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Peer Papers Login Essays and Research Papers. (LD-22) Assignment Breakdown: Feb. 14: Paper 1 DUE; MLA Citation Works Cited Activity; Assign Paper 2: Comparison . Contrast HW: Rd. SCW Ch. 15: Comparison Contrast and complete Ch. 15 Reading Quiz (Bb); Choose subjects for comparison/contrast paper Feb. 17: No ClassHoliday Feb.

19: Comparison/Contrast Review (PPT); Complete prewriting HW: Complete brainstorming sheet: choose a basis for comparison, pts. of comparison, and purpose of C C Paper ; Develop thesis statement (bring to next. Bibliography , Campus , Citation 519 Words | 3 Pages. Peer pressure is seem everywhere in Paper, our current society, it affects everybody from adolescents to adults. What Illistration! It has many variations and situations . Paper! where it is applied. In this paper I am going to take an overview of peer pressure and on A Journalist's its different aspects, who it affects, the ups and downs of it as well. Although peer pressure is easy to give into Paper, with good rewards at behavior theory, the time being, it often leads to failure and unhappiness. How much does it cost Tonights evening news carries a story about eight. Adolescence , Atmospheric pressure , Peer group 1239 Words | 3 Pages. English Paper Peer Review Examples. Cameron Behning Ms. Burstrem ENGL 109H The Review by Epistemology a Public Peer of the is an illistration essay Essay that is the 3rd Written During the Spring 2013 Semester of a . Mr.

William Zandler ! This is a very well written essay so far. Paper! You seem to have a very good understanding of the prompt as well as a unique topic. You have done a smart job at splitting up the answers into three major categories and then elaborating on each of sartre them. Cleaver title. I knew what your essay was a bout immediately, but not because your title was. Argument , Climate , Climate change 1079 Words | 3 Pages.

come to Epistemology, these conferences are from the SAM program. They take what they have learned from the skinner meetings and go back to their universities with new insight . (Tricker, 2009). Epistemology Paper! In this program, student athletes are held responsible for taking on the role of are cognitive peer mentoring fellow students. Epistemology! The Act program (Athletes Coaching Teens for choke coil substance abuse) is another program which student athletes are showing responsibility by Epistemology Paper being positive role models. In the program student-athletes go to interaction, neighboring high school.

Addiction , Drug abuse , Drug addiction 2411 Words | 7 Pages. ?The introduction used by the authors, including the quote by Charles Goodhart and Mervyn King, sets a good tone for Epistemology Paper the rest of the paper and existence sartre . the issue it is Epistemology trying to highlight. The authors tackle an symbolic interaction definition issue that has been the topic of Epistemology many a paper following the global financial crisis, as how best to regulate banks which are no longer restricted by skinner behavior theory geographic boundaries. This problem is of even greater significance to the European Union (EU) as a regional economy that promotes free movement of capital. Bank , Bank run , Financial crisis of 20072010 1641 Words | 4 Pages. Bottom of Form Persuasive Essay: Peer Review Worksheet Part of your responsibility as a student in this course is to Epistemology Paper, provide quality . feedback to your peers that will help them to improve their writing skills. This worksheet will assist you in providing that feedback. Copy and paste the completed review into your reply to the post containing the assigned draft. Audience! Do not post your review as an Epistemology Paper attachment.

Name of the Drafts Author: Kelsey Johnson Name of the Peer Reviewer: Michael Julian Summary . Essay , Fallacy , Law 664 Words | 4 Pages. ? PEER COUNSELING Peer counselling is the process by what illistration which a trained person provides counselling, support and information to one . of their peers (in this case adolescent). Peer counselling can also be said to be a process of sharing, that enables two people, the counsellor and Epistemology the counselee to enter into a relationship that makes possible the clarification of a problem, an issue or a situation at hand through good listening. What Is An! IMPORTANCE OF PEER COUNSELING The aim of the Epistemology peer counselling project. College , Education , High school 1383 Words | 5 Pages. Term Papers ? Raechelle Mascarenhas and Jan Crouter Department of choke coil Economics Whitman College August 2008 This guide is aimed at helping you . write an effective undergraduate economics term paper . The guide offers advice on Epistemology, selecting a paper topic, describes the structure of a typical economics term paper and provides some miscellaneous helpful hints.

Following these suggestions will ensure that you write a coherent and well-structured paper . Choosing a Topic for Your Instructors Paper Assignment . Citation , Economics , Empirical 1889 Words | 7 Pages. File Sharing and Peer-to-Peer Networking. works and skinner the legality behind the controversy, intrigues many people who use file sharing. Paper! The background of the software and programming that is involved . in file sharing is something that really caught my attention and what factors motivated me to write this paper . File sharing has also had a strong impact on the economy within the past few years. It has been the basis of many legal controversies involving copyright infringement. Epistemology! Sharing files cannot only get you into trouble legally, but it can also have. BitTorrent , EDonkey network , FastTrack 2852 Words | 7 Pages. Adolescence and existence precedes sartre Entertainment Peer Pressure. Peer Pressure - College Essay - StudyMode.com www.studymode.com Home Entertainment? Peer Pressure.

We . have all at Epistemology, one stage in our lives, experienced it. We all know what it feels like to be pressured by a peer . Peer pressure today impacts on precedes essence, . Peer Pressure - Research Paper - Seasonstar - StudyMode.com www.studymode.com Home Culture Society Culture? However, people usually relate better to peers of their own age group. In this essay, we are. Adolescence , Essay , Essays 439 Words | 3 Pages. The Need for Peer Pressure Aaron C. Epistemology Paper! Ainsworth Post University Abstract Everyone is choke coil continuously exposed to peer pressure. . Peers can influence everything from what an individual chooses to wear to Epistemology, whether or not they engage in drug related or other delinquent behavior. Many individuals are taught the negative effects associated with peer pressure but few are shown the importance and necessity for peer pressure. This paper addresses the necessity and essay need for positive peer influence in Paper, relation.

Behavior , Motivation , Peer group 1210 Words | 4 Pages. Peer Evaluation Procedure You are responsible for evaluating each member (other than yourself) of sartre your work group. Please do what the Epistemology Paper . instructions request. This evaluation is very important because the dollar outcomes, when evaluated for consensus, will generate a multiplier or factor that will determine your project grade relative to symbolic sociology, your team members. Instructions: Evaluate members of Epistemology your group (but NOT YOURSELF). There may or may not be the right number of existence precedes sartre spaces.

Use just the. Division , Evaluation , Factorization 462 Words | 3 Pages. Peer Gynt Response Paper The story of Peer Gynt helps explore the state of Epistemology Paper mind of the self throughout the symbolic sociology . adventures of Peer Gynt, it also projects the human soul beyond the limits of time. Paper! In Peer's words I don't know what I'm looking for (Ibsen ) show that he is a young man experimenting with life by taking on various roles and disguises. In this respect, the story of Peer Gynt can be read as a psychological drama. However, the presence of figures such as the trolls, the Boyg and sphinx. Boyg , Edvard Grieg , Henrik Ibsen 1062 Words | 3 Pages. ENGL 111 English Composition Statewide Online Course Principles of Peer Review Concerns about Peer Review and How to . Handle Them In this class, you will be asked to review one another's writing as a regular, graded assignment. Symbolic Interaction Definition Sociology! You will be provided with a series of Epistemology questions to guide you as you read and respond to one another's drafts.

In this handout, we address some general concerns many students have about Essay on A Audience reviewing classmates work. If you have these concerns, you are not alone. The. Book review , Classmates.com , Conscription in Epistemology, the United States 2050 Words | 6 Pages. ? IT DECISIONS: PEER TO PEER VS SERVER Business Controls Scalability Information technology and . resources are the primary responsibility of IT Managers who are also charged with protecting and securing these assets from theft, damage, infiltration and misuse. What Are Cognitive Factors! Critical decisions need to be made regarding how businesses evolve into the rapidly changing technological advances with regard to these issues. Managers are faced with two information systems issues: systems reliability. Client-server , Computer network , Microsoft Windows 2074 Words | 7 Pages. Systems Analysis Page 1 of Paper 4 SA Semester 2 Examination 2013/2014 Sample Paper 1 : Object Oriented Analysis and Design Appendix B . What Factors! Matriculation Number : (fill in your matriculation number here) SA Semester 2 Examination 2013/2014 (Sample Paper 1 Appendix B) Graduate Diploma in Systems Analysis Page 2 of 4 This page is intentionally left blank.

SA Semester 2 Examination 2013/2014 (Sample Paper 1 Appendix B) Graduate Diploma in Paper, Systems Analysis Page 3 of 4 Use. Alert dialog box , Display device , Graphical user interface 446 Words | 3 Pages. Axia College Material Appendix G Peer Review Checklist* |What is the main point of this paper ? | . | | | | | |The main point of this paper is to inform the audience about gun control. | | . Cannon , Firearm , Gun 503 Words | 3 Pages. ? Effective Communication Paper Process of verbal/nonverbal communication and choke coil associated components When referencing the word . communication there are elements and components that define this process we know as communication. With verbal communication it is understood that communication is a process, not an event. Epistemology! It is also understood that this process involves two or more people in order to behavior, communicate.

Lastly, the primary purpose of communication is to exchange information. With these three. Communication , Message , Metacommunicative competence 1054 Words | 3 Pages. volunteers to Epistemology Paper, share their ideas. List their responses on chart paper next to existence sartre, map discuss each point and decide, as a group, if what is Epistemology Paper said . is true of all natural disasters. Use an exit ticket and ask students to list their important learning from today and what illistration essay a question about natural disasters or the concept map process. Learning Target: Determine class definition of natural disasters Learning Task: Using chart paper or a power point share the data from the exit survey with the class. Assessment , Definitionism , Education 959 Words | 6 Pages. Peer Review Michael J DeVry University Considering the Epistemology Paper most integral part of ones paper , the data and information provided . has to be well founded. Illistration! That is why the research portion is the Paper most important part.

Anyone, can form an opinion, in which in the individuals point of view might drown out the factual evidence. Secondly, what good is what are cognitive legitimate factual information, if it is interpreted badly. Therefore, one must have an open mind, and Epistemology Paper see all sides of the topic before making irrational. Peer review , Review 772 Words | 3 Pages. ?Top of Form Login Sign up Bottom of choke coil Form Top of Epistemology Paper Form Search Patents/Apps Non-Patent Literature Blogs/Groups MPEP Case Law Bottom of choke coil . Form SEARCH BLOGS MPEP 2.0 TOOLS RESOURCES PRODUCT SERVICES HELP Global brands vs. local brands in Chinese consumer mind.

Abstract: This phenomenological qualitative study explored Chinese consumer consumption values on global brand fashion luxuries from Epistemology 61 respondents who lived in Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin. Semi-structured consumption behavior. Advertising , Brand , Brand management 5656 Words | 16 Pages. Introduction This paper discusses the definition implementation of peer assessment strategy that I carried out in a primary school in Dar . es Salaam during my practicum. It consists of a background, rationale, the implementation process and conclusion. The challenges encountered and Paper their possible solutions on how to definition sociology, overcome them.. Background Black and William (1998) define assessment as all those activities undertaken by teachers, and students in assessing themselves, which provide information to Epistemology Paper, be. Assessment , Dar es Salaam , Education 1785 Words | 6 Pages. Peer Review paper First Draft final.

? Student A HEALTH CARE PROVIDER AND FAITH DIVERSITY PAPER Dr. Fowler As we in become more evolved as a nation one . of the problem that needs to be address is how to response to on A, diverse faith within our healthcare practices. Epistemology Paper! This essay serves to compare these three different religious philosophies: Yoruba, Hinduism (karma) and Buddhism, to what are cognitive factors, a Christians perspective. These religions have wide perspectives but one will key in on Epistemology Paper, health management and sociology what to expect from. Buddhism , Health care , Health care provider 1880 Words | 5 Pages. Importance of Epistemology Peer Review Melanie Cleek Walden University NURS 6000, Week 2, Strategies for Online Success May 12, 2011 . The Importance of choke coil Peer Review Peer review is the process that scholarly journals use to check articles for accuracy.

The article is submitted to a group of experts to make sure the article is factual, not plagiarized, has the most current data, and Epistemology so forth. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of peer review and choke coil how. Academic conference , Academic journal , Academic publishing 578 Words | 3 Pages. beforehand ensures greater participation during class discussions and allows the class to penetrate more deeply into topics of the week. Of course, this also . improves overall performance in the course. Epistemology Paper! Too, students are strongly encouraged to network with peers outside of the classroom in order to interaction, gain better apprehension of the Epistemology subject matter. To this end, participation in the discussion group via Blackboard is highly recommended. All written assignments must be typed, stapled, include student name, class. 1979 , 1981 , 1983 1489 Words | 6 Pages.

Do Peers Affect Student Achievement? by Eric A. Hanushek, John F. Is An! Kain, Jacob M. Epistemology Paper! Markman, and choke coil Steven G. Rivkin * December 1999 Abstract . Empirical analysis of peer effects on student achievement has been limited, and what exists has been open to question because of the difficulties of identifying peer effects per se. Our strategy to identify peer group effects involves the elimination of problems introduced by unmeasured or mismeasured influences on achievement through the estimation of Epistemology achievement. Adolescence , Grade , Gymnasium 8854 Words | 28 Pages. time you reach for your phone to reply to a text message or check sports scores. Just having that phone nearby is bad enough. Are you a scientist who . specializes in Essay on A Journalist's Audience, neuroscience, cognitive science, or psychology?

And have you read a recent peer -reviewed paper that you would like to write about? Please send suggestions to Mind Matters editor Gareth Cook, a Pulitzer prize-winning journalist at the Boston Globe. He can be reached at garethideas AT gmail.com or Twitter @garethideas. Epistemology Paper! ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S) . Cellular network , Interpersonal relationship , Mobile phone 870 Words | 3 Pages. - CONCEPT PAPER GUIDELINES I. TITLE Positive effect of existence precedes essence . peer pressure to Paper, teens II. Symbolic Definition! INTRODUCTION A. Background of the study As children grow into preteens and then into teenagers, they often become less dependent on the family and Epistemology more dependent on their peers when it comes to behavior, making choices and developing morals and Epistemology Paper values. Peer pressure can have a positive effect when it encourages teens to sartre, develop social skills. Adolescence , Peer group , Peer pressure 954 Words | 3 Pages.

Advantages of Peer Comment in Paper, Facebook. Benefits of peer support Peer support refers to what is an illistration essay, some form of help given out by friends, colleagues, or family members when a . person is doing something or is in need of something. It may be a need to Epistemology, learn a difficult subject in on A Journalist's, school, a need to be heard with personal problems, a need to learn a new task, or a need to be assisted in different things. Peer support could be in Epistemology, the form of teaching, assisting, counseling, or simply listening and either way it can provide these benefits: * When people. Better , Editing , Education 1583 Words | 6 Pages. Adlerian Analysis and Framework This paper will explore, in detail, the Adlerian school of thought on therapy. Alfred Adler, who developed . this theory, had very specific ideas dealing with philosophy, human nature, theory of are cognitive factors change, and the role counselors should play in the therapeutic process.

These things will be discussed in further detail in this paper as well as intervention strategies and legal and ethical implications of Epistemology using these methods of counseling. How this theory aligns with this. Adlerian , Albert Ellis , Alfred Adler 1254 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Paper Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibers, . typically cellulose pulp derived from precedes essence wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the Paper most common is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and even as a food ingredient particularly in Asian cultures. Paper , and is an the. Bleaching of wood pulp , Cellulose , Chemical processes 571 Words | 3 Pages. History Main article: History of paper Hemp wrapping paper , China, circa 100 BCE. The oldest known archaeological fragments . Paper! of the are cognitive factors immediate precursor to modern paper date to Paper, 2nd century BC in China.

The pulp papermaking process is choke coil ascribed to Paper, Cai Lun, a 2nd century AD Han court eunuch.[1] With paper an effective substitute for silk in many applications, China could export silk in greater quantity, contributing to a Golden Age. Paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe. Bleaching of wood pulp , Kraft process , Paper 1012 Words | 4 Pages. our cultures, at school, etc., but my main focus in this research paper is sexism among Arab Americans. Being an Arab American myself, I have . dealt with this brutal issue all my life. Definition Sociology! Not being able to go to Epistemology, prom, to the movies on interaction sociology, a Friday night with my friends, to hang out in gender-mixed functions all due to the simple fact that I am a girl has caused internal conflicts leading to feelings of distress, shame, and sadness. This paper will introduce the Paper reader to the depth of is an sexism among Arab Americans. Arab , Islam , Israel 1652 Words | 5 Pages. Problem at Epistemology Paper, Work BUSU 620 Due: Week 2 Individual Assignment. You are to write a three to theory, five page paper analyzing a current problem at Paper, work . that can be used in the final paper for this class.

The purpose of this paper is for you to utilize Step One of the SIX STEP DECISION MAKING MODEL and identify a problem for which you can use the material of behavior this class to propose a solution for the FINAL PAPER using the rest of the Epistemology steps of the Six Step Decision Making Model. This First Assignment is just. Citation , Cognition , Communication 926 Words | 4 Pages. Yet, the main focus falls upon something extremely important. Continuously, we over look the fact that Advertisements are becoming a contributing factor to . the obesity rate in America. What Illistration Essay! Overall, this website is an excellent source for Epistemology my research paper . It highlights aspects of the obese epidemic and the correlation between advertisements towards children relating to are cognitive, food.

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Mergers and acquisitions 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Peer Pressure What is peer pressure? Adolescents often times deal with pressures from homework, love, money, parents and choke coil . teachers. However, one of the things that pressures us the most is how to fit in with our peers . Epistemology Paper! We call it peer pressure. Precedes Essence! Simple enough, it is exactly what it says ? pressures from your peers . Peer pressure is Paper when you do something either because they have persuaded you or because all your peers are doing it. Do you remember the last time your parents declined your. Adolescence , Friendship , Peer group 1328 Words | 4 Pages.

To see a filled paper bag in your dream denotes something that may appear ordinary on the outside, but can be extraordinary inside. In other . Precedes Essence Sartre! words, do not judge something or someone by outside appearances. Consider what is inside the bag for additional significance.Paper Bag To see an empty or folded paper bag in your dream represents the womb, secrets and the feminine. Gift Wrap To see gift wrap in your dream suggests that there is something that you are trying to cover up or hide. Paper! You. Gift , Gift wrapping , Newspaper 1041 Words | 4 Pages. significant academic challenges, most are students who have not succeeded in school. Students who drop out face a bleak future. Dropouts are more likely to . What Factors! be unemployed, live in Epistemology, poverty, receive public assistance and are unhealthy.

In the present paper , I will compare the issues of what school dropouts of the United States and Uganda, showing why students drop out of school. Epistemology! The research will include the choke coil lack of Paper connection to the school, a perception that school is boring and feeling unmotivated, and. College , Dropout , Education 2226 Words | 7 Pages. forces in our society teenage peer groups and choke coil pressure? Do you conjure up nightmare images of gangs, drugs, sex and alcohol? If so, you are . not alone. The public has a tendency to associate teen peer group influence as only negative. Epistemology Paper! Peer groups are not inherently positive or negative. They can be both good and bad. Teen friendships, group interactions and influences are a part of positive development. Choke Coil! Here are some ideas on peer group influence: Why are peer groups important?

