairly common for subrights and audiobooks. New cover reissue/reprint A book reissued/reprinted in thomas hobbe, a new cover design, but with no other substantial changes ( ie the size and binding stay the same and the content of the book remains unchanged), often as part of the repackaging of an definition author’s backlist. Does not need a new ISBN, as there is no change to the content of the book. News Corporation (News Corp, NWS) Originally Australian, but now US-based company that is the ultimate owner of HarperCollins.

Though it’s a public company with many other shareholders, News Corp is controlled by Rupert Murdoch and other Murdoch family members. News Corp also has interests in satellite and cable TV, film, newspapers and online, via Sky (satellite TV in Britain and Nursing Study: HIV Essay Italy), Star TV (satellite TV in definition, India and China), DirecTV (satellite TV in US, in process of being sold off to Liberty Media), Fox (US film and TV programming, plus news), News International (UK newspapers), News Ltd (Australian newspapers), New York Post (US newspaper), News America Marketing (newspaper and magazine promotions), TVGI (EPG data for cable and satellite systems and TV Guide Magazine, sold 2007 to County Jail, Macrovision), NDS (smartcards and set-top boxes for cable and satellite systems) and definition Fox Interactive (which includes MySpace). Nursing? For more information about definition, News Corp, you can register to use TheNewsCore website (NB only to china available to HC and other News Corp employees). NewsStand Company that runs HarperCollins’ digital distribution repository, through its Libre Digital division. Other publishers ( eg Bloomsbury, Faber). NewsStand also provides e-book conversion and other services to HarperCollins and many other publishers. Nfuse System that allows you to definition, connect to the HarperCollins network from anywhere with internet access. Requires an ‘RSA keyfob’ to enhance security. You get – in effect – the same thin client system as you would have if you were physically in the office. Problems Washtenaw Jail? cf old-style RAS access and newer VPN access which is gradually replacing both Nfuse and RAS.

Oblique Synonymous with italic, but oblique is sometimes preferred for definition, sans serif typefaces. cf Slanted. OCR Optical Character Recognition. Turning a printed page back into plain text, by scanning the page and what is marxian theory using computer software to inspect and recognise the shapes of each letter. Generally not very successful… OCR-A, OCR-B Fonts optimised for independance, OCR readability. Used as part of the barcode on a book, even thought the thomas hobbe text above and below the bars is not intended to be machine-read.

OEB format An XML DTD sponsored by the OeBF and used for structuring e-book texts. Conceptually similar to independance definition, DocBook, but simpler, as it’s based on Essay by Roland, XHTML. Independance? Superseded by Epub format. Office Suite of Microsoft applications – Word for wordprocessing, the Excel spreadsheet and Essay Emmerich Powerpoint for presentations. Offset 1) To produce a book by reproducing from an already-existing book – eg an American edition – as opposed to independance, typesetting the text from scratch. Originally offsetting was done using a duplicate copy of the film used to create printing plates, but now involves a set of application files or PDFs; 2) Printing fault where ink rubs off one page onto another, caused by theory, too much ink coverage or poor drying; 3) see offset litho. Offset fee Fee paid to the originating publisher when publishing an offset edition.

Part of the fee covers a share of the original typesetting costs, and a (small) part pays for independance, delivery of the material used to create the offset edition ( eg the PDF file or application files). Offset lithography (litho) The printing process used to create almost all our book products. The distinguishing feature is was spread to china that after ink is independance definition applied to the plate, the Study: HIV Essay plate does not then touch the paper directly – ink is transferred from definition plate to paper via an intermediate rubber roller known as the about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich ‘blanket’. See also sheet and web. ONIX Standard XML data format defined by EDItEUR for definition, transmitting bibliographic data, for example to was spread to china by, BookData, Bowker and elsewhere. OP Out of Print. An out-of-print book is no longer in independance definition, stock in the warehouse, will not be reprinted in future, and cannot be ordered. See RUC.

Opacity Different grades of paper have different degrees of opacity of show-through. Open market Parts of the was spread by world where the normal territorial sales rights and independance definition restrictions do not apply – any publisher with rights to a title can sell its copies in the open market. This means countries outside the major controlled markets of Essay about directed by Roland North America and independance definition the Commonwealth, though often Europe is considered a controlled market too. Important OM countries for English-language books include Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and is marxian theory much of the Middle East. OpenType Latest computer font format that combines the features of Truetype and independance of Postscript fonts. Only OpenType fonts work fully with Unicode. Mac OS X supports OpenType fonts as well as original Postscript and Truetype, whereas OS 8 and 9 did not. However, note that not all OS X applications support OpenType or Unicode, even though the underlying OS does – for example Quark XPress 6. OPI Open Prepress Interface, also termed APR or AIR (Automatic Picture or Image Replacement). A system whereby designers can use FPO images while designing the layout, which are then replaced automatically with the Problems Washtenaw County Essay hi-res versions when making film or plates. OPS Out of Print, Substitute.

A book that’s OP, but where another equivalent book ( eg a revised edition with a different ISBN) can be substituted. Option Clause A clause in definition, a publishing agreement that requires the author’s next work to about directed, be offered to the same publisher before being offered elsewhere. An option must usually be exercised by the publisher within a short period of time, or the independance definition author is then free to offer it to a new publisher. Ornament Decorative character or design, often an ornate star or flower ( cf Dingbat), or a patterned border or rule. Orphan The first line of a paragraph falling at the foot of a page or column of type. To be avoided in high-quality typesetting.

See also Widow. Outdoor Outdoor advertising on posters and billboards. Overprint In four-colour printing, where two inks are printed one over the other. For example, to print a dark blue circle inside a pink box, a cyan circle would overprint a larger magenta square (cyan + magenta = dark blue). The opposite is knockout, where the cyan circle punches a hole in the magenta box, resulting in a pale blue circle in the pink box. See also trapping. Overs/Unders The amount of printed materials that is over or under the originally specified print run.

Ozalid Proof for checking imposition only, as the content should have been signed off before the film was made. Originally an ozalid was a blue dyeline proof made from imposed film, but these days is often used loosely to mean an The Patriot, inkjet print produced (without film) immediately prior to independance, platemaking; (US: blue). PA updates The latest Price and Availability information on our products. Generally distributed daily to bibliographic agencies ( eg BookData), wholesalers and major customers by EDI. PL Profit Loss. On-screen system for raising costings and buddhism to china evaluating likely sales for potential acquisitions. PAF Postcode Address File. Data file available from the Royal Mail containing postcodes and all 27 million postal addresses in the UK. Used to verify delivery addresses etc . Page proofs The text of a book typeset and laid out in pages (but not bound), ready for proof-reading and collating. Pantone Proprietary colour matching system consisting of definition many hundred individually numbered colours, eg PMS 546 C is a particular shade of teal green. Used to specify spot colours and inks.

Many Pantone colours cannot be matched accurately using halftoned CMYK process colour inks. A better match, but still not perfect, is possible with hi-fi colour systems. Paper over boards Using plain or printed paper to thomas hobbe, cover the cover boards of a hardback, rather than the more common clothlike material known as Wibalin. Paperback Book with a paper or flexible card cover. Sir Allen Lane, founder of Penguin Books, was credited with inventing the modern paperback when he published Ariel by Andre Maurois with a paper cover in 1936. cf Hardback, with rigid board covers.

PBO Paperback Original. Independance? Book published straight into paperback, without a previous hardback edition. PDA Personal Digital Assistant. Small handheld computer providing diary and contacts functions. The most common PDAs are Palm Pilots, Psion Organisers and Blackberries. PDF Portable Document Format. Nursing? Computer language for definition, describing printed documents, like Postscript but generally more sophisticated (and usually smaller files too). PDFs can be previewed on screen using Acrobat, and are a common format for delivery of finished work to The Patriot, directed by Roland Emmerich, printers. PDF comes in independance, various ‘flavours’, PDF 1.3 being the most common and PDF 1.7 the farm symbol most recent. PDF files can be composite or preseparated, and may include just one or multiple pages.

PDF files are in many ways similar to EPS files, and increasingly are used instead of EPS as images that can be imported into Quark layouts. PDF/A Proposed variant of standard PDF aimed specifically at archival applications. PDF/X Highly standardised variant of definition PDF, which ensures the Essay PDF file contains all data required to print the product. PDF/X-1a is based on PDF 1.3. Perfect binding Binding method in which the pages are bound together with glue (as opposed to being sewn with thread or stapled). PerfectBound 1) HarperCollins’ global e-book imprint, which also has its own e-book shop. Independance Definition? Currently being phased out in favour of a plain ‘HarperCollins eBooks’ branding; 2) Rather imperfect way of binding paperbacks, by glueing the leaves together along the spine. Perfecting Type of printing press which can print on was spread, both sides of the paper at once. Permissions Acquisition of a right in return for a permission fee, in order to reuse all or part of existing, copyrighted material within another work. Permissions are typically sought, for instance, when a publisher wants to independance definition, excerpt part of a book to use in an anthology, or when a teacher wants to compile part of a book into a coursepack. Nursing Case? Authors who wish to incorporate a portion of someone else’s work in their own creation are obliged to secure permissions.

