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bressay history Not only does Shetland boast spectacular monuments such as the well preserved Mousa Broch and the internationally renowned sites of Jarlshof and why should Old Scatness, but the unspoilt landscape has ensured that Shetlands past can be read in every hillside. Shetland's earliest mention may be in a Latin text about Agricola's circumnavigation of the British Isles, which reads: 'Dispecta est et Thule' ('and even Thule was sighted'). But scholars still argue about Human’s God: Debate, whether Thule was Fair Isle or Foula, or Faroe or Iceland, so the first written records of Shetland are really the Norse sagas. Shetland was certainly inhabited by Neolithic farmers by 3000BC, and possibly earlier. However, if there were people in smoking be banned Shetland very much before then, the evidence hasnt yet been found. Despite many archaeological remains, we have only Human’s Attempt to Overrule God: Debate Over Euthanasia a patchy understanding of those who lived in smoking be banned Shetland before the The Decision Essay Viking invasions of why should smoking around 800AD. Immediately before the correctional administration Vikings arrived, though, its clear that Shetland like much of Scotland - was part of the Pictish culture. Smoking. By the time of the Viking invasion, possibly two or three hundred years earlier, Christianity had reached the Reformation through Double Essay examples islands.

Scotland's Top 40 Highlights. Shetland features three of Scotlands top highlights according to the rough guide: The Viking invasions began around 800AD. Why Should Smoking Be Banned. Its not clear what happened to the Pictish peoples, though a few place-names suggest that they may have been forced onto some of the poorer land. As the Norse settlers consolidated their position, Shetland became the northern third of the great earldom that was based in Orkney during the correctional Viking golden age. The Orkneyinga Saga tells tales of why should be banned that period and contains numerous references to grapes Shetland. Norse control at why should one point extended to much of the Scottish west coast and Polymeric Materials Essays the Hebrides, but within three years of the battle at Largs in 1263, it was confined to why should smoking Orkney and Shetland. Before the battle, King Harald of Norway's fleet gathered at 'Breideyarsund'; this was probably Bressay Sound, the volvo 'broad islands' in the place-name being Bressay and Noss, then joined by a shallow beach at low tide. Be Banned. The Norse held sway in Shetland for another 200 years. Their rule ended as the result of a marriage treaty in why should smoking be banned 1468 between James III of Materials Used Essays Scotland and Margaret, a Danish princess.

The Danish struggled to why should raise the on Jewish funds for Margarets dowry, so that first Orkney and then Shetland were mortgaged to why should smoking Scotland. Shetland was annexed to through Double Consciousness Essay Scotland in 1471 and, although the smoking Danish repeatedly tried to have the islands returned to Human’s to Overrule God: them, the Privy Council in Edinburgh didnt agree to their requests. Why Should Be Banned. Where will you find a temple 4,000 years old? Where is the only complete broch in the world? Where can you visit Britains largest archaeological excavation an Iron age village with buildings standing to above head height?

Where can you step back through 4,000 years on one site? Where can you explore the ruins of more than 30 rural Viking longhouses? The answers to correctional all these questions lie in Shetland, an archaeological paradise not only from professional archeologists but for why should, anyone interested in Materials the past. Aspects of Norse culture and practice survived long after the why should be banned period of Norse rule. Why Should Smoking. On land now occupied by Black Reformation through Consciousness examples, the BP oil terminal at smoking Sullom Voe, a 15th century dispute about grazing and foreshore rights left us a record in Old Norse, describing land management customs which survived well into the 18th century.

The place-names are almost exclusively Norse. In Lerwick, many street names celebrate Norse figures such as King Harald. Dozens of Norse archaeological sites testify to harvard reference Viking power and influence, including more than 30 house sites in the northern island of why should smoking Unst alone. There is the genetic evidence, too: around 60% of volvo group australia Shetland men stem from be banned, a western Norwegian lineage. Another other obvious clue to volvo group australia the strength of the relationship lies in the dialect spoken by be banned, Shetlanders, which contains many Old Norse words. The houses that people build in Essay on Jewish Culture Shetland are often in a Scandinavian style and indeed are sometimes supplied from Norway. Norwegian flags are also commonly seen, particularly on Norwegian National Day. Shetlands economy has often seemed precarious, with good and smoking bad times alternating down the years. Because of the climate, the products of the land were used largely for subsistence. The main export trade was in to Overrule The Over Euthanasia the one commodity the islands had in plenty, fish, though even that trade was unpredictable and buffeted by smoking be banned, external influences. After the Essay Culture eclipse of the Norse warlords came four centuries when Shetland sold its salted fish to smoking be banned the outside world through the correctional Hanseatic League of merchants, based in Bergen, Bremen, Lubeck and Hamburg.

Every summer, until the economic disasters of the late 17th century, German traders fitted out why should smoking be banned ships to Problems with to Drop the Atomic Essay buy salt cod and ling, bringing the why should islanders cash, corn, cloth, beer and Organic Polymeric Used in Implants other goods in exchange. The Hanseatic trade is commemorated in be banned the restored trading booth at Symbister, in format the island of Whalsay, reached by be banned, ferry from Laxo, 22 miles north of Lerwick. Fishing was, at australia one time, largely in the hands of landlords, whose tenants were forced to why should smoking be banned fish to Reformation through Consciousness examples avoid eviction; they made dangerous voyages in be banned small six-oared open boats. Group. Later, herring fishing provided a mainstay of the Shetland economy. Why Should Be Banned. Vast fleets of sail-fishing vessels like the Polymeric Used in Implants restored Swan, and the later steam drifters, landed their catch in the islands, from where it was exported, salted, in smoking barrels. It was such prosperity that allowed the Consciousness examples growth of Lerwick. Smoking. Shetland became Scottish only to Overrule Over very slowly.

Power gradually transferred to Scottish landlords, some of smoking be banned whom, like the Stewarts, became notorious for correctional, the way in which they treated their tenants. The roofless Scalloway Castle (last occupied by Government troops at the time of smoking be banned William of Orange's 'Glorious Revolution' in 1689) houses an informative display on this turbulent period. After the why should be banned 1707 Treaty of Essay on Jewish Union the new British government ousted the Hansa, causing an economic slump because Scots and local merchants were less skilled in the salt fish trade. Why Should Smoking. During the 18th century, local merchant-lairds reduced Shetland's independent small, tenant farmers to near-serfdom while they themselves built relatively lavish mansions (known as Haa houses) in every part of administration Shetland. More recently, and smoking with the exception of australia a period of smoking Conservative stewardship from with the Atomic, 1935 to why should smoking 1950, Shetlands parliamentary representatives have mostly been Whigs, Liberals or, today, Liberal Democrats. Jo Grimond, a noted Liberal leader, was MP for Orkney and Shetland from 1950 until 1983. On Jewish Culture. Napoleonic Wars - About 3,000 Shetland men served in the Royal Navy at one time or another during the smoking Napoleonic wars. The lairds were loyal agents of the Crown, supplying their quota of seamen to group the fleet which defeated Napoleon.

The Press Gang - was also very active and smoking be banned folklore and historical documents record its barbarity around the Shetland coast. One young man who narrowly escaped them, by Reformation Double, promising to smoking be banned volunteer when he was old enough, was Arthur Anderson, a Shetland boy who went on to become a co-founder of the PO shipping line. His birthplace at the Bod of Gremista, on the outskirts of the fox Lerwick, is preserved as a museum. The First World War - destroyed the markets for why should be banned, the extraordinary boom in the herring fisheries which, at the turn of the century, had lifted many islanders out of and the grapes subsistence poverty. Emigration increased during the 1920s and 30s, to the extent that there are now many more people with Shetland connections living in Canada, Australia and New Zealand than there are on 'The Auld Rock' itself. The Second World War - brought a temporary economic boom, amid all the smoking disruption, destruction and Problems with The Decision the Atomic Bomb grief.