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View Full Essay Join Now . Please login to view the full essay. Essay's Statistics Submitted by: glyza12 Date shared: 09/01/2012 12:31 AM Words: 1036 Pages: 5 Save Paper Report this Essay Similar Documents Broken Family Broken Families Broken Families Effects Of Broken Home Broken Familycollege Essay. Criminal justice , Encyclop?dia Britannica , Family 399 Words | 3 Pages. in analyzing and Epistemology Paper writing about choke coil works of Epistemology Paper art. Each formal analysis will follow the guidelines stated below. Papers must be typed or . word-processed in 12-point type and be double-spaced. Allow sufficient margins for comments, about one to one and a half inches on each side. The paper must include a Bibliography and Citations. What Is An Illistration! Keep in mind that a formal analysis is Paper not a research paper ; it is an exercise in what are cognitive, perception and articulation. A formal analysis requires you to Epistemology, be aware of what you are. An Oak Tree , Art , Art critic 1085 Words | 5 Pages.

Top of Form [pic] Bottom of Form Peer Review Worksheet Part of on A Audience your responsibility as a student in . this course is to provide quality feedback to your peers that will help them to improve their writing skills. This worksheet will assist you in providing that feedback. Please use it for each review that you perform throughout the course. Paper! Please copy and paste the completed Review into your reply to the post containing the assigned draft. Please do not post. Answer , Better , Essay 349 Words | 3 Pages. There are 2 types of peer pressure, negative and positive.

Negatives: when you do not like a particular idea or when you have no . inclination towards a particular field, it is obvious that you won't like to go by it. For sure, you won't like to go that way. But it is your peer group, which may compel you on doing something you hate. What Are Cognitive! In such cases, there are chances that you won't do well in those things. Things you do not enjoy doing cannot fetch you success. You cannot emerge successful in something.

2007 singles , Adolescence , Friendship 1562 Words | 5 Pages. Approach For FEC Decoding Based On The BP Algorithm in LTE And WiMax Systems Role : Team Leader Team Size : 4 . Description : Achievements: Presented a paper on Android at Vignan University, Vadlamudi. Presented a paper on Pattern Matching using Bio-Metric Techniques at NRI Institute of Technology, Guntur. Secured 5837 Rank in GATE 2013. Acted as President for COMITY 2012 at Gudlavalleru Engineering College,Gudlavalleru. . Guntur , Microsoft SQL Server , Mobile phone 290 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Peer pressure is a social influence exerted on an individual by others in Epistemology, order to get that person to what is an illistration essay, act or believe in a similar . Epistemology! way. It is used by a social group, often with the implication that everybody's doing it. This influence can be negative or positive, with a successful result being a change in a person's behavior. Nearly all children experience some form of peer pressure, whether at school, at interaction definition, church or at home among siblings. As a kind of social pressure, it dominates.

A Great Way to Care , Adolescence , Childhood 1468 Words | 4 Pages. feedbacks from Epistemology peers acting as agents could influence their co-workers performance and behavior theory behavior in an informally controlled management. Thus, . trying to understand the effectiveness of monitoring, work-unit performance and an individuals satisfaction in performing well for Epistemology Paper a reward system in an organization. Highlighting the two research question What is peer monitoring and Is peer monitoring associated with higher work-unit performance? The authors examined two types of peer monitoring direct. File sharing , Peer group , Peer-to-peer 1246 Words | 4 Pages. person is right now; it is because of their peers . People find comfort and affection when they are with their peers . Teenagers . find it easier for them to precedes, open up with their peers since they are most of the time the Epistemology companions of teenagers through everything. People are not aware that the person that they are right now are all because of their peers or friends. There may have a lot of existence essence sartre opinions and speculation about Epistemology Paper this stand but one thing is for sure, peers do really have contributions in behavior, the character. Adolescence , Educational psychology , Friendship 6839 Words | 18 Pages. Peer pressure doesnt influence purchase behavior, or does it?

In this essay, I will discuss the effects of peer pressure on . consumers purchase behavior. First of all we will look at the origins of peer pressure, the Paper different groups it can affect, we will then look at the negative aspects and precedes essence positive aspects of peer pressure, and Epistemology finally we will analyze the effects that this phenomenon has on consumers and how marketers can make this phenomenon useful to them. We can define peer pressure. Adolescence , Fashion , File sharing 1273 Words | 4 Pages. adolescents make regarding their motivation, engagement, and achievement in existence essence sartre, school (in life) and the satisfaction they obtain from their choices depend, in . part, on the context in which the make such choices. (Ryan, 2000) Teachers, parents, and peers all provide adolescents with suggestions and feedback about what they should think and how they should behave in Epistemology Paper, social situations. These models can be a source of motivation or lack thereof. Modeling refers to individual changes in cognition, behavior. Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Erik Erikson 1506 Words | 5 Pages.

? Peer pressure Have you ever been forced to do anything ? Have u ever felt that you are in a tight corner because . of someone's comment? we all could face situations like that; we all could have faced peer pressure. what is peer pressure? Peer pressure is when someone or a group of people influences or encourages others to do things they do not want to do or tries to essay, change peoples attitude, or behavior towards something. Adolescence , Emotion , Feeling 882 Words | 3 Pages. Martin Saa Ms. Taylor English II Pre-AP 4 29 October 2012 Peer -Pressure- Making the Epistemology Paper Right Choices Everyone talks about . it, but why exactly is interaction definition peer pressure as bad as everyone makes it seem? Peer pressure is a fancy word for the influence your peers exert on you, and Epistemology it is mostly associated with teens, as they are most susceptible to what, such influence. Of course it is impossible to avoid getting influenced by peers altogether, but what is Paper dangerous is that someone stops being independent. Adolescence , Human sexual behavior , Peer group 823 Words | 3 Pages. Peer Pressure, Cause and Effect Peer pressure has become a big issue in our modern world.

Many people experience it . every day and a lot of times it leads to existence, bad decision making. Peer pressure can affect you in the long run and knowing how to say no to Epistemology, certain things can sometimes save your life. Skinner! There are many causes to peer pressure but the more noticeable one would be just pure excitement. Say that your peers are jumping their bikes off ramps and Epistemology Paper they ask you to try. Essay! You. Adolescence , Alcoholic beverage , Atmospheric pressure 1092 Words | 3 Pages. PEER PRESSURE: The Gateway Crisis It is said that marijuana is the gateway drug because the fact of life is that . since life is in a permanent chronological order one thing always leads to another. This then, can also be said about peer pressure. Peer pressure may be referred to as the Epistemology Paper gateway crisis, amongst teenagers.

Theorists have proposed that adolescents who are independent from existence precedes essence their parents become dependent on Epistemology Paper, their peers and susceptible to peer pressure (Blos. Adolescence , Autonomy , Behavior 1828 Words | 6 Pages. Walking Away From Peer Pressure It is tough to be the precedes essence only one who says no to peer pressure, but you can do it. Paying . Epistemology! attention to your own feelings and beliefs about what is choke coil right and wrong can help you know the right thing to do. Inner strength and self-confidence can help you stand firm, walk away, and resist doing something when you know better. It can really help to have at least one other peer , or friend, who is willing to Paper, say no, too.

This takes a lot of the power out of peer pressure and. 2005 singles , 2007 singles , Adolescence 2413 Words | 6 Pages. ? Communication And Crisis Paper October 8, 2012 Henny Breen Communication And Crisis . Paper As the director contingency plans would be in place according to the emergency Management office. My job would be to make the decisions to Essay on A Journalist's Audience, make sure the right staff was on Epistemology Paper, hand. Once the staff is countable with the contingency plan as a director, we would start contacting local agencies such as, Law Enforcement and Public works to symbolic definition, establish how severe the contamination. Communication , Emergency evacuation , Health care 1437 Words | 4 Pages. Good peer pressure, on the other hand, is Paper being pushed into existence precedes sartre, something that you didn't have the courage to do or just didn't cross your mind to Paper, . do. Some people say that good peer pressure is when you get pushed into something that you didn't want to do and it turned out well. Definition Sociology! Well, this may be nice, but ask yourself this question: how do you know ahead of time whether what you are doing will turn out good or bad? Can you? Most people can't, but if you can, your problems may be solved!

Respected. Adolescence , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1589 Words | 5 Pages.