Contracts normally require such authors to obtain and independance definition pay for permissions, and to to china, warranty that they have done so. Photoshop Adobe Photoshop. Computer software for independance, manipulating scanned images and saving as TIFF or JPEG files for Essay about by Roland, use in page layouts. Definition? There are versions for both Macs and Windows PCs, though the Mac version is more widely used in professional publishing. Pi font Typeface consisting of non-alphabetic characters, or sorts. They can be useful or decorative, usually with a particular theme eg a collection of chess piece and Nursing HIV Essay playing card characters, arrows, road signs. Dingbats is independance one particular pi font which contains a general collection of Problems County Essay useful symbols. Picture library Photographic agency that collects images and licences photographs for use in books, newspapers and magazines.

Hulton-Getty and Corbis are the two largest. Pilcrow Correct name of paragraph symbol ( ¶ ) looking like a backwards P. Plan G On-screen database of bibliographic data, used to definition, manage publication schedules, AISs, catalogues, and to send data to BookData. What Is Marxian? Plan G data is accessible using Filemaker, or in a more limited read-only way via the intranet. Some of our major customers also have limited access to Plan G data via our extranet; (US: near equivalent is PIX). Plant Up-front costs of independance definition creating a book – editing, typesetting, repro and farm symbol so on. Independance Definition? cf PPB costs. Plate 1) Metal printing plate, usually a thin sheet of aluminium with a special surface coating. Oil-based ink sticks to part of the plate (‘oleophilic’), and is repelled from other parts (‘oleophobic’), and this forms the patterns of letters or halftone dots on the surface of the plate. Problems At The Washtenaw County? The ink is then transferred onto the paper to independance definition, print the thomas hobbe text or image (see offset litho).

In CTP, the oleophilic and definition oleophobic patterns are drawn onto the plate by at the Washtenaw, a laser. Independance Definition? Formerly, the patterns were formed on Problems Washtenaw, the plate photographically by definition, exposing the chemical coating on farm symbol, the plate to strong light through the film; 2) A halftoned illustration, usually bound into a book in a separate plate section. Plate section Set of pages bound into independance definition, a book containing halftoned illustrations. Usually printed as a separate signature on better quality coated paper; (US: insert). Was Spread To China? cf Integrated. PLC Printed Laminated Case, a decorative variation of definition a plain paper over Case Study:, boards hardback. The printed design on the cover boards is varnished or laminated. PLCs often don’t have separate jackets. PM Vista Production Manager. Software system used by Production department to manage physical manufacturing of definition books and delivery into warehouse. Also provides costings to PL system, and interfaces with Computron to thomas hobbe, create purchase orders. Not to be confused with Vista’s sales order processing system.

PO Purchase Order. These are created within the Computron system, but POs can also be created within PM. POD Print on demand. Generally implies very-short-run printing – a print run of independance fewer than about 200 copies – using xerographic rather than litho printing. In the extreme case, can be a print run of one copy to fulfill a single customer order, drop shipped from the printer to the consumer. Point 1) (also Full point) A full stop; (US: period); 2) Traditional typographical unit used to Case Study:, measure the size of independance definition type, equivalent to about 1 / 72 nd of an inch. Typical body copy might be 10 or 11 points high, measured from the Problems Washtenaw Jail Essay lowest descenders to the highest ascenders. Porter The friendly face of FTP (file transfer protocol), used to independance definition, send large files to suppliers over thomas hobbe, the internet. E-mail attachments can only cope with files up to around 1 or 2MB, whereas Porter can easily do 500MB. Used instead of ISDN. Portrait Page oriented normally, so that it’s taller than it is wide. cf landscape.

POS 1) Point-of-sale – ultimately, the retailer’s till; (US: POP, point of purchase); 2) Point-of-sale promotional material such as posters, dumpbins, bookmarks. Postscript Computer language used to describe pages containing images and independance text, or more specifically, the instructions sent to a laser printer or CTP platemaker, to make it ‘draw’ the buddhism was spread to china images and text on the page. The Postscript instructions are interpreted by a RIP. Postscript files cannot be edited (easily), so any corrections must be made in the original application files, and then the independance definition Postscript recreated. Postscript comes in different ‘flavours’ known as Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3, with 3 being the most sophisticated. Beware – many existing devices (laser printers, RIPs etc ) are limited to Level 2. Postscript is a close relative of thomas hobbe PDF. See also EPS. Postscript font One kind of font software. Helvetica and definition Times are two common Postscript fonts – Arial and Problems Washtenaw Times New Roman are the independance definition Truetype equivalents.

Postscript fonts come in two parts, a ‘screen font’ and a ‘printer font’, and are often of higher quality than their Truetype counterparts. Sometimes called Type 1 fonts. PowerPoint Microsoft PowerPoint is the de facto standard application for creating on-screen presentations. There are versions for both Mac and Windows PCs, though because of differences in Essay about Emmerich, fonts, there are significant compatibility problems if a presentation is moved from definition Mac to Windows, or vice versa . PP 1) 384pp means 384 pages; 2) per Study: HIV Essay pro Signed on behalf of. PPA Periodical Publishers Association, trade body for magazine publishers. PPB Paper, print(ing) and bind(ing), used to describe one of the major areas of cost in manufacturing a book. cf plant costs. PPG Product Price Group, or discount category. Different product categories such as trade hardback fiction, paperback fiction, illustrated non-fiction etc attract different discount rates, and of course different retailers may get different discounts on independance definition, the same product. Each product belongs in one PPG, and a retailer’s standard terms link each PPG to the discount that the retailer receives on products in HIV Essay, that category; (US: equivalent is TDC, title discount code). Preflighting Checking all details of an independance definition application file (esp.

Quark or PDF file) to ensure it’s technically complete, correct, and is ready to go to the printer. An essential quality assurance step before dispatch of application files to repro house or printer. Premium sales Sales of customised versions of existing products, usually to customers outside the normal book trade. Problems At The? Unlike normal book trade sales, premium sales are not on a sale or return basis. cf special sales. Prepress Taking application files and making them ‘press-ready’.

This can include pre-flighting and definition corrections to thomas hobbe, the application files, creating final Postscript or PDF, imposition and making the definition printing plates. Theory? Most prepress work is carried out at repro houses, but a growing proportion of printers are incorporating prepress departments to support CTP. Preseparated Data file or files (esp. Postscript or PDF) where the definition C, M, Y and Nursing Study: K data for a single page is held in separate page images. cf composite. A preseparated PDF file of say, four pages would contain sixteen images, p1 C, p1 M, p1 Y, p1 K then p2 C, p2 M and so on. This is more common than having the independance CMKK data seperately in Problems at the Washtenaw, four separate files. Presenter Folder or single sheet, usually colour and illustrated with the cover image, containing information on a particular book and possibly some sample pages, produced for sales purposes. cf blad.

Press marks Trim and registration marks, colour bars used for press calibration, marks used for independance definition, checking the The Patriot, directed by Roland collation of folded signatures before binding, etc . Independance Definition? All are printed outside the page bleed area on each signature. Print run The number of copies of a book printed at one go in an impression; that printing considered as a whole. Printer Company that operates a printing press and Case Study: HIV Essay manufactures books (and generally does binding too). Progressives A set of colour proofs where each of the CMYK process colours is independance printed separately and in combination with the other colours – so you get a C proof, a C+M proof, a C+Y, a C+K, and so on. With four process colours, there are 15 combinations in a full set of progressives, but you don’t often get all 15 though – just the set that mirrors the Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay order inks are applied on the press (often K, then K+C, K+C+M, and a full K+C+M+Y). These proofs are used to determine the density of independance definition each colour and each colour’s effect on the other colours. Proof Printed test version of material for checking and correction. Proofs are produced for different purposes – Cromalin proofs for what, checking colour quality, page proofs for checking and definition correcting typesetting, ozalids for checking impositions. Proof-reading Checking and correcting typeset material such as page proofs or cover/jacket proofs for typographical errors, and marking up to indicate the corrections that need to be made. cf Copy-editing. PSD Photoshop’s native file format.

It contains layer and transparency information, but isn't as widely compatible as image formats like TIFF. Pub date/Publication date The date, fixed by the publisher, on which a book can supposedly first be sold to the public. In reality, most books go on sale in retailers as soon as they arrive, usually only Case Study: a day or so after they are dispatched from the definition warehouse, and frequently up to farm symbol, a fortnight before the definition nominal pub date. Only in the case of a serialization do books first go on sale to the public on the actual publication date, simply because there is an embargo on sales prior to the serialization appearing. cf Release date, Bound stock date. Pubeasy Extranet system allowing customers to check book availability, place and track orders via the by internet. Originally set up by Vista and Whitaker, now under the ownership of Bowker. Publisher Person or organization responsible for the production and dissemination of definition a book.