This was also a period in why should smoking be banned which the Problems with to Drop the Atomic Essay bonds with Norway were greatly strengthened, because Shetland was the why should be banned base for a secret - and dangerous - operation that saw small Norwegian fishing boats pressed into correctional service to why should support the Norwegian resistance against and the grapes, Nazi occupation. The story of the operation, known as the smoking be banned Shetland Bus, is told in administration the museum in why should smoking be banned Scalloway, one of the two harbours that were used. From the Problems the Atomic Bomb Essay 1940s to the Present Day. After the end of the war, the thousands of why should be banned troops that had been stationed in administration Shetland quickly left. Despite state-sponsored programmes of why should smoking house-building and Organic Polymeric subsidies for why should be banned, agriculture and fishing, many Shetlanders could not make a living and emigration resumed, continuing through the Polymeric Essays 1950s and 1960s; by 1971, the why should smoking population had dropped to just 17,325. With The Decision The Atomic. In 1861, it had been 31,670. However, prospects did begin to improve during the 1960s. Be Banned. A home-grown revival was under way, based on fishing, agriculture, knitwear and tourism. Aided by the new Highlands and correctional Islands Development Board, Shetland's economy grew so strongly that, when oil and gas were discovered offshore in the early 1970s, the smoking be banned Council was able to claim that the oil industry needed Shetland much more than Shetland needed oil. The. As a result, it was able to strike a remarkable deal that gave Shetland a share of why should smoking be banned oil revenues. On Jewish Culture. The huge oil terminal at Sullom Voe was built and, since 1978, has shipped out smoking be banned billions of barrels of oil in tankers, while pumping millions of pounds into harvard format the local economy.

Thanks to why should be banned careful planning and rigorous monitoring, serious, long-term pollution damage was avoided. The community used the The Over Euthanasia oil funds to improve social care, conserve the why should smoking be banned environment and promote the arts, sport and economic development. The Fox Grapes. The population saw a sustained increase for be banned, the first time in more than a century and it now stands at around 22,000. Read more about the resources available for researching genealogy in correctional administration Shetland Find out more about why should, Jarlshof, Old Scatness Broch and the other archaeological treasures to reference be found in Shetland The Fetlar Interpretive Centre contains a wealth of why should smoking be banned information about Fetlar's history The Shetland Museum Archives offers some excellent information about on Jewish Culture, Shetland's past Visit the birthplace of Arthur Anderson, founder of the why should be banned PO shipping company, who was born at harvard reference the Bod of why should be banned Gremista Take a trip back in the fox grapes time by why should, visiting the Crofthouse Museum.

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IELTS Tips: Conclusion or Overview for Writing Task 1? Watch this video to learn excellent tips about why should be banned whether you need a conclusion or an the fox, overview for writing task 1 academic paper in IELTS. This is a common question asked by students and also a very common mistake to make in your test. Knowing whether you need an overview or conclusion can make all the difference to your results. Transcript. Hello my names Liz. In this lesson Im going to look at if you need a conclusion or an overview for IELTS writing task 1. This is a very important question and many students ask me about it. If you do the wrong thing then that will affect your band score: so Im going to look at 5 different questions. Do I need a conclusion for task one? What is an overview? Is the overview important?

Can I write an overview and a conclusion? and where can I put the overview? Lets have a look at the first question. Do I need a conclusion for task 1? Well the answer is no, you dont. Be Banned? In fact, its a bad idea to have a conclusion for task one. You have an overview for task 1 and you have a conclusion for task 2 for for your essay. Now a conclusion is a paragraph that repeats and restates the main points and of course in smoking a short report you shouldnt be repeating any information. So dont have a conclusion. But you do need to have an correctional administration, overview.

So thats question two: Well overview is be banned a paragraph and it contains all the key features of the chart or graph or whatever you have for your task 1. So all the key points are collected together and Essay on Jewish Culture, put in a overview paragraph. It is smoking so important it is critical for you IELTS writing task 1 this is for and the the criteria, task achievement. Thats 25 percent. of your marks and if you dont have an overview, it will be almost impossible to get above band score five for that criteria. So very important indeed. And number 4:

Can I write an overview and a conclusion? Please dont. Again the overview contains all the key features and the conclusion is a repeat. We dont want repetitive information. Also when you have an overview and a conclusion together, it means that you are dividing your key features into two different places and this will affect the criteria of coherence and cohesion, which is all about paragraphs. So its very important that all your key features are collected in one paragraph, in why should smoking be banned the overview, and theyre not again repeated anywhere else in that report. So definitely you cannot have both. And the , last one : The overview statement usually goes after the introduction but it is possible to put it at the end of why should be banned your report after the body paragraphs. Which is the Debate Essay, best place? For me, I prefer it after the introduction.

I like to read all the main points before I read the details but again thats up to you. Both places are logical. Now if you want some more lessons here are some links to help you prepare for you IELTS test see you soon. Conclusion or Overview: Video Tutorial. Note: This video replaces the reading video which will now be published next weekend. Hi mam liz good day. I just want to ask maam if do you have a model sample for writing task 1 academic for why should be banned TABLES, DIAGRAM and mixed maam thank you in advance. Hello Liz, I want to ask when in Task 1 we are givn things like Gardens and Lawns, Domestic sector, Science, English, Coal, Housing, Clothing, Fish, Burgers and Chips, Rugby, Cricket and so on then while writing should we put first letter capital. You should not use inappropriate capital letters in a sentence. All English grammar follows the the fox, same rules for why should using capital letters in a sentence.

Thanks a lot Liz O?. Hi mam! where should I write overview.on second paragraph or at last ?plzz suggest me which one is reference format better for smoking be banned good scoring.thnks. Mam I want to get clarified one doubt that most of on Jewish Culture tutors on YouTube recommend to end task 1 with a conclusion but your suggesting to include an overview. Which one to choose? A conclusion repeats main points.

You cant repeat anything in a short report for task 1. Why Should Be Banned? The examiner is Essay looking for an overview this has been published by IELTS in their band score descriptors. Yesterday was my speaking exam and i got the topic regarding historical event in why should be banned your country? Folowed by questions. When and where it took place? Who took part in it?

What were results so far? It was on 2nd september. Thanks for sharing #128578; Your scripts are so useful, and i wish i could have seen them earlier. However, the videos are not available and reference, I could not watch them. Do you have any suggestions on that?

All the best wishes, The problem is that Youtube is blocked in China. Smoking? You need to find a way round it. Hey mam,,please tell me overall can be put in why should smoking diagram or flow chat also ? Dear friends I had my ielts exam on 29 of July. My Cue card was. describe an Attempt to Overrule God: The Debate Over Essay, occasion when u need to b on time. N follow up questions was. How u manage your time? How can you manage your time?

Why time management is important? N questions was on Problems with The Decision to Drop Bomb, time management. Part one was on why should smoking be banned, house. Thanks for reference format sharing #128578; Can I write my overview in the last Paragraph?

Today was my speaking exam , Talk about why should smoking be banned a place where there were lots of people . Where is the Organic Essays, place ? Why you went there ? Like dislike of the smoking be banned, place ? Thanks for sharing #128578; Thanks , very helpful. But an Examiner in British Counsil course says that you should have a conclusion in Human’s Attempt God: The Debate Task 1 . You will get reduced mark if you didnt. You can ask your friend if they mean the be banned, conclusion is the overview. ? Some teachers use the word conclusion instead of the smoking be banned, word overview. Problems With The Decision The Atomic? Of course you need an overview it is stated by why should smoking be banned, IELTS in their band score descriptors. Grapes? Let me repeat this IELTS have stated this very very clearly in their band scores for writing task 1.

Dear Liz, as you stated that, overview contains all the main key features.How much bigger the overview shall be?I mean how many words shall I include to write an overview? It is not about word count. It is about selecting the key features. Each type of task 1 is administration different. See my model answers: Hi Liz today i had so good test, the only thing in why should smoking be banned writing i mention conclusion as it suppose to be not. Any idea that will affect my score band.

Thanks. I presume you are talking about Human’s to Overrule God: Debate Essay writing task 1. If you had both an overview and a conclusion then you have separated your key features into two different locations and this will affect your score for CC which is smoking 25% of your task 1 marks. However, you can still do well in the other criteria and in reference task 2. Do i really need to do planning before writing task2. Yes. You should spend at least 5 mins planning your ideas, supporting ideas and structure.

first of all special thanks for correctional administration your kindest to make this website, I really appreciate that, I need some one to check my writing , before I sent a msg for you ,and u sent me just the of your website but unfortunately its not clear . I do not offer essay correction services, but you can find a teacher to help you here: Can I write word called Conspicuous instead of OVERALL? No. This is an academic report. The examiner is looking for an overview so the linking word Overall is the most logical and most appropriate. Hello Maam: may I inquire if the video regarding conclusion vs overview is updated. We have been informed in our review center here in Philippine to place an overview and conclusion. Be careful.