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15 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services. Paper! A company's business processes drive the integration of systems and people that participate in skinner behavior it. Paper! The business process and associated systems have a life cycle and certain behavior. The users who participate in the business process have roles and privileges to perform tasks in the business process. Using the workflow services of are cognitive factors, Oracle BPEL Process Manager, you can blend the integration of systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow, while providing visibility and enabling exception handling and optimization at various levels. This chapter contains the following topics: Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for the organizational hierarchy of the demonstration user community used in examples throughout this chapter. SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemxmllibworkflow for workflow service WSDL files. 15.1 Oracle BPEL Process Manager Workflow Services 10.1.2 and 10.1.3.1.0 Compatibility. Workflows that you designed in Epistemology Paper 10.1.2 with the workflow wizard can be deployed and run in 10.1.3.1.0. However, you must use the old worklist URL to access these tasks: For release 10.1.3.1.0, the workflow wizard has been replaced by a Human Task editor. This editor enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and symbolic interaction definition, escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. You cannot use the Human Task editor to edit 10.1.2-based workflows. To use any new 10.1.3.1.0 functionality, the Epistemology Paper, task scope of the workflow must be manually migrated to use the new workflow metadata. Note also that this is the last release in which you can deploy workflows designed with 10.1.2. 15.2 Overview of Workflow Services. Workflow services enable you to interleave human interactions with connectivity to systems and services within an symbolic, end-to-end process flow. As shown in Figure 15-1, workflow services are linked to Paper a BPEL process through a WSDL contract, like any other Web service. The process assigns a task to a user or role and waits for a response. The users act on the task using Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Figure 15-1 High-Level View of Workflow Services in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Terms used in workflow services include: Task#x2014;work that needs to be done by a user, role, or group. Notification#x2014;an e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) message that is sent when a user is assigned a task or informed that the status of the task has changed. Worklist#x2014;an enumeration of the tasks, or work items, assigned to what are cognitive factors or of interest to a user. Human Task editor#x2014;A tool that enables you to specify task settings such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. .task file #x2014;The metadata task configuration file that stores the Epistemology Paper, task settings specified with the Human Task editor. routing slip#x2014;Contains information about the flow pattern for the workflow, assignees, escalation policy, expiration duration, signature policy, sequence in which the participants interact in existence sartre the task, and so on. Features of workflow services include: Standard work queues #x2014; high priority tasks, tasks due soon, new tasks, and so on. Custom work queues #x2014; Users can define new work queues based on specific search criteria. Proxy work queues #x2014; can grant access to other users to selected work queues. Other users can act on your behalf on Paper, those tasks. User rules #x2014; can define custom delegation, auto-approval, or vacation rules. Group rules #x2014; can define auto-assignment rules for roles or groups; for existence essence sartre example, round-robin, least-busy, and so on. Task assignment and routing#x2014;includes creating tasks from the business process and assigning the Epistemology, tasks to users or roles. Other task assignment and routing features include: Support for task expiration and factors, automatic renewal. Support for task delegation, escalation, and reapproval. Storage of task history information for auditing, extending workflows to include other workflows, and the ability to archive and purge task details based on specified policies. Support for creating custom task escalation rule functions. Override and restrict default system actions. Specify callback classes on task status. JSP-based forms for viewing and updating task details. Dynamic assignment functions. Built-in reports #x2014; Priority reports, productivity reports, cycle time reports, and unattended tasks report. Participant types#x2014;consists of single approver, group vote, management chain, sequential list of approvers, FYI assignees, and external routing services. Identity service#x2014;interacts with back-end identity management systems to capture all user information from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) and Paper, LDAP. The identity service provides role-based access control; you can assign permissions to roles and link an organizational hierarchy to a role model for authorization. You can also do the what are cognitive factors, following: Assign worklist privileges to users, roles, or groups. Epistemology! Maintain user properties such as name, location, phone, fax, and e-mail. Capture organizational hierarchy (reporting structure) and symbolic definition, group information. Integrate with standard (for example, LDAP-based) directory services for user and role provisioning. Identity Service for identity service concepts. Epistemology! Send notifications to skinner theory specified users on specified task changes. Notifications through different delivery channels (e-mail, phone, fax, voice, and SMS) Ability to customize content of notifications for different types of tasks. Perform actions on tasks through e-mail. Notification Service for notification service concepts. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Out-of-the-box fully customizable worklist. Support for various user profiles #x2013; end user, supervisor, task owner, group owner, administrator. View tasks based on user or role ability to Epistemology perform authorized actions on tasks in the worklist. Ability to behavior filter tasks in worklist view based on various criteria. Epistemology! Ability to acquire and check out shared tasks. What Is An! Support for custom work queues. Define custom vacation rules and Epistemology, delegation rules. Provide access to selected worklist views to other users (proxy support) Complete workflow history and audit trail. Out-of-the-box productivity reports. Choke Coil! 15.2.1 Workflow Functionality: A Procurement Process Example. The functionality of workflow services can be illustrated using a simple order approval business process to approve or reject an order, as shown in Figure 15-2. Epistemology Paper! requested items. What Is An Illistration! Approval and rejection is a two-step process involving an initial approver and Epistemology Paper, the manager of the initial approver. The order is first assigned to Essay on A Journalist's Audience the Supervisor role. Once a user belonging to the Supervisor role approves the order, it is sent to this user's manager for final approval. Figure 15-2 BPEL Workflow. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Order Booking Tutorial for instructions on Paper, designing an Audience, order approval business process to approve or reject an order. 15.2.2 Workflow Services Components. Figure 15-3 shows the following workflow services components: The task service provides task state management and persistence of tasks. In addition to these services, the task service exposes operations to update a task, complete a task, escalate and reassign tasks, and so on. The task service is used by the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to retrieve tasks assigned to users. This service also determines if notifications are to be sent to users and groups when the state of the Paper, task changes. What Are Cognitive Factors! The task service consists of the following services. Task Routing Service. Epistemology Paper! The task routing service offers services to route, escalate, and reassign the task. The service makes these decisions by interpreting a declarative specification in the form of the routing slip. Task Query Service. The task query service queries tasks for a user based on a variety of search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of symbolic interaction, a task, and so on. Task Metadata Service. The task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to a task. The identity service is a thin Web service layer on top of the Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. The notification service delivers notifications with the specified content to the specified user to any of the following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, pager, fax, and SMS. Paper! See Notifications from Workflow Services for more information. User Metadata Service. The user metadata service manages metadata related to workflow users, such as user work queues, preferences, vacation, and delegation rules. Runtime config service. Symbolic Interaction! The runtime config service provides methods for managing metadata used in the task service run time environment. It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. Figure 15-3 Workflow Services Components. Figure 15-4 shows the interactions between the Epistemology, services and the business process. Figure 15-4 Workflow Services and Business Process Interactions. 15.3 Use Cases for Workflow Services. Using workflow services is demonstrated in the VacationRequest, AutoLoanDemo, ExpenseRequestApproval, LoanDemoPlus, DocumentReview, HelpDeskServiceRequest, and OrderApproval demos. The following sections describe multiple use cases for workflow services. 15.3.1 Assigning a Task to a User or Role. A vacation request process may start with getting the vacation details from a user and Audience, then routing the Epistemology Paper, request to choke coil their manager for approval. User details and Paper, the organizational hierarchy can be looked up from a user directory or store. This scenario, shown in Figure 15-5, is described in the OrderApproval sample. Figure 15-5 Assigning Tasks to what is an a User or Role from a Directory. 15.3.2 Using the Various Participant Types. A task can be routed through multiple users with a group vote, management chain, or sequential list of approvers participant type. For example, consider a loan request that is part of the loan approval flow. The loan request may first be assigned to Epistemology a loan agent role. After a specific loan agent acquires and accepts the loan, the loan may be routed further through multiple levels of definition sociology, management if the loan amount is greater that $100,000. This scenario, shown in Figure 15-6, is described in the LoanDemoPlus sample. Figure 15-6 Flow Patterns and Routing Policies. See Participant Types in Workflow Services for the various flow types supported by workflow services. You can use these types as building blocks to create complex workflows. 15.3.3 Escalation, Expiration, and Delegation. A high-priority task can be assigned to Epistemology a certain user or role based on the task type. However, if the user does not act on it in a certain time, the existence, task may expire and in turn be escalated to Paper the manager for further action. As part of the what are cognitive, escalation, you may also notify the Paper, users by e-mail, telephone voice message, SMS, pager, or fax. Similarly, a manager may delegate tasks from one reportee to another to balance the load between various task assignees. All tasks defined in BPEL have an associated expiration date. Additionally, you may specify escalation or renewal policies, as shown in Figure 15-7. For example, consider a support call, which is skinner theory part of the HelpDeskServiceRequest process. Epistemology! A high-priority task may be assigned to a certain user and if the user does not respond in two days, then the task is choke coil routed to the manager for further action. Figure 15-7 Escalation and Notification. 15.3.4 Automatic Assignment and Delegation. A user may decide to have another user perform tasks on their behalf. Tasks can be explicitly delegated from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application or can be automatically delegated. For example, a manager sets up a vacation rule saying that all their high priority tasks are automatically routed to one of their reports while the manager is on vacation. In some cases, tasks can be routed to different individuals based on the content of the Paper, task. Another example of automatic routing is to allocate tasks among multiple individuals belonging to a group. For example, a help desk supervisor decides to allocate all tasks for the western region based on a round robin basis or assign tasks to the individual with the lowest number of outstanding tasks (the least busy). 15.3.5 Work Queues and Proxy Support. Behavior! It is often required that one user be provided with access to part of another user's worklist. For example, an executive decides to provide access to expense approvals within a certain limit to their secretary. Work queues allow you to create a custom view to group a subset of tasks in Epistemology the worklist (say high priority tasks, tasks due in 24 hours, expense approval tasks, and so on). These work queues can then be granted to other users who can then act on the task owner's behalf. For example, in the scenario described above, the executive can create a delegated expense approvals work queue for expenses below $5000. 15.3.6 The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Users typically access tasks assigned to them by using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, as shown in Figure 15-8. A worklist consists of tasks assigned to choke coil the user as well as the groups to which they belong. A task may also include forms and attachments in addition to other task details such as history, comments, and approval sequence. The worklist may also be accessed from OracleAS Portal or other clients to act on tasks as well as get productivity reports. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application can be customized and extended based on the specific needs of an application. See Chapter 16, Worklist Application for details about worklist functionality and Epistemology, the sample Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Are Cognitive Factors! Figure 15-8 Oracle BPEL Worklist Application#x2014;Access Tasks, Forms, Attachments, and Reports. 15.4 Participant Types in Workflow Services. Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides a library of participant types (known in previous releases as workflow patterns). You can choose a participant type that meets your business requirement and model your workflow based on Paper, the participant type. Oracle BPEL Process Manager supports the behavior, following participant types: Single Approver #x2014; used for a single user to Epistemology Paper act on a task. If the task is assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the members must claim the task and act on it. Based on the user's action, you define what the business process does. Group Vote #x2014; used when multiple users, working in parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in a hiring situation when multiple users vote to hire or reject an applicant. You specify the voting percentage that is needed for the outcome to choke coil take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. Management Chain#x2014;used to route tasks for approval to multiple users in a management chain hierarchy. You specify the task participants as a management chain list or a list of users. Epistemology! Sequential list of choke coil, approvers (extension of a sequential workflow)#x2014;used to create a list of sequential participants for a workflow. This type is similar to the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an Epistemology Paper, organization hierarchy. For the sequential list of essay, approvers participant type, they can be any list of users or groups. Epistemology! FYI assignee #x2014; used when a task is sent to a user, but the business process does not wait for a user response; it just continues. FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. External Routing Service #x2014;used to configure an external routing service that dynamically determines the participants in the workflow. If this participant type is specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is assumed that the external routing service provides a list of interaction definition sociology, participant types (single approver, list of approvers, group vote, and so on) at run time to determine the routing of the task. 15.4.1 Continuing Workflows from Other Workflows. Epistemology! You can have situations where you need to continue a previous workflow task in the current workflow task. Oracle BPEL Process Manager enables you to include the symbolic definition, task history, comments, and attachments from the previous task. This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. 15.5 Overview of the Modeling Process. The modeling process consists of creating a human task, associating it with a BPEL process, and generating the format for displaying the human task during run time in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This section provides a brief overview of these modeling tasks and provides references to specific modeling instructions. 15.5.1 Create a Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor enables you to Epistemology define the theory, metadata for the task. This editor enables you to specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. This information is saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. Epistemology Paper! 15.5.2 Associate the Human Task Definition with a BPEL Process. You associate the .task file that consists of the human task settings with a BPEL process. Association is made with a human task activity that you drag and drop into your BPEL process for configuring. You also define the task definition, task initiator, task priority, and map the task parameter that carries the input data to Essay a BPEL variable. You can also define advanced features, such as the scope and global task variables names (instead of accepting the default names), task owner, identification key, BPEL callback customizations, and whether to Epistemology extend the precedes, human task to include other workflow tasks. When association is complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the operations required to act on Paper, the task. 15.5.3 Generate the Task Display Form. You generate the layout of the symbolic sociology, task display form used for displaying the task header, body (task payload), and footer details at Paper, run time in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. The task display form defines the display mechanism for the task payload (data in the task) in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Existence Essence Sartre! Two types of task display forms are available for use: simple task form and custom task form. 15.6 Task 1: Creating the Human Task Definition with the Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor enables you to define the Paper, metadata for the task. This editor enables you to specify human task settings, such as task outcome, payload structure, task participants, assignment and routing policy, expiration and choke coil, escalation policy, notification settings, and so on. When human task creation is complete, the following folder and file are created: A folder with the Paper, human task name you specify in the Human Task Name field in Accessing the Human Task Editor is created under the Integration Content folder of your BPEL process in the Application Navigator. The human task settings specified in the Human Task editor are saved to a metadata task configuration file with a .task extension. This file is stored in the human task name folder. You can re-edit the settings in this file at precedes, any time by double-clicking it in the Application Navigator . This reopens the Epistemology Paper, .task file in the Human Task editor. This section contains the following topics: 15.6.1 Accessing the Human Task Editor. When you are ready to choke coil begin creation of a human task, the Human Task editor can be accessed in several ways in Oracle JDeveloper: 15.6.1.1 From the Application Navigator. This method enables you to create a human task that you can later associate with a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. Right-click your BPEL process in the Application Navigator and select Create Human Task Definition . Epistemology Paper! The Add a Human Task window appears. Enter a name in the Human Task Name field. The name you enter is added to the directory path in the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. Skinner Behavior Theory! You can also create a human task that you later associate with a BPEL process by selecting New from the File main menu, then selecting Integration Tier Human Tasks Human Task Definition . This method enables you to create a human task activity with which you immediately associate a BPEL process through use of a human task activity. Select Process Activities from the Component Palette . Drag and drop a Human Task activity into Epistemology Paper, your BPEL process. Definition Sociology! The Add a Human Task window appears. Click the second icon to the right of the Task Definition field. Enter a name in the Human Task Name field. The name you enter is added to the directory path in Paper the Location field. The Human Task editor appears. Choke Coil! 15.6.2 Reviewing the Sections of the Epistemology Paper, Human Task Editor. The Human Task editor consists of the following main sections shown in Figure 15-9. These sections enable you to create a human task. Figure 15-9 Human Task Editor. Instructions for using these main sections of the Human Task editor to create a workflow task are listed in Table 15-1. Table 15-1 Human Task Editor. (title, outcomes, priority, and owner) (for specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for are cognitive factors attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions, error messages, and callback classes) 15.6.3 Specifying the Paper, Task Title, Priority, Outcome, and Owner. Figure 15-10 shows the Task Configuration section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to specify details such as the task title, task priority, task outcomes, and task owner. Skinner Behavior! Figure 15-10 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Task Configuration section are listed in Table 15-2: Table 15-2 Human Task Editor #x2014; Task Configuration Section. 15.6.3.1 Specifying a Task Title and Priority. Enter the following details. See Also: Specifying the Task Initiator and Task Priority for instructions on Paper, specifying a priority value in the Add a Human Task window. Task outcomes capture the possible outcomes of a task. The Oracle BPEL Worklist Application displays the outcomes you specify here as the possible actions to perform during run time. You can specify the following types of task outcomes: Select a seeded outcome. Enter a custom outcome. What Factors! The task outcomes can also have run time display values that are different from the actual outcome value specified here. This permits outcomes to Epistemology be displayed in a different language in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. See Specifying Multilingual Settings for more information about internationalization. Click the flashlight icon to the right of the Outcomes field. Existence Precedes Essence! The Outcomes window displays the Paper, possible outcomes for tasks. APPROVE and REJECT are selected by default. Select additional task outcomes or deselect the skinner behavior theory, default outcomes. Enter any custom outcomes separated by commas in Paper the Custom Outcomes field. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Your selections display in the Outcomes field. The seeded and custom outcomes selected here display for selection in the Majority Voted Outcome section of the group vote participant type. 15.6.3.2.1 Displaying Custom Outcomes in a Human Task Activity. The method by which you create a human task definition determines whether custom outcomes initially display in a switch activity. If you perform the following tasks: Drag and drop a human task activity into the design window. Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon) to the right of the skinner theory, Task Definition field. Create a human task definition with custom outcomes. Expand the human task activity. Epistemology! Note that the custom outcomes do not initially display in definition sociology the switch activity. As a workaround, perform the following steps: Click the human task activity to Epistemology display the Human Task window. Existence Essence Sartre! Click Yes when prompted to update your human task definition to account for the custom outcomes. Paper! Open the switch activity of the human task activity and note that the custom outcomes now appear. Or, always create human task definition files as follows: Right-click the BPEL process in the A pplication Navigator . Illistration! Select Create Human Task Definition . Epistemology! Design a human task definition. Drag a new human task activity into the design window and associate it with this human task definition file. Open the switch activity of the symbolic interaction sociology, human task activity and note that the custom outcomes appear. Epistemology! The task owner can view the tasks belonging to business processes they own and perform operations on behalf of any of the assigned task participant types. Additionally, the owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. What Is An Essay! This optional field defaults to the system user bpeladmin if not specified. The task owner can also be specified in the Advanced tab of the Human Task window described in Paper Specifying a Task Owner. The task owner specified in the Advanced tab overrides any task owner you enter here. Select a method for specifying the task owner: 15.6.3.3.1 Specifying a Task Owner By Browsing the User Directory. Task owners can be selected by Essay on A browsing the user directory (Oracle Internet Directory (OID), JAZN/XML, LDAP, and Epistemology Paper, so on) that is Essay Audience configured for use with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Paper! Click the first icon to the right of the choke coil, Owner field to display the Identity lookup dialog. Search for the owner by entering a search string such as jcooper, j*, *, and so on. Clicking Lookup fetches all the users that match the search criteria. Paper! One or more users or groups can be highlighted and selected by clicking Select . View the hierarchy of a user by highlighting the user and clicking Hierarchy . Skinner Behavior! Similarly, clicking Reportees displays the reportees of a selected user or group. View the details of a user or group by highlighting the user or group and clicking Detail . Click OK to return to the Identity lookup dialog. Click Select to add the user to the Selected user section. Click OK to Epistemology Paper return to skinner theory the Human Task editor. Your selection displays in the Owner field. 15.6.3.3.2 Specifying a Task Owner Dynamically. Task owners can be selected dynamically in Epistemology the Expression Builder window. Click the second icon to the right of the skinner behavior theory, Owner field to display the Expression Builder window: Browse the available variable schemas and functions to create a task owner. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. You selection displays in the Owner field. Click Help for instructions on using the Paper, Expression Builder window and XPath Building Assistant. 15.6.4 Specifying the Task Payload Data Structure. Figure 15-11 shows the Parameters section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to define the choke coil, structure (message attributes) of the task payload (the data in the task). Task payload data consists of one or more elements or types. Based on your selections, an XML schema definition is created for Paper the task payload. Figure 15-11 Human Task Editor #x2014; Parameters Section. Click the + sign to are cognitive factors display the Add Task Parameter window. Enter the Epistemology, following details: You can only what illistration essay define payload flex field mappings in Epistemology Paper the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application for choke coil payload parameters that are simple XML types. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Your selection displays in the Parameters section. Paper! If you want to edit your selection, highlight it and are cognitive factors, click the first icon in the upper right part of the Parameters section. Figure 15-12 shows the Epistemology, Assignment and Routing Policy section of the Human Task editor. This section enables you to select a participant type that meets your business requirement. In previous Oracle BPEL Process Manager releases, participant types were known as workflow patterns. You can mix and match multiple participant types to model the human task. This enables you to extend the functionality of a previously configured human task to on A Journalist's model more complex workflows. Each of the Epistemology Paper, participant types has an associated editor that you use for configuration tasks. The sequence in which the assignees are added indicates the interaction definition sociology, execution sequence. Paper! Figure 15-12 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and Routing Policy Section. Click the + sign to display the Add Participant Type window. This enables you to select a specific participant type. Select a participant type from the Type list. The configuration tasks for each participant type are described in subsequent sections. See the essence sartre, following section based on your selection: Sequential list of approvers. External routing service. See the Epistemology, following task assignment and routing policy sections shown in Figure 15-12 after you have configured a participant type. These sections are only available for what are cognitive factors selection after a participant type has been created. Users and groups for each of the participant types can be specified either statically or dynamically.When the users and groups are specified statically (or by Epistemology Paper browsing the identity service), the values can be either of the following: A single user or group (for example, jstein ), which in the case of a single approver, is captured as follows: A delimited string of users or groups (for example, jstein , wfaulk , cdickens ), which in the case of a single approver, is captured as follows: You may have a business requirement to create a dynamic list of task approvers specified in a payload variable. This XPath expression can resolve to zero or more XML nodes. Each node value can be either of the choke coil, following: A single user or group. Epistemology Paper! A delimited string of users or groups. For example, the following task shows that the payload message attribute is of type xsd:String and its value is a comma-delimited string of approvers. This node can be used to specify the what, participants. The default delimiter for the assignee delimited string is a comma ( , ). This delimiter can be changed using the assigneeDelimiter XML element in Epistemology the wf-config.xml file. This delimiter applies to are cognitive all workflows in the system. Specifying participants in this manner is applicable to all participant types, although they are interpreted differently for each type. For example: In a single user participant type, the task is assigned to everyone evaluated. In a sequential list of approvers participant type, the Epistemology, task is sequentially assigned to users and groups evaluated in the list. In a group vote participant type, a task is what essay created for each user and group evaluated in Epistemology the list. This interpretation of resource XPath expressions provides orcl:create-nodeset-from-delimited-string -equivalent functionality to enable you to specify a dynamic list of one or more task approvers (resource element members) from the payload variable. 15.6.5.2 Configuring the Single Approver Participant Type. Figure 15-13 displays the essence sartre, Single Approver window. This participant type requires a single user to act on Paper, a task. If the task is assigned to a role or group with multiple users, one of the members must claim the task and act on it. Based on choke coil, the user's action, you define what the business process does. For example, a vacation request is assigned to a manager. The manager must act on the request task three days before the vacation starts. If the manager formally approves or rejects the request, the Epistemology, employee is notified with the decision. On A Journalist's Audience! If the manager does not act on the task, the request is treated as rejected. Notification actions similar to the formal rejection are taken. Figure 15-13 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in Epistemology Paper the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Single Approver window are listed in Table 15-3: Table 15-3 Add Participant Type #x2014; Single Approver. Choke Coil! 15.6.5.2.1 Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in performing actions on Paper, this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and what are cognitive, the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is Epistemology Paper obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by choke coil clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. Epistemology! For a user to act on a task assigned to skinner behavior a group, they must first claim the task in Epistemology the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. The XPath expressions for specifying assignees must follow these rules: They must be based off the task XSD. This includes the payload as defined in the payload section. For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAssignee is an example of an what is an illistration, XPath expression based of the task XSD. The XPath expressions cannot contain BPEL-specific XPath functions such as bpws:getVariableData() , and so on because these XPath expressions are not evaluated from the context of a BPEL instance. The XPath expressions can contain XPath functions that are BPEL-independent. Paper! This includes identity service XPath functions like ids:getManager() , and so on. 15.6.5.2.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Audience, Expression Builder window for Epistemology building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression to bypass a task participant must evaluate to a Boolean value. For example, /task:task/task:payload/order:orderAmount 1000 is are cognitive a valid XPath expression for Epistemology skipping a participant. 15.6.5.2.3 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-13. What Factors! Select Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on Paper, a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and choke coil, renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Epistemology Paper, Human Task editor are applied. Essay! For example, if the global policy is set to Epistemology escalate the task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for choke coil instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. Paper! 15.6.5.2.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select the Allow this participant to invite other participants check box if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in essay this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Epistemology Paper Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. 15.6.5.3 Configuring the Group Vote Participant Type. Figure 15-14 displays the Group Vote window. This participant type is used when multiple users, working in parallel, must take action simultaneously, such as in a hiring situation when multiple users vote to hire or reject an applicant. You specify the voting percentage that is needed for the outcome to take effect, such as a majority vote or a unanimous vote. For example, a business process collects the feedback from all interviewers in the hiring process, consolidates it, and assigns a hire or reject request to each of the Essay Audience, interviewers. At the end, the candidate is hired if the majority of Epistemology Paper, interviewers vote for hiring instead of rejecting. Figure 15-14 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and skinner, so on). Instructions for configuring the Paper, following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Group Vote window are listed in Table 15-4: Table 15-4 Add Participant Type #x2014; Group Vote Window. Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. Wait until all votes are in Audience before triggering outcome. 15.6.5.3.1 Assigning Participants to the Group Vote Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in Epistemology this task. The assigned participants must establish a consensus on when a task is considered complete. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to on A Audience the right of the field to Epistemology Paper display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the symbolic interaction sociology, identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an Epistemology, LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to existence search for Epistemology Paper IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.3.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is satisfied. This action displays an icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by existence essence their manager. Epistemology Paper! The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. 15.6.5.3.3 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Select the Share attachments and comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for this task. This information typically displays in the footer region of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. 15.6.5.3.4 Specifying Group Voting Details. Specify a method for selecting the skinner, outcome for the final task. If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by clicking the icon to the right of the Epistemology Paper, field to display the interaction, Expression Builder window. Select the default outcome for this task to take effect if the consensus percentage value is not satisfied. This happens if there is a tie or if all participants do not respond before the task expires. Seeded and custom outcomes that you entered in the Outcomes window in Specifying a Task Outcome display in this list. Select a percentage value required for the outcome of this task to Paper take effect; for example, a majority vote ( 51 ) or a unanimous vote ( 100 ). For example, assume there are two possible outcomes ( ACCEPT and choke coil, REJECT ) and five subtasks. Epistemology Paper! If two subtasks are accepted and three are rejected, and the required acceptance percentage is 50%, the precedes essence, outcome of the task is Epistemology rejected. Specify additional group voting details: Immediately trigger voted outcome when minimum percentage is met. If selected, the outcome of the task can be computed early with the skinner theory, outcomes of the completed subtasks, enabling the pending subtasks to be withdrawn. For example, assume four users are assigned to act on a task, the default outcome is Epistemology Paper APPROVE , and the consensus percentage is set at 50 . If the first two users approve the symbolic definition, task, the Epistemology Paper, third and fourth users do not need to act on the task, since the consensus percentage value has already been satisfied. Essay! Wait until all votes are in before triggering outcome. If selected, the workflow waits for all responses before an outcome is initiated. 15.6.5.3.5 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on Epistemology, a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-14. Select Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on a task. What Are Cognitive Factors! If the user or group does not act in Epistemology Paper the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in behavior the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and Epistemology, this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is skinner theory escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4 Configuring the Management Chain Participant Type. Figure 15-15 displays the Management Chain window. This participant type routes tasks for approval to Epistemology multiple users in a management chain hierarchy. Essay! You specify the task participants as a management chain list or a list of users. For example, a purchase order is assigned to a manager. If the manager approves the order, it is assigned to their manager. If that manager approves it, it is assigned to their manager, and Epistemology, so on until three managers approve the order. If any of the managers reject the what are cognitive factors, request or the Epistemology Paper, request expires, the order is rejected. Figure 15-15 Add Participant Type #x2014; Management Chain. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for interaction definition configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Management Chain window are listed in Table 15-5: Table 15-5 Add Participant Type - Management Chain. Highest Title of Approver. 15.6.5.4.1 Assigning Participants to the Management Chain Task. Paper! Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the are cognitive, first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. Epistemology Paper! The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on what, a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.4.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is Epistemology Paper satisfied. This action displays an existence precedes essence sartre, icon for accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to Paper a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. Factors! 15.6.5.4.3 Specifying the Number of Approvers. Specify the following task routing parameters. When both parameters are specified, task routing is determined by both parameters. The routing continues until one of Epistemology, these parameters is satisfied. If you select By Expression from the lists below, you can dynamically specify the details by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Maximum Number of Chain Levels Up. Choke Coil! Enter a value for Epistemology the number of levels in the management chain to include in this task. For example, if set to 2 and the task is initially assigned to user jcooper , both the user jstein (manager of jcooper ) and the user wfaulk (manager of definition, jstein ) are included in the list (apart from jcooper , the initial assignee). This is a mandatory field. Highest Title of Approver. Select the title of the last (highest) user in the management chain. The title is Paper retrieved from the identity service. 15.6.5.4.4 Specifying a Time Limit for Acting on are cognitive factors, a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Epistemology Paper, Advanced section shown in symbolic definition Figure 15-15. Select Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on Epistemology, a task. If the user or group does not act in what is an the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to escalate the task and this participant does not act in Paper the duration provided, the task is escalated to the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on setting the skinner behavior, global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. 15.6.5.4.5 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select Allow this participant to Epistemology Paper invite other participants if you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. For the management chain participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by the last user in the management chain. Choke Coil! 15.6.5.5 Configuring the Epistemology, Sequential List of Approvers Participant Type. Figure 15-16 displays the Sequential List of Approvers window. This enables you to create a list of sequential participants for a workflow. For example, if you want a document to what factors be reviewed by John, Mary, and Scott in sequence, use this participant type. Paper! This is similar to skinner the management chain participant type, except that with that type, the users are part of an organization hierarchy. For the sequential list of approvers participant type, they can be any list of users or groups. Figure 15-16 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - Sequential List of Epistemology, Approvers window are listed in Table 15-6. Table 15-6 Add Participant Type #x2014; Sequential List of Approvers. 15.6.5.5.1 Assigning Participants to the Sequential List of Approvers Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to participate in this task. Essay Journalist's Audience! Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. User information is obtained from Epistemology Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. You can use wild cards (*) to search for IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to Journalist's the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.5.2 Bypassing a Task Participant. Select the Specify skip rule check box if you want the user or group to be bypassed if a specific condition is Epistemology satisfied. This action displays an icon for Essay on A Journalist's Audience accessing the Expression Builder window for building a condition. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is Epistemology required by their manager. The expression must evaluate to a Boolean value. Bypassing a Task Participant for an example of a valid XPath expression for skipping a participant. Interaction! 15.6.5.5.3 Specifying a Time Limit for Paper Acting on a Task. Journalist's Audience! Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section shown in Figure 15-16. Click Limit allocated duration to . Specify the amount of time a user or group receives to act on a task. If the user or group does not act in the time specified, the global escalation and renewal policies that you set in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (known as the Epistemology Paper, routing slip level) of the Human Task editor are applied. For example, if the global policy is set to interaction escalate the task and this participant does not act in the duration provided, the task is escalated to Epistemology Paper the manager or another user, as appropriate. Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task for instructions on what are cognitive factors, setting the Paper, global escalation and renewal policies in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the symbolic definition, Human Task editor. 15.6.5.5.4 Inviting Additional Participants to a Task. Click the + sign to expand the Advanced section (if not already expanded). Select Allow this participant to invite other participants if you want this task assignee to Paper invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow. For example, assume the approval workflow goes from James Cooper to John Steinbeck. If this option is checked, James Cooper can decide to first route it to Irving Stone before it goes to John Steinbeck. For the sequential list of approvers participant type, the additional participants can be invited only by the last user in the management chain. 15.6.5.6 Configuring the factors, FYI Assignee Participant Type. Figure 15-17 displays the FYI Assignee window. This participant type is used when a task is sent to a user, but the business process does not wait for a user response; it just continues. FYI assignees cannot directly impact the outcome of a task, but in some cases can provide comments or add attachments. For example, a magazine subscription is due for renewal. If the Epistemology, user does not cancel the current subscription before the sociology, expiration date, the Epistemology, subscription is renewed. This user is reminded weekly until the request expires or the user acts on it. Figure 15-17 Add Participant Type #x2014; FYI Assignee. Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Skinner! Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee window are listed in Paper Table 15-7: Table 15-7 Add Participant Type - FYI Assignee. 15.6.5.6.1 Assigning Participants to the FYI Assignee Task. Select a method for assigning a user or group to what are cognitive factors participate in this task. Enter a user or group name or click the first icon ( flashlight ) to the right of the field to display a window for selecting a user or group configured through the identity service. The identity service enables user authorization and the lookup of Epistemology, user properties, roles, group memberships, and existence precedes, privileges. User information is obtained from Java AuthoriZatioN (JAZN) or an Paper, LDAP server such as Oracle Internet Directory. Choke Coil! You can use wild cards (*) to search for Epistemology Paper IDs. Dynamically assign this task to a user (for example, jcooper ) or group (for example, administrators ) by clicking the icon to the right of the field to display the choke coil, Expression Builder window. Users who are members of a group are assigned this task. For a user to act on a task assigned to a group, they must first claim the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Assigning Participants to the Single Approver Task for rules to follow when specifying assignees with XPath expressions. 15.6.5.6.2 Sharing Attachments and Comments with Task Participants. Paper! Select the Share attachments and comments check box if you want all group voters or workflow participants to share comments and attachments for skinner behavior this task. This information typically displays in the footer region of the Epistemology, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Existence Precedes! 15.6.5.7 Configuring the Paper, External Routing Service Participant Type. Figure 15-18 displays the External Routing Service window. This participant type enables you to configure an external routing service that dynamically determines the what is an illistration essay, participants in Epistemology the workflow. If this participant type is specified, all other participant types are ignored. It is assumed that the external routing service provides a list of participant types (single approver, list of approvers, group vote, and so on) at skinner, run time to determine the routing of the task. Figure 15-18 Add Participant Type #x2014; External Routing Service. Epistemology Paper! Enter a recognizable label for this participant in the Label field. Factors! This label must be unique within this workflow (for example, Approval Manager , Primary Reviewers , and so on). Enter the fully qualified class file name or click the flashlight icon to select the name (for example, the org.mycompany.tasks.RoutingService class name). This class must implement the Epistemology Paper, oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IAssignmentService interface. Click the + sign to add name and pair value parameters that can be passed to the external service. 15.6.5.8 Allowing All Participants to Invite Other Participants. Symbolic Definition! After you configure a participant type and are returned to the Human Task editor, the Allow all participants to Paper invite other participants check box is on A Journalist's Audience enabled, as shown in Figure 15-19. Figure 15-19 Human Task Editor #x2014; Assignment and Paper, Routing Policy Section. This check box is the equivalent of the Adhoc workflow pattern of are cognitive, previous BPEL releases. This applies when there is at least one participant. Epistemology! In this case, each user selects users or groups as the next assignee when approving the task. Sociology! If you want this task assignee to invite other participants into the workflow before routing it to the next assignee in this workflow, select the Epistemology Paper, Allow all participants to invite other participants check box. 15.6.5.9 Abruptly Completing a Condition. Behavior! After you configure a participant type and are returned to the Human Task editor, the Enable abrupt completion condition check box is enabled, as shown in Figure 15-19. If you want to specify conditions under which to complete the task early, regardless of the Epistemology, other participants in the workflow, select the Enable abrupt completion condition check box. The Abrupt Completion Details window appears. For example, assume an expense report goes to the manager, and then the director. If the first participant (manager) rejects it, you can end the workflow without sending it to skinner the next participant (director). There are two methods for specifying the abrupt completion of a task: XPath expression routing condition. If outcomes are specified, any time the selected task outcome occurs, the task completes. If both outcome and routing condition are specified, the workflow service performs a logical OR on the two. Epistemology Paper! Select appropriate outcomes and click the button. To select all, click the button. Click the icon to the right of the Routing Condition field to display the Expression Builder window for dynamically creating a condition under which to complete this task early. For example, if a user submits a business trip expense report that is below a specific amount, no approval is required by existence precedes essence their manager. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. The check box is selected, indicating that you have defined information. Paper! You can click the choke coil, icon to the right of the Enable abrupt completion condition check box to edit this information. 15.6.6 Escalating, Renewing, or Ending the Task. Paper! Figure 15-20 shows the Expiration and Escalation Policy section of the Human Task editor. You can specify expiration duration of a task in this global policy section (also known as the choke coil, routing slip level). If expiration duration is specified at the routing slip level instead of at the participant type level, then this duration is the expiration duration of the task across all the participants. However, if you specify expiration duration at the participant type level (through the Limit allocated duration to field), then those settings take precedence over settings specified in the Expiration and Escalation Policy section (routing slip level). Figure 15-20 Human Task Editor #x2014; Expiration and Escalation Policy Section. 15.6.6.1 Overview or Escalation and Expiration Policy. Paper! This section provides an overview of how specifying the expiration duration at this level makes this setting the expiration duration of the task across all the participants. For example, participant LoanAgentGroup and participant Supervisor have 3 days to act on the task between them, as shown in Figure 15-21: Figure 15-21 Expire After Policy. If there is no expiration specified at either the participant level or this routing slip level, then that task has no expiration duration. Is An! If expiration duration is specified at any of the participant's level, then for that participant the Epistemology, participant expiration duration is used. However, the global expiration duration is still used for the participants that do not have participant level expiration duration. The global expiration duration is always decremented by interaction sociology the time elapsed in the task. Epistemology! The policy to interpret the participant level expiration for the participants is precedes described below: Management Chain #x2014; Each participant in the management chain gets the same expiration duration. The duration is not for all the assignments resulting from this assignment. If the task expires at Paper, any of the assignments in the management chain, the task expires and the escalation and renewal policy is applied. Sequential list of approvers #x2014; Each assignment in the management chain gets the on A, same expiration duration as the Paper, one specified in symbolic definition sociology the sequential list of Epistemology Paper, approvers. Note that the duration is not for all the assignments resulting from this assignment. If the task expires at Journalist's, any of the assignments in the management chain, the task expires and the escalation and renewal policy is applied. In a group vote workflow, if the parallel participants are specified as a resource, a routing slip is created for each of the resources. The expiration duration of each created routing slip follows these rules: The expiration duration is the same as the expiration duration of the parallel participant if it has an expiration duration specified. The expiration duration that is left on Epistemology, the task if it was specified at the routing slip level. No expiration duration, otherwise. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration duration for the parallel participants are determined by the routing slip. When the parent task expires in a parallel task, the subtasks are withdrawn if those tasks have not expired or completed. In the existence sartre, following routing slip sample, participant Loan Agent Group has an expiration duration of 1 day and participant Loan Agent Supervisor does not have any expiration duration on the task, even though an expiration duration is specified at the routing slip level. In this example, the routing slip is treated just as if there were no expiration duration specified at the routing slip level. Table 15-8 demonstrates the expiration policy. Note that the Epistemology, management chain in the above example evaluates to two users #x2014; wfaulk and cdickens (manager of interaction definition, wfaulk ). Table 15-8 Expiration Policy. Select an escalation and Paper, expiration policy. You can enter a fixed time or a dynamic time by clicking the icon to the right of the interaction sociology, By Expression field to display the Expression Builder window. If you never want the task to expire, select Never Expire from the list shown in Figure 15-20. If you want the task to expire, select Expire after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the maximum time period for the task to remain open. Epistemology Paper! When the task expires, either the definition sociology, escalation policy or the renewal policy at the routing slip level is applied. If neither is specified, the task expires. Paper! The expiration policy at the routing slip level is common to all the participants. The expiration policy for parallel participants is interpreted as follows. If parallel participants are specified as resources in parallel elements, there is no expiration policy for each of those participants. If parallel participants are specified as routing slips, then the expiration policy for symbolic interaction definition the routing slip applies to the parallel participants. Figure 15-22 indicates that the task expires in 3 days. Figure 15-22 Expire After Policy. If you want to Paper extend the expiration period when the user does not respond within the allotted time, select Renew after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the maximum number of times to symbolic interaction definition sociology continue renewing this task. The renewal policy specifies the number of times the task can be renewed on Paper, expiration and the renewal duration. In Figure 15-23, when the task expires, it is renewed at most 3 times. It does not matter if the task expired at the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Figure 15-23 Renew After Policy. If you want to escalate the what are cognitive, task (for example, to the user's manager) if the user does not respond within the allotted time, select Escalate after from the list shown in Figure 15-20. Specify the following additional values: Maximum Escalation Levels. Number of management levels to which to escalate the task. Epistemology! Highest Approver Title. The title of the highest approver (for example, self, manager, director, or CEO). The escalation policy specifies the number of times the task can be escalated on expiration and the renewal duration. In Figure 15-24, when the task expires, it is escalated at most 3 times. It does not matter if the task expired at skinner theory, the LoanAgentGroup participant or the Supervisor participant. Epistemology Paper! Figure 15-24 Escalate After Policy. 15.6.7 Specifying Participant Notification Preferences. Figure 15-25 shows the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor (when fully expanded). Notifications indicate when a user is assigned a task or informed that the status of the task has changed. What Illistration! Notifications can be sent through e-mail, voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. Notifications are sent to different types of participants for different actions. Notifications are configured by default with default messages. Epistemology Paper! For example, a notification message is sent to indicate that a task has completed and closed. You can create your own or modify existing configurations. Figure 15-25 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. Click the + sign to are cognitive factors expand the Epistemology, Notification Settings section (displays as shown in Figure 15-25). Instructions for configuring the following subsections of the Notification Setting s section are listed in Table 15-9. Table 15-9 Human Task Editor #x2014; Notification Settings Section. Make e-mail messages actionable. Send task attachments with email notifications. 15.6.7.1 Notifying Recipients of Essay Journalist's, Changes to Task Status. Three default status types display in the Task Status column: Assign , Complete , and Error . You can select other status types for Paper which to receive notification messages. Click a type in the Task Status column to display the complete list of task types: Assign #x2014;when the task is assigned to users or a group. Are Cognitive! This action captures the following actions: Task is Paper assigned to a user. Essay On A Audience! Task is assigned to a new user in a sequential list of approvers workflow. Task is renewed. Epistemology Paper! Task is delegated. Existence Sartre! Task is reassigned. Task is escalated. Epistemology Paper! Information for a task is submitted. Select a task status type. Notifications can be sent to users involved in the task in what various capacities. This includes when the Paper, task is assigned to a group, each user in the group is sent a notification if there is no notification endpoint available for behavior the group. Click an entry in Epistemology Paper the Recipient column to skinner theory display a list of Paper, possible recipients for the notification message. Assignees #x2014;the users or groups to whom the task is currently assigned. Initiator #x2014;the user who created the definition sociology, task. Approvers #x2014;the users who have approved the task so far. This applies in a sequential list of approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and a notification must be sent to all of Epistemology, them. Owner #x2014;the task owner. 15.6.7.2 Editing the Notification Message. A default notification message is available for delivery to the selected recipient. If you want, you can modify the default message text. Click the icon in the Notification Header column to modify the default notification message. The Edit Notification Message window appears. This message applies to all the supported notification channels: e-mail, voice, fax, pager, and SMS. E-mail and fax messages can also include the worklist task detail defined in this message. Symbolic! The channel by which the message is delivered is based upon the notification preferences you specify. Paper! Modify the message wording as necessary. Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. You can send task reminders, which can be based on the time the task was assigned to a user or the expiration time of a task. The number of reminders and the interval between the reminders can also be configured. Select the choke coil, number of reminders to Epistemology send from the Remind list. What Are Cognitive! If you selected to remind the assignee one, two, or three times, select the Epistemology Paper, interval between reminders, and whether to send the reminder before or after the assignment. 15.6.7.4 Securing Notifications, Making Messages Actionable, and symbolic interaction, Sending Attachments. You can perform additional notification tasks in this section. Select the Epistemology, corresponding check box for functionality you want to use. Are Cognitive! See Also : Sending Actionable E-mails for additional configuration details. 15.6.8 Specifying Advanced Settings. This section enables you to specify advanced human task features, such as specifying custom escalation rules, custom style sheets for attachments, multilingual settings, custom task actions and error messages, and callback classes. Figure 15-26 shows the advanced settings section of the Human Task editor. Figure 15-26 Human Task Editor #x2014; Advanced Settings Section. Table 15-10 describes the Paper, sections available. Table 15-10 Advanced Settings Sections. Journalist's Audience! 15.6.8.1 Specifying Escalation Rules. This option allows a custom escalation rule to Epistemology Paper be plugged in for a particular workflow. For example, to assign the task to a current user's department manager on task expiration, you can write a custom task escalation function, register it with the workflow service, and use that function in task definitions. The default escalation rule is to assign a task to the manager of the current user. To add a new escalation rule, follow the steps below. Implement interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicTaskEscalationFunction . This implementation has to what is an illistration be available in the classpath for Paper the server. Change the file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml to existence precedes sartre add a new function: Enter the function name as defined in the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file for the escalation rule in the Specify Escalation Rule field. 15.6.8.2 Specifying WordML Style Sheets for Attachments. Paper! This option allows dynamic creation of Microsoft Word documents for the purpose of sending them as e-mail attachments using a WordML XSLT stylesheet. The XSLT stylesheet is illistration essay applied on the task document. Click the flashlight icon to select a WordML style sheet as an attachment. Epistemology Paper! 15.6.8.3 Specifying Style Sheets for Attachments. This option allows creation of e-mail attachments using an choke coil, XSLT stylesheet. Epistemology! The XSLT stylesheet is applied on the task document. Behavior Theory! Click the flashlight icon to select a stylesheet as an attachment. 15.6.8.4 Specifying Multilingual Settings. Paper! You can specify resource bundles for what factors displaying task details in different languages in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Resource bundles are supported for the following task details. Displaying the value for task outcomes in plain text or with the message(key) format. Displaying the XML element and attributes names in the payload display of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Paper! The key name in the resource bundle must be the same as the name of the XML element and attributes for choke coil internationalization of XML element names in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Making e-mail notification messages available in different languages. At run time, specify the XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) to obtain the internationalized string from the Paper, specified resource bundle. The locale of the notification recipient can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) . Click Configure Resource . The Resource Details window appears. Enter the theory, name of the Epistemology Paper, resource used in the resource bundle. Click the flashlight icon to select the JAR or ZIP resource bundle file to use. Symbolic Definition! The resource bundle can be part of your BPEL suitcase. Paper! Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. 15.6.8.5 Overriding Default System Actions. The actions performed from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application are common to all business processes. However, you can restrict some actions in a particular business process. Symbolic Interaction Sociology! For example, assume that in a loan approval process, the business requirement is to never suspend a loan application. To model this scenario at Epistemology Paper, design time, you can select Suspend as a restricted action. When an action is selected as restricted, the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application does not display the action for this task. By default, these actions are available on choke coil, all tasks based on Epistemology Paper, the user's privileges. The task owner or bpeladmin administrator can always perform any of these actions on processes they own. Click Configure Actions . Select the system actions allowed on a task. By default, all are selected and available (unrestricted). On A Journalist's! The following system actions can be restricted by unselecting them: Suspend #x2014; Enables task owners (or users with the BPMWorkflowSuspend privilege) to put a workflow temporarily on hold. Task expiration and escalation do not apply until the workflow is resumed. No actions are permitted on a suspended task (except resume and withdraw). Paper! Push back #x2014; Sends the task one level back in the workflow. For example, assume the task was routed to the LoanAgentGroup and then to illistration essay jstein . Paper! If jstein now pushes the task back, it goes back to the LoanAgentGroup. Illistration! Renew #x2014; If a task is about to expire, a task assignee can renew the task and request more time to Paper perform the task. This operation is not allowed if the process designer has restricted task renewal on the workflow. Skip current assignment #x2014; Skips the choke coil, current assignment and moves to the next assignment or picks the outcome as set by the previous approver if there are no more assignees. Adhoc Route #x2014; Enables a user to enter an outcome and then route the task in Epistemology an adhoc fashion to the next user who must review the existence essence sartre, task. Request Information #x2014; Any workflow participant can request information from the task initiator or any of the Paper, prior approvers of the task. When the requested information is submitted, the task is assigned to the user who requested the information. On A Audience! Delegate #x2014; Any workflow participant can delegate the task to another user. In this case, the other user is acting on behalf of the Paper, current assignee. Theory! When the task is delegated, it resides on both users' worklists until the original assignee or the delegated person acts on it. Reassign #x2014; Enables the Epistemology, current assignee of the task to transfer it to another user or group. In this case, the task is moved from the worklist of the current assignee to Journalist's the new assignee. Epistemology Paper! Escalate #x2014; Escalates a task to their manager for further action. Withdraw #x2014; Enables the task initiator to withdraw any pending task if they no longer want to send it through the existence precedes essence sartre, workflow. A task owner can also withdraw a task on behalf of the initiator. Epistemology Paper! When a task is withdrawn, the business process is called back with the state attribute of the task set to choke coil Withdrawn . Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. 15.6.8.6 Overriding Default Exception Management. Tasks can error due to incorrect assignments. Incorrect assignments can occur for any of the following reasons: Invalid assignees #x2014; The task assignee user or group is not a valid user in the system. Invalid dynamic assignment #x2014; When assignees are specified to be dynamic, the dynamic XPath expression is not evaluated. Paper! In the what is an illistration essay, above cases, the task is Epistemology marked as errored. Essay Audience! By default, the life cycle of the task is completed with that action.During modeling of workflow tasks, you can specify error assignees for the workflow. If error assignees are specified, they are evaluated and Epistemology Paper, the task is assigned to them. The error assignee can perform one of the following actions: Adhoc route #x2014; route the task to existence precedes essence sartre the actual users assigned to the task. Epistemology Paper! Adhoc route allows the choke coil, task to be routed to users in sequence, parallel, and so on. Reassign #x2014; reassign the task to the actual users assigned to this task. Error task #x2014; indicate that this task cannot be rectified. If there are any errors in Paper evaluating the error assignees, the existence, task is marked as errored. This window enables you to specify the users or groups to Epistemology Paper whom the task is assigned if an error in assignment has occurred. Click Configure Assignment . Essay On A Journalist's Audience! Select the error assignees. 15.6.8.7 Specifying Callback Classes on Task Status. You can register callbacks for Paper the workflow service to call during the life cycle of a task. The callback class has to implement the interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . Make the callback class available in the classpath of the server. Click Configure Callbacks . Click the sociology, + sign to add a callback to the table. Epistemology Paper! A callback named OnAssigned is symbolic sociology automatically added to the Callback column. Click OnAssigned to display a list of additional callback values to select for this column. The following callbacks are available: onCompleted #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is Epistemology Paper completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onAssigned #x2014; This callback is what illistration invoked when the task is Paper assigned to are cognitive a new set of assignees due to Epistemology Paper the following actions: skip current assignment. override routing slip. onUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. This includes updates on a task due to request for precedes essence information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and so on. onSubtaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any update to a subtask. Click Java in the Type column to display a list of additional values for this column. Paper! Click the empty field in the Value column to enter a value. The value is the complete class name of the Java class that implements oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task.IRoutingSlipCallback . 15.6.8.8 Allowing Task and Routing Customization in BPEL Callbacks. The Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks check box must be selected if you select the check box of the same name on the Human Task - Advanced tab shown in Figure 15-28. Selecting both check boxes updates the metadata for callbacks. 15.6.9 Exiting the Human Task Editor and Saving Your Changes. You can save your human task changes at any time. The task can be re-edited at a later time by clicking the metadata task configuration .task file in Audience the Application Navigator . Select Save from the File main menu or click the X sign to close the .task metadata task configuration file. If you click the X sign, select Yes when prompted to save your changes. 15.7 Task 2: Associating the Human Task with a BPEL Process. You must associate the .task file that consists of the Paper, human task settings with a BPEL process. Essay Journalist's Audience! When association is complete, a Task Service partner link is created. The Task Service exposes the operations required to act on a task. The method by which you created the human task indicates if the task is already associated with a BPEL process. Table 15-11 describes these methods and references sections on how to proceed. Note that regardless of whether you have already associated the human task with a BPEL process, you must still define key human task activity properties, including the task title, task initiator, task priority, and task parameter variables. These tasks are described in Defining the Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and Parameter Variables and Epistemology, Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Table 15-11 Human Task Association with the BPEL Process. Right-clicked the BPEL process in the Application Navigator . Selected Create Human Task Definition . Dragged and dropped a human task activity into the BPEL process. Skinner Theory! Selected the second icon ( Create Task Definition ) to Epistemology the right of the Task Definition field in the General tab of the Human Task window. 15.7.1 Associating a Human Worklist Task with a BPEL Process. Select the BPEL process with which to associate the .task file of the Essay on A Journalist's, human task in Paper the Application Navigator . Illistration! Select Process Activities from the Paper, Component Palette . Drag and drop a new Human Task activity into your BPEL process. The Add a Human Task window appears. When you first drag and Journalist's Audience, drop this activity into Oracle JDeveloper, the window is named Add a Human Task . After you finish specifying details on this window and click OK , the name of this window changes to Paper simply Human Task . Click the first icon to are cognitive factors the right of the Epistemology Paper, Task Definition field. The Choose Task Definition File appears. Select the .task file and click Open . This file is located in the bpel human_task_name directory of your BPEL process. The .task file is added to the Task Definition field. See the are cognitive factors, following sections to configure the human task activity: 15.7.2 Opening a Human Task Activity Already Associated with a BPEL Process. Double-click the previously created Human Task activity in your BPEL process. The Human Task window appears. Click the third icon to the right of the Task Definition field to open the human worklist task you previously created. Epistemology! See the following sections to configure the human task activity: 15.7.3 Defining the Human Task Activity Title, Initiator, Priority, and Parameter Variables. Figure 15-27 shows the General tab. Figure 15-27 Human Task #x2014; General Tab. The General tab of the Human Task activity enables you to perform the tasks shown in Table 15-12: Table 15-12 Human Task - General Tab. Enter the task title in the Task Title field through one of the is an illistration essay, following methods. This is a mandatory field. Your entry in this field overrides the task title you entered in the Title field of the Human Task editor described in Specifying a Task Title and Priority. Paper! The title displays the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application during run time. Enter the Essay on A, title manually. Click the Epistemology Paper, icon to the right of the field to display the Expression Builder window to dynamically create the precedes sartre, title. You can also mix static text and dynamic expressions in the same title. To include dynamic text, place your cursor at Epistemology Paper, the appropriate point in the text and click the are cognitive factors, icon on the right to invoke the Expression Builder window. Epistemology! 15.7.3.2 Specifying the Task Initiator and Task Priority. Enter the definition, initiator (for example, jcooper ) or click the icon to the right of the Epistemology, Initiator field to display the Expression Builder window for dynamically specifying an initiator. This field is optional. The initiator is the user who initiates a task. The initiator can view their created tasks from the skinner, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application and perform specific tasks defined in the System Action Details window, such as withdrawing or suspending a task. If not specified, the initiator defaults to the task owner specified on Epistemology, the Advanced tab of the Human Task window. The initiator defaults to bpeladmin if a task owner is also not specified. Select a priority value between 1 (the highest) and essence, 5 from the Priority list. This field is provided for user reference and does not make this task a higher priority during run time. The priority can be used to sort tasks in Epistemology the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This priority value overrides the priority value you select in the Priority list of the Human Task editor. Symbolic Interaction Definition! Specifying a Task Title and Priority for instructions on specifying the Epistemology Paper, priority in the Human Task editor. The task parameter table displays a list of task parameters after you complete the Task Title and Initiator fields. Click the flashlight in choke coil the BPEL Variable column to map the task parameter to the BPEL variable. Epistemology Paper! You must map only the task parameters that carry input data. For output data that is filled in from the worklist, you do not need to map the choke coil, corresponding variables. The Task Parameters window appears. Expand the Variables navigation tree and select the appropriate task variable. The Human Task window appears as follows. If you want to define advanced features for the human task activity, click the Advanced tab and go to section Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Otherwise, click OK to close the Human Task window. 15.7.4 Defining the Human Task Activity Advanced Features. Figure 15-28 shows the Epistemology, Advanced tab. Figure 15-28 Human Task #x2014; Advanced Tab. The Advanced tab of the Human Task activity enables you to perform the tasks shown in Table 15-13: Table 15-13 Human Task - Advanced Tab. Global Task Variable Name. 15.7.4.1 Specifying a Scope Name and a Global Task Variable Name. You are automatically provided with default scope and global task variable names during human task activity creation. However, you can specify custom names that are used to name the factors, scope and global variable during human task activity creation. Paper! Enter the name for the BPEL scope to be generated in the Scope Name field. This BPEL scope encapsulates the entire interaction with the workflow service and BPEL variable manipulation. Enter the global task variable name in the Global Task Variable Name field. Choke Coil! This is the name of the BPEL task variable used for the workflow interaction. Enter the task owner name in the Owner field or click the icon to the right to use the Expression Builder to Paper dynamically specify the owner of this task. What! The task owner can view tasks belonging to business processes they own and perform operations on behalf of any of the task assignees. Additionally, the Epistemology, owner can also reassign, withdraw, or escalate tasks. If you do not specify a task initiator on the General tab of the Human Task window, it defaults to the owner specified here. Essay On A Journalist's Audience! If an owner is not specified, it defaults to the bpeladmin administrator. Epistemology! 15.7.4.3 Specifying an Identification Key. Enter an precedes essence sartre, optional identification key value in the Identification Key field. The identification key can be used as a user-defined ID for the task. Epistemology Paper! For example, if the task is meant for approving a purchase order, the skinner behavior, purchase order ID can be set as the identification key of the task. Tasks can be searched from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application using the identification key. This attribute has no default value. 15.7.4.4 Including the Task History of Other Human Tasks. This feature enables one workflow to be continued with another workflow. Select the Include task history from check box to Epistemology Paper extend a previous workflow task in behavior the BPEL process. Epistemology Paper! Selecting this check box includes the are cognitive factors, task history, comments, and attachments from the previous task. This provides you with a complete end-to-end audit trail. When a workflow task is continued with another workflow, the following information is carried over to the new workflow: Task payload and the changes made to the payload in the previous workflow. Comments added to Epistemology the task in the previous workflow. Attachments added to the task in the previous workflow. In the Include task history from list, all existing workflows are listed. Interaction Definition! Selecting a particular workflow permits you to extend (continue) the selected workflow. For example, a hiring process is used to Epistemology hire new employees. Each interviewer votes to hire or not hire a candidate. If 75% of the votes are to hire, then the candidate is hired; otherwise, the candidate is rejected. If the candidate is to be hired, an entry in the HR database is created and the human resources contact completes the hiring process. The HR contact also needs to see the interviewers and the comments they made about the candidate. This process can be modeled using a group vote for essence sartre the hiring. If the candidate is hired, a database adapter is used to create the entry in the HR database. After this, a simple workflow can include the Paper, task history from the group vote so that the hiring request, history, and interviewer comments are carried over. This simple workflow is assigned to the HR contact. 15.7.4.5 Allowing Task and Routing Customizations in BPEL Callbacks. Select the Allow task and routing customizations in BPEL callbacks check box to notify the BPEL process using OnMessage callbacks every time a task is routed to a different user or when the task status changes. You must also select the check box of the same name in the Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor shown in Figure 15-26 in order to what is an illistration essay update the metadata for callbacks. In these callbacks, you can call the Epistemology Paper, Task Service to choke coil change the routing or update the current assignees. Epistemology Paper! This option impacts the BPEL code generated to interact with the Task Service. Interaction Sociology! If this option is not selected, the client process gets notified only when the Epistemology, task completes or when it expires or errors out. Click OK to close the precedes essence, Human Task window. Go to the Human Task editor for this human task (the .task file). Expand the Epistemology Paper, Advanced Settings section at the bottom of the editor. Essence! Click Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks . This check box must be selected to use callbacks. This enables you to update the Paper, metadata. 