Pulp 1) To destroy unsold books that are no longer wanted. The final alternative to remaindering the copies; 2) The raw material for farm symbol, making paper, made from wood or recycled paper. Purchase ledger Financial record of definition all money owed by the company for goods or services we have bought. Purchase orders generated in Computron create entries in the Purchase Ledger. Quark XPress Dominant computer application for on-screen design and layout. Pronounced to rhyme with ‘dark’, not with ‘quart’ (“…three quarks for Muster Mark.” Finnegan’s Wake by James Joyce). Case Study: HIV Essay? The latest version is XPress 7. Quark XPress Passport is the multi-language version, and there is also a separate US English edition and others for Arabic and CJK languages.

There are versions for independance definition, both Mac and Windows, though the what is marxian theory Mac version is independance definition more widely used in professional publishing. Often just called ‘Quark’, although XPress is not the company’s only buddhism to china product. Not to be confused with a German brand of soft cheese. Quire 1) Twentieth of a ream ( ie 25 sheets). Originally, a quire was 24 sheets; 2) Library quire, semi-bound book block, sold to specialist library suppliers who add a more durable than normal binding. Quotes Quotation marks, inverted commas. Can be double or single. Independance Definition? The preferred choice is one of the common elements of a house style. In Europe, the Essay about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich usual rule is independance ‘Double within single’: ‘I heard him shout “Help!” as he fell,’ said Gerald. Common US typesetting style would be different: “I heard him shout ‘Help!’ as he fell”, said Gerald. Note also the difference in placement of the farm symbol comma.

Rack size US equivalent of A-format, used for mass market paperbacks. Usually 6 3 / 4 ? 4 3 / 16 ths inches. Rag book Short book for infants and toddlers, where each page is printed on textile rather than paper. See also board book. Rag paper Expensive paper made from textile fibres (cotton, linen) rather than from weed pulp. Ragged left, ragged right Unjustifed text. Ragged right text is ranged against a straight left margin, and vice versa . cf justified text. RAS Remote Access Server. Computer system through which you can dial a Glasgow phone number with your computer and modem, and connect to the HarperCollins network. Generally poor performance because of the definition slow speed of modems, and replaced by speedier internet-based NFuse access.

However, unlike NFuse, RAS gives you the option to synchronise files or e-mails – effectively this copies them on to your laptop so you can access them off-line later ( ie without having to dial in). RAS is used less frequently now, having been replaced by BlackBerries, by NFuse and by VPN. Raster Computer image data consisting of a regular grid of pixels, generally stored as a TIFF or JPEG file. Nursing Case HIV Essay? cf vector. A vector illustration such as a logo, diagram or map can be rasterised to turn it into a grid of pixels. Ream 500 sheets of paper. Originally, a ream was 480 sheets – 20 24-sheet quires. Recommended retail price (RRP) The price put on the cover or jacket of a book by the publishers. Independance? These days, not necessarily the Essay about The Patriot, directed Emmerich price for which it is sold to the customer – though it used to be, when the NBA was in independance definition, force. Nursing Case Study:? Royalties are generally based on the RRP rather than the discounted price. Recto A right-hand page.

Always carries odd number. Independance Definition? See verso. Reflow Undesirable occurrence in which the line breaks in typeset copy change due to farm symbol, alterations in definition, the layout, the fonts used, or some other factor. Register In four-colour printing, the four CMYK images need to be aligned exactly so that combined multi-coloured images look natural. Registration is the action of ensuring this precise alignment. What Is Marxian Theory? To print a red circle, for example, you need to print a yellow circle and a magenta circle exactly in the same place – ‘in register’. Any mis-registration would cause a pink fringe to show on one side of the circle where the yellow doesn’t quite overlap with the definition magenta. Registration marks Target marks (often a cross) printed outside the page area, beyond the Case bleed area, to independance, aid registration.

The reg marks must appear on what theory, all plates, so the individual crosses printed in each colour can be lined up. cf trim marks. Reissue As a reprint, but usually with additional AP, renewed efforts to sell the book in, and usually after the independance definition book has been unavailable (out of stock, or even OP) for a period. Most reissues are in fact new cover reissues. Relaunch Like a new cover reissue, but the book is HIV Essay additionally given a new ISBN (contrary to best practice). This is done to encourage the belief that it is definition a new product and to what is marxian, stimulate sell-in, when in fact it is simply a new cover reissue of an existing or old product. Relaunches cause problems with retailer’s core stock lists, and make longitudinal sales analysis more difficult. Release date The date on which books can be released from the warehouse and sent to customers. Independance Definition? Generally around three weeks prior to the nominal publication date. See also bound stock date. Remainder Dispose of unsold books by selling at a low price to specialist bookseller (who cannot return them). An alternative to pulping.

Reprint Manufacture a new print run, identical to the previous impression, to replenish stock in the warehouse (does not get new ISBN). cf new cover reprint. Repro house Company that turns illustration a/w or trannies into film separations or data, usually a TIFF; (US: engraver). Repro houses scan, do colour proofs, retouching, colour correction, and often are responsible for turning illustrated page layouts into Postscript or PDF data required for farm symbol, CTP printing. Many repro houses can also do printing, and independance definition conversely, many printers also have prepress departments that are repro houses in all but name. Rerun To typeset a book by taking the electronically-held text of a book that has already been set and reflowing it into a different layout. Case HIV Essay? So, for example, the text of a hardback book is often rerun for the smaller paperback edition. Reserved stock Stock in the warehouse set aside for independance, purposes other than fulfilling dues or new customer orders. It may be reserved for an anticipated large order or special deal, for example. cf free and frozen stock. Resolution Loosely, the quality of the image or printing process, expressed in dots per inch (dpi). A laser printer is generally 300–600 dpi, typeset and litho printed material is generally 1200–2540 dpi.

Also used to describe the quality of TIFF and farm symbol JPEG files. cf halftoning and lpi – the resolution is not the same as the halftone screen (it must be much higher). Independance? For a printing device such as a laser printer, the resolution in dpi should be at Nursing, several times greater than the lpi so that the halftone can reproduce an adequate range of grey shades – so a 600dpi laser printer can do decent halftones at 106lpi, but cannot reproduce subtle grey shading at 150lpi. An offset litho press working with plates made at 2540dpi can easily produce good halftones at definition, 150 or 175lpi. For printing an Essay directed Emmerich image such as a TIFF or JPEG, you should aim for independance, dpi about thomas hobbe, twice the lpi – 300dpi for 150lpi printing. Returns Unsold books returned by retailers to the publisher, resulting in a credit to the retailer. See also Industry Returns Initiative. Reverse out For example, white text on independance, a dark background image or solid colour area. Revert, Reversion A publisher’s rights to publish a work revert back to the author on termination of the contract.

The contact may terminate at the end of a fixed time, or it can lapse when a book goes out of print. Revises Revised proofs. Directed By Roland Emmerich? Page proofs in which the corrections marked on the original page proofs have been made by the typesetter. Definition? Revises (or second proofs) have to be checked against the marked-up page proofs (or first proofs). RFID Radio Frequency Identification. What Is Marxian? A tiny programmable computer memory chip bound into a book at manufacture, carrying data about the book – its ISBN, price etc . The data on the chip can be read, modified or added to, without physically touching the book, as the chip can communicate by radio. This could simplify many supply chain processes: for example, the chip could be programmed with the sales order number and the actual discounted price as it leaves the warehouse, then the price read and credited to independance definition, the customer if the book is returned, or the contents of a carton could be checked without even opening the box. The technology is not yet in use in Case Study:, the book trade, but has already caused privacy concerns in independance, other industries. RFIDs are in use to track library books in some libraries. RGB Red, Green and Blue. Colours used on computer screen to simulate full range of Problems at the Washtenaw Jail Essay possible colours.

But an on-screen RGB image can never properly match the final printed effect created by using CMYK inks on paper. Rich black In colour printing, large solid black areas are printed ‘blacker-than-black’: in CMYK, 100K plus between 60–100C, or possibly 100K plus 60–100M for definition, a ‘warmer’ effect. Making a rich black with more than about buddhism was spread to china, 250% total ink coverage means the ink will not dry properly, causing offset. Rich text Generic term for a text file that contains accented chararacters, proper punctuation such as curly quotes, en- or em-dashes and other non-Ascii characters. The important thing with any rich text file is to understand the character encoding or character set – UTF-8, UTF-16, Latin-1, MacRoman or Windows-1252 are all relatively common, and a rich text file in definition, one character set will not look right if displayed in a system that uses a different character set. Save an apostrophe ’ on a Mac, and then display it on a PC: unless you control the character set properly, you would see i instead. Rights Conditions and terms of what is marxian theory a licensing agreement (the contract) between a copyright owner (generally the author) and independance a publisher.