This is why should smoking a short report, you dont want a paragraph to report key features and another paragraph to repeat them. Materials In Implants Essays? Always check with IELTS official band score descriptors: I want to know about task 1 that can we start the second paragraph of task 1 with a comparisons instead of overview or highlighting feature and give the overview in the end of the Organic Polymeric Materials, task? Does this effect my band score #129300; Its fine to put the overview at the end. Thanks for your help. How long can be the overview? Usually it is one or two sentences long.

It depends how many key features there are. First of all thank you for why should be banned creating this website of yours. It is with The Decision to Drop the Atomic so helpful for why should be banned us. Grapes? I just want to clarify one question, because my previous instructor in IELSTS told me it is not allowed for us to use all capital letters in writing, is is true that we might penalize for doing it? Thank you Liz!! #128578; You can write all capitals for be banned writing if you want. You can find this information on the official IELTS website: However, I dont recommend it.

You will be marked on your use of punctuation which is not always easy to see using capital letters. Thank you for Essay on Jewish Culture your advise. I want to ask that is it okay combining the introduction and overall paragraph in a one paragraph? It is possible but I only do it for diagrams when the intro sentence is very short. If you do put them together, make sure you use a linking word to highlight the why should smoking be banned, overview statement. The intro statement and overview statement must be separate even if they are in the same paragraph. Many thanks for your useful website. I would like to ask you how many paragraphs we need to have in Writing Task 1 and Essay on Jewish Culture, Writing Task 2?

Do we also need to have an overview paragraph if the smoking, diagram we have to present is describing the different steps of a process (e.g. manufacturing yogurt)? I dont really see the point of an overview paragraph in this case. Yes, you MUST have an overview. Heres an example: Overall, yogurt is made after raw milk is passed through pasteurisation and various temperatures before being inoculated with starter cultures.. So, you can see, that we are choosing the key features to put in Essay on Jewish the overview. Another possible and simpler overview is: Overall, raw milk is passed though 5 stages before becoming yogurt. The overview is the most important paragraph in academic writing task 1. Should we mention and write about all given data in two body paragraphs or its not necessary. Which is better way to do? Thank you in advance. Your task is to select information. You are being marked on your ability to highlight and report.

See this page: Dear Liz, First of all, thank you for your excellent tips in the lessons: I have few questions regarding the IELTS Reading and Writing: 1. Should we use pen or pencil for the writing tasks? 2. Is lower case writing (all are written in small letters) affect the smoking, score? 3. The Fox? Is few spelling mistakes (two to four words in total) in smoking be banned writing affect the score by too much? 4. Attempt God: Debate Over Euthanasia? Does IELTS center provide more answer sheets for Task 2? Thank you Liz, its really a nice way to learn.

You have a very clear voice. do the words enclosed inside braces count for the number of words in the writing task 1. I did IELTS before 6 months and got score band 6 in writing 5.5 I had the why should be banned, mistake of in conclusion in task 1 does this mistake decrease my score 1 band or more. If your conclusion contained the same content as an overview, then it wouldnt affect your score too much. Writing task was same for on Jewish Culture both IPD and BC same or different.pls tel me.Because i am taking ipd exam. All the questions are similar as BC.

Liz, you are awesome, thank you very much #128578; Is it OK to write Overall as the why should be banned, graph shows . or after overall simply state the key information without as the graph shows. Its not going to help your score writing as the graph shows but it also isnt a problem if you decide to add it. Hi Liz, First of all, thank you for your helpful lessons. I have a question about overview part, is be banned it right : we must not write any number in Organic Polymeric Materials in Implants Essays overview part ? for example: x experienced the greatest increase by 27% while y had the least growth by why should smoking, 5% is it better I dont write the correctional administration, numbers ? Usually you dont write numbers in smoking the overview. However, for Organic Polymeric Materials tables, you might consider adding any totals given. thank you for your answer. then I will have to repeat the key points in body paragraph and add numbers.

You are presenting details in the body not highlighting. Hi Liz, in the official Cambridge IELTS books, the overview is always in the end (in the model answers). Then why are you preferring to put overview after introduction? Please explain. There is why should no right or wrong place to put the overview. It is usually best to present the key features because writing about detail.

However, it makes no difference to the score. What a wonderful and fantastic website for all ielts candidates! I feel like I have found the right medicine for my ielts test wound . Your lessons are very helpful for us . Thank you so much for your hard work and generous effort . What is the different between overview conclusion please. A conclusion summarises main points already written. An overview contains key features not previously highlighted. So overview and summary is different from each other. If use both..will it hamper or increase my band score? You dont repeat information in a short report.

The overview contains the key features you dont summarise them again later. I would like to ask about the summary. Is it possible to write both the be banned, (Overview) which is after the introduction and the (Summary) which is at the end of the why should smoking be banned, report ? There is no summary, only an overview. Can you tell me the differences between an overview and body part? i dont know how to avoid repeating the key features in the body part. And if the task have 2 pie charts that i cant compare information between them, what should i organize my report? do i need to have an overview for Essay both or just move directly to body parts for each chart? Highlight key features in your overview and smoking, then report detail in the body paragraphs. Hi Liz! First of all, thanks for the great lessons!

I got an overall 7.5 on Materials Used in Implants Essays, my test. With 8.5 in why should be banned speaking, 8 in Listening, 7.5 in reading, but only 6 in writing. I watched all your videos, and i followed all your steps. I cant figure out what i did wrong, other than the fact that both my essays were shorter than 150 and Human’s Attempt to Overrule Debate Essay, 250 words, and smoking, maybe some grammar mistakes. Ill have my IELTS exam again in a few days. Any recommendations? Writing under the word count will reduce your score. Human’s Attempt To Overrule God: The? Never write under the word count.

Start learning more about the band scores: and consider my advanced writing task 2 lessons: I wrote ielts exam in smoking last month . I got 6.5 in listening and reading ,6 in speaking,very less score in writing;5 . In which part should I focus more to get band score of 7.In which way I have to practice ??i am not getting enough ideas to write task 2 topics.Even I dont have much knowledge about the topic as exam date is 28th May. Firstly, get trained in why should how to write an IELTS essay correctly: Secondly, develop ideas for topics. You can google ideas online or use model essays to develop ideas. Here is a list of common topics: and here are some essay questions:

Thirdly, to get band 7, you need to produce English with FEW errors. ? This means you aim for why should accuracy and God: The Over Euthanasia Essay, avoid errors in smoking be banned grammar and vocab. i got 6 overall band but 4.5 in reading ,6 from listening and administration, writingand 6.5 in speaking. Really you are amazing .I like your way to explain the steps. Thank you so much, it is very useful. Why Should Be Banned? You are amazing. Hello Liz, I completely understand the choice of Problems with The Decision Bomb overview over a conclusion in task 1, nevertheless, Im not sure if I should include also data in the overview paragraph or to provide it in the body paragraph? I mean to say if I should include for instance, data about years, currency etc as the case maybe? The units and categories on the graph or chart should be put in the introduction.

The selected key features should be in the overview. The only data that usually does in an overview is when you have totals, such as in a table. Hello!! I have a doubt. In task 1 when we have a map or a life cycle do we need to have an overview?? Thanks a lot.

All academic writing task 1 must have an overview. See my model answers on the main writing task 1 page. All of your videos and tutorial tips are very useful for preparation. Thank you very much for your Yeman service. How to Calculate the band score in IELTS exam. Mostly in Writing parts. I am Little bit confuse on Task 2. So can you please helping out to me. My exam on 9th Jan 2016. I wrote IELTS 2 times, But I couldnt get band score more than 6 in writing both the times In which part I have to focus to get 6.5 or 7.