15.7.5 Viewing the Generated Human Task Activity. When you have completed modeling the human task activity, the human task is generated in the designer window. Figure 15-29 shows how a workflow interaction is modeled in Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Figure 15-29 also illustrates the interaction when no BPEL callbacks are modeled. In this case, once a task is complete, the BPEL process is called back with the completed task. No intermediary events are propagated to what the BPEL process instance. It is recommended that any user customizations be done in the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. Figure 15-29 Workflow Interaction Modeling. Epistemology Paper! Figure 15-30 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Figure 15-30 Workflow Interaction Modeling in Oracle JDeveloper. If intermediary events need to be propagated to the BPEL process instance, select the theory, Allow task and routing customization in BPEL callbacks check box in both the Advanced tab of the Human Task window and the Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor. When these options are selected, the Epistemology, workflow service invokes callbacks in existence the BPEL instance during each update of the Paper, task. The callbacks are listed in the TaskService.wsdl file and choke coil, described below: onTaskCompleted #x2014; This callback is Epistemology invoked when the task is completed, expired, withdrawn, or errored. onTaskAssigned #x2014; This callback is invoked when the task is skinner theory assigned to a new set of assignees due to Epistemology the following actions: Skip current assignment. Override routing slip. onTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any other update to the task that does not fall in the onTaskComplete or onTaskAssigned callback. This includes updates on tasks due to request for information, submit information, escalation, reassign, and so on. onSubTaskUpdated #x2014; This callback is invoked for any update to a subtask. Figure 15-31 shows how a workflow interaction with callbacks is modeled in Journalist's Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Once this task is Epistemology Paper initiated, a while loop is used to receive messages until the task is complete. The while loop contains a pick with four onMessage branches #x2014; one for each of the above-mentioned callback operations. The workflow interaction works fine even if nothing is changed in the onMessage branches, meaning that customizations in choke coil the onMessage branches are not required. In this scenario, a workflow context is captured in the BPEL instance. This context can be used for all interaction with the workflow services. For example, if you want to reassign a task if it is assigned to a group, then you need the workflow context for the reassignTask operation on the Task Service. It is recommended that any user customizations be done in Paper the first assign, AssignTaskAttributes, and existence precedes, that AssignSystemTaskAttributes not be changed. Figure 15-31 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) Figure 15-32 shows a workflow interaction in Oracle JDeveloper. Figure 15-32 Workflow Interaction Modeling (with Callbacks) in Oracle JDeveloper. 15.7.5.2 Including the Epistemology Paper, Task History from Other Workflows. When the task history is included in a workflow, the generated BPEL process described in the previous two sections is similar, with the following differences: The BPEL variable from the workflow whose task history is to be included is reused and no new BPEL variable is skinner created. The first invoke activity invokes the reinitiate operation instead of the Epistemology Paper, initiate operation. In many cases, the existence precedes sartre, outcome of a task determines the flow of the business process. Epistemology Paper! To facilitate modeling of the business logic, when a user task is generated, a BPEL switch activity is also generated with prebuilt BPEL case activities. Precedes Essence! By default, one case branch is created for each outcome selected during creation of the task. An otherwise branch is also generated in the switch to represent cases when the task is withdrawn, expired, or errored. The task carries a payload in it. Epistemology! If the payload is set from a business process variable, then an assign activity with the name copyPayloadFromTask is what essay created in each of the case and otherwise branches to copy the payload from the task back to its source. If the payload is expressed as other XPath expressions (such as ora:getNodes(. ) ), then this assign is not created because of the lack of a process variable to copy the payload back. If the payload does not need to be modified, then this assign can be removed. 15.7.6.2 Case Statements for Other Task Conclusions. By default, the Paper, switch activity contains case statements for the outcomes only. The other task conclusions are captured in the otherwise branch. Essay On A! These conclusions are as follows: The task is withdrawn. The task is errored. The task is expired. If business logic must be added for each of these other conclusions, then case statements can be added for each of the preceding conditions. The case statements can be created as shown in the following BPEL segment. The XPath conditions for Epistemology the other conclusions in the case activities for each of the preceding cases are shown in bold. What Is An Essay! 15.8 Task 3: Generating the Task Display Form. The task display form defines the display mechanism for Epistemology the task payload in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. This section describes the different types of task display forms you can use. This section contains the following topics: 15.8.1 Overview of Task Display Forms. The task display form for the human task can be automatically generated and then customized or developed completely from the what is an illistration, beginning using the workflow APIs. In the automatically generated case, a set of seeded templates and regions are used for the task forms. There are two methods for generating forms associated with the task definition: Automatically generate a simple task form #x2014; JSP-based forms that use the standard header, body, and footer template. Custom task form #x2014; enables you to select one of the existing templates and regions to create a task form. You can also specify which task parameters to display in the form. When task display forms are generated, a .tform file is created, which includes a template URI and region information. The .tform file is included in the process deployment archive and is deployed during process deployment. 15.8.2 Selecting a Task Display Form. Follow these instructions to generate a task display form for the human task. Go to the Application Navigator in Oracle JDeveloper. Paper! Right-click the symbolic interaction definition, folder of the human task for which to create a task display form (for this example, ExpenseApproval of the ExpenseRequest BPEL process in selected). The following menu of selections appears. See the Epistemology Paper, following sections for details about generating the different types of task forms: 15.8.2.1 Preview Release of Task Display Form Support for ADF Data Controls. A preview release of task display form support for factors application development framework (ADF) data controls is provided. Very minimal support is provided with this preview release. Note the following limitations: There is no support for complex XSDs with recursive elements. Epistemology Paper! Task forms generated with ADF data controls cannot be edited. Skinner Behavior Theory! Follow these procedures to use this preview release: Open an operating system command prompt. Open Oracle JDeveloper in preview mode: Note that Auto Generate Task Form With ADF Datacontrols now appears as a menu option when you right-click the folder of the human task, as shown in Paper Step 2 of Selecting a Task Display Form. Open the SOA_Oracle_Home j2ee OC4J_Home configserver.xml file. where OC4J_Home is the name of the choke coil, OC4J container for your install type: home #x2014; for the Oracle Application Server SOA Basic install type. OC4J_SOA #x2014; if you accepted the default value for the Oracle Application Server SOA Advanced install types. Paper! Add the following line under the shared-library name=oracle.bpel.common version=10.1.3 section: Restart Oracle Application Server SOA Suite for the changes to take effect. 15.8.3 Automatically Generating a Simple Task Display Form. This option enables you to symbolic interaction sociology automatically generate a task form based on the default task parameters and three regions. Select Auto Generate Simple Task Form from the list shown in Paper Step 2. The default layout is based on the following three region template: Header region #x2014; this region has standard task attributes such as title, priority, created date, assignee, and expiration date. Symbolic Interaction Sociology! This information is contained in the Header1.jsp file. Body region #x2014; this region is generated based on the task parameters. Depending on the XSD used in the task, it is either generated as a list of values or as a table (for repeating items). If you specified the parameter to be modifiable through the worklist on the Add Task Parameter window in Step 2, it displays as an editable field in the form. Otherwise, the field displays as read-only. The information for this region is contained in the payload-body.jsp file and Paper, the payload-body.xml mapping file. What Is An Illistration! After generation, if you want to change any read-only parameters, you can modify the payload-body.xml file. Footer region #x2014; this region has an area for comments, attachments, and a short history of the Epistemology, task routing. This information is contained in Essay Journalist's Audience the Footer1.jsp file. A .tform file is generated. The contents of this file are as follows: 15.8.3.1 Payload File for the Autogenerated JSP. Two files are automatically generated to display the Epistemology Paper, payload for the autogenerated JSP: A default JSP file named payload-body.jsp . This file is added to the HTML root directory of your project, which is by default the public_html directory. A mapping XML file named payload-body.xml . This file is added to the same directory of choke coil, your project as payload-body.jsp. If you select Custom Task Form in Step 2, you can specify a unique file name for the autogenerated JSP. The mapping XML file is created based on the JSP file name. You can also select the Paper, payload elements to include in the autogenerated JSP. For example, if the JSP file is named autogenerate-body.jsp , then the skinner behavior theory, mapping XML file is named autogenerate-body.xml . The JSP run-time library and the BPMWorkflow library are automatically added to your BPEL project for compilation of the JSP file. The default JSP is designed with two goals in mind: To present you with a simple form; that is, an XSD tree with a depth of more than three must be shown in a more readable way in the JSP. The default JSP must require minimum modification. If modification is unavoidable, it can be easily performed with a user interface tool. To attain these goals, instead of presenting a tree structure that mimics the payload XSD structure, the default JSP groups the entire payload structure in sections. It groups simple types that belong to the same parents and Epistemology, makes them sections. For example, assume you provide the following payload XSD: This XSD has the structure shown in Figure 15-33. Essence Sartre! Figure 15-33 Structure of the XSD for Epistemology myCompanyType. In the default JSP, based on the structure of the leaf nodes, there are three sections: , , and . These three sections are named according to their parents' names; that is, the sections are named board , my Company , and department , respectively. In the board section, there are two fields, size and head . Each of existence essence, these fields are in an editable HTML input type.The section department is different from Epistemology Paper other sections and are cognitive factors, can have multiple occurrences ( maxOccurs 1 ). In this case, all the fields in this section (that is, size , head , and function ) are horizontally presented in a table, with each row representing one department . This is called a table section. There is a plus ( + ) button for adding a row (department) and a minus ( - ) button for subtracting a row (department) for the department table section.Unlike a regular section, it is not necessarily true that all the fields belong to the same XSD parent in Epistemology a table section. For example, suppose the interaction definition sociology, head element has two elements: employeeNumber and dateOfBirth . Since these two elements have maxOccurs set to less than or equal to 1 , they are shown in the same department table section. This is a desired behavior, because adding a row in the department table not only adds a size and a function field, but also adds the head information fields in the same department row. This makes it easy to move through complicated payload instances. Epistemology! Nested multiple ( maxOccurs 1 ) elements are supported. Assume the department element has a groupMember child element whose maxOccurs is symbolic sociology unbounded. In that case, the parent element department is presented in a table section while the child groupMember elements are presented in different child table sections. The parent department table section has a column called group member that contains an HTML href link pointing to its corresponding child group member section in each department row. Pressing the + button in the parent department section not only adds a row in the parent table, but also adds a child section for that corresponding new row. The default JSP in the current release has the following limitations: XSDs that contain recursive elements are not supported. The default JSP shows all the simple types defined in the payload XSD. If multiple simple types belong to the same XSD choice block, all these simple types are shown in the default JSP. Although simple types are preserved in Epistemology Paper the JSP, XSD restrictions are not relevant. What Is An Essay! Only payloads copied from variables that are not simple types are supported. For example, if the query is bpws:getVariableData(var) or bpws:getVariableData(var, part) and the variable is a simple type, then JSP generation fails. Note that bpws:getVariableData(var, part, query) and bpws:getVariableData(var, query) work even if the queried data is a simple type. You only need to make sure the variable itself is not a simple type. XSI extensions are not supported. No special handling of XSD order indicators occurs (that is, choice , all , and sequence ). For example, the default JSP does not check if you entered both firstname and lastname : 15.8.3.1.1 Customizing the Autogenerated JSP. The autogenerated default JSP is generic, and so may require changes to improve its look and Paper, feel. The JSP works in choke coil conjunction with the mapping file to determine which elements in the payload are displayed in the form. 15.8.3.1.2 Customizing the Mapping File. The mapping file gives you control of the presentation. Epistemology! The mapping file is an XML file that contains a list of viewable fields. The root element in the mapping file contains its targetNameSpace , other namespaces, and xmlEditable as its attributes. All the elements that are simple types are listed as fields in the mapping file. Along with these elements, their immediate parents are listed as well for multilanguage support. Each field has three properties defined in what the mapping file. They are xpath , editable , and resource_key . The xpath property defines the XPath of this field. Epistemology! It is always prefixed by /ns0:task/ns0:payload . This is the XPath to the root of the payload object. When maxOccurs is greater than 1 , it is denoted by
  • . For example, /ns0:task/ns0:payload/company[*]/ceo shows that maxOccurs is greater than 1 for the company field. Do not modify this XPath field because it is illistration essay also a unique key that determines the identity of the field.
  • The editable property defines if this field is editable. Epistemology! It defaults to true . If the value of this field is changed to false , the default JSP shows a disabled text field that disallows value changes. The resource_key property is for multilanguage support. To ensure that your autogenerated JSP shows a preferred language other than English, you must supply a resource bundle. Follow these steps to add a resource bundle: Create a bundle file (for example, MyBundle ). This file points to a properties file that resides at the root of the project. The following code shows an example of MyBundle_en-US.properties : In this case, if a field is defined in your mapping file as follows. in the default JSP returns the string i18n Task if your locale is set to en-US . Existence Precedes Sartre! Similarly, if your locale is set to French, the Epistemology Paper, proper properties file ( MyBundle_fr.properties ) is picked up. Specify the symbolic interaction definition, resource bundle name and location in the Resource Details window of the Human Task editor, as shown in Specifying Multilingual Settings. 15.8.3.1.3 Customizing the Default JSP. If the mapping file does not provide enough control, you can modify the Epistemology Paper, default JSP file. Only modify the section after the Essay Journalist's Audience, label: Most JSP modifications can be made in the JSP design view of Oracle JDeveloper. By default, all the Paper, fields are set to text field. If you want to change a text field to a text area, you can do the following. Select Text Area in the Component Palette , as shown in Figure 15-34. Figure 15-34 Oracle JDeveloper JSP Design View. Drop it into the position of the text field you want to replace. Note that the essence, name of the text field is Epistemology set by calling the function oracle.bpel.services.workflow.worklist.payload.PayloadFormGenerator.constructName(String xpath) , and the value of the field is set by choke coil PayloadFormGenerator.selectNodeValue(Element payload, String xpath, Map namespace) . Epistemology! These functions must be used to construct form field names and to retrieve form field values. Set the text area's name and value to the same name and value as the text field. Delete the text field. In the what illistration essay, place you want to insert text or other HTML elements that are not in Paper a table, add text by typing it or add an HTML element by dragging and dropping the skinner behavior, HTML component from the Component Pallet . If the Paper, place you want to insert HTML elements is in an HTML table, to insert text or a horizontal rule, first add a table row by choke coil clicking a row, right-clicking, and selecting Insert Row . After a row is inserted, you may need to merge all the cells in the row by selecting all the cells in the row and right-clicking to select Merge Cells . Then you can either type your text or drag and drop your HTML component. If you want to change the layout of the table or form, highlight the Epistemology, section you want to modify, right-click, and precedes, select table or form. If you want to format the text, use the toolbar's color and style buttons. Epistemology! It is recommended that you modify the symbolic interaction sociology, default JSP's look and Paper, feel only. You should preserve the functions being used in the JSP. You must not alter the hidden parameters being submitted in the HTML form, because the Update button invokes form submission to the WFTaskUpdate that expects certain values. If your change is complicated and has programming logic in symbolic definition sociology it, you must switch to the source view and modify the JSP code directly. By putting the statement %@ page pageEncoding=UTF-8 % in the default JSP, UTF-8 is Epistemology set as the default encoding. The HelpDeskServiceRequest demo in SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsamplesdemos for an example of an autogenerated JSP and how to change the choke coil, payload presentation. 15.8.3.1.4 Displaying a Check Box on the Worklist Payload JSP. Follow these instructions if you want to customize the JSP page to display a selectable check box instead of a text box. Note that the Paper, input for the status is generated as follows. Substitute the entire code block shown in Step 1 with the following code block: Add the following JavaScript . This is required because the value for the check box field in JavaScript is choke coil always the value defined in the input element. 15.8.4 Generating a Custom Task Display Form. For this release, task display forms are generated by using templates consisting of different regions. Oracle JDeveloper automatically includes three templates and Epistemology Paper, two default JSPs: The three templates are as follows: Three Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the header, body and footer regions. These regions can be displayed by using custom JSP, XSL, default JSP, or autogenerated JSP files. The automatically generated JSP displays the body region. Are Cognitive Factors! Two Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the header and footer regions. One Region JSP #x2014; Consists of the body region. Epistemology Paper! The two default JSPs are as follows: The header JSP displays task attributes such as task number, priority, title, and so on. The footer JSP displays task attributes such as attachment, comments, and definition sociology, so on. The custom task display form enables you to select the template and rendering type for displaying task details. Select Custom Task Form from the list shown in Step 2. The Task Form Display window appears. Select a template from the Current Template list. Three are three seeded regions (three region JSP, two region JSP, and one region JSP). After selecting a region, you can specify how to render it. See the following sections for details about Paper generating the different types of custom task display forms: This option enables you to automatically generate a form for the payload of the task. You can also optionally specify which particular task parameters you want to are cognitive include in the displayed form. Select Auto JSP from the Body list in the Rendering section. An icon displays to the right of Body.jsp in the Source section. The Payload Mapping window appears. This window enables you to select message attributes. Select message attributes to include in the autogenerated JSP. Click OK to return to the Task Form Display window. Epistemology Paper! This option enables you to invoke an external custom JSP to display the task details. You can also specify URL parameters to pass to this JSP at run time. Three parameters are passed in by default #x2014; taskID , version , and workflowContext . Additional parameters must be explicitly specified. Select Custom JSP from the illistration, Header list in the Rendering section. A second icon displays to the right of the Source section for editing custom JSP parameters. Enter the custom JSP file name in the Source field or click the Paper, first icon to select the Essay on A, JSP file to use. This JSP is used in the project and Epistemology Paper, deployed with the other JSP files. Click the second icon to specify run time JSP parameters. The Payload Mapping window appears. This window enables you to add input JSP parameters. Add a parameter by clicking the what are cognitive, + sign. Add a name in the Name column. Click the icon to the right of the row to display the Expression Builder window to dynamically enter a value for the XPath column. For this example, the custom JSP is using a parameter named PRIORITY to receive the task ID from the request. Paper! Therefore, PRIORITY is specified as the symbolic definition sociology, name and /tns:task/tns:systemAttributes/tns:PRIORITY is specified as the XPath expression. Creating Custom JSP Forms for details about explicitly passing parameters. This option provides the default Header1.jsp and Footer1.jsp files to display the header and footer regions, respectively. This option enables you to specify an XSL to convert the task XML document into an HTML document for the form. Note that this is useful only to create read-only forms. Enter the HTTP location in the Source field or click the first icon to select the input XSL file to use. 15.8.5 Deploying Task Display Forms. Workflow task display forms are deployed by using the deployTaskForm ant target. Paper! This target is executed when you deploy the BPEL process from Oracle JDeveloper or from the what illistration, command prompt. This target generates an EAR file that includes all generated default or custom JSPs. This generated EAR file is Paper deployed as a child of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager application. The following directory structure is generated. The following subdirectories and files are created: A J2EE enterprise archive directory named ear is created. EAR deployment descriptors are generated and interaction definition, stored in the META-INF subdirectory. A Web archive (WAR) directory named war is created. This directory contains the following files and Epistemology, subdirectories: Style sheets and Java server page files for the header ( Header1.jsp ), footer ( Footer1.jsp ), and body ( payload-body.jsp and payload-body.xml ) are generated and stored in the war directory. Web service deployment descriptors are generated in the subdirectory WEB-INF . You can delete all form-related files by right-clicking the human task folder in the Application Navigator and definition sociology, selecting Delete Task Form files . As described earlier, you can register a custom JSP for rendering the task details in Paper the worklist. The BPEL worklist invokes any custom JSP that has been registered. Follow these instructions to create a custom JSP form. Get the task ID, version, and context ID from the what, request. Get the workflow context object based on the context ID. Get the task object based on the task ID and version. Use the task query service API getTaskDetailsById if the version is null or empty. Otherwise, use the Epistemology, getTaskVersionDetails API. Interaction! Use the task object methods to get the values you want to display in Epistemology the JSP. In the what are cognitive, case of update support, generate the Paper, hidden HTML type for choke coil the following parameters, so that the update servlet can read these parameter values: You can get the Paper, values for precedes these parameters in the custom JSP servlet request object. Run time invokes the Paper, custom JSP by passing these parameters. The following custom JSP code shows how to use these steps to write a custom JSP that uses the local query service and verification APIs. For this reason, deploy this JSP as a child of the hw_services application. If you do not want to deploy to the same application server, replace local APIs with remote APIs. 15.8.6.1 Adding Update Support in the Custom JSP. To add update support in the custom JSP, you can write the servlet that uses the is an illistration, remote task service APIs to update the custom JSP task values: Get the Epistemology, task object by using the same steps as used in is an illistration the custom JSP. Query the Epistemology, task object and definition, set the values based on Paper, the custom JSP form. For example, if the custom JSP form allows a user to update the priority attribute, then get the factors, priority JSP form value and call task.setPriority( newvalue ); . Use the remote task service API to update the task. Get the value from servlet parameter WORKLIST_NEXT_PAGE_PARAMETER_NAME , which the Epistemology, custom JSP page includes as a hidden parameter. Redirect the page to the URL. 15.9 How Changes to a Workflow Appear in Worklist Application. Changes made in Oracle BPEL Control to a BPEL process that includes a human task impact how tasks display in are cognitive factors Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: If you abort an Epistemology Paper, active BPEL process instance on behavior theory, the Instances tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. Epistemology! If you delete a BPEL process instance on the Instances tab, all associated tasks are deleted. If you undeploy a BPEL process on the BPEL Process tab, associated tasks are marked as Stale in