See also volume rights and subrights. Generally, these rights will be limited to specific territories, eg the Washtenaw County Jail Home market, Commonwealth countries, or to market sectors like the Educational market. RIP Raster Image Processor. Device that takes Postscript or PDF and independance creates film or plates. A laser printer is a kind of small scale RIP too, except it transfers the image to paper. Royal A standard book format (TPS = 234 ? 153mm), usually hardback, used for most hardback fiction and general non-fiction. Slightly larger than Demy size. See also trade paperback. Royalty The payment specified in the contract that’s made to an author for every copy sold, usually based on a percentage of RRP but occasionally on at the, a percentage of the publisher’s net receipts. Definition? Part of the royalty is usually paid in advance. RTF Rich Text File.

A particular type of rich text file format that contains additional formatting such as font, colour and limited page layout information in addition to the wide character support of other rich text formats ( cf Ascii files). It’s sometimes suited to converting documents between applications and farm symbol platforms, but isn’t as useful as it sounds. RUC Reprint Under Consideration. Independance? Indicates book is farm symbol unavailable: orders may still be taken and build up as dues, and may result in independance, a future reprint or reissue. Is Marxian Theory? See OP. S/S (Same size) Reproduce at definition, the same size as the original. Sale or return Most books sold by publishers are on sale-or-return terms. Non-returnable books are ‘firm-sale’. Sales CD Monthly on-screen ‘multimedia’ presentation of new products, formerly created around 5 months prior to publication and used primarily by Home Sales dept as part of the subscription and sell-in process.

No longer used. See also the monthly brochure. Sales Ledger Financial record of all money owed to the company for goods we have sold. Invoices generated in Vista create entries in the sales ledger. SAN 1) Standard Address Number, unique seven-digit number used to identify the Study: HIV Essay address of a company in the book distribution trade. HarperCollins’ SAN in Glasgow is 0091073. Independance? The GLN, or Global Location Number is like the SAN but is expressed as a 13-digit EAN, and is a more modern global system rather than being limited to thomas hobbe, the book trade. UK-based GLNs can be derived from the SAN by definition, adding 503067 to the front and recalculating the final check digit, so HarperCollins’ Glasgow GLN is 5030670091072. The list of all UK-based SANs and about The Patriot, GLNs is definition administered by Nielsen BookData; 2) Storage Area Network, a huge central pool of thomas hobbe hard disc storage used by various servers on the computer network. Scale out independance, Retailer’s head offices allocate order volumes to their branches depending on the branch’s profile – its size, customer base etc . A small branch may be told to order ten copies, and a larger branch 15 copies. Scan 1) Action of farm symbol turning artwork or trannie into independance, a separation or data file; 2) The resulting data file, usually a TIFF or JPEG.

Scatterproof A (colour) proof where images are not ‘in position’ on the page, but arranged together without regard to the (eventual) page layout and without the surrounding text. Screen reader Test-to-speech software that reads text on a computer screen aloud, so the Essay The Patriot, computer can be used by blind, visually-impaired or other reading-impaired users. Screening Conventional halftoning where the definition dots are all the same distance apart in a regular grid, but vary in size to simulate dark and light tones. This is called ‘AM screening’. Specified in ‘lines per Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay inch’ (LPI), the number of halftone dots per independance inch in farm symbol, the grid. cf FM screening (also called ‘stochastic screening’), where the dots are all the same small size but are varying distances apart in a random pattern. FM screening is rare in offset litho printing (though you see it in domestic ink jet printers), but can give very good quality results, as it’s completely free of moire and can be used with more than the basic four process colours.

Section 1) In binding, see signature; 2) In typography, the correct name of the § symbol. Self cover Bound without a separate cover, so the first page of the book block is the front cover. The cover is of the same material as all the other pages. Sell-in 1) Wholesale sales to bookshops – not real sales, as books are still returnable. In principle, sell-in = sell-out + returns; 2) Frequently used to mean subscription sales to bookshops, ie sales specifically in the pre-publication period.

Sell-out Retail sales from bookshops to definition, customers – real sales as books cannot then be returned. Also occasionally termed ‘sell-through’. Sell-through 1) Ongoing sales of thomas hobbe frontlist titles after the initial sell-in period ( ie during the first few months following publication); 2) See sell-out. Separation (colour separation) 1) Single film or plate element (or the definition equivalent data) making up a set of separations, each containing the part of the image to farm symbol, be printed with one of the process inks. Four plates are used to print a full-colour CMYK image; 2) The action of creating these separations by scanning. Originally this was a photographic process using coloured filters. Serial publication Regularly published items such as monthly magazines, scientific journals and other periodicals. cf monographs and series.

Serialization Where extracts of a book are licensed to a newspaper or magazine for publication, usually immediately prior to the publication date. If a book is serialized, publishers and booksellers must prevent copies going on sale prior to independance definition, the agreed pub date. Series Group of linked titles sharing a common series title ( eg seven titles in C. Washtenaw Jail Essay? S. Definition? Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia ). Thomas Hobbe? Technically a set , not a serial, because there is (or will eventually be) a fixed number in a set whereas serials are ongoing publications. Series style Graphical design or typographic style used throughout a series or set of books. Serif A serif is independance definition a small line at the extremities of Washtenaw a main stroke in a type character.

Serifed typefaces include Times, Sabon, Baskerville etc . cf Sans serif. Server A computer offering some centralised service to other ‘client’ computers on the same network. So a file server stores client’s files, a web server delivers a website, and independance definition an e-mail server provides e-mail services. SGML Stanardized General Markup Language. Highly complex technical standard for mark-up. Effectively the predecessor of is marxian theory XML, but rarely used because of its complexity. Sheet Paper cut into single sheets before printing, and each sheet passed through the press individually. Each sheet is the same size as the independance printing plate, and to china is folded and trimmed to create one signature or section of a book. cf web. Sheet-fed press Printing press using cut sheets rather than printing on a continuous web of paper. Short A-format Non-standard book format (TPS = 165 ? 111mm), the same width as standard A-format, but reduced in height. Independance? Does not mean A-format printed short-grain.

Short B-format Non-standard book format (TPS = 185 ? 130mm), the same width as standard B-format, but reduced in height. Short Demy Non-standard book format (TPS = 203 ? 135mm), the same width as standard Demy, but reduced in directed Emmerich, height. Short grain Paper in which the majority of the fibres lie parallel to the shortest edge of the sheet, or across the web. cf long grain. Short Royal Non-standard book format (TPS = 221 ? 153mm), the definition same width as standard Royal, but reduced in height. Shoutline Promotional text added to front cover of thomas hobbe a book.

Often a review quote, or ‘By the author of…’. Show through Where text or images are visible through a page, because the paper is too thin or not sufficiently opaque. Sic In Latin, sicut , ‘Just as is’. Mark inserted in text (often in brackets in quoted text) to show that an apparent error is independance definition deliberate. Signature 1) The pattern in which pages are imposed, a characteristic of the press and binding system used; 2) the folded section that you get after the sheet has been printed and folded ( eg a 48-page section of a book). SIT StuffIt file, a type of compressed file.

StuffIt is Nursing suitable for compressing both Windows and Mac files, and independance is used by Case Study:, Porter. Independance Definition? SITX files are a special form of thomas hobbe SIT file that can only be used by OS X. cf Zip files. SKU Stock Keeping Unit. Unique number associated with a product, used for warehouse and inventory management. For books, the ISBN or EAN can act as an SKU, though finer-grained control may be required ( eg where the definition same ISBN is used for a new cover reissue, the is marxian warehouse control system would have to use an extra ‘lot control’ number to identify the two batches of books). SLA Service level agreement, the agreed quality of independance service (often quoted in terms of time to react, time to complete a job, acceptable technical standards etc ) to theory, be provided by a service department or an external supplier to the company. Slanted Faux italic type produced by definition, skewing normal roman type slightly. Slipcase Box to what, hold book(s), often containing a complete series of independance definition books. Slippage 1) An unexpected delay in publishing a title, due to late delivery from the Essay about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich author, for example; 2) the independance cost of this delay in postponed cashflow rather than any loss of sales. Slush pile Unsolicited typescripts that are received from authors, sometimes more politely called ‘speculative submissions’. What? Slush pile material almost never gets published. cf work commissioned from an independance definition author.

Small caps Capitals the same height as normal lower case letters. Proper small caps are slightly bolder than they would be if they were simply proportionally reduced from upper case characters, but they are often simulated using normal capitals at two-thirds size. Soft proof On-screen display that mimics the appearance of thomas hobbe a printed proof. Generally, text and layout issues can be proofed this way, but colour issues cannot, as computer screens are not colour-accurate enough. Solidus Correct name for / sign (especially when used in fractions), more commonly called a slash. cf the character, usually called a backslash. Solus Alone, separate, dedicated, as in ‘solus advert’ or ‘solus review’ (major review of a single book, rather than an article containing shorter reviews of several works). Special sales Sales of existing books through non-traditional book outlets. Unlike normal trade sales, special sales are often not on a sale or return basis. Independance? cf Premium sales. Spine brass Metal die or stamp that impresses the foil lettering onto the spine of a hardback book, ie onto the board itself, not onto the jacket. Spinner A free-standing, usually metal, rotating display stand used to hold books in retail environment.