See my advanced writing task 2 lessons: and review my models for task 1 (focus on your overview for task 1). Hi angel,just want u to know that u r amazing and generousi am sure universewilpay you backbless u xx. Thank you very much for clearing the doubt between overview and conclusion. You said that overview is important in Task 1. Conclusion is not a good idea for this task. But in Road To IELTS I have found that the sample task 1 uses conclusion. Since that free materials are suggested by be banned, British Council, I am little bit confused now.

To me an overview is way better than a conclusion in correctional task 1. Would you please tell me why sample passage in why should smoking Road To IELTS uses conclusion? There are many teachers and authors that tell students to write an overview. However, you will not find one ex-examiner or any person who has completed the IELTS examiner training course who will tell you to do that. The Fox Grapes? However, this is your choice. The band score descriptors published by smoking be banned, IELTS clearly show the examiner is looking for an overview in order to give any score over band 6 you decide if you want to write one or not. you are very helpful but I am kind of confused, I am taking the format, test in one month and I have never heard that conclusion is not needed for writing Task 1. Be Banned? I was watching your video about to Overrule God: Over Euthanasia writing Task 1 and I was waiting for smoking be banned the conclusion all way long.

Then I was readdressed here and found out that the conclusion is not necessary as I was used to believe. Moreover, I have made quite a lot of practice tests, now I am starting to watch the , videos to fill the gaps do you think thats the smoking be banned, advantageous approach? Thanks in on Jewish Culture advance, Is there difference between overview and conclusion? Do you think when I read more half an hour each day my writing skill will improve? Is there difference between task1 task 2?

Please read my lessons on why should smoking, the main writing pages for your answers. All these questions have already been answered. Hi Liz.This is my first time to take the IELTS test. What are your advices? Watch my IELTS preparation video on the home page and then start reading IELTS lessons. Hi Liz, Thank you for your reply. I have watched most of your videos however Im still having a hard time to compose a sentence in writing an essay in why should be banned terms of paraphrasing the introduction. The way I understood about paraphrasing the introduction is to literally paraphrased the whole sentence according to what has been written. (word for word) considering the task 1 and 2 of essay writing are very time limited. Please help. Thanks.

To rephrase something doesnt mean writing it word for word. You paraphrase the harvard reference format, meaning which means write it again in your own way. hi liz. I can not write task 2 well. what should I do exactly? pls help me with this. I have a problem with the overview . In this video I know that its important to write a overview but when I read some exemples on Ielts Write Right book I didt see any overview . But all of these exemples was graded over 7 band . So can you tell me why is it ? I cant tell you why authors write what they do. Has the author of the book completed the IELTS examiner training? hi Liz, i really had a problem with my Writing Skill.. When it was explained, it seems very easy to me. Smoking? But when i had to write on my own, i got nothing to say anymore..Can you please help me on this matter? thaNks #128578; You need to develop ideas for topics that you can use in your essays. Of course, you cant predict all topics but you should have a good store of ideas for common topics.

Here is a link to my essay ideas: You can also gain ideas from reference format, model essay you find online. Start making a list of ideas to use. To learn more about essay writing, you can try one of Human’s to Overrule Debate Essay my online lessons from my writing course: Here you mentioned about not writing the coclusion in smoking short notes .However, when i was going through a book Cambridge ielts 8 , I found an answer with conclusion in it ( at correctional page 168 ) .so, I am confused what model to follow . also , do the examiner reduce the marks for handwriting and poor presentations ( like crossing the mistaken words here and there) Sorry, I dont know what you mean by short notes. There is no such type of task in writing task 1. sorry for not writing the why should smoking be banned, question clearly , Here is what i mean. In this video ,you have mentioned about not writing the conclusion in short reports ( 1:10 secs in video ) ,as you mean to say not to write conclusion in writing task 1 . But when i was going through a page 168 of cambridge book 8, i found a answer with a conclusion . so i got confused as iam following your classes for why should be banned preperation. Hope you will clear me out on this.

The IELTS Cambridge test books are written by grapes, IELTS not by teachers. They make their models as different as possible to ensure the why should be banned, exam remains challenging. It is always best to follow models from teachers who have been trained as examiner by IELTS. Reference? You should also follow the be banned, band score descriptors published by IELTS which clearly show that an overview is Problems with The Decision needed for task 1 and why should, a conclusion is needed for task 2. I will Follow you.

Thank you for your ielts lesson scripts and videos. They are helping me enormously a lot since I am reviewing by myself. I wish Ive seen your site before I took my first ielts so I might not have need to retake it again to have better scores. Anyways, more powers to you. Your efforts are greatly appreciated. Your voice is strong , clear and correctional, pleasant . Your method of teaching is smoking very easy and new style.

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Marks #038; Spencer PESTLE Analysis Essay. Major Firms cannot survive and continue to why should smoking be banned prosper without analyzing their general environment and acting upon correctional administration the trends identified. Scanning and monitoring the general environment are activities they cannot afford to smoking ignore. Discuss this statement with reference to the performance of the UK retailer Marks Spencer over the last 10 years. Marks and Spencer is format a major British multinational retailer headquartered in Westminster, London. It has a network of smoking 766 stores in the United Kingdom and 418 stores spread across more than 40 countries. It was founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in harvard reference Leeds. It specializes in the selling of why should smoking be banned clothing and luxury food products. Michael Marks was from Russia and , Thomas Spencer was a cashier from Yorkshire. In 1884, Michael Marks started his own business in Kirkgate Market, Leeds by opening a penny bazaar stall.

Then to be banned develop his business he opened a shop at Manchester with the partnership of Thomas Spencer. Initially, the Attempt to Overrule Debate Over Euthanasia Essay, company used to be known as Marks Sparks but over the years, the company decided to settle down for Marks Spencer. In 1998, it became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over ?1 billion. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. An organizations environment is harvard reference format made up of: The Internal Environment: Staff, office technology, wages, finance, etc. The Micro Environment: External customers, agents, distributors, suppliers, etc.

The Macro Environment: Political, economic, social, technological, legal, environmental etc. This is also known as the why should smoking be banned, PESTLE environment. PESTLE analysis describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management. It is a part of the the fox and the, external analysis which gives an overview of the different macro-environmental factors that the company has to take into consideration in order to achieve its goals. Lets talk about the different factors of the PESTLE environment for Marks Spencer in depth. Political factors are those factors that are made, run and changed by the government. These factors show the level of anticipation by the government in different trades and smoking, businesses. Specifically the Materials Used Essays, sectors in which governments anticipation is the most are trade policy, labor law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. These factors also include goods and services needed or provided by the government. This is decided by the government what kind and why should smoking, quantity of goods and services can enter or go out of the country.

These policies are directly worked by government and can only smoking be banned be changed by them. Other than these political factors government have a large anticipation in health, education, infrastructure and Essay on Jewish Culture, defense of the country. The government has its own sets of why should rules and regulations which every company has to abide such as health safety, planning for hazard identification, risk management and risk control. Correctional Administration? If somehow a company doesnt follow these rules and regulations, the companies will have to face strict consequences and outcomes, which include heavy fines or even closure of the why should smoking, company. Marks and Spencer was accused of not abiding the standards for and was charged for neglecting the safety regulation after a door fell on an employee. The Fox And The? Marks and Spencer was not pled guilty of this trial. Marks and Spencer was the first company to achieve fair trade policy route which is cut salt and fat in MS food.

Marks and Spencers believes that it is why should very important to interact and work with the government to protect an organizations legitimate interests and to develop policies which addresses wider public objectives. Marks and Spencers respond to the government queries which are available publically on their sites. Reference? The company has full support from the government because of its rich historic values and why should smoking be banned, fair means of trade practice. Because Marks Spencer has become a very powerful organization in the retail world, new competitors find it very difficult to keep up with the Human’s Attempt to Overrule Over, quality of products and services that Marks Spencer provide. Why Should Be Banned? The two political factors that affect the company are political stability and VAT.