the Status column of the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application home page. 15.10 Notifications from Workflow Services. Notifications are sent to alert users of skinner theory, changes to the state of Epistemology, a task. What! Notifications can be sent through any of the following channels: e-mail, telephone voice message, fax, pager, or SMS. This section contains the Epistemology, following topics: 15.10.1 Configuring the Notification Channel. After configuring the what, notification service for e-mail and other channels in Oracle JDeveloper, set the NotificationMode parameter for the notification service to either ALL or EMAIL in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigns_emails.xml file. By default, this value is set to Paper NONE , meaning that no notifications are sent. The possible values for the NotificationMode attribute are: ALL #x2013; the e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and choke coil, pager channels are configured and notification is sent through any channel. EMAIL #x2013; Only the Paper, e-mail channel is configured for sending notification messages. Symbolic Definition! NONE #x2013; No channel is configured for sending notification messages. This is the default setting. The notifications for a task can be configured during the creation of Epistemology Paper, a task in the Human Task editor. Notifications can be sent to symbolic interaction different types of participants for different actions. The actions for which a task notification can be sent are as follows: Assigned #x2014; when the task is assigned to users or a group. This action captures the following task actions #x2014; acquire, adhoc route, delegate, escalate, information for a task is Paper submitted, push back, reassign, release, and resume. Task is completed. Task is errored. Task is expired. Information is requested for is an illistration a task. Task outcome is updated. Task is suspended. Task is withdrawn. Epistemology Paper! Notifications can be sent to users involved in the task in choke coil various capacities. This includes: Assignees #x2013; the users or groups to whom the task is currently assigned. Initiator - the user who created the task. Creator #x2013; the user who created the task. Approvers #x2013; the users who have approved the task so far. This applies to Paper a sequential list of approvers participant type where multiple users have approved the task and a notification must be sent to Essay Journalist's all. Owner #x2013; the owner of the task. When the Paper, task is assigned to a group, each user in the group is sent a notification if no notification endpoint is existence essence sartre available for the group. Service Configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for details about editing the ns_emails.xml file and Paper, (for the JAZN XML provider) users-properties.xml file. Each e-mail notification can contain the following parts: The notification message. The HTML content from the worklist application #x2014; This is a read-only view of the worklist application on definition sociology, the task. Task attachments #x2014; If the Paper, notification includes task attachments. Notifications through SMS, voice, fax, and pager contain only the notification message. Journalist's! The notification message is an XPath expression that can contain static text and dynamic values. In creating the Epistemology, messages, only the task BPEL variable is available for dynamic values. This restriction is because the messages are evaluated outside the context of the BPEL process. The payload in the task variable is also strongly typed to essence contain the type of the payload for XPath tree browsing. The XPath extension function hwf:getNotificationProperty(propertyName) is available to get properties for a particular notification. The function evaluates to corresponding values for each notification. The propertyName can one of the following values: recipient #x2014; The recipient of the notification. Paper! recipientDisplay #x2014; The display name of the recipient. taskAssignees #x2014; The task assignees. taskAssigneesDisplay #x2014; The display names of the task assignees. locale #x2014; The locale of the recipient. taskId #x2014; The ID of the task for which the notification is meant. taskNumber #x2014; The number of the task for choke coil which the notification is meant. appLink #x2014; The HTML link to the worklist application task details page. The following example demonstrates the use of hwf:getNotificationProperty and hwf:getTaskResourceBundle together: This results in a message similar to the following: 15.10.3 Configuring Messages in Paper Different Languages. It is possible to get internationalized messages in the notification content using one of the following methods. If you want to use values from the resource bundle specified during the what factors, task definition, use the XPath extension function hwf:getTaskResourceBundleString(taskId, key, locale?) . This function returns the internationalized string from the resource bundle specified in the task definition. The locale of the notification recipient can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty('locale') . The task ID corresponding to a notification can be retrieved with the function hwf:getNotificationProperty('taskId') . Paper! If a different resource bundle is used, the XPath extension function orcl:get-localized-string() can be used to retrieve localized messages. Symbolic Definition Sociology! Task actions can be performed through e-mail if the task is set up to Paper enable actionable e-mail (the same actions can also be performed from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application). An actionable e-mail account is the account in which task action-related e-mails are received and processed. This e-mail account name is identified by the element actionableEmailAccountName in the configuration file SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwf_config.xml . Ensure that you select Make e-mail messages actionable in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor to make e-mail notifications actionable. (See Figure 15-25.) This enables you to perform task actions through e-mail. If a notification is actionable, the e-mail contains links for on A Journalist's Audience each of the custom outcomes. Clicking on the links invokes the compose window of the e-mail client. You do not have to change anything in the subject or the body in this e-mail. If you change the content with the NID substrings, the e-mail is not processed. Figure 15-35 shows an Epistemology, actionable e-mail sample: Figure 15-35 Actionable E-mails. 15.10.5 Sending Inbound and interaction sociology, Outbound Attachments. If the include attachments flag is checked; only e-mail is sent. The e-mails include all the task attachments as e-mail attachments. Select Send task attachments with e-mail notifications in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) In the actionable e-mail reply, the user can add attachments in the e-mail and these attachments are added as task attachments. In the actionable e-mail reply, the Epistemology Paper, user can add comments in the e-mail between Comments[[' and ']] and those contents are added as task comments. For example, Comments[[looks good]]. In previous releases, the workflow outbound notification was not reliable. This meant that notifications were sent by using threads and the list of notifications to send was stored in memory. If Oracle BPEL Server went down, workflow lost any notification messages that had not yet been sent. With release 10.1.3, the workflow outbound notification service uses queues with the symbolic interaction definition, persistency service to send notifications to users. Whenever a workflow needs to send a notification to a user, it stores the task information such as notification ID, task ID, version, and so on in the dehydration store and enqueues the notification ID to Epistemology the queue. What Are Cognitive! A message-driven bean (MDB) listening on this queue dequeues the Epistemology, message and creates the symbolic interaction definition, notification message to send to the user. It then uses the Paper, notification service to send this message, which uses the queue with the dehydration store. 15.10.8 Sending Secure Notifications. If a notification is marked as secure in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor, a default notification message is used. (See Figure 15-25.) The default notification message includes a link to skinner behavior the task in the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. You must log in to Epistemology see task details. Existence Precedes Essence Sartre! 15.10.9 Channels Used for Notifications. Epistemology Paper! The channel through which a user is choke coil notified is determined by Epistemology the notification preference attribute of the user specified in choke coil JAZN. The notification preference is identified by the attribute orclWorkflowNotificationPreference . In a JAZN file-based system, the value for this attribute can be changed in the users-properties.xml file located at Paper, SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig . Skinner Behavior Theory! In an Epistemology, Oracle Internet Directory-based system, the user properties can be changed using the skinner theory, Oracle Delegated Administration Service. Epistemology Paper! If this attribute is not set, the on A Audience, e-mail channel is used as the default. Tasks can be configured to send reminders, which can be based on the time the task was assigned to a user or the expiration time of Epistemology, a task. The number of reminders and the interval between the reminders can also be configured. The message used for reminders is the message that is meant for illistration essay ASSIGNEES when the task is marked as ASSIGNED . You set reminders in the Notification Settings section of the Human Task editor. (See Figure 15-25.) Reminder configuration involves these parameters. Recurrence #x2014; The recurrence specifies the number of times reminders are sent. The possible values for recurrence are EVERY , NEVER , 0 , 1 , 2 #x2026;, 10 . RelativeDate #x2014; The relativeDate specifies if the reminder duration is computed relative to the assigned date or to the expiration date of the Epistemology Paper, task. The possible values for the relativeDate are ASSIGNED and EXPIRATION . Duration #x2014; The duration from the are cognitive factors, relativeDate and the first reminder and Epistemology, each reminder since then. Essence! The data type of duration is xsd:duration , whose format is defined by ISO 8601 under the form PnYnMnDTnHnMnS . The capital letters are delimiters and can be omitted when the corresponding member is not used. Examples include PT1004199059S , PT130S , PT2M10S , P1DT2S , -P1Y, or P1Y2M3DT5H20M30.123S . The following examples illustrate when reminders are sent. The relativeDate is ASSIGNED , the recurrence is EVERY , and Epistemology, the reminder duration is PT1D . If the choke coil, task is assigned at 3/24/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/25/2005 10:00 AM , 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , 3/27/2005 10:00 AM , and so on until the user acts on Epistemology, the task. If the relativeDate is EXPIRATION , the recurrence is 2 , the reminder duration is PT1D, and behavior theory, the task expires at 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , then reminders are sent at 3/24/2005 10:00 AM and Epistemology, 3/25/2005 10:00 AM if the task was assigned before 3 /24/2005 10:00 AM . Existence Precedes Essence Sartre! If the relativeDate is EXPIRATION , the recurrence is 2 , the reminder duration is PT1D , the task expires at 3/26/2005 10:00 AM , and the task was assigned at 3/24/2005 3:00 PM , then only one reminder is sent at 3/25/2005 10:00 AM . Table 15-14 shows the end-to-end workflow examples included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Follow the documentation included in the same directories with these samples. In addition to the demonstration features listed in Table 15-14, all samples show the use of worklist applications and workflow notifications. Table 15-14 End-to-End Examples. Integration with a business rule engine. Adding attachments to tasks. Use of decision service to Paper determine the levels of choke coil, approvals required for Epistemology Paper a particular expense request. Microsoft Office integration. Custom worklist user interface. Promotion of task payload message attributes. Group assignment (in StarLoan process) Custom worklist user interface (in LoanFlowPlusUI and StarLoanUI) FYI tasks (in LoanFlowPlus process) This example describes how to create a vacation request business process. In this business process, the manager of a user requesting a vacation approves or rejects the request. The approval or rejection is a one-step process. Symbolic Interaction Sociology! This example highlights the use of the following: Modeling a single approval workflow using Oracle JDeveloper. Using the Paper, Oracle BPEL Worklist Application to view and behavior theory, respond to tasks. This example assumes the following: You are familiar with basic BPEL constructs, including BPEL activities and partner links, and Epistemology, basic XPath functions. Familiarity with Oracle JDeveloper#x2014;the environment for creating and deploying BPEL processes#x2014;is also assumed. You must configure the e-mail server settings for the account Default to essay enable e-mail notifications. Epistemology! The Default account is used to send e-mails. The e-mail server configuration is in. The following code example from the file shows the parameters that may require configuration in bold. Essay! You must set the NotificationMode parameter to one of the following values in the ns_emails.xml file: ALL #x2013; If you have the e-mail, SMS, voice, fax, and pager channels set up. EMAIL #x2013; If you have only the e-mail channel set up. Paper! You must change the e-mail address for the user jstein to an accessible e-mail address. If the what are cognitive, XML-based JAZN provider is used, these properties can be changed in: The following XML segment from the users-properties.xml file shows where the e-mail is configured: You must restart Oracle BPEL Process Manager after making any of the preceding changes. 15.11.3 Modeling the Vacation Request Process. Epistemology Paper! In this phase of the tutorial, you create a new project, OrderApproval, and define the human workflow process, a single approver workflow in which the order is approved or rejected. The order is first assigned to the Supervisor role. After a user with the Supervisor role approves the Essay on A, order, it is sent to the user's manager for Epistemology final approval. This section contains these tasks: 15.11.3.1 Creating the Vacation Request Process and Importing the Schema. Right-click your application in the Application Navigator and select New Project . Select BPEL Process Project . Create an asynchronous BPEL process with the symbolic interaction definition, name VacationRequest . Click the flashlight next to Input Schema Element to browse for VacationRequest.xsd in. The Type Chooser window appears. Expand and select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest . Click the flashlight next to Output Schema Element . Expand and select Imported Schemas VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessResponse . Epistemology! The schemas are now imported into the project. Definition! VacationRequest.xsd appears under VacationRequest Integration Content Schemas in the Application Navigator , and under Schemas in Paper the Structure section. The BPEL process#x2014;a Receive activity ( receiveInput ) and an Invoke activity ( callbackClient )#x2014;is displayed. Select Save from the File main menu. 15.11.3.2 Adding a Human Task to the Order Approval Process. When you define the human task, the VacationApproval.task file#x2014;the task configuration metadata file#x2014;is created. Drag and drop a Human Task activity between receiveInput and choke coil, callbackClient . Click the Create Task Definition icon (second icon). Enter VacationApproval for the human task name and click OK . (Accept the Epistemology Paper, default location.) The VacationApproval.task file is created. The Human Task editor is displayed. For Title , enter Vacation Approval . Accept the default values for Priority and Outcomes . What Factors! For Parameters , click the + icon on the right side of the window. The Add Task Parameter window is displayed. Click Element and then the Epistemology, flashlight icon. In the Type Chooser window, expand and select Project Schema Files VacationRequest.xsd VacationRequestProcessRequest , and click OK . In the choke coil, Add Task Parameter window, click Modifiable via worklist and click OK . This ensures that you can modify task data using the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Epistemology! In the Assignment and Routing Policy section, click the choke coil, + icon on the right side of the window. The Add Participant Type window is displayed. For Type , select Single Approver . This participant type acts alone on the task. For Label , enter Vacation Approver . Click By expression . In this example, you assign the task to the manager of the vacation requester. Click the icon to the right of the Dynamic User Xpath field to display the Expression Builder window. Select Identity Service Functions from the Paper, list in the Functions section. Go to the Schema section on the left side of the Expression Builder window. Expand task:task task:payload ns0:VacationRequestProcessRequest ns0:creator . Click Insert Into Expression . The Expression Builder window appears as follows: Click OK to return to the Add Participant Type window. What Are Cognitive Factors! Click OK to return to the Human Task editor. Click the + sign to expand the Expiration and Escalation Policy section. Select Expire after from the drop-down list. Click Fixed Duration and select 1 from the Day list. Select Save from the File main menu. Epistemology Paper! Click the X next to VacationApproval.task to close the Human Task editor. 15.11.3.3 Assigning Input and Output Parameters for symbolic interaction definition sociology the Human Task. Map the Epistemology Paper, fields to the variables in the BPEL process. Double-click the what essay, VacationApproval_1 human task service in the BPEL process. Paper! This displays the Human Task window. In the Task Title field, enter the existence essence sartre, word for after the words Vacation Approval . Click the icon at the right to display the Expression Builder window. In the Paper, BPEL Variables section, expand and Audience, select inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest client:creator . Click Insert Into Expression . The XPath expression appears in the Expression section. The XPath expression is appended to the task title. Click the icon to the right of the Initiator field to display the Expression Builder window. Paper! Repeat Steps 4 through 6 to insert the same XPath expression in the Initiator field. Click the flashlight icon under the BPEL Variable column. The Task Parameters window appears. In the Task Parameters window, expand and select Variables inputVariable payload client:VacationRequestProcessRequest . Choke Coil! In the Human Task window, click OK . Select Save from the File main menu. 15.11.3.4 Creating a Task Form for the Worklist. An autogenerated task form, payload-body.jsp , is created. In the Application Navigator , right-click the VacationApproval folder and select Auto Generate Simple Task Form . Epistemology! This automatically generates a task form file. Close payload-body.jsp by clicking the X sign at the top. The Switch activity reflects the possible outcomes, or cases, specified previously, Approve and Reject. It also has an Otherwise case to represent other outcomes, such as errored, stale, or expired. Inside each of the cases, you can add activities to interaction definition complete modeling of the business process. The copyPayloadFromTask Assign activities copy the payload back to its source. Expand the taskSwitch Switch activity. Drag and drop an Assign activity to below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the case Task outcome is APPROVE section of the Switch activity. Double-click the Epistemology, Assign icon to display the symbolic, Assign window. Click the General tab. Enter assignVacationApproval1 in the Name field. Click the Copy Operation tab. Click Create and select Copy Operation . Enter the Paper, following details: Note: The namespace number values (for example, client , ns1 ) can vary. Use the namespace values that automatically appear. Click OK to close the Create Copy Operation window and sociology, the Assign window. Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to create an Assign activity below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the case Task outcome is REJECT section. Epistemology Paper! Enter the Journalist's Audience, same details as described above, with the Paper, following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval2. Set the Expression field to on A Journalist's string('Rejected') Repeat Steps 3 through 11 to create an Assign Activity below the copyPayloadFromTask Assign activity in the otherwise section. Paper! Enter the same details as described above, with the following exceptions: Name it assignVacationApproval3. Set the Expression field to string('Rejected') The process looks as follows: Select Save from the Essay on A Audience, File main menu. Click the - sign to close the taskSwitch Switch activity. 15.11.3.6 Validating, Compiling, and Deploying the Order Approval Process. Go to the Application Navigator section. Select Deploy my_integration_server_connection Deploy to default domain . This compiles the BPEL process. Check for errors by Epistemology Paper clicking the buttons at the bottom of the window. Skinner Theory! If there are no errors, deployment was successful. 15.11.3.7 Running the Order Approval Process. Log into Oracle BPEL Control by selecting Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager BPEL Control . The Dashboard tab of Oracle BPEL Control appears. Enter the Epistemology Paper, following details to log into Oracle BPEL Control and click Login : Click VacationApproval in the Deployed BPEL Processes list. Enter jcooper for the creator of the vacation. Enter appropriate values for the remaining fields. Click Post XML Message . The BPEL Processes tab displays a message similar to the following: Click the Instances tab at the top. Click the OrderApproval instance. Theory! A message appears indicating that the instance is active. Select Start All Programs Oracle - Oracle_Home Oracle BPEL Process Manager Sample Worklist Application to access the login window for Oracle BPEL Worklist Application: Log in as jstein / welcome1 . The user jstein is the manager of jcooper . This displays Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. A task waiting to be approved appears. Select Claim in the Actions list for the task to approve. Epistemology! The task details and payload information appear. Review the information. For example, the following information appears if you copied and pasted in the contents of OrderBookingPO_1.xml . Select Approve from the Task Action list and click Go . Log out as user jcooper . Log into Oracle BPEL Worklist Application as jstein / welcome1 . Interaction Definition Sociology! Select Approve from the Actions list and click Go . After processing, no tasks appear in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. Paper! Return to Oracle BPEL Control. What Are Cognitive Factors! Click the Instances tab at the top. Click the VacationApproval instance. A message appears indicating that the instance has completed. Paper! Click the Audit and behavior theory, Flow links to observe additional details about the completed OrderApproval process. Workflow services and functions are responsible for a variety of tasks. This section describes the responsibilities of the Epistemology, following workflow services: 15.12.1 EJB, SOAP, and Java Support for the Workflow Services. Table 15-15 lists the type of SOAP, EJB, and Java support provided for the task services. Table 15-15 EJB, SOAP, and Java Support. Table 15-16 lists the location for the SOAP WSDL file for each task service. Table 15-16 SOAP WSDL Location for the Task Services. 15.12.2 Security Model for Services. With the exception of the illistration, identity service, all services that use the above-mentioned APIs (SOAP, remote EJB, local EJB, and Epistemology, Java WSIF) require authentication to be invoked. All the above channels support passing the user identity using the workflow context. The workflow context contains either of the following: Login and password. The task query service exposes the authenticate operation that takes the login and password and returns the workflow context used for all services. Optionally, with each request, you can pass the workflow context with the Essay on A Audience, login and password. The authenticate operation also supports the concept of Epistemology Paper, creating the choke coil, context on behalf of Epistemology Paper, a user with the admin ID and admin password. Essay! This enables you to create the context for a logged-in user to Paper the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application if the skinner, password for that user is not available. 15.12.2.1 Security in SOAP Web Services. SOAP Web services also support Web service security. When Web service security is used, the workflow context does not need to be present in the SOAP input. The Web service security can be configured from the Oracle Enterprise Manager 10 g Application Server Control Console. Paper! Workflow service SOAP clients cannot be used when Web service security is used. Existence Precedes Essence! Configuring Single Sign-on Using SAML in the Oracle Application Server Web Services Security Guide for details about Paper propagating the identity of a user from on A Journalist's a Web application to the Web service. The workflow service EJBs also take a workflow context parameter that is used for authentication and authorization. 15.12.2.3 Creating Workflow Context on Epistemology Paper, Behalf of a User. The authenticate API operation on the task query service can create the workflow context on behalf of a user by passing the user ID and password of an admin user in the request. An admin user is a user who has the BPMWorkflowAdmin role. This created context is as if it was created using the password on behalf of the symbolic interaction sociology, user. In this example, the workflow context is Epistemology Paper created for what user jcooper . The task service exposes operations to Paper act on tasks. Table 15-17 describes the operations of the task service. Choke Coil! Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.task corresponds to Paper the task service. Table 15-17 Task Service Methods. The task query service queries tasks based on choke coil, a variety of search criterion such as keyword, category, status, business process, attribute values, history information of a task, and so on. Table 15-18 describes the Epistemology Paper, operations of the task query service, including how to use the service over SOAP. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.query corresponds to the task query service. Table 15-18 Task Query Service Methods. assignmentFilter #x2014; Filters tasks according to whom the choke coil, task is assigned, or who created the task. Paper! Possible values for on A the assignment filter are as follows: ADMIN #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. ALL #x2014; No filtering; returns all tasks regardless of assignment or creator. CREATOR #x2014; Returns tasks where the context user is the creator. GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to Epistemology Paper one of the groups of which the symbolic definition, context user is Epistemology a member. MY #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to the context user. MY_AND_GROUP #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to either the context user, or one of the groups of which they are a member. OWNER #x2014; Returns tasks where the context user is the task owner. PREVIOUS #x2014; Returns tasks the context user previously updated. REPORTEES #x2014; Returns tasks that are assigned to reportees of the context user. keywords #x2014; An optional search string. This only returns tasks where the string is contained in the task title, task identification key, or one of the task text flex fields. predicate #x2014; An optional oracle.bpel.services.workflow.repos.Predicate object that allows clients to specify complex, SQL-like query predicates. Note: To use the task query service over SOAP, call Predicate.enableXMLSerialization(true); to what essay make the predicate object serializable. This section describes the identity service component of Oracle BPEL Process Manager. The identity service is a thin Web service layer on Paper, top of the Oracle Application Server 10 g security infrastructure, namely OracleAS JAAS Provider (JAZN), or any custom user repository. It enables authentication and authorization of users and Essay, the lookup of user properties, roles, group memberships, and privileges. Some users and roles are automatically created when Oracle BPEL Process Manager is installed. Seeded users include: The identity service predefines the following roles, which can be granted to users to Paper perform workflow-related operations: PUBLIC #x2014;This role is an implicit JAZN role; it does not need to be granted explicitly to any of the users. If any user can authenticate with the worklist, then they can see tasks assigned to them or groups they belong to and act on these tasks. The BPMPublic role can be used and explicitly granted to each user if a third-party provider does not support an implicit PUBLIC role. Choke Coil! BPMWorkflowReassign #x2014;This role enables a user to reassign tasks to any other user in the organization. A manager can always delegate tasks to any users under him in the organization hierarchy without any Reassign privileges. However, to reassign to users outside the management hierarchy, the BPMWorkflowReassign role is required. BPMWorkflowSuspend #x2014;This role enables users to suspend a process. Epistemology Paper! If a process is suspended, then the expiration time does not apply. When the process is resumed, the expiration date is recomputed. What Are Cognitive! Users cannot suspend the workflow if the process designer has designated Suspend as a restricted action, even if the user has the BPMWorkflowSuspend role. BPMWorkflowViewHistory #x2014;In general, a user can see only the task assignment sequence as part of Paper, their worklist. This role enables a user to drill down further into the BPEL business process audit trail from the task approval sequence. BPMWorkflowAdmin #x2014;This role enables a user to essay perform system actions on any workflow in the system. This role does not allow you to change the outcome of the task (such as approve or reject); it only allows you to perform actions such as delegate, escalate, and suspend. Only the task assignee or the task owner can change the outcome of the Paper, task. BPMSystemAdmin #x2014;Both BPMWorkflowAdmin and BPMSystemAdmin have the same level of workflow privileges. BPMDefaultDomainAdmin #x2014;This role provides a user with access to the default domain through Oracle BPEL Control. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on choke coil, configuring the identity service and additional details about the BPMSystemAdmin and BPMDefaultDomainAdmin roles. Some of these roles are nested. The BPMWorkflowReassign , BPMWorkflowSuspend , and BPMWorkflowViewHistory roles are granted to the BPMWorkflowAdmin role. The BPMSystemAdmin role is granted to Epistemology the seeded bpeladmin user. The following table represents the relationship between the grantees and roles: You use directory-specific tools to create realms, users, or groups. For example: To create users and groups when using OID, you use the Oracle Delegated Administration Services tools. See Oracle Identity Management Guide to Delegated Administration for more information. To create user and what factors, group credentials when using the XML-based JAZN provider, you use the JAZN Admintool to modify the jazn-data.xml file. To add or remove an XML-based JAZN user or role, the JAZN Admintool must be used. You can manually edit the users-properties.xml file to specify detailed user properties that JAZN does not support. For example, to add a user to a specified realm, issue the following command: java -jar jazn.jar -user adminUser -password adminPassword -adduser realmName newUser newUserPassword. The JAZN Admintool provides different command options. You can list all the Paper, options and their syntax with the -help option, as in: java -jar jazn.jar -help. If you are using a third-party LDAP server or a custom user repository, you must use the specific tools available for choke coil that directory. Epistemology! 15.12.5.2 Identity Service Providers. Oracle BPEL Process Manager identity service supports three types of providers: JAZN, third-party LDAP, or custom plug-in, as shown in Figure 15-36. Existence Sartre! Figure 15-36 Identity Service Providers. The identity service providers perform the following operations: Authentication#x2014;authenticates users given their username and password. Authorization#x2014;determines roles and group memberships for a specific user. These roles are then used to control access to Epistemology various work items and operations on the worklist. Retrieve user properties#x2014;includes contact information such as first name, last name, phone, e-mail, preferred notification channel, language preference, time zone, and organization details such as manager name and reportees. The JAZN provider mode, which is preconfigured, delegates all authentication and authorization inquires to the JAZN layer. Two JAAS providers are supplied as part of the skinner behavior theory, OC4J security infrastructure: the XML-based file and LDAP-based OID. XML-Based JAZN Provider Type #x2014; The XML-based provider type is used for lightweight storage of Epistemology, information in the XML files. All the user names, roles, and permissions are stored in XML files. In this case, user names, passwords, and privileges are stored in the jazn-data.xml file. In addition, Oracle BPEL Process Manager uses a user-properties.xml file that works in conjunction with this file to store detailed user properties such as name, e-mail, phone, and manager. LDAP-Based JAZN Provider Type (Oracle Internet Directory) #x2014; The LDAP-based provider type is based on factors, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for centralized storage of information in a directory. OID is a standard LDAP-based directory that provides a single, centralized repository for all user data. It allows sites to manage user identities, roles, authorization, and authentication credentials, as well as application-specific preferences and profiles in a single repository. The third-party LDAP provider mode enables identity service to Epistemology Paper work with third-party LDAP servers such as Sun Directory Server (iPlanet), Microsoft Active Directory, or openLDAP. In this mode, identity service assumes that the directory is the central repository of all user data, including authentication credentials, roles, and profiles. Audience! The standard organizationalPerson , inetOrgPerson objects from the LDAP schema retrieve these details. 15.12.5.2.3 Custom User Repository Plug-ins. This mode enables you to plug in a non-LDAP-based user repository by registering a custom identity service provider. The custom identity service plug-in must implement the BPMIdentityService interface (see Javadoc). This identityservice class name must be registered in is_config.xml . See SOA_Oracle_Home bpeldocsworkfloworacletippcservicesidentity for Javadoc on the BPMIdentityService interface. The identity service supports the following user properties : Given name, middle name, and Epistemology Paper, last name. Home phone number. Mobile phone number. Owners (applies to groups and roles, but not users) Language preference (Java locale) Notification preference (preferred notification channel) The preceding properties are optional for Oracle BPEL Process Manager users. However, some features, such as task notification, are not available if the contact information is not present in the directory or in are cognitive the users-properties file for the JAZN XML-based provider. Also, automatic escalation and manager views are not available if the manager field is not available to the identity service. If the user is not listed among the owners of the Paper, group, they cannot modify the rule defined for are cognitive the group. The service configuration chapter of Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on defining group ownership. The following OID objectClasses specify user and role properties such as mail , manager , and telephoneNumber . The identity service maintains a connection pool to retrieve these properties from the LDAP directory. If you are using the XML-based JAZN provider, the Paper, same entries are represented as XML elements in the users-properties.xml file in. Essay On A Journalist's! The identity service enables you to specify multiple configuration settings (to express identity contexts, supported realms, and so on) in the is_config.xml file. The business process uses one of the Epistemology, defined configurations at run time. The configuration must specify the realm name to enable a business process to resolve the context at run time. For the JAZN provider, the realm name must match one of supported JAZN realm names. Symbolic Interaction Sociology! Otherwise, a run time exception is Epistemology thrown. For the JAZN XML-based provider, extended user and role properties for illistration different realms must be stored in different files. For the Epistemology Paper, LDAP provider, the realm name can be any unique name, while the context is defined by the LDAP URL, user search base, and role search base nodes in the LDAP server tree. Skinner Behavior Theory! These properties are controlled by the connection , userControls , and roleControls provider elements in is_config.xml . If the is_config.xml file contains more than one configuration, then one is Epistemology Paper defined as the default configuration. The default context is factors used by Epistemology the BPEL process if no specific context information is found at interaction sociology, run time. Paper! The identity service resolves the configuration context based on the realm name. The service configuration chapter of the Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for configuration instructions. Existence Precedes Essence Sartre! 15.12.5.5 Authentication, Authorization, and Identity Service Providers. The identity service supports authentication, authorization, and identity service providers. The identity service provider is the default pseudoservice provider. It must be defined for each configuration in Paper the is_config.xml file. It delegates all calls either to the authentication or authorization service provider. By default, all three service providers share the symbolic interaction definition, same context setting defined in the identity provider.The identity service can define additional service providers with its own setting attributes for authentication or authorization services.If the provider service attribute is set to Authentication , the setting and the provider context are used only for all authentication calls for the configuration. If the provider service attribute is set to Authorization , the setting and provider context are used only for Epistemology Paper authorization calls. The multiple service providers section of the choke coil, service configuration chapter of the Paper, Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for an example of a configuration with two providers: The JAZN XML-based identity service provider is essence sartre used for Paper all calls, except authentication. The custom plug-in provider is used only for authentication calls. The notification service exposes operations that can be invoked from the BPEL business process to send notifications through e-mail, voice, fax, pager, or short message service (SMS) channels. Oracle BPEL Process Manager Administrator's Guide for instructions on configuring notification service delivery channels. Task metadata service exposes operations to retrieve metadata information related to a task. Table 15-19 describes these methods. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.metadata corresponds to the task metadata service. Table 15-19 Task Metadata Service Methods. Essence Sartre! The user metadata service provides methods for managing metadata specific to individual users and groups. Epistemology! It is used for getting and setting user worklist preferences, managing user custom views, and managing workflow rules for users and groups. For most methods in behavior the user metadata service, the authenticated user can query and update their own user metadata. However, they cannot update metadata belonging to other users. Epistemology! In the case of group metadata (for example, workflow rules for groups), only a user designated as an owner of choke coil, a group (or a BPMWorkflowAdmin user) can query and update the metadata for that group. However, a user that has been granted the BPMWorkflowAdmin role can query and update metadata for any user or group. Table 15-20 describes the methods in the user metadata service. Epistemology Paper! Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.user corresponds to the user metadata service. Table 15-20 User Metadata Service Methods. Chapter 16, Worklist Application for details about the rule configuration and user preference pages. The runtime config service provides methods for managing metadata used in the task service run time environment. It principally supports management of task payload flex field mappings. The task object used by the task service contains a number of sociology, flex field attributes, which can be populated with information from the task payload. This allows the task payload information to be queried, displayed in task listings, and used in workflow rules. The runtime config service allows administrators to create mappings between simple task payload attributes and these flex field attributes. Only a user with the BPMWorkflowAdmin privilege can make updates to payload mappings. However, any authenticated user can use the query methods in this service. An administrator can create attribute labels for the various flex field attributes. These attribute labels provide a meaningful label for Epistemology Paper the attribute (for example, a label Location may be created for the flex field attribute TextAttribute1 ). A given flex field attribute may have multiple labels associated with it. This attribute label is what is displayed to users when displaying lists of attributes for a specific task in the worklist application. The attribute labels for a specific task type can be determined by what factors calling the getTaskAttributesForTaskDefinition method on the task metadata service. When defining attribute labels, the following fields are automatically populated by the service. You do not need to specify values for these attributes when creating or updating attribute labels: Valid values for the task attribute field are as follows: TextAttribute1 through TextAttribute10. FormAttribute1 through FormAttribute5. UrlAttribute1 through UrlAttribute5. Epistemology Paper! DateAttribute1 through DateAttribute5. NumberAttribute1 through NumberAttribute5. Essay Audience! Mappings can then be created between task payload fields and the attribute labels. For example, the Paper, payload field customerLocation can be mapped to the attribute label Location . Different task types can share the same attribute label. This allows payload attributes from skinner different task types that have the same semantic meaning to be mapped to the same attribute label. Only payload fields that are simple XML types can be mapped. The runtime config service also provides methods for querying the dynamic assignment functions supported by the server. Table 15-21 describes the methods in the runtime config service. Package oracle.bpel.services.workflow.runtimeconfig corresponds to the runtime config service. Table 15-21 Runtime Config Service. Epistemology! 15.12.9.1 Internationalization of Attribute Labels. Attribute labels provide a method of attaching a meaningful label to a task flex field attribute. What Illistration Essay! It can be desirable to present attribute labels that are translated into the appropriate language for the locale of the user. Paper! To achieve this, you can add entries to the WorkflowLabels.properties resource property file, and associated resource bundles in other languages. Interaction! This file exists in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Epistemology! Entries for flex field attribute labels must be of the form: For instance, the illistration, entry for a label named Location is: Note that adding entries to these files for attribute labels is optional. If no entry is present in the file, the name of the Epistemology Paper, attribute label as specified using the behavior theory, API is used instead. 15.13 Configuring the Assignment Service. This section describes how to configure the assignment service. This section contains the following topics: 15.13.1 Dynamic Assignment Functions. Dynamic assignment functions select a particular user or group from either a group, or from a list of users or groups. The selection is made according to criteria specific to the particular dynamic assignment function. The three dynamic assignment functions shown in Table 15-22 are included with Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Table 15-22 Dynamic Assignment Functions. These functions all check a user's vacation status. A user that is currently unavailable is Epistemology not automatically assigned tasks. These dynamic assignment functions can be called using the Essay on A Audience, custom XPath functions in a BPEL process or task definition. These XPath functions must be called with at least two, and Epistemology Paper, optionally more parameters: The name of the dynamic assignment function being called. The name of the group on which to execute the function (or a list of theory, users or groups).(Optional) the identity realm to which the user or group belongs (default value is the default identity realm). Additional optional parameters specific to Epistemology the dynamic assignment function. In the case of the Journalist's, most-productive assignment function, this is the length of time (in days) to calculate a user's productivity. The two other functions do not use additional parameters. In addition, workflow rules created for a group can use dynamic assignment functions to select a member of that group for reassignment of Epistemology, a task. In addition to the three functions, a dynamic assignment framework is provided that allows you to implement and configure your own dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.1 Implementing a Dynamic Assignment Function. To implement your own dynamic assignment function, write a Java class that implements one or both of the following interfaces: If your dynamic assignment function selects users, implement the first interface. If it selects groups, implement the second interface. If it allows the selection of what is an essay, both users and groups, implement both interfaces. The two interfaces above both extend the Paper, interface oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.IDynamicAssignmentFunction . Your Java class should also implement the existence, methods in that interface. These interfaces as shown below: The dynamic assignment framework also provides the utility class oracle.bpel.services.workflow.assignment.dynamic.DynamicAssignmentUtils . This class provides a number of methods that are useful when implementing dynamic assignment functions. 15.13.1.2 Configuring Dynamic Assignment Functions. Dynamic assignment functions are configured using the wf-dynamic-assign-cfg.xml file in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfig directory. Each dynamic assignment function must have an entry in this file, in the form of a function tag. Epistemology! The function tag must contain two attributes: name #x2014; the name of the function. classpath #x2014; the classpath of the class that implements the function. In addition, the function tag can optionally contain any number of on A Audience, property tags. These tags pass initialization parameters to Epistemology the dynamic assignment function. Each property tag must contain a name attribute. The value of the property is specified in the body of the tag. The property values specified in skinner theory these tags are passed as a map (indexed by Epistemology the value of the name attributes) to the setInitParameters method of the dynamic assignment functions. Two of the functions have initialization parameters. These are: ROUND_ROBIN #x2014; The parameter MAX_MAP_SIZE specifies the maximum number of sets of interaction definition sociology, users or groups for which the function can maintain ROUND_ROBIN counts. The dynamic assignment function holds a list of Epistemology, users and groups in precedes sartre memory for Epistemology each group (or list of users and groups) on which it is asked to execute the choke coil, ROUND_ROBIN function. most-productive #x2014; The parameter DEAFULT_TIME_PERIOD specified the length of time (in days) over which to calculate the user's productivity. This value can be overridden when calling the most-productive dynamic assignment function. Use an XPath function by Epistemology Paper specifying an alternative value as the third parameter in on A Journalist's Audience the XPath function call. 15.13.1.3 Configuring Display Names for Epistemology Paper Dynamic Assignment Functions. The runtime config service provides methods for returning a list of available user and group dynamic assignment functions. These functions return both the name of the is an essay, function, and a user-displayable label for the function. The functions support localization of the display name, so that it displays in the appropriate language for the context user. These functions are used by the worklist application to show a list of available dynamic assignment functions. To specify display names (and appropriate translations) for your dynamic assignment functions, add entries to the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties , and associated resource property files in other languages. This file exists in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemservicesconfigwfresource directory. Entries for dynamic assignment functions must be of the Paper, form: For instance, the entry for the ROUND_ROBIN function is: Note that adding entries to these files for dynamic assignment functions is optional. Skinner! If no entry is present in the file, then the Epistemology, name of the function (for example, ROUND_ROBIN ') is used instead. 15.13.2 Dynamically Assigning Task Participants with the Assignment Service. Workflow task participants are specified declaratively in a routing slip. Choke Coil! The routing slip guides the workflow by Epistemology Paper specifying the participants and how they participate in the workflow task (for example, management chain hierarchy, sequential list of approvers, and so on). There are scenarios where the workflow task participants are computed dynamically using complex rules. To support such dynamic assignment, an assignment service is existence sartre used. The assignment service is responsible for Epistemology determining the task assignees. You can also implement your own assignment service and plug in that implementation for use with a particular workflow. This section contains the behavior theory, following topics: 15.13.2.1 Assignment Service Overview. The assignment service determines the Epistemology Paper, following task assignment details in a workflow: The assignment when the task is initiated. The assignment when the task is reinitiated. On A Journalist's! The assignment when a user updates the task outcome. When the task outcome is updated, the Epistemology Paper, task can either be routed to other users or completed. The assignees from whom information for the task can be requested. If the task supports reapproval from the Oracle BPEL Worklist Application, a user can request information for symbolic definition reapproval. The users who reapprove the task if reapproval is supported. The workflow service identifies and invokes the assignment service for a particular task to determine the task assignment. For example, a simple assignment service iteration is Epistemology Paper as follows: A client initiates an expense approval task whose routing is determined by the assignment service. The assignment service determines that the sociology, task assignee is jcooper . When jcooper approves the task, the assignment service assigns the task to jstein . The assignment service also specifies that a notification must be sent to the creator of the Epistemology Paper, task, jlondon . jstein approves the task and the assignment service indicates that there are no more users to which to assign the what are cognitive factors, task. 15.13.2.2 Implementing an Assignment Service. The assignment service is implemented with the IAssignmentService interface. The workflow service passes the following information to the assignment service to determine the task assignment: Task document #x2014; The task document that is executed by Epistemology Paper the workflow. The task document contains the payload and other task information like current state, and so on. Behavior Theory! Map of Epistemology Paper, properties #x2014; When an assignment service is specified, a list of properties can also be specified to correlate callbacks with backend services that determine the task assignees. Task history #x2014; The task history is a list of chronologically ordered task documents to trace the history of the task. The task documents in this list contain a subset of attributes in Essay on A Journalist's the actual task (such as state , updatedBy , outcome , updatedDate , and so on). 15.13.2.3 Example of Assignment Service Implementation. The assignment service class cannot be stateful because every time workflow services need to call the assignment service, it creates a new instance. The getAssigneesToRequestForInformation method can be called multiple times because one of the criteria to Paper show the symbolic, request-for-information action is Epistemology Paper that there are users to what are cognitive factors request information. Therefore, this method is called every time the Epistemology Paper, workflow service tries to determine the permitted actions for a task. You can implement your own assignment service plug-in that the workflow service invokes during workflow execution. The following example provides a sample IAssignmentService implementation named TestAssignmentService.java . 15.13.2.4 Deploying a Custom Assignment Service. You must use one of the on A Journalist's, following methods to make an assignment service implementation class and its related classes available in the class path of Oracle BPEL Process Manager: Load your classes in the SOA_Oracle_Home bpelsystemclasses directory and unzip your JAR files in the same directory. Change the Oracle BPEL Process Manager shared library to include your JAR files. You cannot create different versions of the assignment service for use in different BPEL processes unless you change package names or class names. Java classes and Epistemology Paper, JAR files in the suitcase are not available in the class path and therefore cannot be used as a deployment model for the assignment service. The steps must be repeated for each node in a cluster. The custom escalation function enables you to integrate a custom rule in a workflow. You create a custom task escalation function and register this with the workflow service that uses that function in task definitions. The Advanced Settings section of the Human Task editor enables you to integrate the rule in a human task. 15.14 Workflow Service and Identity Service Related XPath Extension Functions. Oracle BPEL Process Manager provides XPath extension functions for use with the workflow services and the identity service. XPath extension functions mimic XPath 2.0 standards. Table 15-23 lists the supported workflow service functions and Table 15-24 lists the supported identity service functions. Table 15-23 Workflow Service Functions. Table 15-24 Identity Service Functions. 15.14.1 Deprecated Workflow Service and Identity Service Functions. Table 15-25 lists the workflow and identity service functions that are deprecated for theory this release. Table 15-25 Deprecated Workflow Service and Identity Service Functions. You can specify resource bundles for Epistemology Paper displaying task details in different languages in Oracle BPEL Worklist Application. In addition, the resource property file WorkflowLabels.properties can be used for setting display names for the following: Dynamic assignment functions. Payload mapping attribute labels. This chapter describes how you can integrate systems and services with human workflow into a single end-to-end process flow using Oracle BPEL Process Manager. The predefined workflow participant types are described, as are the components of workflow services#x2014;the task service, task routing service, identity service, worklist service, notification service, and Audience, others.

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