Spot colour Premixed ink colour ( ie colour not made up of four-colour halftoning). This is usually specified as a specific Pantone colour. sRGB ‘Standard RGB’, the colourspace that Windows assumes all RGB images are in. See also Adobe RGB. Stet An instruction that countermands a previously-marked correction, usually indicated by farm symbol, a broken underline. In Latin, ‘Let it stand’. See mark-up.

STM Scientific, Technical, Medical – HarperCollins is independance not an STM publisher. Stock 1) As-yet-unsold books in warehouse; 2) Paper or board to be printed on. Stocklist List of all products in print, used by sales depts to administer and encourage backlist sales. Does include titles that are RUC, but not OP titles. Storage In computer terms, this is generally the amount of space on your hard disc or network for Nursing Case, permanent storage of documents and other files. cf memory.

Strip and bind To remove the cover from a bound book and rebind it in a new cover. Strippable In the US, low-value books that can be returned by definition, stripping off the cover and returning only the cover instead of the whole book, thus saving on Study:, shipping. Strippable books carry an S in a triangle printed next to the barcode. Stripping Assembling, especially imposing, film ready for independance, platemaking. Structural editing The first stage of editing, paying particular attention to overall style, pacing, plot etc. cf Copy-editing. StuffIt Files can be compressed with Allume StuffIt, a software application to make files smaller (and thus easier to buddhism was spread to china, e-mail or send via FTP) and to combine multiple files into definition, a single ‘.SIT’ archive file. StuffIt Expander is what is marxian theory used to reconstitute the original files. There are versions of StuffIt for independance, Windows, Mac OS and Linux. Submission A book or project submitted to Problems at the Jail, a publisher, normally by independance, an agent or author, for buddhism was spread by, possible acquisition. Subscription Initial pre-publication sales process.

Orders taken at this stage build up as dues, and are fulfilled upon publication. Occasionally also termed sell-in. Subscription orders taken can be used as guidance for definition, setting the initial print run. Subsidiary rights (subrights) Rights set out in the contract allowing the thomas hobbe publisher to exploit the work in definition, ways other than the main book form, eg audiobook, serialization, translation, book clubs. cf Volume rights. Superior/Inferior In typography and design, the correct names for superscript and subscript.

SVG Scalable Vector Graphics. Graphic file format developed for the web that uses vector graphics, can be thought of what as ‘a simplified version PDF expressed in XML’. Not yet as popular as Flash. Swatch Colour sample, sometimes printed on a small square of card, called a ‘chip’. Pantone colour samples are available in booklets of swatches, and some booklets contain many chips to tear out and attach to layouts. SWOP Specifications for Web-Offset Publications. A (generally American) industry standard that provides the specifications for separations, proofing, and printing process colour using web-offset. cf Euroscale. TeleOrdering System whereby bookshops submit orders to independance, publishers electronically (not on internet but via a private computer network). Formerly administered by Whitaker but now a part of Nielsen BookNet.

Telescope DAM software from County North Plains Systems. Telescope is used by HarperCollins in both the UK and US. Territory A geographical limitation on the extent of the rights covered in a publishing contract. Text black Text set in definition, a special spot colour, so that it appears on an extra separation, separate from the normal black used in what is marxian, any illustrations, rules, folios etc . But the ‘text black’ is not printed with a spot ink – the independance separation is combined with the what ‘graphics black’ in order to make the black plate. A text black or fifth black is independance definition generally used in thomas hobbe, illustrated co-edition books.

The advantage of keeping text separately is independance that the graphics black film need not be remade (or more specifically in a CTP scenario where there is thomas hobbe no film, the graphics black does not need to be repeatedly proofed for colour quality) for each translated edition – only the text black needs to be changed for each different language edition. And if several co-editions are printed at the same time as the independance definition main edition, only the single black plate need be changed for buddhism was spread to china by, each subsequent language. Thin client PC connected via network to definition, powerful Windows server system, on which you can use all the major PC applications. The thin client provides only display and keyboard, while the processing is done on the server. May look old, but can be faster and thomas hobbe more reliable than thick clients. cf Thick client.

Thin client software can also be run on a Mac, so the Mac can be used to run PC software. Third party In ‘third party’ business, HarperCollins acts as a distributor for independance definition, other publishing companies ( eg Simon and Schuster, Letts and several others). Their books are kept in the Glasgow warehouse, and distributed to Case Study:, wholesalers and retailers alongside our own titles. Tie-in Special version of a book produced to definition, benefit from promotion of other media products, eg a film tie-in may use an image from the film on farm symbol, the cover. TIFF Tagged Image Format File – a high-quality (‘lossless’) data format for scanned images. Can be mono, greyscale or colour, and can be a very large file. A single A4-size colour TIFF at suitable resolution for printing can be up to 48MB. TIFFs can be uncompressed, or can contain LZW-compressed image data to make the file smaller. cf JPEG, which creates much smaller files by sacrificing some image quality (‘lossy’). accent, the diacritical mark used in Spanish señor , and also (loosely) of a ‘swung dash’.

Tint Pale version of a colour: grey is independance definition a tint of black, pink is a tint of red, generally specified by percentage of the thomas hobbe base colour and independance printed with a halftone. You can also have tints of spot colours, eg 50% of a teal colour such as Pantone 2476 is a pale minty green, but unless your choice of Pantones is severely limited, it’s better to avoid halftoning by using 100% of a similar hued but paler spot colour like PMS 5493. Tip-in Extra leaf glued into by, a book after it’s bound, often used for separately-printed illustrations or plates, errata sheets, gatefolds and other pages that are not the same size, or sometimes for definition, forms to be removed and theory returned. Title ISBN Sometimes also called the independance ‘head ISBN’. ISBN of the primary version of a book, usually the initial hardback. All the different bindings and was spread editions of a particular book – hardback, paperback, audiobook and independance definition so on – share the same title ISBN. It is, in effect, an identifier for the work, though it’s imperfect because audiobooks and is marxian theory special sales often do not share the same head ISBN as the main trade versions of the work. Independance Definition? The ISTC is a much better work identifier, when it is at the Washtenaw introduced. Title page Page in the prelims (often the third page and always a recto) on which the author’s name, the title of the book, the definition series title and subtitle (if any) and is marxian theory the imprint logotype all appear. Title verso Page in the prelims backing the title page (often the fourth page) on definition, which the copyright notice, publisher and imprint details, the ISBN and impression number, and what other details about the definition publication of the book appear. Nursing Study:? Also called the independance copyright page or imprint page.

Tivoli Software application used to make tape backups of computer data stored on our servers and SAN. TPS Trimmed page size (also trim size and trimmed leaf size). The outer dimensions of a page of a finished book, so for Essay about by Roland Emmerich, A-format, 178 ? 111mm. Trade paperback (TPB) A large-format paperback, usually Royal or Demy size, with the implication that there is (or will be) a separate smaller A- or B-format paperback for independance definition, the mass market. In fiction publishing, a trade paperback version is often published after the hardback but before the main mass market paperback version.

In Australia, a trade paperback is often published instead of a hardback. Although a paperback, a TPB often earns the what is marxian theory author royalties more in line with a hardback; US: trade paperback is independance definition often used to mean what in the UK would be a B-format paperback, and contrasts with an rack-sized mass-market edition. Trademark The rights to to china by, the use of independance definition a specific symbol or words connected to a specific product or service, to differentiate one business, product or service from another. In the UK, trademarks can be registered with The Patent Office, and unlike copyright, trademark rights can be renewed indefinitely. Thomas Hobbe? Trademark owners object strongly if their mark is definition used to mean a generic business, product or service ( eg Hoover, Filofax, Coke, Xerox still defend their trademark rights, whereas nylon and escalator have lost their former trademark status). Trademarks can be noted as such with the ™ symbol, and registered trademarks with the ® symbol. Trapping Range of methods to prevent obvious printing errors caused by imperfect registration between the process colours. If you wanted to print a light blue circle within a pink box, and the cyan circle were exactly the same size as the knocked out ‘hole’ in the magenta, any mis-registration between cyan and magenta would show as a white line around half the circle. Since a narrow dark blue halo around the circle where magenta and cyan overlap is less visually intrusive than a white line, the circular ‘hole’ in the magenta is choked – made slightly smaller, typically reducing it by less than 0.25 point – to create a deliberate overlap (overprint), so that any mis-registration between cyan and yellow does not create a white line. Alternatively, the size of the thomas hobbe cyan circle could be spread. Whether to choke or spread depends on definition, the visual strength of the colours – generally the weakest colour is increased in area.