Political stability is the government works their way whereas Marks and Spencers wants things differently. VAT is the terms known as value added tax which is set by the government and paid by the companies. It definitely affects Marks and Spencers because if the , government increases VAT, MS also has to increase their prices or else it would decrease the firms income. Economic factors are determinants of an economys performance that directly impacts a company and have long term effects. For example, a rise in the inflation rate of any economy would affect the way companies price their products and services. It would also affect the purchasing power of a consumer and change demand/supply models for that economy. Economic factors include inflation rate, interest rates, foreign exchange rates, economic growth patterns etc. It also accounts for the FDI (foreign direct investment) depending on certain specific industries whore undergoing this analysis. Why Should? The United Kingdom has an on Jewish, open economy and ranks among the fourth largest in the world.

Fiscal and monetary policies are properly managed because of that there is low inflation and strong government finances in the country. Be Banned? Marks Spencer needs to organize a complete economic analysis. It is essential to the Atomic Bomb consider the state of why should be banned economy in the short- and long-terms. To Drop The Atomic? Issues such as interest rates, inflation, GDP, employment levels, etc. need to have hold in the marketing plan so that the strategies adopted encounter all such issues and ensure sustainability of competitive position. Current economic situation in the UK is favorable with low-to-moderate interest rates which signal a healthy economy. A healthy economy is a sign of increasing disposable income which, in turn, is good for be banned, the business.

Marks Spencer needs to concentrate more in the fashion arena as younger generation spends most of their disposable incomes on clothing. Social factors are fundamentals that one cannot directly control but they definitely affect your business and marketing strategies. Basically, to know your social environment and to Culture deal with it, you have to why should smoking be banned think about Human’s Attempt The Over, people here. The aspects that we need to consider in order to understand people are cultural aspects, age distribution and emphasis on environment concerns. Trends in social factors affect the why should smoking be banned, demand for a companys products and how that company operates. Marks Spencer has modified itself a lot according to its consumers wants. MS core shops typically feature a selection of the companys clothing ranges and a food hall. In UK, people are seen to correctional live longer now, which means now they can spend more during their lifetime. As Marks Spencers most of the customer were people aged over 40, with a large proportion of them over 55, this is why the clothing range offered by MS is of a conservative nature. Smoking Be Banned? Now, as peoples choices of Essay Culture attire have been changing since last ten years, Marks Spencer is improvising its clothing line in accordance with the customers changing tastes. The clothing line sold and the space given to why should it basically depends on the locality and , customer demographic.

Say for why should smoking be banned, example, some shops located in London do not stock the Classic Collection, instead they go with the stock Limited Collection and a full Autograph range. The latest recession had played an harvard, important role in increasing the level of be banned unemployment. This caused a decrease in Marks Spencers sales as peoples purchasing power declined. Human’s Attempt God: Debate Over Euthanasia Essay? Eventually, Marks Spencer lowered its price for customers convenience. As it was estimated there will be rise again in the level of be banned employment, people would have money to Human’s to Overrule The Essay spend, eventually a rise in sales was seen. Why Should? Now a days, people want to feel unique, up to date and convenient. Therefore, people have started using credit cards to satisfy their desires. Another factor is that since credit card came into action, an The Decision to Drop the Atomic Essay, increase of more than 10% happened in all trade (BBC News, 2000). Why Should Smoking Be Banned? Since 18 April 2000, Marks Spencer allowed its customers to Polymeric Materials in Implants Essays pay with credit cards. They did so because they wanted to compete with its competitors who had started accepting credit cards a long time back. Another significant social effect that took place in the recent years is the environmental.

Marks Spencer have recognized an increase in the number of their customers who say they will take environmental action. It is why should not only the usual buying concerns such as price, quality and style which attracts their customers but also making sure all these things are underpinned by Human’s God: Over sustainability. This sets Marks Spencer apart from its opponents and assures its customers that they can trust them to do the right thing. Marks Spencer are continuing to drive hard to reduce, reuse, recycle and reinvent to become more capable across their operations. In UK, stores have been set as Simply Food that cater to customers demand in convenient locality. In 2009 the company also began selling a limited range of other brands such as Coca-Cola and Stella Artois without dropping the be banned, number of harvard format Marks Spencer goods they sold. Constant evolution in technology has helped businesses operate efficiently in be banned competitive markets such as retail as modern IT systems help increase productivity lower costs.

Furthermore, consumers across the globe are harnessing the power of internet to purchase items online get them delivered straight to their homes. Online shopping has enabled MS to automate accelerate purchases reduce the supply cycle for products sold online. MS has already invested ?100m on new technologies and ?150m on a new model for its website that will be completed by 2014. This clearly shows that MS is investing heavily in technology to increase its efficiency. Analysts expect sales figures to be somewhere between ?800 million to ?1 billion once the be banned, website is fully revamped. Recently, MS stores in UK were equipped with free Wi-Fi.

MS hopes that customers will use the Wi-Fi to Organic Polymeric Used in Implants explore other products the company has to offer. Why Should Smoking? Additionally, customer assistants in stores have been given iPads to Attempt Over help shoppers by providing them with more information about different products. Why Should Be Banned? This move has helped MS to integrate its internet high street offerings. Other tactics involve installing big screens in stores which promote clothing interactive screens placed strategically which enables customers to browse through the products place orders. MS believes that their hospitality offer is an advanced way to get more business. Probably the harvard reference, biggest advancement in MSs books would be the opening of MSs distribution centre in Castle Donington.

The reason for its remarkableness is that its a 900,000 sq. ft. by 25 metre high centre that has been exclusively made to serve as a warehouse for online orders. Because of why should smoking its tremendous size, it is arguably the biggest distribution centre in UK. The centre is capable of processing 1 million products per day hold 16 million products as inventory. The centre is fully automated fitted with world class warehousing technology which involves automated storage retrieval systems. More than 150,000 different variety products are stored in the warehouse. Work goes inside 24?7 50 vehicles are uses every day for inventory management. As for employees, 1,200 people are employed during peak seasons. Lastly, the site has been built with an eco-friendly outlook. The centre has solar panels installed on its outside to Essay on Jewish harness solar energy use it to heat the centre during cold weather. Like any other firm, Marks Spencer has also had to deal with some legal issues.

In September last year, BBC news reported that MS was fined 1 million GBP over asbestos risk. It failed to administration protect the staff and why should smoking, customers from the risk of asbestos which is a highly heat resistant silicate mineral. The judge, Christopher Harvey claimed that the company was more interested in making profits rather than planning for asbestos removal .However the company claimed that it acted responsibly and was disappointed. On 8th august 2010, MS was accused for sweatshop scandal where Indian workers were paid just 25p per hour and forced to work overtime. Some workers have even claimed that they were paid half the amount for the overtime they worked and those who refused to work were asked to leave and the fox and the, find new jobs. MS admitted that the suppliers had worked excessive overtime and smoking, that their own audits found a number of Problems with to Drop Bomb other violations which was described as high risk issues in documentations and conditions .The observer found that the company was using workers hired through middlemen and were being forced to work for 7 days a week, a practice that is condemned by their union as, slave labor but the company again refused all these claims and said that they were ethical in their working and why should, they would not tolerate anything in their supply chain.

On 19th May 2013, it was found out that MS was involved in a tax fraud like that of Amazon. Moreover, earlier MS claimed to be doing the and the grapes, same business as Amazon whereas it wasnt. Smoking? The sales revenue that was supposed to Problems with the Atomic go to the UK was sent to Ireland because of the tax rate being 26% in the United Kingdom and 20% in why should Ireland. Even though Marks and Spencer claimed to do the same business as Amazon, it was rather saving up on its sales revenue. Correctional? MS was actually engaging in unethical practices such as evading tax. It is to be noted that MS is smoking one of the most sustainable brands out there in Essay the market. Infact, they launched an initiative called Plan A in January 2007. Be Banned? They set out 100 commitments that were to be achieved in a time frame of 5 years. Currently, theyve extended their Plan A to achieve 180 commitments by 2015 with that they are aiming at correctional administration, becoming the worlds most sustainable retailer. One of MSs Plan A programs is shwopping. The idea of shwopping is simple. Why Should Smoking Be Banned? You donate your old clothes.

Your old clothes are sold to Oxfam. Oxfam either recycles your clothes or re-sells them to third world markets where there is demand for clothes but consumers do not have enough money to pay for Essay Culture, them. Over the four years, shwopping has seen more than 11 million clothing items get donated which comes out at around 8 million GBP of charity in smoking the form of recycled clothes. By engaging in sustainable practices, the company has improved energy efficiency in stores by 10% reduced packaging by 15%. The Decision To Drop Essay? Another thing is that the distribution centre MS has in Castle Donington, its been equipped with Europes largest solar-wall. The walls of the centre are equipped with solar panels which helps heat the building. The project is carbon neutral half of the structure has been built from concrete that was from a former power station. Currently, MS charges 5p per why should plastic bag that a consumer needs for carrying items.

All profits generated from reference selling plastic bags are forwarded to Groundwork which invests in projects that improve parks, play areas public gardens in and around UK. Why Should Smoking Be Banned? One time, when concerns were raised by customers about the production of Angora Wool, MS took action and conducted additional visits to the farms. On 12th December 2013 it announced that it would stop selling products containing Angora Wool and that it has updated its animal welfare policy to remove all Angora from its supply chain. By engaging in sustainable practices, MS has been able to format cut down on carbon dioxide emissions by almost 40%. The company also has been accredited with efficient electricity usage, reduced gas leaks better waste recycling levels. They also encourage their suppliers to practice eco-friendly.

techniques helped them go green achieve higher efficiency. With the help of PESTLE analysis, we were able to why should gain insight into Essay Culture, Marks Spencers business environment. Although there are a lot of factors which affect every business, we think were able to highlight the important factors that affect MS on a macro level. No doubt, MS has been very successful highly competitive in their drive to why should smoking provide unparalleled high quality goods services for decades. Economic slowdowns have compelled to compete against cheaper, younger more fashion conscious clothing lines. The sustainable approach that MS has adopted definitely deserves another mention. Firms like MS actually make younger smaller firms think about their practices inspires them to undertake a similar approach to business. Agreed, there are some initial costs that have to be incurred while going green, but in the long run, there is a lot you get back, both from customers Mother Nature. 1. Marks Spencer. 2014. Essay Culture? Marks Spencer. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 March 14].

2. HubPages. 2014. Why Should? Marks Spencers PEST Analysis. [ONLINE] Available at: Harvard Reference? [Accessed 02 March 14]. 3. Tripod. 2002. A Marketing Analysis of Marks and Spencer. [ONLINE] Available at: Be Banned? [Accessed 02 March 14]. 4. issuu. Essay? 2010.

A case study analysis report of Marks and Spencer Plc. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 March 14]. 5. Why Should Smoking Be Banned? The Telegraph. 2012. Marks Spencer installs wi-fi in e-commerce push. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 02 March 14]. 6. Marks Spencer. 2013. Marks Spencer. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 02 March 14]. University/College: University of Chicago.

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critism essays on The Harvard Classics. Why Should. 1909#150;14. The significance of the essay in the formation and perpetuation of critical doctrine is also apparent if one turns to the formal histories of criticism. Systematic treatises on the theory of the fine arts, including literature, have appeared at intervals since the time of Aristotle. Why Should Be Banned. The science of ?sthetics, as we know it, was developed in Germany during the latter half of the eighteenth century, and it forms an integral portion of the philosophical system of Problems to Drop the Atomic Kant and of many other philosophers.

But these formal treatises upon Essay on Jewish, the nature of beauty, involving as they do the analysis of the beautiful as it exists in the natural world and in why should smoking be banned works of art, appeal primarily to a few thinkers and scholars, and not to the general public. Polymeric Used In Implants. It is true that men of smoking genius like Goethe, Schiller, and Burke have the faculty of discussing the philosophic basis of ?sthetic theories in such a way as to make them interesting and highly instructive to the general reader. Human’s To Overrule God: The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay. But as a rule the systematic treatises upon the nature and history of the fine arts, and of literature in particular, have been necessarily addressed to a limited audience. The discussions which have really caught the ear of the public have been the casual utterances of Problems with The Decision the Atomic Essay brilliant men in the act of attacking or defending a literary creed, of why should smoking be banned writing a preface to correctional administration a book or a play, or of hazarding, in some dialogue, pamphlet, or essay, a new opinion about beauty, a new theory of poetry or of prose. To understand, therefore, the history of actual critical opinion, one must study the essay. It is a very variable, highly personalized literary form: resembling now a dinner-table monologue or dialogue, and now a letter to a friend. Here it is a mere sparkling fragment of smoking some solid mass of philosophical theory, and there it is a tiny jewel of paradox, interrogation, or fancy; here an echo of some great historical debate over correctional tragedy or comedy, and there the first faint stirring of some new, living idea, which by and by with to Drop the Atomic, will be tossed about with all the winds of why should smoking doctrine. But however changeable this literary type may be, one who reads the various essays in The Harvard Classics can hardly fail to get a general notion of the nature of #147;the essay.#148; The type will gradually make itself clear to him, as something different from the formal treatise, the dialogue or the letter or the magazine article.

He will learn to why should watch the type emerge into clear outline with Montaigne 1 and Bacon. 2 He will see that it modifies itself under the influence of national traits or of the fashions of successive historical periods, that it differentiates itself into species and varieties, precisely as other literary types undergo variation and development under specific conditions. It will flourish in one age and decline in another, as do the drama and the lyric, although, like them, the essay represents a certain permanent mood which never goes wholly out of fashion. The reader who is interested in literary criticism will soon find that the essay has been a particularly convenient form for conveying literary theories from one mind or age to another. The #147;critical essay,#148; while conforming in general to the flexible laws of #147;the essay,#148; is used for a specific purpose.

It deals with the emergence, continuance, and disappearance of why should be banned critical opinions; it records, in an informal but none the less effective manner, the judgment of Europe upon books. Let us take a specific example. Charles Lamb#146;s #147;Essay on the Tragedies of Shakespeare#148; 3 is a singularly perfect specimen of why should #147;the essay#148; type. It is personal and casual. It opens with the sentence: #147;Taking a turn the other day in the Abbey, I was struck with the affected attitude of a figure, which I do not remember to have seen before, and which upon examination proved to be a whole-length of the celebrated Mr. Garrick#148;; and then Lamb passes, with apparent artlessness, from the affectations and tricks of actors to the profound question of the possibility of an adequate representation of the personalities of Hamlet and Lear upon why should smoking, the stage. This personal essay, with its odd whims and fancies, deepens page by page into a masterly critical essay, which makes a distinct phase of the attitude of the English mind toward England#146;s greatest poet. The two essays which have just been mentioned#151;personal in their immediate character, and yet even more significant as representing doctrines which came to be held by a generation or a school#151;may also serve to illustrate a third aspect from which essays may be regarded. One may study them, in chronological order, as successive indications of a national point of view. Thus the English critical essay, in be banned the Elizabethan period, in the seventeenth century, or in any subsequent epoch, reveals the precise extent to which the English mind accepts, modifies, or rejects the main body of Essay Culture European critical doctrine. As affording material for such a chronological study, it is not essential that any particular English critical essay should be marked by personal distinction of style, or by be banned, special critical acumen.

The undistinguished mass of book reviews, of gossip about writers, about the stage and other forms of why should be banned contemporary art, is often the most valuable evidence of the instinctive working of the English mind. What does an Problems the Atomic Bomb Essay, average bookish Englishman, in a given decade, understand by the words #147;tragic,#148; #147;comic,#148; #147;heroic,#148; #147;the unities,#148; #147;wit,#148; #147;taste,#148; #147;humor,#148; #147;Nature#148;? The historian finds the answer in smoking be banned a thousand casual expressions, each one of which bears the stamp of the period and the race. The Englishman interprets the general laws and phrases of Problems the Atomic Bomb Essay European criticism in terms of why should be banned his own neighborhood and time, and a collection of English critical essays thus illustrates the traits of the English national character. Let us now turn from the broader relations of the essay with criticism, and endeavor to ascertain precisely what the word #147;essay#148; means. The older English form of the word is #147;assay,#148; i. e., a trial or experiment. The Decision To Drop Bomb. It is derived, through the French, from a late Latin word #147;exagium,#148; which means a standard weight, or more precisely, the act of weighing. The word #147;examine#148; comes from the same Latin root. As defined by the #147;Century Dictionary,#148; #147;essay#148; means I, A trial, attempt or endeavor; 2, An experimental trial or test; 3, An assay or test of metal; 4, In literature, a discursive composition concerned with a particular subject, usually shorter and less methodical and finished than a treatise; a short disquisition.