Transparency (trannie) 1) Photographic slide; 2) Objects in some Postscript, PDF, EPS and application files can be ‘coloured’ as semi-transparent. These can only be printed after flattening. Transparency is supported from Illustrator version 10, Quark XPress 7, PDF 1.4. Trim marks L-shaped marks printed just outside the page area showing where the page should be cut to buddhism was spread to china, the correct trim size after printing. Also called crop marks, and independance definition occasionally cut marks and tick marks. To allow for some tolerance in what is marxian theory, the trimming, items intended to independance, print right to the edge of the page don’t just stop at the trim marks, but extend out into the bleed area. cf Registration marks. County Jail Essay? Strictly, trim marks need only be printed in one colour ( ie they only need appear on one plate, usually black) but if they are printed on definition, all plates, the same marks can be used for both trim and registration. Truetype One kind of font software that can be used on both Macs and thomas hobbe PCs.

Arial and Times New Roman are common Truetype fonts – Helvetica and Times are the Postscript equivalents. They can provide better cross-platform compatibility than Postscript fonts, but Truetype fonts are often of lower quality. Typeface A set of characters (glyphs) that share a distinctive and consistent design, eg Times Roman, Helvetica Oblique or Stempel Garamond Italic. These days, synonymous with ‘font’, though originally font (or fount) meant the characters were also all the independance same size ( eg Times Roman 12 point). Typefaces come in families of differing weights – Times Roman, Times Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Condensed, Bold Condensed etc . Typescale Special ruler for measuring type sizes, marked in points and ems instead of inches or centimetres. Typescript Unedited text delivered by an author, usually a Word file on disk, but may be typewritten. Abbreviated TS or ts. The term is now used more commonly than Manuscript, though they are synonymous. Typesetter Company or person that typesets text and lays out pages, creates proofs, does revisions etc (US and traditional UK: compositor). UCC 1) Universal Copyright Convention (the ‘Berne Convention’ as agreed in 1886, and revised in Geneva in 1952 and Paris in 1971) gives legal protection to Essay about The Patriot, directed by Roland, authors or originators of independance definition text, photographs or illustrations etc , to prevent reuse without permission or acknowledgment. The publication should carry the copyright mark , the name of the originator and the year of publication, although this isn’t vital as copyright is automatic – it doesn’t have to be ‘applied for’ or registered with any central agency.

For further details, see The Patent Office website; 2) Uniform Code Council, company that administers the UPC barcode system. See also EAN. UCR/GCR Undercolour removal/grey component replacement. In CMYK printing, removing cyan, magenta and thomas hobbe yellow ink from areas where all three overlap and replacing the dark area with black. Independance Definition? This reduces the ink coverage and speeds up drying of the ink. Unders/Overs The amount of buddhism was spread to china printed materials that is under or over the originally specified print run. Unicode Computer character set. Independance? Hugely improved over Ascii and Latin-1, because it includes accented characters, fancy punctuation and a wide range of specialised symbols ( eg for maths). In principle – and in contrast to buddhism to china by, Latin-1 – it also includes all the independance characters required for all other written languages, including non-European scripts like Arabic, Devanagari or Chinese, and Problems at the Washtenaw a vast range of definition mathematical and other symbols.

Obviously this is font-dependent too – your data may be in Unicode, but if your font does not contain the farm symbol right characters, you still can’t see it! Again in principle, a single font file could contain glyphs for all the Unicode characters, but in practice only a subset are included. OpenType fonts are based around Unicode, and generally contain a much wider selection of glyphs than older Postscript T1 fonts based around the Latin-1 or MacRoman character sets. Unicode is relatively new, so not all software can use it. Definition? This web page is composed in Unicode, which allows it to include special characers like v (square root symbol), (Cyrillic letter de), ? (Arabic character sheen) or ? (Chinese word fang) – but you might not see them correctly if your web browser, font and operating system don’t all support Unicode. Each character in Unicode has a 32-bit number (cf Ascii, which allows 8 bits per character), so Unicode files are four times the size of HIV Essay Ascii files for the same text content. Definition? UTF-8 and Essay The Patriot, directed by Roland UTF-16 are special forms of Unicode that reduce the file sizes to something more manageable. UPC Universal Product Code.

Special barcode used on books for independance definition, the US mass market. Generally these books have a conventional ISBN/EAN barcode as well. UPCs on books have been deprecated since the Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay beginning of 2005 and have mostly disappeared – they’ll be phased out completely over definition, the next couple of theory years. Upper case Capital letters, so called because when type was cast blocks of definition metal, the capitals were kept in a wooden case on the top shelf, and lower case letters were kept in a case on the lower shelf. URL Uniform Resource Locator, the internet's equivalent of an address – what you type in the location field in a web browser.

Typically starts http://… but other protocols can also be included in what is marxian theory, URLs ( eg ftp://…). UTF-8, UTF-16 Practical encodings of the Unicode character set. Independance? A rich text file could be saved in UTF-8 and be understandable on any machine that can deal with UTF-8. More useful than ascii because of the inclusion of accented characters and proper punctuation marks, yet UTF-8 files are roughly the HIV Essay same size as ascii files. UTF-16 is more practical for definition, CJK and other Asian text: it’s rarely used for English text because the files are unnecessarily large (twice the to china by size of the UTF-8 equivalent). UV varnish / UV coating Often just ‘UV’ or ‘spot UV’. Varnish coating used to add shiny finish and definition make colours richer on farm symbol, covers and jackets. It’s dried using ultraviolet light. Spot UV is independance definition applied only to parts of the cover, to highlight part of an image or some text.

See also matt laminate. VAT Value Added Tax: the standard rate is currently 17.5% in the UK. Books are zero-rated, whereas e-books, audiobooks and other products such as CD-Roms carry standard rate VAT. Thomas Hobbe? Tax on packs containing a mixture of zero-rated and standard-rated items ( eg a book-tape pack) are part-vattable: the proportion of the independance price that is vattable should generally be worked out from the relative production costs of the items. The exception to this is where one of the items can be considered a ‘free gift’ promotional item ( eg includes free CD), or is thomas hobbe of no value whatsoever without the accompanying zero-rated product ( eg an audio CD intended for read-along use with a children’s book). Vanity publisher Publisher who charges (rather than pays) the author to definition, publish the author’s book; (US: subsidy press). Variance Difference between budgetted amount and actual amount. Negative if sales didn’t meet budget or if costs were greater than expected. Vector Computer image data consisting of was spread by lines and shapes, such as (typically) maps, diagrams, logos. Definition? Generally quite small files, often stored as an buddhism to china EPS file. Definition? cf raster. Vignette 1) illustration in which the background fades gradually away; 2) gradual change of colour, also called graduated fill, graduated tint or blend; (US: fountain fill).

VIP Visually Impaired Person. What Is Marxian? Blind, low-vision and partially-sighted people. See accessible editions. Note that VIPs hold a legal exception to copyright – they can make copies, scans or other electronic version of books for their own use. Vista 1) Sales order processing system used to independance, control stock levels and generate invoices; 2) Software company responsible for this sales order processing system and for Production Manager, and Essay about The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich original developer of independance definition PubEasy. Volume rights Loose term indicating the main rights to publish a book in hardback and paperback acquired in at the County Jail, a contract. cf subrights. Voucher copy Free copy of a book given to a contributor, editor or agent. Voucher proof Single proof sent by or to the printer, for confirmation purposes rather than for correction. cf proof. VPN Virtual Private Network.

A way of securely connecting your computer to HarperCollins’ internal network, via the internet, so that while physically you can be at home, or in a hotel or some other company’s office, your computer acts just as if it were connected to the network in Hammersmith or Glasgow. Independance Definition? Through the VPN, you have access to thomas hobbe, the intranet or the independance main servers ( eg Pickup), which are not normally accessible from ‘outside’. Problems At The Essay? Has generally replaced RAS and increasingly is replacing Nfuse as a method for definition, accessing the internal company network remotely. Warning level Stock level set within a stock control application such as BIDS, which triggers an alert and ensures a decision can be made to reprint in a timely fashion, ensuring new deliveries ( ie a new impression) can be delivered to farm symbol, the warehouse before going out-of-stock. Warranty A guarantee given in a contract, usually that an item or service is as stated in the contract. For example, an author usually warranties that they are the original author, that they have the legal power to license or assign the independance copyright to the publisher, and that they agree to indemnify the publisher against this not being the case. WAV Wave file, a common type of Emmerich uncompressed audio file. Like AIFF and unlike mp3 and AAC, it retains the full quality of the definition audio.

Web 1) Very long roll of paper used on a printing press where the paper is drawn through the press continuously, and only cut into sheets after printing. The web of paper is the same width as each printing plate. cf sheet; 2) The ‘world wide web’ – one of the main uses of the Internet. Web-fed press Printing press which uses a continuous roll (web) of paper rather than individual pre-cut sheets. Generally print much faster than sheet-fed presses. Weight A single member of a typeface family. Times Roman and Times Bold are two weights within the Case Times family. Wet proof Proof printed on independance, a printing press, often a specialised proofing press rather than a litho press, and The Patriot, by Roland Emmerich generally on the stock to be used in the final product. cf Cromalin, Iris. As wet proofing requires making plates, it’s more expensive than Cromalin or digital proofs. Whitaker Formerly independent bibliographic data aggregator, now merged with Nielsen Bookdata.

As well as supplying bibliographic data to (among others) WH Smith, Whitaker ran BookScan, was publisher of The Bookseller magazine, and operator of TeleOrdering. Whitaker’s online bibliographic information service, LibWeb, can be checked via the intranet – both for our titles and those of other publishers. Whitaker was purchased by independance definition, VNU in 2002, and in early 2003 combined with its former competitor BookData to form Nielsen Bookdata, under the ownership of thomas hobbe Nielsen Entertainment. Wholesaler Intermediary between publisher (or primary distributor) and smaller bookshops, whose orders are generally too small for the primary distributor to deal with efficiently. Wibalin Brand name for the clothlike material used to cover the boards of independance definition a hardback book.

Widow The short last line of a paragraph at the top of a page or column of type. Sometimes used more generally, any very short last line of a paragraph (esp. a single word). To be avoided in Essay directed by Roland, high-quality typesetting. See also Orphan. Windows Microsoft Windows is the main system software (or ‘operating system’) used by independance, most PCs (but not by Macs). Windows comes in different flavours, including 95, 98, NT (all obsolete), 2000, ME, 2003 and Vista, and provides the framework within which applications such as Word and Excel work. Windows-1252 Character set used by default in is marxian, most Windows software, similar to Latin-1.

Wire stitched Simple binding method where folded sheets are stapled together where they fold. Wiro Type of spiral wire binding. Useful for manuals/atlases as it allows a book to open flat. Without prejudice Legal term used during negotiations between parties. Statements made ‘without prejudice’ cannot generally be held against definition, the party making them – for thomas hobbe, example, offering to make a payment to settle a claim without prejudice cannot be used as an indication that the claim is independance definition valid. WOB White out of black. Problems At The County Jail Essay? White text on independance definition, black background.

See also reverse out. Wood-free Type of paper made from chemical pulp only. Word Microsoft Word, the County Jail Essay de facto standard software application for word processing. There are versions for both Mac and Windows PCs. Work The single element of intellectual property from which several products (or manifestations in intellectual property terms) may be derived; roughly synonymous with ‘title’. For example, hardback, paperback and e-book manifestations all represent the same work. While ISBNs identify manifestations (at least loosely), there is no equivalent, standardised, global identification scheme for works yet, though see also title ISBN which gets close, and independance definition ISTC, which is intended to be such a global work identifier. Work and turn Imposition method. Involves passing paper through a (non-perfecting) press twice, but using the same plate each time, to Problems Washtenaw County Jail, print two complete signatures on each sheet. The sheets are split before being folding into sections.

Wove Type of paper with a smooth finish ( cf laid). The process that produces the smooth finish is calendaring. X-height In typography, the definition height of the lower case letters in a font, measured from the baseline to the top of the x character. cf Cap height. Xerography Printing technique using toner rather than ink, such as in a laser printer or photocopier, or in a ‘digital press’ such as a Xerox Docutech or IBM InfoPrint – presses which are used in POD applications. XHTML A more developed type of HTML used to mark up modern web pages on the internet, but redefined slightly in a more rigorous XML form. A simple example of the difference is that the br tag in HTML becomes br / in XHTML. XML eXtensible Markup Language. Modern technical standard for mark-up, allows highly structured, granular documents, and makes data easily reusable.

Often used to Study: HIV Essay, communicate data between databases. Originally conceived as a simplified and more usable subset of SGML. See also DTD and XSL. XSL eXtensible Stylesheet Language. Stylesheets ( ie specifications for definition, the appearance – fonts, sizes, colours and so on – of the buddhism to china data) used to typeset XML-structured data. XSLT XSL Transformation – method for processing XML documents, for example translating from one DTD to another or into an XHTML format for output on the internet. Yapp binding Soft cover that extends a few mm beyond the edge of the page (like hardback boards do), often used for bibles, vinyl-cover dictionaries. Can also be fitted with a zip, to independance definition, keep the Washtenaw County Jail Essay book closed. Your HC 1) Umbrella term for definition, HarperCollins’ corporate communication and cultural change project; 2) more specifically, the Your HC intranet news magazine and portal site, gateway to all that is HarperCollins. Your Product Intranet-based business information system and at the Washtenaw replacement for BIDS, now more usually known as BIDS II. Your Product shows product and sales information, and independance allows direct linking into thomas hobbe, Cognos for more detailed analytic work.

Zero-rated Books do carry VAT, but are zero-rated – the rate of tax is 0%. This is different from being VAT-exempt. Independance? Audiobooks and e-books are not zero-rated, and is marxian carry standard rate (17.5%) VAT. Zip 1) In computing, type of removable storage disc a bit like a thick floppy disc. It holds 100MB or (in more recent versions) 250MB of data. Independance Definition? Not ultra reliable, but a reasonable way of transferring large files between systems; 2) Type of compressed file, generally created with the PKZIP or WinZip applications. Usually only suitable only for Windows files, not Mac files, but Mac OS X can use a special form of buddhism to china Mac-compatible Zip file. cf SIT files. 2-colour 1) Printing in black plus a spot colour; 2) In graphics, see duotone.

2-up, 4-up 1) Printing two or four copies of independance something ( eg a cover) at once. This halves the effective print run, but can make more efficient use of thomas hobbe larger presses; 2) More generally, printing two or more items at once ( eg two different covers). 2-for-10, 3-for-2 Common retail promotions, two mass market paperbacks for independance definition, ?10 or three books for the price of two. 4-sheet Common advertising poster size. It’s 1524mm high and what theory 1016 mm wide, pasted together from four sheets 762 ? 508mm. Independance Definition? Why such a seemingly odd size? The individual sheets are 30 inches by 20 inches. 48-sheet Billboard-sized advertising poster, also the largest sized poster used on the London Underground, pasted together from to china by 48 762 ? 508mm sheets. In total, it’s 3048mm high and 6096mm wide. 48-sheets is also the most common large outdoor billboard size, but 96-sheets also exist.

5-colour, 5th colour, 5th black 1) In co-editions, see text black; 2) More loosely, printing in CMYK plus a spot colour. approx 700 entries. Last updated 18/6/2007. Independance? Please report embarassing errors and suggestions for useful words and definitions to include to Problems at the Jail Essay, publishing.systems@harpercollins.co.uk. Desperately seeking definitions – (none at present)

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George Herbert Mead and Talcott Parsons. George Herbert Mead and Talcott Parsons. Need essay sample on definition George Herbert Mead and Talcott Parsons ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. George Herbert Mead was a famous American philosopher, born in 1863. He contributed significantly to the field of social sociology and philosophy and is considered one of the founders of social psychology. His ideas about the mind and was spread to china self led to the creation of the symbolic interactionist school of sociology (Desilva, 2006). Talcott Edgar Frederick Parsons, born in 1902, was a renowned American sociologist and his work in the 1950s and 60s had significant influence in the country. His work “Structure of independance Social Action” provided an farm symbol overview of the great sociologists and philosophers of times before him, such as Max Weber, Vilfredo Pareto and Emile Durkheim and was an effort to unite their theories into a single “action theory.” Later in his life, he became involved in independance a vast variety of fields ranging from anthropology to medical sociology, to race relations and eventually economics and education (McKinney, 1954). Theories of what Mead and definition Parsons:

The central theme in Mead’s social philosophy is that of amelioration through understanding. There are various examples of people who are earnest about the intellectual enterprise and there is no dearth of people who wish for a better world than now is and who are willing to work for it. But what sets George Herbert Mead apart from these people is that he believed in both these, believed in one because of the other, and in the other through the one. The ameliorative motif is what is most characteristic of his profound pragmatic bias. From Mead’s perspective, the occurrence and buddhism was spread to china sequence of overt social behaviors can only independance be explained if their histories are traced back to the hidden behaviors of the organisms.

Mead believed that these covert physiological processes have such powerful implications for the social act and hence, social psychology and farm symbol physiological psychology can not be separated from independance definition, each other, and are in fact complements of each other. A number of researchers have investigated the Meadian technique of taking the Problems County physiological attitude of the other while engaging in independance different mental activities in different settings. Many experiments have proved Mead’s claim that linguistic activities engage covert oral responses. Theory! As a result, researchers have shown that the covert behaviors Mead postulated do, in fact, occur, but they have not fully grasped their importance in the field of sociology (Troyer, 1946). Mead was actually an early pioneer in this field because he introduced and laid down its basic theoretical and philosophical values but did not possess the sophisticated instrumentation needed to pursue it in depth as a scientific research program. Even so, his social behaviorism provides the core theoretical linkages between physiological psychology and social psychology necessary to independance get such a research program started. Mead was very sure that nature – or the buddhism extra-human world – is objectively there regardless of our experience of it. He was not an idealist, rather was a pragmatist in definition philosophy. However, he did believed that all objects are defined as such in and through human experience.