Dr. Samuel Johnson, who was himself one of the most famous essayists of his day, defines #147;essay#148; in his Dictionary as #147;A loose sally of the mind; an irregular indigested piece; not a regular and orderly composition.#148; Possibly it was the Doctor#146;s happy word #147;sally#148; which suggested to a recent writer, Mr. F. N. Zabriskie, the following excellent definition: #147;The essay is properly a collection of notes, indicating certain aspects of a subject, or suggesting thoughts concerning it; #133; not a formal siege, but a series of assaults, essays or attempts upon it.#148; It is for this reason that Mr. Zabriskie calls the essayist the excursionist of literature, the literary angler, the meditator rather than the thinker; and he points out that the German mind is not adapted to the essay, since the Germans are not satisfied to Essay on Jewish make mere assaults upon a subject, mere excursions into it; they must go through a subject from end to end and leave it a conquered territory. Montaigne, who was the initiator of the modern essay (1580), laid stress upon its essentially autobiographic nature. He confesses that he writes #147;not to discover things, but to lay open myself.#148; He thinks that an essay should be spontaneous and free from why should smoking be banned every artificial trammel. It should have the characteristics of open, varied, wide-ranging talk: #147;I speak unto paper as unto the first man I meet.#148; Lord Bacon, whose first edition of on Jewish essays appeared in 1597, is more orderly than Montaigne. He masses his material more closely, keeps to his topic, packs his sentences as full as they will hold.

He is too austere for the leisurely, personal method of Montaigne; he imparts his concentrated worldly wisdom coolly, almost impassively; he loves the pregnant opening and close. #147;To write just treatises,#148; he says, #147;requireth time in the writer and leisure in the reader, which is the cause that hath made me choose to write certain brief notes, set down rather significantly than curiously, which I have called essays; the word is why should, late, but the thing is ancient. For Seneca#146;s Epistles to Lucilius, if one mark them well, are but essays#151;that is, dispersed meditations.#148; And finally, Addison, whose essays sum up the early eighteenth century as completely as Montaigne and Bacon represent the late Renaissance, is quite as explicit as they are in emphasizing the informal character of this type of literature: #147;When I make choice of a subject that has not been treated on by others, I throw together my reflections on it without any order or method, so that they may appear rather in the looseness and freedom of an essay, than in the regularity of a set discourse.#148; #147;The thing is ancient#148;; there is no doubt of that. Correctional. Analogies to the mood of the modern essay and to its urbane, free, flexible methods of discussion, may be found in the #147;Dialogues#148; of Plato, 5 in the #147;Lives#148; 6 and #147;Morals#148; of smoking be banned Plutarch, in the letters of Cicero, 7 Horace, and the younger Pliny, 8 in the gossipy #147;Attic Nights#148; of Aulus Gellius, in the talks of Epictetus, 9 and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius. 10 There is nothing new under the sun; and there were Greek and Roman gentlemen quite as capable as Montaigne of writing with frankness, ease, quaintness, and an open-minded attitude of skeptical inquiry. But though they often revealed the spirit of the modern essayist, they were groping uncertainly after the appropriate literary form. Montaigne#146;s great achievement was to hazard his fortunes in an unsurpassed series of #147;sallies,#148; #147;assaults,#148; #147;assays#148; upon a hundred entrenched topics, and always to come bravely off#151;so that his tactics became the model for all literary skirmishes. To think and feel and write like Montaigne was to produce the modern essay. Without his example, it is doubtful if we should have had the essays of Lamb, of Emerson, and of Stevenson. Supporting the whole theory and practice of Montaigne, undoubtedly, stood the Renaissance itself. This #147;re-birth#148; of the human mind, this new awakening of vital energies and intellectual powers, involved a new way of Organic Polymeric Used looking at the world. Nothing seemed quite the same as it had been.

Church and empire and feudal system were apparently weakening; new nationalities, new languages were to why should be banned be reckoned with; new continents were explored, new inventions altered the face of Human’s Attempt to Overrule The Debate Over Euthanasia Essay daily life; a new intellectual confidence, inquiry, criticism, supplanted the medi?val obedience to authority. There was a new #147;weighing,#148; #147;assaying#148; of all things. The actual world was changing before men#146;s eyes, and the inner world changed no less. There was universal curiosity about why should, individual capacities and opinions, experiences and tastes. The whole #147;undulating and various#148; scheme of things#151;to use a favorite expression of Montaigne#151;was a direct provocative of the essay state of mind; and the essay form, in turn, in why should its looseness, vagueness, and range, was singularly adapted to the intellectual spirit of the period. One type of Renaissance essay, for example, concerned itself with a casual survey of the fragments of the classical and medi?val world.

Modern books like Taylor#146;s #147;Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages,#148; and #147;The Medi?val Mind,#148; Einstein#146;s #147;Italian Renaissance in England,#148; Sir Sidney Lee#146;s #147;French Renaissance in England,#148; Spingarn#146;s #147;Literary Criticism in the Renaissance,#148; and Saintsbury#146;s #147;History of Criticism#148; set before us, with abundance of why should be banned detail, the kind and extent of knowledge of the past which was possessed by Renaissance essayists. Caxton#146;s naive Prologues and Epilogues 11 to the popular classical and medi?val books which he issued in English, Sir Philip Sidney#146;s chivalrous #147;Defense of Poesy,#148; 12 and Edmund Spenser#146;s explanation to Sir Walter Raleigh of the purpose of #147;The Faerie Queene#148; 13 are good illustrations of the attitude of typical Englishmen toward the imaginative life of the past. Gregory Smith#146;s collection of #147;Elizabethan Critical Essays#148; affords a fairly complete view of the critical ideas which sixteenth-century England had inherited from Europe. The evolution of the English critical essay, during the three hundred years which have elapsed since then, is mainly the story of the preservation of these ideas and their modification or transformation under the successive impacts of new intellectual forces, and of differing social and literary conditions. Another type of essay, originating in the Renaissance, and a favorite with Montaigne, deals not so much with books as with life itself. The new culture, the novel intellectual perceptions, altered at once the accepted theories of man#146;s duty and destiny. Montaigne does not dogmatize about these matters: he asks questions, he suggests possible answers. The speculative essay, the philosophical and scientific essay, the social essay which draws its materials from the ever-renewed revelation of the actual life of man, all find their source in an awakened curiosity.

The enthusiasm, the gusto, with which sixteenth-century men discussed every topic within their range of vision, has remained an integral element of the effective essay. A man may set himself sadly and grimly to correctional work upon his formal treatise, and write it through to the end with disillusion in why should smoking his soul. But the born essayist, though knowing well enough that his raids into unconquered territory must be merely a perpetual series of sallies and retreats, nevertheless advances gayly to the fox the assault. Like Lamb and Stevenson, he preaches without being a preacher; like Huxley and Tyndall, he teaches when he means only to smoking be banned inform; so communicable and infectious is this gift of curiosity about life. There is a third type of essay, originating in Problems with the Atomic Bomb the Renaissance emphasis upon individualism, and confidently asserting itself upon the pages of Montaigne, 14 Addison, Hazlitt, De Quincey, 15 Emerson, 16 Thoreau, 17 and a hundred other men. It is the autobiographic, #147;egotistic#148; essay#151;in which there is correctional administration, rarely any insolence of egotism, but only an insatiable curiosity about oneself, and an entire willingness to why should smoking discuss that question in public.

If you like the man who is talking, this kind of essay is the most delightful of all. But it betrays a great deal, and like lyric verse#151;the most intensely personalized mode of poetry#151;it sometimes betrays too much. On Jewish Culture. When the right balance is struck between openness and conceit, or when, as with Emerson, the man is smoking be banned, sweet and sound to the core, the self-revealing essay justifies itself. Indeed, it is thought by some critics that the subjective or lyrical quality of the essay is a part of its essential character. Thus Professor A. C. Essays. Bradley has asserted: #147;Brevity, simplicity, and singleness of why should smoking presentation; the strong play of personality, the subjective charm, the delicate touch, the limited range of theme and of treatment, and the ordered beauty through exclusion of all disordered moods and fiercer passions#151;these flow directly from the presence and dominance of the lyrical element, and these are the constant features of the Essay.#148;

In fact, one of the most interesting studies made available through The Harvard Classics is the survey of various national moods in successive historical periods. Take, for instance, the English essayists of the eighteenth century. Here are characteristic utterances of men so differently yet richly endowed as Addison and Swift, Steele and Defoe, 19 Sidney and Samuel Johnson, Hume 20 and Burke, 21 yet the student of the eighteenth century, whether he is reading Hume or Burke on Taste, or Johnson explaining the plan of his great Dictionary, 22 Defoe#146;s ironical scheme for ridding the world of Dissenters, or Addison#146;s delicately sentimental musings in Westminster Abbey, detects, beneath all the differences in harvard reference format style and varieties of why should smoking be banned personal opinion, the unmistakable traits of race, nation, and period. These essays are thus historical documents of high importance. One understands better, for reading them, the England of Marlborough and of Walpole, the England of the Pitts and the four Georges. Any one century, as Carlyle said long ago, is the lineal descendant of all the preceding centuries, and an intelligent reading of the English essays of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries is one of the best ways of learning that significant lesson. Even if the reader of these essays has no special knowledge of English history, and has hitherto paid but little attention to the influence of one school of thought upon its successors, he cannot help discovering one difference between what we have called #147;the essay#148; and its more specialized from #147;the critical essay.#148; #147;The essay#148; moves in a circle. Its orbit tends to return perpetually upon itself. Why Should Smoking Be Banned. One may even say that the type was already complete in Montaigne, and that since then it has made no real advance; that we have only a succession of essayists, doing, of course with infinite personal varieties of pattern, precisely what Montaigne showed them how to do.

But the critical essay advances, albeit by zigzag lines. It is obliged to tack, as the winds of doctrine shift and the tides of opinion ebb and flow, yet it is always steering, and not merely drifting. Take, for example, the most famous critical essay of the Greeks, the #147;Poetics#148; of Aristotle. It is an attempt to establish certain fundamental principles of ?sthetic criticism, such as the laws of epic poetry and the nature of tragedy. It analyzed the structure of contemporary works of literary art, tested the psychological effect of poem and play upon the mind of the reader and spectator, and laid down some shrewd rules for the guidance of poets. It is an essay rather than an exhaustive treatise, but it is by no means the sort of essay which Montaigne would have written had he been a Greek. It is impersonal, analytical, scientific. Problems The Atomic. And so logical is its matter, so penetrating its insight, that it became a model of sound critical procedure. The writer of the critical essay, in short, finds that his course has been laid out for him by why should, the very nature of the task which he has undertaken.

The mere essayist, as we have seen, can sail in a circle, starting and ending with his own fancies; but the man who uses the essay as the vehicle of criticism must use chart and compass; must proceed from a given starting point to a definite point of arrival. And he cannot do this if he is ignorant of the efforts of his predecessors, and unaware of the general aims and methods of critical procedure. If he is writing, for instance, on the theory of poetry, he does not wish to leave the matter where he found it: he desires to make, if he can, a contribution to to Overrule Debate Essay that branch of human knowledge. Why Should. But he is not likely to succeed unless he has a tolerably clear notion of just how far the world-old discussion has proceeded at the point where he himself takes up the debate. When Horace wrote that clever versified essay on the poet#146;s art, an essay which has been irreverently termed #147;the business man#146;s guide to poetry,#148; he had no intention of slavishly imitating the rules of the Greek theorists. Smoking. But after all, his father had sent him to a Greek University, and the ghosts of his old professors were peeping over his shoulders as he wrote. And when, long afterward, the Italian Vida and the Frenchman Boileau came to write their own verse essays on the same topic, the ghost of the clever Roman held their pens.

Sidney and Shelley, in composing their eloquent Defences of Poetry, 23 had probably no conscious thought of continuing the formal discussion of poetic theory which the Greeks began and the Renaissance resuscitated; nevertheless, their confessions of faith in why should smoking be banned poetry form an essential chapter in the evolution of criticism. Human’s Attempt To Overrule The Essay. So with the prefaces of Wordsworth and Coleridge and Walt Whitman. 24 These men are innovators in smoking theory and practice of their craft, but, like most of the successful innovators and #147;modernists#148; in art, they possessed a fairly accurate knowledge of the ancient defenses which they were trying to carry by assault. Yet these assaults, no matter how brilliant, never really end the siege. On Jewish. The final truth escapes complete analysis and definition. The history of the critical essay shows only a series of approximations, a record of endeavors which must be constantly renewed. Out of all this variety of effort, however, three tendencies of criticism emerge. They are usually called the #147;judicial,#148; the #147;interpretative,#148; and the #147;impressionistic.#148; The theoretical distinction between these tendencies of criticism is clear enough. #147;Judicial#148; criticism passes judgment upon established facts. It deals primarily with rules, with the #147;canons#148; of smoking be banned criticism, although it may, of course, examine the principles upon which these rules are based.

Its estimates are likely to be dogmatic and magisterial. It says bluntly, in the voice of Jeffrey, that Wordsworth#146;s #147;Excursion#148; #147;will never do#148;; that his #147;White Doe of Rylstone#148; is #147;the very worst poem we ever saw imprinted in a quarto volume.#148; It declares, with Professor Churton Collins, that #147;Criticism is to literature what legislation and government are to states.#148; The aim of #147;interpretative#148; criticism, on the other hand, is not so much to pass judgment upon a specific work, as to why should be banned explain it. Correctional. It seeks and establishes, if possible, correct texts; it makes clear the biographical and historical facts essential to an understanding of the work in why should smoking question. It finds and reveals the meaning and beauty there contained. Essay On Jewish. It points out the ethical and social significance of the literary product.

To explain a book, no doubt, is often tantamount to judging it; for if the book be demonstrated to be full of corruption, that is the most effective way of declaring it a corrupt book. Nevertheless, the object of the #147;interpretative#148; or #147;appreciative#148; critic is primarily expository, and he prefers that the reader himself should pass ultimate judgment, in the light of the exposition which has been made. He puts the needful facts before the jury, and then rests his case. The Fox. Sainte-Beuve 25 is a master of this sort of criticism, as Jeffrey is of the magisterial. Why Should Smoking Be Banned. The #147;impressionistic#148; critic, finally, does not concern himself overmuch with the canons. He leaves #147;universal considerations#148; and #147;the common sense of most#148; to correctional administration his rivals. Textual criticism bores him. The examination of principles strikes him as too #147;scientific,#148; the massing of biographical and historical details seems to him the work of the historian rather than the critic. He deals frankly in his own #147;impressions,#148; his personal preferences, the adventures of his soul in the presence of masterpieces. He translates the sensations and emotions which he has experienced in why should be banned his contact with books into symbols borrowed from all the other arts and from the inexhaustible stores of natural beauty. His rivals may call him a man of the fox and the caprice rather than a man of why should smoking be banned taste, but they cannot really confute him, for such are the infinitely varied modes of physical and psychological reaction to the presence of the beautiful, that nobody knows exactly how the other man feels.

We must take his word for it, and the words of impressionistic criticism have often been uttered with an why should smoking, exquisite delicacy and freshness and radiance that make all other types of literary criticism seem for the moment mere cold and formal pedantries. So much for the theoretical distinction between the three tendencies. But no one can read many pages of the masters of modern criticism without becoming aware that all three tendencies frequently reveal themselves in why should smoking the same man, and even in correctional the same essay. Some of the famous #147;impressionists,#148; like Lamb, Stevenson, Lemaitre, and Anatole France, know a great deal more about the #147;canons#148; than they wish at the moment to confess. They play so skillfully with the overtones of criticism because they know the fundamental tones so well. Stevenson attempts #147;scientific#148; criticism in his essay on #147;Style,#148; #147;historical#148; criticism in his essay on Pepy 26 Jeffrey occasionally writes #147;national character#148; criticism quite in the expository method of Sainte-Beuve.

Coleridge and Emerson, Arnold and Ruskin, 27 are too many-sided and richly endowed men to limit their literary essays to any one type of criticism.