Objective nature therefore comes to own certain qualities because of its relationship to human experiencing or mind which it would not have otherwise, if this relationship did not exist. He postulated that these characteristics determine what these objects mean to us, and to directed all intents and purposes, give definition and functional meaning to the objects themselves. Independance! An object is farm symbol, always in this sense a “construct,” a consequence, the kind of response which will follow after a certain type of activity. “A blackboard, for example, is what it is for us, has certain properties associated with writing in black and white, because that is the way it responds to our activity. As a symbol, an object, it stands for independance, certain consequences in activity. Nursing Case Study: HIV Essay! Certain qualities are there, but as parts of an act, and not of some independently existing essence or extension.

From this standpoint, an object may be defined as a “collapsed act”; the independance definition sign of what would happen if the act were carried to completion” (Troyer, 1946). Mead declared: “…The earliest objects are social objects, and farm symbol all objects are social objects. Later experience differentiates the social from the physical objects, but the mechanism of the experience of things over against self as an independance definition object is the social mechanism. The identification of the individual with physical objects which appear in what the effective occupation of space is a derivative of this” (Troyer, 1946). Hence, Mead’s theories such as Mead writes in Mind, Self and independance definition Society and his contrast between the “I” and the “me” all reflected how he saw the is marxian theory human mind: as something that can arise solely through social experience.

An object attained a meaningful reality to a human being simply by virtue of his ability to independance make indications, either imaginatively to himself, or directly to others. All objects, all symbols with semantic reference stand for telescoped acts. “By means of the conversation of attitudes and the use of significant symbols – essentially a social process – the world (both social and physical) of each individual comes into is marxian being. Viewed, indeed, as consisting of objects and their relationships, the independance world is an out-and-out social world, as self and mind are also social, that is, emergent within the human social process of activity itself” (Troyer, 1946). Parson’s contributions to the discipline of sociology are significant. He is responsible for imparting to the sociological world unique interpretations of the society as he saw it; but, the most important and interesting contribution he made was his theory of the social system.

However, because his theories were many and voluminous, he is often critiqued as being verbose, making it difficult, at times, for the reader to understand his true meaning.. Parsons worked at a time when the concepts of systems theory and cybernetics were prime components of social and behavioral science. He used systems thinking and premised that the systems talked about in these sciences were “open”, which means that they existed in an environment which comprised of other systems as well. He postulated that the “action system” which consists of interlinked human behaviors, was the largest system in these fields and was contained in Washtenaw Essay a physical-organic environment (Blumer, 1975). He employed a certain sociological paradigm to analyze this system as well as the definition subsystems contained it, called the AGIL scheme. If a system is to acquire and maintain balance with respect to its external environment, it must to an extent Adapt to that environment, achieve its Goals, Integrate its constituent parts, and ensure that it maintains its Latency pattern, which is thomas hobbe, a cultural framework. These together comprise the independance system’s “functional imperatives.” Hence, when this AGIL Paradigm was employed to analyze the societal action system, it resulted in four subsystems, which were related to each other and influenced each other in Nursing Study: HIV Essay a multitude of ways. These were the behavioral systems of member parties, the personalities of these members, the independance definition society as a subsystem of social organization and the cultural structure of that society. Society can therefore be considered a complex system comprising of interlinked functional subsystems which are, the economy, the polity, the societal community and Nursing Study: the fiduciary system (Blumer, 1975).

Similarities between Mead and Parsons. Both men argue that an external world is independance definition, objectively “there,” independent of our experiencing of it. Mead assert that external objects are “there,” not dependent on the experiencing individual, and that leads to research being a process through which one discovers. Nevertheless, objects hold characteristics because of the experiencing of them that they otherwise would not possess: their “meanings.” The difference between physical objects and the experiencing of them originates from the fact that the latter comprises of and is related to meanings: only The Patriot, that which is experienced can have meaning. Mead believed that the independance definition physical object is an abstraction made from individuals’ social response to Essay about The Patriot, directed nature. “The physical object is one to which there is no social response to call out again the definition response of the experiencing individual.

As an object incapable of carrying on social interaction, it is physical despite its social derivation” (McKinney, 1954). When this view is Essay about The Patriot, directed Emmerich, considered, it establishes a dichotomy because of the differences drawn between objects. Hence, it can be said that there is definition, a distinction between a science of physical objects and a science of farm symbol socially responding objects. While Meads classified these into two categories, Parsons does the same into three categories. Parsons’ classification is: “social,” “physical,” and “cultural” objects. McKinney (1954) defines these as “a social object is an actor or a collectivity of actors who are capable of “responding to” or “interacting” with an actor treated as point of reference. Independance Definition! A physical object is an empirical entity that functions only as means or conditions for action, in that it cannot interact with the actor. Cultural objects are conceived of as such symbolic elements as ideas, beliefs, expressive symbols, and values”. Parsons has simply divided Mead’s “social” category into a further “abstraction”.

He has taken elements out of social action, categorizing them under “culture” instead. As is clear, elements like beliefs and symbols emanate from social behavior, and, as a result, they can only be inferred. Nursing Study:! When he treats them as objects of orientation, Parsons is “abstracting them out of social action, using a given actor as point of reference”. Mead did not treat elements differently whether they were objects of definition orientation or a component of the orientation itself. Parsons took the same elements and farm symbol simply, to make his system more convenient, classified them as “cultural” objects because of the role played in independance a given situation (Blumer, 1975). Differences between Mead and Parsons. There are ways in which Mead and farm symbol Parsons differ both in concept and methodology. Mead’s conception of motivation is different from independance, that of what Parsons. The difference is rooted in the possession of a self by the human being. Because the human being is able to see himself and address himself, he often has to interact with himself, consequently, he has to do both, handle both himself and what he indicates to himself.

Therefore, the nature of motivation changes from being a “mover of the processes of personality” into independance definition “something that is seen and that has to be handled—defined, curbed, sustained, abetted, abolished or transformed”. Instead of the former, motivation now is affected by the process of self-interaction and is determined by how it is Essay about The Patriot, directed by Roland, affected in that process of self-interaction. The act assumes more importance than the motive (Blumer, 1975). Mead also had a different belief about the human act than Parsons. It can not be denied that “both saw the act as arising from a state of disequilibrium and seeking to reestablish a state of equilibrium. But this is definition, only one aspect of buddhism was spread to china Mead’s scheme. Of far greater importance is that the human act is formed through self-interaction, in the course of which the actor may note and assess any feature of the act in process, or any feature of the independance definition situation, or any feature of his involvement in the act” (Blumer, 1975). Hence, Mead believed that the Case Study: act comes into being as a result of this process of self-interaction, regardless of whether the construction is done intelligently or negligently. Definition! Self-interaction enables the Nursing Case actor to handle what he sees and to handle himself with regard to what he sees.

Hence Mead’s contention that the human act is built though a process of self-interaction differs from independance, Parsons’ view of the The Patriot, Emmerich act. The two differ in their approach as well. Parsons’ followed a deductive approach which started with a codification of existing knowledge in an area and then on the basis of this knowledge, formulates a theoretical model which includes relation between variables. After constructing deductive hypotheses from the model, then these are applied to definition a relevant empirical area to give theoretical explanation to that area. Was Spread By! “Indeed, the basic idea that human society exists as a “system” is not a product of extensive inductive study of human group life but, instead, is a theoretical postulate which is to serve as a point of departure” (Blumer, 1975). The scientific approach of symbolic interactionism, Mead’s field in independance sociology, is quite different. The starting point is a problem or a question which has been raised with regard to the empirical world and then rigorous and flexible examination of that area is incurred so that in about directed Emmerich incremental improvements, this problem is clarified. Hence, relationships between variables, hypotheses, and consequently, theories are then derived from constant observation of that world and are not formed in independance an a priori fashion through deductive reasoning from a pre-ordained set of at the Washtenaw County Jail theoretical premises (Blumer, 1975). Blumer, H. (1975). Exchange on Turner, “Parsons as a Symbolic Interactionist.” Sociological Inquiry, 45(1), 59-68. Desilva, F. C. (2006). G. Definition! H. Case! Mead in the history of sociological ideas.

Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 42(1), 19–39. McKinney, J. (1954). Methodological Convergence of Mead, Lundberg, and Parsons. Definition! The American Journal of Sociology, 59(6), 565-574. Troyer, W. L. (1946). Mead’s Social and Functional Theory of Mind.

American Sociological Review, 11(2), 198-202.